Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 89

A PROJECT REPORT

ON

“ADVERTISING MANAGEMENT - BRAND EQUITY


AND MEDIA EFFICIENCY”
AT

SAINT GOBAIN

Submitted By

SHAIK SOHAIL
(2128-11-672-077)

PROJECT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE AWARD OF

MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

Under the guidance of


MRS .FERHANA FATIMA
(FACULTY OF FINANACE)

HYDERABAD PRESIDENCY DEGREE AND POST GRADUATE


COLLEGE

1
(Affiliated to Osmania University - Hyderabad)
(2011 – 2013)

DECLARATION

I SHAIK SOHAIL hereby declare that this Project Report


titled A STUDY ON BRAND EQUITY AND MEDIA
EFFECIENCY submitted by me to the DEPARTMENT OF
BUSINESS MANAGEMENT, HYDERABAD PRESIDENCY
DEGREE AND POST GRADUATE COLLEGE, is a bonafide
work undertaken by me and it is not submitted to any other university
or Institution for the award of any Degree diploma / certificate or
published any time before.

SHAIK SOHAIL
Ht no. 2128-11-672-077

2
3
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I, the student of HYDERABAD PRESIDENCY DEGREE


AND POST GRADUATE COLLEGE, (Affiliated To Osmania
University), successfully completed our project on ‘A STUDY ON
THE PERFORMANCE OF BRAND EQUITY & MEDIA
EFFICIENCY’ under the guidance of Mrs. FERHANA FATIMA.

I have received a lot of help, unflinching support and co-


operation from the employees and management during the project.

Lastly, I convey my thanks to each & everyone who has


contributed directly or indirectly to the successful completion of this
project.

SHAIK SOHAIL
Ht no. 2128-11-672-077

4
ABSTRACT

This study essentially is about how a brand equity and media


efficiency trying to establish for itself a new identity and image.
It studied further as to what obstacles and shortcomings it faces
as it tries to create for itself a more modern image. This study
further ascertains the advertising and marketing mechanisms
that Saint-Gobain has adopted to date and then with the help of
external customers. This study also aims at finding the gaps
between the perception of the management and the customers.

With the help of the above, in consultation and continuous


interaction with the Saint-Gobain management, we have
attempted to provide suggestions as regard both advertising
techniques and practices as well as what kind of an advertising
campaign the company may undertake.

Finally, we have taken a close look at the customer retention


and loyalty programs of the company and have suggested for
the improvements of the same.

5
6
7
INRODUCTION
For the development of advertising and to get best results one
need to follow the advertising process step by step.
The following are the steps involved in the process of advertising:

Step 1 - Briefing: the advertiser needs to brief about the product or


the service which has to be advertised and doing the SWOT analysis
of the company and the product.

Step 2 - Knowing the Objective: one should first know the objective
or the purpose of advertising. i.e. what message is to be delivered to
the audience

Step 3 - Research: this step involves finding out the market behavior,
knowing the competitors, what type of advertising they are using,
what is the response of the consumers, availability of the resources
needed in the process, etc.

Step 4 - Target Audience: the next step is to identify the target


consumers most likely to buy the product. The target should be
appropriately identified without any confusion. For e.g. if the
product is a health drink for growing kids, then the target customers
will be the parents who are going to buy it and not the kids who are
going to drink it.

Step 5 - Media Selection: now that the target audience is identified,


one should select an appropriate media for advertising so that the
customers who are to be informed about the product and are willing
to buy are successfully reached.

8
Step 6 - Setting the Budget: then the advertising budget has to be
planned so that there is no short of funds or excess of funds during
the process of advertising and also there are no losses to the
company.

Step 7 - Designing and Creating the Ad: first the design that is the
outline of ad on papers is made by the copywriters of the agency,
then the actual creation of ad is done with help of the art directors
and the creative personnel of the agency.

Step 8 - Perfection: then the created ad is re-examined and the ad is


redefined to make it perfect to enter the market.

Step 9 - Place and Time of Ad: the next step is to decide where and
when the ad will be shown.

The place will be decided according to the target customers


where the ad is most visible clearly to them. The finalization of time
on which the ad will be telecasted or shown on the selected media
will be done by the traffic department of the agency.

Step 10 - Execution: finally the advertise is released with perfect


creation, perfect placement and perfect timing in the market.

Step 11 - Performance: the last step is to judge the performance of


the ad in terms of the response from the customers, whether they are
satisfied with the ad and the product, did the ad reached all the
targeted people, was the advertise capable enough to compete with
the other players, etc. Every point is studied properly and changes
are made, if any.

9
If these steps are followed properly then there has to be a
successful beginning for the product in the market.

ABOUT THE SUBJECT

Advertising is the promotion of goods, services, companies


and ideas, usually by an identified sponsor. Markete see advertising as
part of an overall promotional strategy. Other components of the
promotional mix include publicity, public relations, personal selling and
sales promotion.

Advertising is a management function. While advertising is


the event, advertising management is the whole process a function of
marketing starting from market research continuing through advertising
leading to actual sales or achievement of objective. But advertising
management does not stop here. It goes further in regard to evaluation
of the whole cost benefits that were involved in the whole exercise.

This means that if there is a public service advertising with an


objective to increase domestic saving, the evaluation would take place
in terms of the actual increase in domestic savings as can be found from
banks and other financial institutions. If it’s about a launch of a new

10
product, then the evaluation would be in terms of benefits derived from
the cost sunk in the advertising campaign.

Advertising management incorporates various specialized


sub-functions like media strategy, message strategy, media planning,
media buying etc.While advertising management is an inseparable part
of the marketing department, usually, and the marketing department of
an organization is concerned more with market research and evaluation
of results.

Every element of an advertising campaign is different. A


company’s advertising campaign may be carried out with the help of
the following:

Brochures
Catalogs
Print projects
Direct mail
Sales letters
Television and radio
Online advertising

11
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:

The methodology adopted to conduct the research (primary and secondary)


for this study is as follows:

Primary Research Work:


1. Initial step was to have an extensive discussion with the SAINT-
GOBAIN management regarding the strategies that they follow
in order to build and maintain their brand in the market.

2. Based on the discussions, customer satisfaction survey.


Questionnaires were designed in order to carry out the surveys.

3. Questions regarding the brand equity among the customers and


Media efficiency towards the brand were asked from the dealers
of Saint-Gobain.

4. After the surveys were conducted, the results of the same were
analyzed and interpreted which can be seen in the latter part of
this project report.

Secondary Research work:


1. This entailed collection of available data and information

12
2. The primary sources of this data was Saint-Gobain office located
at Hyderabad.

3. The other source was the company’s website, i.e.,

4. The material collected included in-house and external promotional


material, along with the company’s annual report, basic policy documents
etc.

13
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Meaning of Advertising - Advertising is an activity of attracting


public attention to a product, service, or business as by paid
announcements in the print, broadcast, or electronic media.

Definition of Advertising - "Advertising is the non-personal


communication of information usually paid for and usually persuasive
in nature about products, services or ideas by identified sponsors
through the various media." Now let's take this statement apart and see
what it means.

Non-personal
Basically sales is done either personally or non-personally. Personal
selling requires the seller and buyer to get together. Personal selling has
its on advantages and disadvantages. Whereas advertising is non-
personal selling. Personal selling has many advantages over advertising
like direct communication, bargaining, enough time to discuss in detail
about the product, seller can easily locate potential buyer. Advertising
has none of the advantages of personal selling, very little time to
present sales message, message is cannot be changed easily.

But, advertising has its own advantages which is not found in


personal selling: advertising has comparatively speaking, all the time in
the world. Unlike personal selling, the sales message and its
presentation does not have to be created on the spot with the customer
watching. It can be created in as many ways as the writer can conceive,

14
be rewritten, tested, modified, injected with every trick and appeal
known to affect consumers.

Advertising covers large groups of customer and to make it effective


proper research about customer is done to identify potential customers,
to find out what message element might influence them, and figure out
how best to get that message to them.

Thus, it appears that advertising is a good idea as a sales tool. For


small ticket items, such as chewing gum and guitar picks, advertising is
cost effective to do the entire selling job. For large ticket items, such as
cars and computers, advertising can do a large part of the selling job,
and personal selling is used to complete and close the sale.

Advertising is nonpersonal, but effective.

Communication
Communication means passing information, ideas, or feelings by a
person to another. Communication uses all the senses like smell, touch,
taste, sound, sight. Only two senses - sound and sight are really useful
in advertising. In advertising, what appears is everything the writer
thinks the customer needs to know about the product in order to make a
decision about the product. That information will generally be about
how the product can benefit the customer.

Paid For

15
Advertiser has to pay for the creation of ad and for placing it in the
media. Cost of ad creation and cost of time/space in the media must be
paid for. Cost of advertising depends on TRP of media, reach of media,
and frequency of ad to be displayed.

Persuasive
"Persuasive" stands to reason as part of the definition of advertising.
The basic purpose of advertising is to identify and differentiate one
product from another in order to persuade the consumer to buy that
product in preference to another.

Identified Sponsors
Identified sponsors means whoever is putting out the ad tells the
audience who they are. There are two reasons for this: first, it's a legal
requirement, and second, it makes good sense. Legally, a sponsor must
identify himself as the sponsor of ad. By doing so the sponsor not only
fulfils the legal requirements, but it also makes a good sense, if the
sponsor doesn't do so, the audience may believe that the ad is for any
competitor's product, thus wasting all the time and money in making
and placing the ad.

BRAND EQUITY
Brand equity is a phrase used in the marketing industry which
describes the value of having a well-known brand name, based on the
idea that the owner of a well-known brand name can generate more
money from products with that brand name than from products with a

16
less well-known name, as consumers believe that a product with a well-
known name is better than products with less well-known
names. Another word for "brand equity" is "brand value".

Some marketing researchers have concluded that brands are one of


the most valuable assets a company has, as brand equity is one of the
factors which can increase the financial value of a brand to the brand
owner, although not the only one. Elements that can be included in the
valuation of brand equity include (but not limited to): changing market
share, profit margins, consumer recognition of logos and other visual
elements, brand language associations made by consumers, consumers'
perceptions of quality and other relevant brand values.

Consumers' knowledge about a brand also governs how


manufacturers and advertisers market the brand. Brand equity is created
through strategic investments in communication channels and
market education and appreciates through economic growth in profit
margins, market share, prestige value, and critical associations.
Generally, these strategic investments appreciate over time to deliver
a return on investment. This is directly related to marketing ROI. Brand
equity can also appreciate without strategic direction. A Stockholm
University study in 2011 documents the case
of Jerusalem's city brand. The city organically developed a brand, which
experienced tremendous brand equity appreciation over the course of
centuries through non-strategic activities. A booming tourism industry in
Jerusalem has been the most evident indicator of a strong ROI.

Brand equity is strategically crucial, but famously difficult to


quantify. Many experts have developed tools to analyze this asset, but

17
there is no universally accepted way to measure it. As one of the serial
challenges that marketing professionals and academics find with the
concept of brand equity, the disconnection between
quantitative and qualitative equity values is difficult to reconcile.
Quantitative brand equity includes numerical values such as profit
margins and market share, but fails to capture qualitative elements such
as prestige and associations of interest. Overall, most marketing
practitioners take a more qualitative approach to brand equity because of
this challenge. In a survey of nearly 200 senior marketing managers, only
26 percent responded that they found the "brand equity" metric very
useful.

PURPOSE
The purpose of brand equity metrics is to measure the value of
a brand. A brand encompasses the name, logo, image, and perceptions
that identify a product, service, or provider in the minds of customers. It
takes shape in advertising, packaging, and other marketing
communications, and becomes a focus of the relationship with
consumers. In time, a brand comes to embody a promise about the goods
it identifies—a promise about quality, performance, or other dimensions
of value, which can influence consumers' choices among
competing products. When consumers trust a brand and find it relevant,
they may select the offerings associated with that brand over those
of competitors, even at a premium price. When a brand's promise extends
beyond a particular product, its owner may leverage it to enter new

18
markets. For all these reasons, a brand can hold tremendous value, which
is known as brand equity.

CONSTRUCTION
There are many ways to measure a brand. Some measurements
approaches are at the firm level, some at the product level and still others
are at the consumer level.

Firm Level: Firm level approaches measure the brand as a financial asset.
In short, a calculation is made regarding how much the brand is worth as
an intangible asset. For example, if you were to take the value of the
firm, as derived by its market capitalization—and then subtract tangible
assets and "measurable" intangible assets—the residual would be the
brand equity. One high-profile firm level approach is by the consulting
firm Interbrand. To do its calculation, Interbrand estimates brand value on
the basis of projected profits discounted to a present value. The discount
rate is a subjective rate determined by Interbrand and Wall Street equity
specialists and reflects the risk profile, market leadership, stability and
global reach of the brand.

Product Level: The classic product level brand measurement example is


to compare the price of a no-name or private label product to an
"equivalent" branded product. The difference in price, assuming all
things equal, is due to the brand. More recently a revenue premium
approach has been advocated.

19
Consumer Level: This approach seeks to map the mind of the consumer
to find out what associations with the brand the consumer has. This
approach seeks to measure the awareness (recall and recognition) and
brand image (the overall associations that the brand has). Free association
tests and projective techniques are commonly used to uncover the
tangible and intangible attributes, attitudes, and intentions about a
brand. Brands with high levels of awareness and strong, favorable and
unique associations are high equity brands.

All of these calculations are, at best, approximations. A more


complete understanding of the brand can occur if multiple measures are
used.

POSITIVE BRAND EQUITY VS. NEGATIVE BRAND


EQUITY
Brand equity is the positive effect of the brand on the difference
between the prices that the consumer accepts to pay when the brand
known compared to the value of the benefit received.

There are two schools of thought regarding the existence of


negative brand equity. One perspective states brand equity cannot be
negative, hypothesizing only positive brand equity is created by
marketing activities such as advertising, PR, and promotion. A second
perspective is that negative equity can exist, due to catastrophic events to

20
the brand, such as a wide product recall or continued negative press
attention (Blackwater or Halliburton, for example).

Colloquially, the term "negative brand equity" may be used to


describe a product or service where a brand has a negligible effect on a
product level when compared to a no-name or private label product.

FAMILY BRANDING VS. INDIVIDUAL BRANDING


STRATEGIES.
The greater a company's brand equity, the greater the probability that
the company will use a family branding strategy rather than an individual
branding strategy. This is because family branding allows them to
leverage the equity accumulated in the core brand. Aspects of brand
equity include: brand loyalty, awareness, association and perception of
quality.

Examples
In the early 2000s in North America, the Ford Motor Company made
a strategic decision to brand all new or redesigned cars with names
starting with "F." This aligned with the previous tradition of naming all
sport utility vehicles since the Ford Explorer with the letter "E." The
Toronto Star quoted an analyst who warned that changing the name of the
well known Windstar to the Freestarwould cause confusion and discard
brand equity built up, while a marketing manager believed that a name
change would highlight the new redesign. The aging Taurus, which
became one of the most significant cars in American auto history, would

21
be abandoned in favor of three entirely new names, all starting with "F,"
the Five Hundred, Freestar, and Fusion. By 2007, the Freestar was
discontinued without a replacement. The Five Hundred name was thrown
out and Taurus was brought back for the next generation of that car in a
surprise move by Alan Mulally.

In practice, brand equity is difficult to measure. Because brands are


crucial assets, however, both marketers and academic researchers have
devised means to contemplate their value. Some of these techniques are
described below.

METHODOLOGIES
Brand Equity Ten (Aaker)

David Aaker, a marketing professor and brand consultant, highlights


ten attributes of a brand that can be used to assess its strength. These
include Differentiation, Satisfaction or Loyalty, Perceived Quality,
Leadership or Popularity, Perceived Value, Brand Personality,
Organizational Associations, Brand Awareness, Market Share, and
Market Price and Distribution Coverage. Aaker doesn't weight the
attributes or combine them in an overall score, as he believes any
weighting would be arbitrary and would vary among brands and
categories. Rather he recommends tracking each attribute separately.[10]

Brand Equity Index (Moran)


Marketing executive Bill Moran has derived an index of brand equity as
the product of three factors:

22

Effective Market Share is a weighted average. It represents the
sum of a brand's market shares in all segments in which it competes,
weighted by each segment's proportion of that brand's total sales.

Relative Price is a ratio. It represents the price of goods sold
under a given brand, divided by the average price of comparable goods in
the market.

Durability is a measure of customer retention or loyalty. It
represents the percentage of a brand's customers who will continue to buy
goods under that brand in the following year.[10]

Brand Asset Valuator (Young & Rubicam)


Young & Rubicam, a marketing communications agency, has developed
the Brand Asset Valuator, a tool to diagnose the power and value of a
brand. In using it, the agency surveys consumers' perspectives along four
dimensions:

 Differentiation: The defining characteristics of the brand and its


distinctiveness relative to competitors.
 Relevance: The appropriateness and connection of the brand to a
given consumer.
 Esteem: Consumers' respect for and attraction to the brand.
 Knowledge: Consumers' awareness of the brand and understanding
of what it represents.

Brand Valuation Model (Interbrand and Brand Finance)

23
 Interbrand, a brand strategy agency, draws upon financial results and
projections in its own model for brand valuation. It reviews a
company's financial statements, analyzes its market dynamics and
the role of brand in income generation, and separates those
earnings attributable to tangible assets (capital, product, packaging,
and so on) from the residual that can be ascribed to a brand. It then
forecasts future earnings and discounts these on the basis of brand
strength and risk. The agency estimates brand value on this basis
and tabulates a yearly list of the 100 most valuable global brands.

 The Royalty Relief approach of Brand Finance, an independent


brand valuation consultancy, is based on the assumption that if a
company did not own the trademarks that it exploits, it would need
to license them from a third party brand owner instead. Ownership
therefore ‘relieves’ the company from paying a license fee (the
royalty) for the use of the third party trademarks. The royalty relief
method involves estimating likely future sales, applying an
appropriate royalty rate to them and then discounting estimated
future, post-tax royalties, to arrive at a Net Present Value (NPV).
This is held to represent the brand value. [14] The independent
consultancy publishes yearly lists by industry sector and
geographic region as well as a top 500 global list.

CONJOINT ANALYSIS

24
Marketers use conjoint analysis to measure consumers' preference
for various attributes of a product, service, or provider, such as features,
design, price, or location. By including brand and price as two of the
attributes under consideration, they can gain insight into consumers'
valuation of a brand—that is, their willingness to pay a premium for it.[10]

Note: These customer satisfaction methodologies have not been


independently audited by the Marketing Accountability Standards Board
(MASB) according to MMAP (Marketing Metric Audit Protocol).

HOW TO MEASURE BRAND EQUITY:

A brand is a logo, symbol, or name associated with a product. The


impact that a brand has on consumer purchases or perceptions about a
product is known as brand equity. The word equity indicates that an asset
has been generated. In brand equity, the asset is intangible and is
measured in terms of the value attributed by a consumer or potential
consumer to the product or service. Brand equity translates into consumer
goodwill and propensity to prefer or buy a branded product or service.
How does one go about measuring this intangible known as brand
equity? Take a look at the following considerations and action-steps.

1. Clarify Brand Equity Perspective Brand equity can be


viewed from several different perspectives. The hard-line perspective is

25
that of financial outcomes which examine price premium. That is, how
much more will a consumer pay for a product or service that
isbranded over a product or service that is generic? A softer perspective
is that of brand extension where consideration is given to the value that
a brand lends to the introduction of other products, or considers the
reverse dynamic of the impact of a new product or service on the existing
brand. This following steps address a third perspective - customer-based.

2. Determine Brand Equity Research Goals Brand equity


market research falls into one of three camps: Tracking, exploring
change, and/or extending brand power. Market research that focuses
on tracking makes comparison among competitive brands or products
against a benchmark. When exploring change is the research goal,
customer brand attitude is tapped regarding branding decisions that might
result in repositioning or renaming products or services. A deeper
examination of extending brand power is carried out when substantive
additions to a brand are considered. Each of these research goals requires
a different tact.

3. Understand Customer Brand Attitude A customer-based


perspective in the measurement of brand equity focuses on the
experiences that consumers have with a brand. The stronger the brand,
the stronger the customer's attitude toward the products or services
associated with the brand. When customers experience a product or
service, they gauge overall brand quality and tend to infer certain brand
attributes. If these experience measures are positive and endure over

26
time, brand loyalty typically results. Today, customers can -- and do --
easily communicate the strength of their brand attitude to others.

4. Identify Brand Equity Components to Measure Brand


awareness, brand reach, and brand image association are aspects of brand
equity that may not be closely associated with consumer experience.
These measures of brand equity may reflect the impact of traditional
advertising campaigns, and the influence of social or interactive
media. Brand awareness is an indicator of how branding efforts spotlight
a product or service. Brand reach indicates how far and wide that
spotlight shines. And brand image associationreveals what the brand
promises and what it stands for in the eyes of consumers.

5. Measure Perceived Brand


Differentiation Product differentiation is a lynchpin for brand
loyalty, confidence in a brand, and the potential for brand switching.
Customer perceptions about brand differentiation tend to be strongest
when actual product or service experience has occurred, but certainly
brand differentiation is not immune to the influence of advertising.
Differentiation may float on product or brand recommendations in social
media rather than any personal experiences with a brand. Because
differentiation is so susceptible to social influence, it lends itself to
measurement across multiple media channels.

6. Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches to Brand Equity


Data Ideally, brand equity measurement will include both qualitative and
quantitative approaches. Focus groups can provide a good forum for

27
exploring customer perceptions and motivation. Conjoint analysis can
reveal key consumer decision-making processes. Effective measurement
of brand equity is critical to the development of brand strategy and
ultimately supports return-on-investment analysis. Which brings us full
circle, back to the financial outcomes perspective on brand equity.

28
MEDIA EFFICIENCY

The growth of communication from sign language and


drumbeats to the instantaneous transmission of words and pictures
round the globe via satellite is a long and fascinating story. After
Gutenberg’s invention of the movable printing press in 1463 and the
emergence of newspapers thereafter, we saw the first signs of mass
media.

The world witnessed major breakthroughs like the first black


and white photograph by Fox Talbot in England in1939, the
development of electric telegraphy in 1850s, the first movie by the
Lumiere Brothers in Paris 1895, the invention of the phonograph by
Edison in 1896, the wireless radio by Marconi in 1912 and the first
regular television sets and transmission in 1936.

Today, media has become a social institution whose main


function it is to inform, analyses and entertain. It is dictated by
societal norms and is a mirror of the prevalent cultures and thought
processes. It includes within it's gamut, various channels of
communication like newspapers, magazines, television channels,
radio stations, the Internet, news agencies, publishing houses, etc.
These media organizations together form the media industry.

One characteristic of the media industry is that it functions as


a people to people dynamic chain. Organization and proper
management of this industry is, therefore, essential for success as
well as survival. This means the effective application of management
principles and techniques through the process of planning,

29
organizing, staffing, directing and controlling. Media organizations
thus create organizational systems and structures to enable speed and
efficiency of all operations.

Keeping these requirements in mind, let us focus on an


important component of the media industry - the news agency.

30
The following aspects will be dealt with -

� Role and importance of news agencies

� Organizational structure, revenue generation

� Hierarchy and departments in a news agency

These organizations are responsible for news dissemination to


other forms of mass media such as newspapers, television, radio, etc.

Post World War 2, film, radio, television and now Internet,


have become major carriers of information within and outside
countries, supplementing but not supplanting, print journalism. News
agencies contribute significantly to the output through all four
modern mass media.

The history of the world news agencies can be traced back to


the mid-19th century when newspapers in advanced countries joined
together to send correspondents abroad to cover events of common
interest to them. Such pooling was dictated by economic necessity.

The first news agency, 'Havas" in France, was founded in 1835


by Charles Havas. In the US, the newspapers of New York got
together in 1848 for the coverage of the war with Mexico. A trend
developed into the system of a country's newspapers jointly
establishing a news agency for the coverage of both domestic and
foreign news.

31
Today, national news agencies exist in 120 sovereign countries
but the major ones are located in the developed countries of the west.
Some 35 developing countries have no news agencies at all including
24, with populations of more than 1 million.

A special feature of development is that five major news


agencies dominate news collection and distribution all over the
world by virtue of their size and technological strength. These are

1. Agence France Press (AFP) - France

2. United Press International (UPI) - USA

Each of these has offices in a large number of countries.


Together they transmit millions of words each day to all parts of the
world, informing and influencing public opinion and perceptions.

The Press Trust of India (PTI) is a cooperative non-profit-


making news trust that aims at providing efficient and unbiased news
services to all its subscribers. Founded in 1949 as a successor to the
British-owned Associated Press of India (API), its news service in
English contains around 1,00,000 words per day.

A network of 145 bureaux, over 400 journalists, 300 part-time


correspondents across the country, over 40 staffers and stringers
around the world, and arrangements with Reuters, AFP and several
national news agencies together make up the backbone of this
agency.

32
PTI is a leading participant in the Non-Aligned News
Agencies Pool (NANAP) and the Organization of Asia - Pacific
News Agencies (OANA)

After closure of United Press of India, the United News of


India (UNI) was established. It has over 100 news bureaux in India
and abroad and is one of the largest news agencies in Asia. Services
of UNI include

MEASURING MEDIA EFFICIENCY


All marketers want to optimize their return on investment. Just
as consumers are now being forced to make tough choices about the
goods and services they really need, marketers are taking a hard look
at media allocations to determine which combination of media is
going to give them the biggest bang for their advertising dollars.

To this end, MPA asked Marketing Evolution to update


learning on their 2006 analysis of 20 cross-media accountability
studies. Marketing Evolution added 18 additional cross-media
accountability studies and went beyond analyzing effects to focus on
return on investment (ROI). Their analysis offers new learning and
the potential for a more results-oriented approach to media planning.

OVERVIEW
Marketing Evolution found that when analyzing ROI across
the 38 studies:

33
 TV leads in cost efficiency for brand awareness, and the
efficiency of magazines is a close second to that of TV

 Magazines generated a superior cost per impact (CPI) for brand


familiarity; TV and online performed similarly at roughly double
magazines’ cost per impact

 For purchase intent magazines yielded a far more efficient cost


per impact than TV or online

 While each category showed a unique profile, across the


individual categories studied (auto, entertainment, electronics and
pharmaceuticals) the overall pattern held

 Magazines most consistently generated a favorable cost per


impact throughout the purchase funnel, followed by TV
Based on the findings, Marketing Evolution recommends an
important change to media planning. They advocate utilizing an
“impact-based” approach that starts with allocating the most efficient
medium based on impact, rather than beginning with the most
efficient medium based on “eyeball exposure” (or, said more
formally, “impression delivery”).

The new results reinforce Marketing Evolution’s earlier


conclusions about the importance of using multiple media in the mix
and the valuable role that magazines play in driving results.

34
35
ABOUT THE GLASS:

Glass can be made transparent and flat, or into other shapes


and colors as shown in this sphere from the Verrerie of Brehat in
Brittany.

Glass is a uniform material of arguable phase (where the word


"phase" is used to describe either a gas, liquid, or solid), usually
produced when the viscous molten material cools very rapidly to
below its glass transition temperature, without sufficient time for a
regular crystal lattice to form. The most familiar form of glass is the
silica-based material used for household objects such as light bulbs
and windows. Glass is a biologically inactive material that can be
formed into smooth and impervious surfaces. Under tension, glass is
brittle and will break into sharp shards. Under compression, pure
glass can withstand a great amount of force. The properties of glass
can be modified or changed with the addition of other compounds or
heat treatment.

Most glasses contains about 70–72 % by weight of silicon


dioxide (SiO2). The most common form of glass is soda-lime glass,
which contains nearly 30 % sodium and calcium oxides or
carbonates. Pyrex is borosilicate glass containing about 10 % boric
oxide. Lead crystal is a form of lead glass that contains no less than
24 % lead oxide.

The major raw material of glass is sand (or "quartz sand") that
contains almost 100 % of crystalline silica in the form of quartz.

36
Although it is almost pure quartz, it may still contain a small amount
(less than 1 %) of iron oxides that would color the glass, so this sand is
usually depleted before production to reduce the iron oxide amount to
less than 0.05 %. Large natural single crystals of quartz are pure
silicon dioxide, and upon crushing are used for high quality specialty
glasses. Synthetic amorphous silica, an almost 100 % pure form of
quartz, is the raw material for the most expensive specialty

HISTORY OF THE GLASS

PHOENICIA AND EGYPT:

Naturally occurring glass, such as obsidian, has been used


since the Stone Age. According to Pliny the Elder, the Phoenicians
made the first glass:

The tradition is that a merchant ship laden with nitrum (soda


and potash) being moored at this place, the merchants were
preparing their meal on the beach, and not having stones to prop up
their pots, they used lumps of nitrum from the ship, which fused and
mixed with the sands of the shore, and there flowed streams of a new
translucent liquid, and thus was the origin of glass.

That the Phoenicians used glass as a glaze for pottery was


known as early as 3000 BC. However, there is archaeological
evidence to support the claim that the first glass was made in
Mesopotamia. Glass beads, seals, and architectural decorations date

37
from around 2500 BC. Glass was also discovered by Native
Americans during the same time period.

The color of natural glass is green to bluish green. This color


is caused by naturally occurring iron impurities in the sand. Common
glass today usually has a slight green or blue tint, arising from these
same impurities. Glassmakers learned to make colored glass by
adding metallic compounds and mineral oxides to produce brilliant
hues of red, green, and blue; the colors of gemstones. When gem-
cutters learned to cut glass, they found clear glass was an excellent
refractor of light. The earliest known beads from Egypt were made
during the New Kingdom around 1500 BC and were produced in a
variety of colors. They were made by winding molten glass around a
metal bar and were highly prized as a trading commodity, especially
blue beads, which were believed to have magical powers.

The Egyptians also made small jars and bottles using the core-
formed method. Glass threads were wound around a bag of sand tied
to a rod. The glass was continually reheated to fuse the threads
together. The glass-covered sand bag was kept in motion until the
required shape and thickness was achieved. The rod was allowed to
cool, then finally the bag was punctured and the rod removed. The
Egyptians also created the first colored glass rods which they used to
create colorful beads and decorations. They also worked with cast
glass, which was produced by pouring molten glass into a mold,
much like iron and the more modern crucible steel. By the 5th

38
century BC this technology had spread to Greece and beyond. In the
first century BC there were many glass centres located around the
Mediterranean. Around this time, at the eastern end of the
Mediterranean, glass blowing, both free-blowing and mould-
blowing, was discovered.

ROMANS
Roman Glass Beaker from the 4th Century A.D.

The Roman Empire developed many new techniques for the


creation of glass. Through conquest and trade, the use of glass
objects and the techniques used for producing them were spread as
far as Scandinavia, the British Isles and China. This spreading of
technology resulted in glass artists congregating in areas such as
Alexandria in Egypt where the famous Portland Vase was created,
the Rhine Valley where Bohemian glass was developed and to
Byzantium where glass designs became very ornate and where
processes such as enamelling, staining and gilding were developed.
At this time many glass objects, such as seals, windows, pipes, and
vases were manufactured. Window glass was commonly used during
the 1st century BC. Examples found in Karanis, Egypt were
translucent and very thick. After the fall of the Empire, the Emperor
Constantine moved to Byzantium where the use of glass continued.
However, in the rest of the Empire, the use of glass declined and
many techniques were forgotten. The production of glass did not
completely stop, it was used throughout the Anglo-Saxon period in
Britain. But it did not become common again in the West until its
resurgence in the 7th century.

39
EUROPE
A 16th Century Stained Glass Window

Glass objects from the 7th and 8th centuries have been found
on the island of Torcello near Venice. These form an important link
between Roman times and the later importance of that city in the
production of the material. Around 1000 AD, an important technical
breakthrough was made in Northern Europe when soda glass,
produced from white pebbles and burnt vegetation was replaced by
glass made from a much more readily available material: potash
obtained from wood ashes. From this point on, northern glass
differed significantly from that made in the Mediterranean area,
where soda remained in common use.

The 11th century saw the emergence in Germany of new ways


of making sheet glass by blowing spheres. The spheres were swung
out to form cylinders and then cut while still hot, after which the
sheets were flattened. This technique was perfected in 13th century
Venice. The 11th century also saw the emergence of glass mirrors in
Islamic Spain. Until the 12th century, stained glass, glass with
metallic and other impurities for coloring, was not widely used.

The Crown glass process was used up to the mid-1800s. In this


process, the glassblower would spin approximately 9 pounds (4 kg)
of molten glass at the end of a rod until it flattened into a disk
approximately 5 feet (1.5 m) in diameter. The disk would then be cut
into panes. Venetian glass was highly prized between the 10th and
14th centuries. Around 1688, a process for casting glass was

40
developed, which led to its becoming a much more commonly used
material. The invention of the glass pressing machine in 1827
allowed the mass production of inexpensive glass products.

The cylinder method of creating flat glass was first used in the
United States of America in the 1820s. It was used to commercially
produce windows. This and other types of hand-blown sheet glass
was replaced in the 20th century by rolled plate glass.

GLASS IN BUILDINGS

Glass has been used in buildings since the 11th century. Uses
for glass in buildings include as a transparent material for windows,
as internal glazed partitions and as architectural features.

It is also possible to use glass as a structural material, for


example in beams and columns as well as in the form of "fins" for
wind reinforcement, which are visible in many glass frontages like
large shop windows. Safe load capacity is however limited as
although glass has a high theoretical yield stress, it is very
susceptible to brittle (sudden) failure, and has a tendency to shatter
due to localized impact. This particularly limits its use in columns as
there is a risk of vehicles or other heavy objects colliding with and
shattering the structural element. One well known example of a
structure made entirely from glass is the northern entrance to
Buchanan Street subway station in Glasgow.

Glass in buildings can be of a safety type, including wired,


toughened and laminated glasses. Glass fibre insulation is common

41
in roofs and walls. Foamed glass, made from waste glass, can be
used as lightweight, closed-cell insulation.

As insulation, glass (e.g. fiberglass) is also used. Coming in


long, fluffy-looking sheet, it is commonly found in homes. fiberglass
insulation is used particularly in attics - this is given an R-rating,
denoting the insulating ability.

CALCULATION OF GLASS PROPERTIES

Glass properties can be calculated through statistical analysis


of glass databases such as SciGlass and Interglad. If the desired glass
property is not related to crystallization (e.g., liquidus temperature)
or phase separation linear regression can be applied using common
polynomial functions up to the third degree. Below is an example
equation of the second degree. The C-values are the glass component
concentrations like Na2O or CaO in percent or other fractions, the b-
values are coefficients, and n is the total number of glass
components. The glass main component silica (SiO2) is excluded in
the equation below because of over-parametrization due to the
constraint that all components sum up to 100%. Many terms in the
equation below can be neglected based on correlation and
significance analysis.

The liquidus temperature has been modeled using neural


networks regression in the following article: C. Dreyfus, G. Dreyfus:

42
"A machine learning approach to the estimation of the liquidus
temperature of glass-forming oxide blends";

It is often required to optimize several glass properties


simultaneously, including production costs. This can be performed in
a spreadsheet as follows:

1. Listing of the desired properties;


2. Entering of models for the reliable calculation of properties
based on the glass composition, including a formula for
estimating the production costs;
3. Calculation of the squares of the differences (errors) between
desired and calculated properties;
4. Reduction of the sum of square errors using the Solver option
in Microsoft Excel with the glass components as variables.

It is possible to weight the desired properties differently. Basic


information about the principle can be found in the article

43
GLASS MANUFACTURERS:
Asahi India Safety Glass - Tempered, windscreens and auto
safety glass
Excel Glasses - Manufacturer of soda lime and flint glass ware
Garg Lab Glass - Industrial glassware manufacturer
Glass Fiber Textile - Fibre glass cloth manufacturer
Gujarat Glass - Manufacturer of glass bottles & containers
Hindusthan National Glass - Glass manufacturer
Jain Scientific Glass Works - Manufacturer of scientific,
laboratory & industrial glassware
Janta Glass Works - Supplier of empty glass bottles, jars &
containers
Jeet Glass - Bullet proff and insulated glass
Jindal Art Glass - Glass panels, lamps and security doors
dealer
Magnum Glass Works - Laboratory & industrial glassware
Malhotra Scientific Glass Works - Laboratory glass apparatus
& graduated glassware
Saint-Gobain Vetrotex - Glass fiber reinforcements for
composites, Cem-FIL, filaments & textiles yarn
Scam Lab Glass - Laboratory glassware fabrication
Tensil Glass - Laboratory glassware manufacturer
Uniglass Industries - Glass tempering services
Vensil Laboratory Glassware - Laboratory glassware &
plasticware

44
45
SAINT-GOBAIN CREATES HISTORY:

In 1917, when French Prime Minister Clemenceau was saved from


an assassin’s bullet. The bullet was stopped by the glass Windshield of
his car. And the glass was from Saint-Gobain.

FOUNDATION FOR THE FUTURE:

The twentieth century ushered in the modern era of the glass


industry. Automobiles revolutionized transportation while skyscrapers
redefined the skyline. The ever-evolving needs of form function and
aesthetics placed greater demands on the quality and diversity of glass
products required. And Saint-Gobain was ready for the challenge. With
its firm commitment to quality, huge investments in technology and
unmatched passion for innovation, Saint-Gobain led the development in
the glass industry. Saint-Gobain invented the revolutionary twin-
grinding process and pioneered bent-glass technology, while promoting
tempered glass usage through the well known Security brand and
establishing new Standards in manufacturing quality float glass. These
were also the milestones which paved the way for Saint-Gobain in
establishing a firm foundation for the future.

LOOKING TOWARDS THE HORIZON:


Today, Saint-Gobain is a Fortune 500 company, 18000
employees with operations in 46 countries, and annual sales exceeding
Rs.1, 25,700 crores. But all this has not changed Saint-Gobain’s attitude
towards its customers. Every customer is still king. Like the Louvre

46
Pyramid, embellished with Saint-Gobain glass – the company too, has
transcended time, serving as a unique, seamless link between the past
and the future. With its rich history, enviable tradition and commitment
to continuous innovation, Saint-Gobain continues to redefine the
standards of glass making, time and again. After all, it has been the
future of glass. Since1665.

47
HISTORY

1665-1789: Manufacture royale


The company was founded in October 1665 as Manufacture royale
de glaces de miroirs under the direction of French minister of
finance Jean-Baptiste Colbert. The company, which had the informal
name Compagnie du Noyer from the beneficiary of the monopoly
granted to it, the financier Nicolas du Noyer, a receveur of taxes of
Orléans, was created for a period of twenty years and would be financed
in part by the State.

Since the middle of the 17th century, luxury products such as silk
textiles, lace and mirrors were in high demand. In the 1660s, mirrors had
become very popular among the upper classes of society: Italian
cabinets, ballrooms, châteaux and ornate side tables and pier-tables were
decorated with this expensive and luxurious product. At the time,
however, the French were not known for mirror technology;
instead, Venice was known as the world leader in glass manufacturing,
controlling a technical and commercial monopoly of the glass and mirror
business.[citation needed]
Colbert saw Manufacture royale de glaces de
miroirs as a way for France to become completely self-sufficient in
meeting domestic demand for luxury products.[4]

To compete with the Italian mirror industry, Colbert commissioned


several expatriate Venetians. Soon the mirrors created in the Faubourg

48
Saint-Antoine, under the French company, began to rival those of
Venice. The French company was capable of producing mirrors that
were 40 to 45 inches long (1.0 to 1.1 m), which at the time was
considered impressive. Competition between France and the Venetians
became so fierce that Venice considered it a crime for any glass artisan
to leave and practice their trade elsewhere, especially in foreign territory.

In 1683 the company's financial arrangement with the State was


renewed for another two decades. However, in 1688, the
rival Compagnie Thévart was created, also financed in part by the
state. Compagnie Thévart used a new pouring process that allowed it to
make plate glass mirrors measuring at least 60 by 40 inches wide (1.5 by
1.0 m), much bigger than the 40 inches which the Compagnie du
Noyer could create.

For seven years, the two companies were in competition until 1695,
when the economy slowed down and their technical and commercial
rivalry became counterproductive. Under an order from the French
government, the two companies were forced to merge together, creating
the Compagnie Plastier.

In 1702 Compagnie Plastier declared bankruptcy. A group of Franco-


Swiss Protestant bankers rescued the collapsing company, changing the
name to Compagnie Dagincourt. At the same time, the company was
provided royal patents which allowed it to maintain a legal monopoly in
the glass-manufacturing industry up until the French Revolution (1789).

49
1789-1910: Industrial revolution
In 1789, as a consequence of the French Revolution, the state
financial and competitive privileges accorded to Compagnie
Dagincourt were abolished. The company now had to depend on the
participation and capital of private investors, although it continued to
remain partly under the control of the French state.

In the 1820s, Saint-Gobain continued to function as it had under


the Ancien Regime, manufacturing high-quality mirrors and glass for the
luxury market. However, in 1824, a new glass manufacturer was
established in Commentry, France, and in 1837 several Belgian glass
manufacturers were also founded. While Saint-Gobain continued to
dominate the luxury, high-quality mirror and glass markets, its newly
created competitors focused their attention on making medium and low-
quality products. By manufacturing products of such quality, mirrors and
glass became affordable for the masses. In response, the company
extended its product line to include lower-quality glass and mirrors.

In 1830, just as Louis-Philippe became King of the newly restored


French Monarchy, Saint-Gobain was transformed into a Public Limited
Company and became independent from the state for the first time.

While mirrors remained their primary business, Saint-Gobain began


to diversify their product line to include: glass panes for skylights, roofs
and room dividers, thick mirrors, semi-thick glass for windows,

50
laminated mirrors and glass, and finally embossed mirrors and window
panes. Some of the more famous buildings that Saint-Gobain contributed
to during that period were the Crystal Palace in London, le Jardin des
Plantes, les Grand et Petit Palais and les Halles in Paris, and
the Milan railway station.

Saint-Gobain merged with another French glass and mirror


manufacturer, Saint-Quirin, in the mid-19th century. After the merger,
the company was able to gain control of 25% of European glass and
mirror production (before it had only controlled 10—15%). In response
to growing international competition, the company began to open up
new manufacturing facilities in countries without any domestic
manufacturers.[where?]

Saint-Gobain cast the glass blanks of some of the largest


optical reflecting telescopes of the early 20th century, including the
ground-breaking 60-inch (1.5 m) Hale telescope (online in 1908) and
100 inch (2.5 m) Hooker telescope (online 1917) at Mount Wilson
Observatory (USA), and the 72-inch (1.8 m) Plaskett telescope (online
in 1918) at Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (Canada).

1910-1950: Post industrial revolution


Saint-Gobain experienced significant success in the early 20th
century. In 1918 the company expanded its manufacturing to bottles,
jars, tableware and domestic glassware.

51
In 1920, Saint-Gobain extended its businesses to fiberglass manufacture.
Fiberglass was being used to create insulation, industrial textiles, and building
reinforcements. In 1937 the company founded Isover, a subsidiary fiberglass
insulation manufacturer.

During this period, the company developed three new glassmaking


techniques and processes; firstly a dipping technique used to coat automobile
windows, which prevented glass from shattering in the event of an accident. As
a result of that technique, 10% of Saint-Gobain's 1920 sales came from the
automobile industry, and 28% in 1930. A few years later, another technique was
developed that allowed glass to be shaped and bent. Finally, a process was
developed to coat glass with aluminum, allowing it to be used as a conductor,
and allowed the company to create products such as radiavers (a glass heater).

1950–1970: Pont-à-Mousson merger


Between 1950 and 1969, Saint-Gobain's sales rose at a rate of 10% per year.
Its work force grew from 35,000 in 1950 to 100,000 in 1969. By the end of the
1960s, Saint-Gobain had more than 150 subsidiaries under its control.

Glass and fiberglass sales benefited from the booming construction industry
and the rise in mass consumption after the Second World War. Saint-Gobain's
yearly glass production went from 3.5 million square meters (38 million square
feet) in 1950 to 45 million square meters (480 million square feet) in 1969. In
1950, fiberglass only represented 4% of the company's turnover, but by 1969,
this had grown to 20%.

52
Domestic sales in France accounted for only a fifth of the company’s
revenue. Spain, Germany, Italy, Switzerland and Belgium were also important
markets.

In 1968, Boussois-Souchon-Neuvesel (BSN), a French industrial group,


made a hostile takeover bid for Saint-Gobain. The company looked for a "white
knight" to help fend off the bid. Multinational corporation Suez suggested that
Saint-Gobain and Pont-à-Mousson (another French industrial group) should
merge, in order to maintain independence from BSN. After the merger, Saint-
Gobain-Pont-à-Mousson, later known simply by the name "Saint-Gobain",
produced pipes in addition to glass and fiberglass.

1971–1986: Nationalization
The next fifteen years were a time of change and reorganization for the
newly merged companies. In the 1970s, Western economies were suffering a
sharp downturn. Saint-Gobain's financial performance was adversely affected
by the economic and petrol crisis.

In 1981 and 1982, ten of France's top-performing companies were


nationalized by the socialist Fifth Republic of France. By February 1982, Saint-
Gobain was officially controlled by the state. However, the company did not
last long as a government-owned corporation; it was re-privatized in 1987.

53
1986-Present: Expansion
When Saint-Gobain once again became a private enterprise, control of the
company quickly changed hands. Jean-Louis Beffa, an engineer and graduate of
the École Polytechnique, became theCEO. Beffa invested heavily in research
and development and pushed strongly for the company to produce engineered
materials (such as abrasives and ceramics).

Under Beffa, the company continued to expand internationally, setting up


foreign factories, and acquiring many of its foreign competitors. In 1996 the
company bought Poliet (the French building and construction distribution
group) and its subsidiaries, such as Point P. and Lapeyre. This expanded Saint-
Gobain's product line into construction materials and their distribution.

54
SAINT-GOBAIN AT A GLANCE

"Developing new materials and services for the house of the future."

In brief
. 42.1 billion euros of sales
. Around 195 000 employees
. Presence in 64 countries
. 12 research centres and 101 development units
. European or world leader in all of its activities

With a long international history, which began in France in 1665 when the
Royal Glass Works was established, the Saint-Gobain group is now the world
leader on habitat and construction markets, providing innovative solutions to
save energy and protect the environment.

55
Distribution of employees by countries

56
European or world leader in each one of its activities

Construction Products cover Insulation, Gypsum, Exterior Products, Pipe and


Industrial Mortars. Their complementary nature makes it possible to meet the
needs of every part of the construction sector, for both new buildings and
renovation work.

 Discover the Construction Products Sector


Innovative Materials cover Flat Glass (flat glass manufacturing,
transformation and distribution of glass for the building sector, automotive
glazing and specialties) as well as High-Performance Materials, consisting of
Ceramics & Plastics, Abrasives and Textile Solutions activities, with
applications applied in the housing, energy and environmental fields.

 Discover the Innovative Materials sector


Building Distribution, made up of POINT.P and Lapeyre, acquired in 1996,
makes Saint-Gobain the leading distributor for construction materials in Europe
and the world's largest distributor of tiling. This distribution network of

57
materials, with more than 4,200 outlets, stands out for the training in today's
building standards it gives to tradesmen.

 Discover the Building Distribution Sector


Packaging, the world’s second-ranking producer of glass containers, makes
bottles and jars for foodstuffs and beverages.

58
59
1. PERSONEL DETAILS

NAME:
SHOP NAME:
ADDRESS:
PHONE:

2. HOW MANY YEARS YOU HAVE BEEN ASSOCIATED


WITH GLASS BUSINESS?

Last 10-15 years

3. WHAT TYPES OF GLASS YOU SELL IN YOUR SHOP?

□ CLEAR □ MIRROR
□ TINTED GLASS □ FIGURED GLASS/ PIN
HEAD

60
61
4. WHAT ARE THE BRANDS THAT ARE AVAILABLE IN
GLASS MARKET?

□ SAINT-GOBAIN □ MODI/GGL
□ASHAI FLOAT/AIS □ THRIVANI
□ BOROSIL

5. WHAT ARE THE BRANDS YOU SELL IN YOUR SHOP?

□ SAINT-GOBAIN □ MODI GLASS


□ ASHAI FLOT/ASI □ THRIVANI
□ BOROSIL

62
6

YOUR CUSTOMER ASKS THE GLASS BY BRAND NAME?

7. IF YES WHICH BRAND IS A POPULAR CHOICE

□ SAINT-GOBAIN □ MODI GLASS

63
□ ASHAI FLOT/ASI □ THRIVANI
□ BOROSIL

8. BRAND CHOICE OF YOUR CUSTOMER FOR


THE FOLLOWING PRODUCTS

CLEARTHINE
10%
(2.5mmTO6mm)
CLEARTHIKE
20%
(8mmTO12mm)

64
TINTEDGLASS/DESIGN
15%
GLASS
MIRROR 30%
REFLECTIVE 25%

9. BY WHOSE SUGGESTION PEOPLE ASK BRAND


NAMES?

□ CARPENTER □ ARCHITECT
□ FABRICATOR □ BUILDER
□ MEDIA/ADVERTISING

65
10. WHAT COLOURS ARE SOLD IN BRANDED
REFLECTIVE GLASS?

COLOUR THICK NESS


Light Gold 4-5-6 mm
Bronze 4-5-6 mm
Blue 4-5-6 mm
Green 4-5-6 mm

11. WHAT COLOURS ARE SOLD IN IMPORTED


REFLECTIVE GLASS?

COLOUR THICK NESS


Grey 4-5-6 mm
Parsol gold 4-5-6 mm
Bronze 4-5-6 mm
Light Gold 4.5 mm

66
12. DO YOU PURCHASE DIRECTLY FROM
COMPANY?

13. IF NOT, FROM WHOM DO YOU PURCHASE


GLASS ?

67
14. HOW MANY CUSTOMERS INSIST ON A BRAND
NAME
BASED ON TV COMMERCIAL?

A.) 25/50 dealers said most of them

15. WHAT ARE THE ADVERTISEMENTS OF GLASS


YOU HAVE SEEN?

PRODUCT COMPANY CHANNEL


CLEAR GLASS SAINT GOBAIN G TV

68
MIRROR MODI HBO
REFLECTIVE ASAHI FLOAT ESPN

16. WHAT IS THE PREFERABLE LOCAL CHANNEL


FOR THE ADVERTISING

1. NEWS CHANNELS
2. SUN NETWORK

17. ADVERTISEMENT FEED BACK

CLEAR GLASS ADDS

* HA ADD

 HAVE YOU SEEN THIS ADD?

69
WHAT YOU PURSUED FROM THE ADD?

 It’s very clear.

70
* RESTAURANT ADD
HAVE YOU SEEN THIS ADD?

WHAT YOU PURSUED FROM THE ADD?


 It’s effective add and entertaining

* ENTRANCE DOOR ADD


HAVE YOU SEEN THIS ADD?

71
WHAT DO YOU PURSUED FROM THE ADD?
 The glass is not visible

72
* KID DRAWING ADD
HAVE YOU SEEN THIS ADD?

WHAT YOU PURSUED FROM THE ADD?

 The boy showing a glass here which is not visible to the


viewers?

18. REFLECTIVE GLASS


CRABE ADD
HAVE YOU SEEN THIS ADD?

73
74
WHAT YOU PURSUED FROM THE ADD?
 Enjoyed by all & reflects heat and make the portion cool and
one side transparent

* BAY WATCH ADD


HAVE YOU SEEN THIS ADD?

WHAT YOU PURSUED FROM THE ADD?


 Every one is enjoying & reflects heat and makes the
portion cool and one side transparent

75
19. MIRROR GLASS

BOY TOILET
HAVE YOU SEEN THIS ADD?

WHAT YOU PURSUED FROM THE ADD?


 As clear as original look
* MUSEUM ADD
HAVE YOU SEEN THIS ADD?

76
WHAT YOU PURSUED FROM THE ADD?

 It is very useful for all. As clear as original look

* SUPER MARKET ADD


HAVE YOU SEEN THIS ADD?

WHAT YOU PURSUED FROM THE ADD?


 Glass is very clear so in situations like this it may be
dangerous.

77
RANK THE FOLLOWING MEDIA

TV ADVERTISING

 1 2 3 4 5

PRINT MEDIA (NEWS PAPER)

1  2 3 4 5

OUT DOOR / HORDINGS

1 2  3 4 5

DANGLERS/BANNERS/POSTERS/POP

1 2 3 4  5

INTERNET /CALL CENTER

78
1 2 3  4 5

79
BUDGET ANALYSIS OF SAINT-GOBAIN

Saint-Gobain spending 10crores for advertising and media efficiency in


media and print-media point of purchase in India per annum.

50% - Media advertising.


30% - Print-media.
20% - Point of purchase.

80
BRAND EQUITY AND MEDIA EFFICIENCY OF THE
SAINT-GOBAIN

Customer perceived quality


Brand loyalty
Brand awareness
Media Efficiency

Customer perceived quality:


According to the survey done by our group, 70% of the
customers surveyed fall in good and very good category where as
30% of the customers fall in fair and poor category in terms of
service quality provide by Saint-Gobain to its customers. This
means Saint-Gobain has not been able to serve their customers up to
the international standards since 30% of the customers feel the
services are not up to the mark.

81
Saint-Gobain as a brand is still perceived favorably by the
customers but in order to make the brand Saint-Gobain more strong
and powerful it needs to improve upon its brand equity. And if it
does it, it may become the most favored brand among the customers.

Brand loyalty:
The survey done by our group reveals that a large chunk of
customers (65%) have recommended the brand Saint-Gobain to
others and another 82% of them would definitely recommend others.
This reflects that the customers were loyal and indifferent towards
the brand. Some of the customers surveyed had intense loyalty
towards the brand.

Therefore, we could inter from the above that brand Saint-


Gobain enjoys customer loyalty to the highest levels. This means
Saint-Gobain as a single brand is very strong in the views of its
customers which would help saint-Gobain in building its brand very
strong.

Brand Awareness:
The brand Saint-Gobain was successful at building awareness.
According to the survey conducted on the customers by our group,
all of them were aware of the brand Saint-Gobain. And the
customers to whom Saint-Gobain was referred and recommended
also knew about brand Saint-Gobain. They had positive approach
towards the brand Saint-Gobain. The brand recall was also very
strong among the customers of saint. Saint-Gobain is able to

82
maintain the brand recall approximately the same as its competitors
most of which had been supported by the advertising activities that
has been undertaken by them.

Brand communication is a long-term exercise that has to be


carried out with a great degree of regularity and consistency. With
the efforts that Saint-Gobain has put behind the brand in the last two
to three years, they have derived good mileage. Brand research
shows that Saint-Gobain now has an unaided brand recall with 1/5 th
of our targeted audience and is now in the consideration set of most
investors.

Media Efficiency:
The company is using only few Medias such as visual media,
print media, and point of purchase as the sources according to the
customer survey visual media and print media are placed 1&2nd

So the saint gobain has been using effective Medias for their
promotion.

83
84
SUGGESTIONS:

Saint-Gobain mostly preferring for advertising like Media and


Print-Media and internet & call centers. But according to customer
opinion like TV commercials are very popular (increase advertising
many channels).Glass Company should concentrate more in reflective
glass because of growing infrastructure expenditure. As now a days
builders prefer colour glass for construction. So therefore Increase
variety in colors in reflective glass.
Company to increase their on desk champions to increase the retile
business.

85
86
87
BIBLIOGRAPHY

BOOKS
Managing Brand Equity
By David A. Aaker

Brand Leadership: Building Assets in an Information Economy


By David A. Aaker and Erich Joachimsthaler

The 22 Immutable Laws of Branding


By Al Ries and Laura Ries

The Origin of Brands: How Product Evolution Creates Endless Possibilities


for New Brands
By Al Ries and Laura Ries

Creating Magic: 10 Common Sense Leadership Strategies from a Life at


Disney
By Lee Cockerell

The Power of Retail Branding: Reinvention Strategies for Empowering the


Brand
By Arthur Winters, Peggy Fincher Winters, Carole
Paul

88
WEBITES
www.saint-gobin.com
www.google.com
www.wikipedia.com

MAGAZINES
Company brochures
Weekly magazines
Global brand imaging

89