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6.

3 Properties of the Trigonometric


Functions

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Learning Objectives (1 of 2)
1. Determine the Domain and the Range of the
Trigonometric Functions
2. Determine the Period of the Trigonometric Functions
3. Determine the Signs of the Trigonometric Functions
in a Given Quadrant
4. Find the Values of the Trigonometric Functions Using
Fundamental Identities

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Learning Objectives (2 of 2)
5. Find the Exact Values of the Trigonometric Functions
of an Angle Given One of the Functions and the
Quadrant of the Angle
6. Use Even-Odd Properties to Find the Exact Values
of the Trigonometric Functions

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LO 1: Determine the Domain and
the Range of the Trigonometric
Functions

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y
sin   y cos   x tan   x  0
x
1 1 x
csc  y  0 sec  x  0 cot   y0
y x y

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Sine and Cosine
The domain of the sine function is the set of all real numbers.
The domain of the cosine function is the set of all real numbers.

y
sin   y cos   x tan   x  0
x
1 1 x
csc  y  0 sec  x  0 cot   y0
y x y

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Tangent and Secant
The domain of the tangent function is the set of all real numbers,

except odd integer multiples of  90  .
2

The domain of the secant function is the set of all real numbers,

except odd integer multiples of  90  .
2
y
sin   y cos   x tan   x  0
x
1 1 x
csc  y  0 sec  x  0 cot   y0
y x y

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Cotangent and Cosecant
The domain of the cotangent function is the set of all real
numbers, except integer multiples of  180  .

The domain of the cosecant function is the set of all real numbers,
except integer multiples of  180  .

y
sin   y cos   x tan   x  0
x
1 1 x
csc  y  0 sec  x  0 cot   y0
y x y

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Range
1  sin   1  cos 

csc   or csc 

sec   or sec 

  tan      cot   

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Table 1

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LO 2: Determine the Period of the
Trigonometric Functions

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Definition: Periodic Functions

sin   2 k   sin  cos   2 k   cos 


(1)
where k is any integer.

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Definition 1
A function f is called periodic if there is a positive number p such
that, whenever  is in the domain of f, so is   p, and

f   p   f  
If there is a smallest such number p, this smallest value is called the
(fundamental) period of f.

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Example 1
Finding Exact Values Using Periodic Properties
Find the exact value of:

17
(a) sin
4

(b) cos  5 

5
(c) tan
4

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LO 3: Determine the Signs of the
Trigonometric Functions in a
Quadrant

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Table 2

y
sin   y cos   x tan   x  0
x
1 1 x
csc  y  0 sec  x  0 cot   y0
y x y

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Example 2
Finding the Quadrant in Which an Angle θ Lies

Solution 2

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LO 4: Find the Values of the
Trigonometric Functions Using
Fundamental Identities

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y
sin   y cos   x x0tan  
x
1 1 x
csc  y  0 sec  x  0 cot   y0
y x y

Reciprocal Identities
1 1 1
csc  sec  cot  
sin  cos  tan  (2)

Quotient Identities

sin  cos 
tan   cot   (3)
cos  sin 

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Example 3
Finding Exact Values Using Identities When Sine and
Cosine Are Given
5 2 5
Given sin   and cot   , find the exact values
5 5
of the four remaining trigonometric function of θ using identities.

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Pythagorean Identities

sin 2   cos2   1 (5)

tan 2   1  sec2  (6)

cot 2   1  csc2  (7)

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Fundamental Identities

sin  cos
tan   cot  
cos sin 
1 1 1
csc  sec  cot  
sin  cos tan 
sin 2  cos 2   1 tan 2   1  sec 2  cot 2   1  csc 2 

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Example 4
Finding the Exact Value of a Trigonometric Expression
Using Identities

Find the exact value of each expression. Do not use a


calculator.
sin 20
(a) tan 20 
cos 20
2  1
(b) sin 
12 sec 2 
12

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Solution 4

(a)

(b)

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LO 5: Find the Exact Values of the
Trigonometric Functions of an
Angle Given One of the Functions
and the Quadrant of the Angle

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Example 5
Finding Exact Values Given One Value and the Sign of
Another
1
Given that sin   and cos   0, find the exact value of
3
each of the remaining five trigonometric functions.

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Solution Option 1 Using a Circle (2 of 2)

x 2 2 y 1 2
cos   tan    
r 3 x 2 2 4
r 3 r 3 3 2 x 2 2
csc   3 sec    cot     2 2
y 1 x 2 2 4 y 1

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Solution Option 2 Using Identities (1 of 2)
First, solve the identity sin 2   cos2   1 for cos  .
sin 2   cos 2   1
cos 2   1  sin 2 
cos   1  sin 2 

1
Because cos   0, choose the minus sign and use the fact that sin   .
3

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Solution Option 2 Using Identities (2 of 2)
Now we know the values of sin  and cos  so we can use quotient and
reciprocal identities to get

1
sin  1 2 1
tan    3   cot    2 2
cos 2 2 2 2 4 tan 
3
1 1 3 3 2 1 1
sec     csc   3
cos 2 2 2 2 4 sin  1
3 3

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Finding the Values of the Trigonometric
Functions of θ When the Value of One Function
Is Known and the Quadrant of θ Is Known (1 of 2)
Given the value of one trigonometric function and the quadrant in
which θ lies, the exact value of each of the remaining five
trigonometric functions can be found in either of two ways.
Option 1 Using a Circle of Radius r

Step 1: Draw a circle centered at the origin showing the location


of the angle θ and the point P = (x, y) that corresponds to θ. The
radius of the circle that contains

P  ( x, y ) is r  x 2  y 2 .

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Finding the Values of the Trigonometric
Functions of θ When the Value of One Function
Is Known and the Quadrant of θ Is Known (2 of 2)
Step 2: Assign a value to two of the three variables x, y, r based on
the value of the given trigonometric function and the location of P.
Step 3: Use the fact that P lies on the circle x  y  r
2 2 2

to find the value of the missing variable.


Step 4: Apply the theorem, to find the values of the remaining
trigonometric functions.

Option 2 Using Identities


Use appropriately selected identities to find the value of each
remaining trigonometric function.

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Example 6
Given the Value of One Trigonometric Function and the
Sign of Another, Find the Values of the Remaining Ones

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Solution Option 2 Using Identities 2 (1 of 2)

tan 2   1  sec2  Pythagorean Identity

2
1 1
   1  sec 2
 tan 
2 2

1 5
sec2   1  Proceed to solve for sec θ.
4 4

5 sec  0
sec   
2
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Solution Option 2 Using Identities 2 (2 of 2)
1 5
Now we know tan   and sec   . Using reciprocal identities, we find
2 2
1 1 2 2 5
cos    
sec 5 5 5

2
1 1
cot    2
tan  1
2
To find sin θ, use the following reasoning:
sin  1  2 5 5
tan   so sin    tan   cos         
cos 2  5  5
1 1 5
csc     5
sin  5 5

5
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LO 6: Use Even-Odd Properties to
Find the Exact Values of the
Trigonometric Functions

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Even-Odd Properties

sin      sin  cos     cos  tan      tan 


csc      csc  sec     sec  cot      cot 

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Example 7
Finding Exact Values Using Even-Odd Properties
Finding the exact value of:

(a) sin  45 


(b) cos   

 3 
(c) cot  
 2 
 37 
(d) tan   
 4 

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