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Air Conditioning

and
Ventilation
1 DEFINITION

Air conditioning is the process of altering the properties of


air (primarily temperature and humidity), with the aim of
distributing conditioned air to an occupied space to improve
ambient comfort and air quality.

Ventilating is the process of replacing air in any space to


provide high indoor air quality (i.e. to control temperature,
replenish oxygen, or remove moisture, odors, smoke, heat,
dust, bacteria, and carbon dioxide). Ventilation is used to
introduce outside air, to keep interior building air
circulating.

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1 DEFINITION

Thermal comfort is the condition of mind that expresses


satisfaction with the thermal environment and is assessed by
ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55-2004. Maintaining this
standard for occupants of buildings is one of the important
goals of HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning)
design engineers.

Indoor air quality (IAQ) is refers to the air quality within


and around buildings, especially as it relates to the health
and comfort of building occupants (ANSI/ASHRAE
Standard 62.1-2007)

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8 INDOOR AIR QUALITY

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1 DEFINITION

AC Processes
Heating: transfer of energy to the air in a space
Cooling: transfer of energy from the air in a space
Humidifying: transfer of water vapor to the air in a space
Dehumidifying: removal of water vapor from the air
Cleaning: removal of biological contaminants
Air Circulation: movement of air through the spaces in a
building to achieve the proper ventilation and facilitate the
energy transfer, humidification/dehumidification, and cleaning
processes.

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2 HOW AC WORK

Remove heat
Conditioned Space/Room from the cooled
space

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2 HOW AC WORK

Refrigerant in saturated vapor


Conditioned Space/Room state flows into compressor unit
through suction port.
Refrigerant vapor sucked by the
compressor to be compress into
a higher temperature and
pressure. Then compressed the
refrigerant vapor leaves the
compressor through the
discharge port and pumped it to
the condenser unit in
superheated vapor state.
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2 HOW AC WORK

In the condenser, the heat


Conditioned
from superheated refrigerant
Space/Room
vapor will be blown away to
the outside air at lower
temperature by the fan. The
refrigerant cooled off and
changes to saturated liquid
state. This liquid refrigerant
then flows into the
expansion valve.

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2 HOW AC WORK

Conditioned Space/Room

The device creates a


pressure drop that
reduces the pressure
of the refrigerant
liquid before it
moves the
evaporator.

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2 HOW AC WORK

Conditioned Space/Room

At the evaporator, the


liquid refrigerant changes
to a gas state and remove
heat out of the cooled
space. The heat absorbed
will leaves the evaporator
together with the
refrigerant to the
compressor again.

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3 REFRIGERANT

A refrigerant is a substance or mixture, usually a fluid, used in


a heat pump and refrigeration. It undergoes phase transitions
from a liquid to a gas and back again. Fluorocarbons became
commonplace in the 20th century, but they are being phased out
because of their ozone depletion effects. Other common
refrigerants used in various applications are ammonia, sulphur
dioxide, and non-halogenated hydrocarbons such as propane.

Phased out Montreal Protocol


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3 REFRIGERANT

The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (a protocol
to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer) is an
international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out numerous
substances that are responsible for ozone depletion. It was agreed on September
16, 1987, and entered into force on January 1, 1989. Since then, it has undergone
8 revisions.

As a result of the international agreement, the ozone hole in Antarctica is slowly


recovering. Climate projections indicate that the ozone layer will return to 1980
levels between 2050 and 2070. Due to its widespread adoption and
implementation it has been hailed as an example of exceptional international
co-operation, with Kofi Annan quoted as saying that "perhaps the single most
successful international agreement to date has been the Montreal Protocol“.

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3 REFRIGERANT

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3 REFRIGERANT

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4 TYPE

Window Unit

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4 TYPE

Split Unit
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4 TYPE

Package Roof Top Air Conditioner


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4 CAV

In a CAV system, the supply air


flow rate is constant, but the
supply air temperature is varied to
meet the thermal loads of a space.

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4 VAV

VAV systems (variable refrigerant volume), however, vary the


airflow at a constant temperature.

The advantages of VAV systems over constant-volume systems


include more precise temperature control, reduced compressor
19 wear, lower energy consumption by system fans, less fan noise,
and additional passive dehumidification.
4 TYPE

Chiller System – large cooling


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capacity likes hypermarkets
4 TYPE

Multi Split Air Conditioners


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Central
air-conditioning

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4 VRV

VRV system (variable refrigerant flow) is a multi-split


23 type air conditioner
4 TYPE

Air Handling Unit, AHU


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is a device used to regulate and circulate air as part of a heating,
ventilating, and air-conditioning system.
5 HUMIDITY & PSYCHROMETRICS

Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air. Water vapor is the
gaseous state of water and is invisible. Humidity indicates the
likelihood of precipitation, dew, or fog. Higher humidity reduces the
effectiveness of sweating in cooling the body by reducing the rate of
evaporation of moisture from the skin. This effect is calculated in a
heat index table/humidex.

3 main measurements of humidity:


1. Absolute humidity is the water content of air.
2. Relative humidity, expressed as a percent, measures the
current absolute humidity relative to the highest point for
that temperature.
3. Specific humidity is a ratio of the water vapor content of the
25 mixture to the total air content on a mass basis.
5 HUMIDITY & PSYCHROMETRICS

Psychometrics or hygrometry are terms used to determine the


physical and thermodynamic properties of gas-vapor
mixtures.

The science that deals with the thermodynamic properties of


moist air – dry air/water vapor mixture, and the utilization of
these properties to analyze conditions and processes involving
moisture.

For the accuracy required in the majority of air conditioning


problems, the perfect gas relations can be applied when
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calculating the thermodynamic properties of moist air,
PV=nRT
5 HUMIDITY & PSYCHROMETRICS

Atmospheric air consists of a large number of gases


(including oxygen, nitrogen, argon, and carbon dioxide) as
well as water vapor and various contaminants.

Dry air exists when all water vapor and contaminants have
been removed from atmospheric air

Moist air is a binary mixture of dry air and water vapor. The
amount of water vapor in moist air can vary from zero (dry
air) to a maximum (saturation) which depends on temperature
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and pressure.
5 HUMIDITY & PSYCHROMETRICS

How to determine the state of humid air?


Dry-bulb temperature:
•ordinary temperature of atmospheric air. An
•Ambient air temperature arrangement to
measure
wet-bulb
Wet-bulb temperature: temperature.
•temperature of adiabatic saturation (a temperature at
which water converts into air by the process of
evaporation adiabatically)

Dew-point temperature:
•Temperature at which water vapor starts to condense
out of the air
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•Above this temperature the moisture will stay in the air
5 HUMIDITY & PSYCHROMETRICS

Enthalpy – thermodynamic property of a substance defined as


the sum of its internal energy.

Specific Volume – ratio of the volume of the mixture to 1 unit


mass of dry air

Vapor pressure – pressure exerted by a vapor. If a vapor is kept


in confinement over its liquid so that the vapor can accumulate
above the liquid.

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5 HUMIDITY & PSYCHROMETRICS

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5 HUMIDITY & PSYCHROMETRICS

Battery
Operated
Sling Psychrometer Digital
Psychrometer Psychrometer

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5 HUMIDITY & PSYCHROMETRICS

At Sultan Abdul Aziz Airport Meteorological Center, the


atmospheric pressure is 101.325 kPa, the air dry-bulb
temperature is 35°C and the dew-point temperature is 25°C.
Using the psychrometric chart, show the state point of the air
and determine

1.Humidity Ratio 20.1g/kg dry air


2.Relative Humidity 57%
3.Web bulb temperature 27.3 C°
4.Enthalpy 86.3kg/kg dry air
5.Specific Volume 0.902m3/kg dry air
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Humidity ratio 20.1g/kg dry air
25 ˚C of dew
point temperature

We
bb
ulb
tem
per
atu
re o
f 27

Sp
% .3 ˚
57 C

eci
of

f
ity

ic v
id
um

olu
eh

m
ti v

eo
la
Re

f0
.90
2m
3 /kg
dry
air
34

35 ˚C of air
dry bulb temperature
6 HEAT TRANSFER & HEAT GENERATION

Movement of heat through surfaces and openings of a building


Usually assumed to be steady state (various temperatures
throughout a system remain constant with respect to time during
heat transmission)
Based upon predetermined temperature differences
Heat Loss – heat transferred from the interior of a building to
its exterior
Heat Gain – heat transferred from the exterior to the interior of
a building
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6 HEAT TRANSFER & HEAT GENERATION

3 modes of heat transfer:


✔ Conduction
✔ Convection
✔ Radiation

Usually all 3 modes occur simultaneously

In some instances, the methods can be separated, but in


others, only the combined effect can be determined

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6 HEAT TRANSFER & HEAT GENERATION

Conduction
Conduction is the transmission of heat through solids
sections.

Conduction also occurs between different substances that


are in contact with one another.

By building the walls and roofs of a building of materials


having known conductive characteristics, the heat flow rate
for the building can be controlled.
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6 HEAT TRANSFER & HEAT GENERATION

Convection
Convection is the transfer of heat due to the movement of a
fluid: gases, vapors, and liquids

If the fluid moves because of a difference in density


resulting from temperature changes, the process is called
natural convection or free convection

If the fluid is moved by mechanical means (pumps or


fans), the process is called forced convection
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6 HEAT TRANSFER & HEAT GENERATION

Radiation
Radiation is the transfer of heat through space by energy
carrying electromagnetic waves or rays
Radiant heat passing through air does not warm the air through
which it travels

All objects absorb and radiate heat


The amount of radiant heat given off in a specified period of
time is dependent on both the temperature as well as the extent
and nature of the radiating object
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6 LOAD CALCULATION

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6 HEAT TRANSFER & HEAT GENERATION

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6 HEAT TRANSFER & HEAT GENERATION

•Conduction
•Convection
•Radiation
•Resistance (R-Value)
•U = 1 / R
42 •Q = U x A x ΔT

U is the rate of heat flow


6 HEAT TRANSFER & HEAT GENERATION

A house has 1000 ft2 of net exterior wall area. The outside air temperature is 0 ˚F
and the inside temperature is 68 ˚F.

✔Compute the rate of heat loss through an insulated wall (rate of heat flow, U = 0.073
BTU/hr.˚F. ft2 )
q = U∙A ∙ ∆T = 0.073 x 1000 x (68-0) = 4964 Btu/hr

✔Compute the rate of heat loss through an uninsulated wall (U = 0.073 BTU/hr.˚F. ft2
)
q = U∙A ∙ ∆T = 0.267 x 1000 x (68-0) = 18156 Btu/hr

✔Compute the transmission heat loss through an insulated (U = 0.073 BTU/hr.˚F. ft2 )
over a period of one day (24hr)
Q = U∙A ∙ ∆T ∙t = 0.267 x 1000 x (68-0) ∙24hr = 119136 Btu

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7 LOAD CALCULATION

1. Heating and Cooling


2. Design conditions
3. Building shell load
4. R, U value
5. Internal load
6. Ventilation load
7. Infiltration
8. Occupancy schedules

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7 LOAD CALCULATION

Factors that determine building Heating, ventilation, and air


conditioning (HVAC)
• Building configuration and orientation
• Building envelope construction
• Interior space arrangement
• Design temperature and humidity, indoor and outdoor
• Zoning criteria
• Equipment application and sizing
• Control methodologies
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7 LOAD CALCULATION

In general, there are 3


methods of calculating
cooling loads for
non-residential building
which is:

1. Transfer Function
Method (TFM)
2. Cooling Load
Temperature
Differential (CLTD)
3. Total Equivalent
Temperature
Differential (TETD)
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7 LOAD CALCULATION

47 ASHRAE Summer and Winter Comfort Zones


7 LOAD CALCULATION

1. Location Building Survey


• Latitude: 01̊ 38’ N
• Longitude: 103̊ 40’ E
• Height above sea level 37.8 M

2. Orientation

Jalan Pulai 20

Jalan Pulai 21 Jalan Pulai 24


GIANT

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Jalan Pulai 23
7 LOAD CALCULATION
Area of Space
Type of Space/Area Area, A (m²)
NE Outside Wall 304.56
SE Outside Wall 495.145
SW Outside Wall 304.56
NW Partition Wall 495.145
Roof 6826.68
Giant Floor 6826.68

Height of Walls
Type of Space/Height Height, m
NE Outside Wall 4.7
SE Outside Wall 4.7
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SW Outside Wall 4.7
NW Partition Wall 4.7
7 LOAD CALCULATION

Walls Construction

Material Code R-Value (m².K/W)


Outside Surface Resistance A0 0.059
20 mm plaster E1 0.026
200 mm common brick C9 0.279
20 mm plaster E1 0.026
Inside Surface Resistance E0 0.059

Roof Construction
Material Code R-Value (m².K/W)
50 mm gypsum slab C14 0.587
Metal Deck A3 0.000
Rigid Insulation B3 1.173
Built up roofing E3 0.050
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Gravel surfaces E2 0.009
7 INTERNAL LOAD

1. Lights

• 28 Watt of fluorescent lights operating continuously


from 07.00 until 24.00
• The total numbers of fluorescent lights are 2356.

3. Occupants

• The occupancy is estimated about 1600 peoples.


• Total of 78 workers working from 0800 until 2300.

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7 INTERNAL LOAD

3. Appliances

• The appliances in Giant are operating from 10.00 until 22.00

4. Ventilation

• A minimum outside air supply per person for any type of


space is 8L/s.
• Ventilation air flow is 12,800 L/s for average of 1600
peoples
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7 LOAD CALCULATION

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Peak total cooling load occurred at 17.00 = 1,016 kW
7 LOAD CALCULATION

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7 LOAD CALCULATION

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8 INDOOR AIR QUALITY

AHSRAE Standard 62.1


Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality

⦿ Acceptable Indoor Air Quality:


Air in which there are no known contaminants at
harmful concentrations as determined by cognizant
authorities and with which a substantial majority
(80% or more) of the people exposed do not express
dissatisfaction

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8 INDOOR AIR QUALITY

The Purpose of Standard 62


⦿ The purpose of the Standard, first published in
1973 – “Standards for Natural and Mechanical
Ventilation”, has remained consistent:
“To specify minimum ventilation rates and other
measures intended to provide indoor air quality
that is acceptable to human occupants and that
minimizes adverse health effects.”

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8 INDOOR AIR QUALITY

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8 INDOOR AIR QUALITY

62.1-2007

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8 INDOOR AIR QUALITY

Mechanical or forced ventilation:


through an air handling unit or direct injection to a space by a fan. A
local exhaust fan can enhance infiltration or natural ventilation, thus
increasing the ventilation air flow rate.

Natural ventilation:
occurs when the air in a space is changed with outdoor air without the
use of mechanical systems. Most often natural ventilation is assured
through operable windows but it can also be achieved through
temperature and pressure differences between spaces.

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8 INDOOR AIR QUALITY

Forced Ventilation

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8 INDOOR AIR QUALITY

Natural Ventilation

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