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Engineering Materials

ECE CC2

Engr. Analou P. Villanueva, ME ECE


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MATERIALS
- may be defined as substances of which
something is composed or made.

Materials Science
- is primarily concerned with the search for basic
knowledge about the internal structure, properties
and processing of materials.

Materials Engineering
- is mainly concerned with the use of fundamental
and applied knowledge of materials.
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ENGINEERING MATERIALS

Materials

Metals Polymers

Ferrous Non-ferrous Thermosets Elastomers

Steel Aluminum Acrylic Phenolic Rubber


Stainless steel Copper Nylon Polymide Polyurethane
Die & tool steel Zinc Polyethylene Epoxies Silicone
Cast iron Titanium Polycarbonate Polyester
Tungsten PVC

3
ENGINEERING MATERIALS

Materials

Ceramics
Metals Polymers Glass Composites

Carbides Reinforced
plastics
Nitrides
Metal-Matrix
Glasses
Ceramic-Matrix
Glass ceramics
Laminates

4
METALS
- are inorganic substances that are composed of one
or more metallic elements and may also contain
some nonmetallic elements

Useful properties:
- Strength
- Ductility
- High melting points
- Thermal and electrical conductivity
- Toughness
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TWO CLASSES:
Ferrous metal and alloys – contain a large percentage
of iron
Nonferrous metal and alloys – do not contain iron, if
they contain iron, it is only in relatively small
percentage.

Common metallic materials:


Iron/steel – used for strength critical applications
Aluminum – easy to form, readily available, inexpensive
and recyclable
Copper - have properties including high electrical and
thermal conductivity, high ductility and good corrosion
resistance 6
Common metallic materials:

Titanium – used for strength in higher temperature


(approx. 1000 degree Fahrenheit) applications, when
component weight is a concern or when good
corrosion resistance is required.
Nickel - used for strength in higher temperature
(approx. 1500-2000 degree Fahrenheit) applications,
or when good corrosion resistance is required.
Refractory materials – are used for higher temperatures
applications. (more than 2000 degree Fahrenheit)

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POLYMER
- Can be thought of a material that contains many
chemically bonded parts or units which themselves are
bonded together to form a solid. The word polymer
literally means “many parts”.
.
Properties:
- are less dense that metals and ceramic
- Resist atmospheric and other form of corrosion
- Exhibit excellent resistance to the conduction of electrical
current

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Types:
1. Plastics – are a large and varied group of synthetic materials
which are processed by forming or molding into shapes.
Classes:
1.1 Thermoplastics – these materials melt on heating and may
processed by a variety of molding and extrusion techniques
- polyethylene – packaging, plastic bag, film
- polypropylene – ropes, carpets
- polysterene – CD and DVD case
- PVC – electrical cable
1.2. Thermosetting plastics – cannot be melted or remelted
- epoxies, alkyds, polyesters
2. Elastomers or rubbers – can be elastically deformed a large
amount when a force is applied to them and return to their original
shape (or almost) when force is released.
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CERAMICS
A ceramic has traditionally been defined as inorganic,
nonmetallic solid that is prepared from powdered
materials, is fabricated into products through the
application of heat and displays such characteristic
properties as hardness, strength, low electrical
conductivity and brittleness.
Broad categories:
Structural clay products – bricks, floor tile
White wares - dinnerware
Glass – window (flat glass), bottle (container glass)
Cements
Advanced ceramics
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COMPOSITES
A composite is commonly defined as a combination of
two or more distinct materials, each of which retain its
own distinctive properties, to create a new material
with properties that cannot be achieved by any of the
components acting alone.

Common classifications:
- Metal – matrix composites
- Ceramic – matrix composites
- Polymeric – matrix composites

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RECENT ADVANCES:

Superalloys - metallic alloys with improved


performance at elevated temperature and high stress
levels
• Blends – mixture of two or more polymer also called
polymer alloys
• Advanced ceramics – new generation of ceramics with
improved strength, corrosion, resistance and thermal
shock properties
- Also called engineering or structural ceramics
Smart materials - they have the ability to sense external
environment stimuli and respond to them by changing
their properties, structure or functions.
- consists of sensors and actuators
Sensory component – detects a change in the
environment
Actuator component – performs a specific function or
response
Shape-memory alloys – materials that can be deformed but
return to their original shape upon an increase in
temperature
Piezoelectric ceramics – materials that produce an electric
field when subjected to mechanical force (& vice versa)
Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) – any miniaturized
that perform sensing and/or actuating function.
ATOMIC BONDS

IONIC BONDS

Ionic bonding occurs between charged particles. It


occurs between metal atoms and nonmetal
atoms.
Anion – an atom that gains electrons becomes
negatively charged ions
Cation – an atom that loses electrons becomes
positively charged ion
ATOMIC BONDS

Characteristics of solid materials with ionic bonds:

hard
good insulators
brittle
high melting point
ATOMIC BONDS

Example of ionic bond between sodium and chlorine atom.


ATOMIC BONDS

COVALENT BONDS
Where a compound only contains nonmetal
atoms, a covalent bond is formed by atoms
sharing two or more electrons.

An important feature of this bond is that the electrons are tightly held
and equally shared by the participating atoms.
ATOMIC BONDS

Some common features of materials with covalent bonds:

 hard
 good insulators
 brittle
 transparent
ATOMIC BONDS

Example of covalent bond


ATOMIC BONDS

METALLIC BONDS

A common characteristic of metallic


elements is they contain only one to three
electrons in the outer shell.
When an element has only one, two or three
valence electrons, the bond between these
electrons and the nucleus is relatively weak.
ATOMIC BONDS

When an aluminum atoms are grouped together in a block of


metal, the outer electrons leave individual atoms to become part
of common “electron cloud”. In this arrangement, the valence
electrons have considerable mobility and are able to conduct
heat and electricity easily.
ATOMIC BONDS

Some common features of materials with metallic


bonds:

good electrical and thermal conductors


relatively ductile
PRINCIPAL METAL CRYSTAL
STRUCTURES
SOME DEFINITIONS …

 Crystalline material: atoms


situated in a repeating 3D
periodic array over large atomic
distances
 Amorphous material: material
with no such order
 Unit cell: basic building block
unit (such as a flooring tile) that
repeats in space to create the
crystal structure; it is usually a
parallelepiped or prism
There are three principal crystal structures for metals:
a.) body-centered cubic (BCC)
b.) face-centered cubic (FCC)
c.) hexagonal closed-packed (HCP)
BODY CENTERED CUBIC STRUCTURE (BCC)
BODY CENTERED CUBIC STRUCTURE (BCC)

• Coordination # = 8

(Courtesy P.M. Anderson)


BODY CENTERED CUBIC STRUCTURE (BCC)
The body-centered cubic unit cell has atoms at each of the
eight corners of a cube (like the cubic unit cell) plus one
atom in the center of the cube. Each of the corner atoms is
the corner of another cube so the corner atoms are shared
among eight unit cells. It is said to have a coordination
number of 8. The bcc unit cell consists of a net total of two
atoms; one in the center and eight eighths from corners
atoms.

The bcc arrangement does not allow the atoms to pack


together as closely as the fcc or hcp arrangements. The
volume of atoms in a cell per the total volume of a cell is
called the packing factor. The bcc unit cell has a packing
factor of 0.68.
BODY CENTERED CUBIC STRUCTURE (BCC)

Some of the materials that have a bcc structure:


- lithium, sodium, potassium, chromium, barium,
vanadium, alpha-iron and tungsten

Metals which have a bcc structure are usually


harder and less malleable than close-packed
metals such as gold.
FACE-CENTERED CUBIC STRUCTURE (FCC)
FACE-CENTERED CUBIC STRUCTURE (FCC)

• Coordination # = 12

(Courtesy P.M. Anderson)


Adapted from Fig. 3.1(a),
Callister 6e.
FACE-CENTERED CUBIC STRUCTURE (FCC)

The face centered cubic structure has atoms located at each


of the corners and the centers of all the cubic faces. Each
of the corner atoms is the corner of another cube so the
corner atoms are shared among eight unit cells.
Additionally, each of its six face centered atoms is shared
with an adjacent atom. Since 12 of its atoms are shared, it
is said to have a coordination number of 12. The fcc unit
cell consists of a net total of four atoms; eight eighths from
corners atoms and six halves of the face atoms.
FACE-CENTERED CUBIC STRUCTURE (FCC)

In the fcc structure (and the hcp structure) the atoms can
pack closer together than they can in the bcc structure. The
atoms from one layer nest themselves in the empty space
between the atoms of the adjacent layer. The packing factor
(the volume of atoms in a cell per the total volume of a cell)
is 0.74.

Some of the metals that have the fcc structure include


aluminum, copper, gold, iridium, lead, nickel, platinum and
silver.
HEXAGONAL CLOSE-PACKED STRUCTURE (HCP)
HEXAGONAL CLOSE-PACKED STRUCTURE (HCP)
HEXAGONAL CLOSE-PACKED STRUCTURE (HCP)

 The hcp structure has three layers of atoms. In each the


top and bottom layer, there are six atoms that arrange
themselves in the shape of a hexagon and a seventh atom
that sits in the middle of the hexagon. The middle layer
has three atoms nestle in the triangular "grooves" of the
top and bottom plane. Note that there are six of these
"grooves" surrounding each atom in the hexagonal plane,
but only three of them can be filled by atoms.
 There are six atoms in the hcp unit cell. Each of the 12
atoms in the corners of the top and bottom layers
contribute 1/6 atom to the unit cell, the two atoms in the
center of the hexagon of both the top and bottom layers
each contribute ½ atom and each of the three atom in the
middle layer contribute 1 atom.
HEXAGONAL CLOSE-PACKED STRUCTURE (HCP)
The coordination number of the atoms in this structure is
12. There are six nearest neighbors in the same close
packed layer, three in the layer above and three in the
layer below. The packing factor is 0.74, which is the
same as the fcc unit cell. The hcp structure is very
common for elemental metals and some examples
include beryllium, cadmium, magnesium, titanium,
zinc and zirconium.
COMPARISON OF CRYSTAL
STRUCTURES

Crystal structure coordination # packing factor close packed directions

Body Centered Cubic (BCC) 8 0.68 body diagonal

Face Centered Cubic (FCC) 12 0.74 face diagonal

Hexagonal Close Pack (HCP) 12 0.74 hexagonal side


MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS

Loading – the application of a force to an object.

Five fundamental loading conditions:


a.) Tension – two sections of material on either side of a
plane tend to be pulled apart or elongated.
b.) Compression – the reverse of tensile loading and involves
pressing the material together.
c.) Bending – involves applying a load in a manner that
causes the material to curve and results in compressing
the material on one side and stretching it on the other.
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS

d.) Shear involves applying a load parallel to


plane which caused the material on one side
of the plane to slide across the material on the
other side of the plane.
e.) Torsion – the application of a force that
causes twisting in a material.
Static loading – if a material is subjected to a constant force.
Dynamic or cyclic loading – if the loading of the material is not
constant but instead fluctuates.

Stress – is used to express the loading in terms of force applied


to a certain cross-sectional area of an object.

where F= perpendicular force applied to the surface uniformly.


A0= the original cross sectional area before loading

unit of σ is N/m2 or lbf/in2 (psi).


EXAMPLE:

A 0.5cm-diameter aluminum bar is subjected to a force of


500N. Calculate the stress in MPa on the bar.

A 1.25cm-diameter bar is subjected to load of 2500kg.


Calculate the engineering stress on the bar in MPa.
Engineering strain - is the response of a system to an applied stress
- As the amount of deformation in the direction of the applied force
divided by the initial length of the material.

A sample of commercially pure aluminum 1.27cm wide,


0.1cm thick and 20.3cm long that has gauge markings
5.1cm apart in the middle of the sample is strained so
that the gauge markings are 6.7cm apart. Calculate the
engineering strain and the percent elongation that the
sample undergoes.
Mechanical Behavior of Materials

If the stress is small the material may only strain a


small amount and the material will return to its original
size after the stress is released. This is called elastic
deformation.

If a material is loaded beyond its elastic limit, the


material will remain in a deformed condition after the
load is removed. This is called plastic deformation
MATERIALS STRENGTH

Tensile test – used to evaluate the strength of metal and alloys.

extensometer specimen

gauge
length

Typical tensile test machine Typical tensile specimen


5 TENSILE PROPERTIES

Modulus of Elasticity
Yield Strength at 0.2% offset
Ultimate Tensile Strength
Percent of Elongation at Fracture
Percent Reduction in Area at Fracture
Modulus of Elasticity or Young’s Modulus
- the properties of a material as it undergoes
stress deforms and then return to its original
shape after the stress is removed.
E=modulus of elasticity or
Young’s modulus (GPa or psi)

for metals E=45-407 GPa.


for polymers E=0.007-4 GPa
Yield strength – is defined as the stress required to
produce a small amount of plastic deformation.

0.2% offset yield strength – is the stress corresponding


to the intersection of the stress-strain curve and a line
parallel to the elastic part of the curve offset by a
specified strain.

Ultimate tensile strength (UTS) – or simply the tensile


strength, is the maximum engineering stress level
reached in a tension test.
DUCTILITY

It is a measure of the degree of plastic deformation that has


been sustained at fracture. A material that experiences very
little or no plastic deformation upon fracture is termed brittle.
 Elongation – is the change in axial length
divided by the original length of the
specimen.
 Reduction of area – is the change in
cross-sectional area divided by the original
cross-sectional area.
Example:
A 12.7 mm diameter round sample of a 1030
carbon steel is pulled to failure in a tensile testing
machine. The diameter of the sample was 8.7mm
at the fracture surface. Calculate the percent
reduction in the area of the sample.
Compression test is not very common. It is usually used if
the material application consists of compressive force
system or if the material is brittle under tensile force.
Compressive force is negative by convention yielding
negative stress and strain.

F
s= Note:
(s < 0)
Ao
Shear and torsional stress

Shear stress:

where F = force parallel to the surface


shear stress

γ (shear strain) = a / h = tan θ


where a = the amount of shear displacement
h = distance over which the shear acts
Torsion is a variation of pure
shear, wherein a structural
member is twisted like in drive
shafts.
is the angle of twist.
is a function of torque T while 
is a function of .
This test is usually performed on
cylindrical shafts or tubes.
HARDNESS

• a measure of the resistance of a material to


permanent deformation.
Indenter material, which is usually a ball, pyramid or cone,
is made of a material much harder than the material being
tested.
apply known force measure size
e.g., of indent after
10 mm sphere removing load

Smaller indents
D d mean larger
hardness.

most brasses easy to machine cutting nitrided


plastics Al alloys steels file hard tools steels diamond

increasing hardness 58
Commonly used materials for indenters:
Hardened steel
Tungsten carbide
Diamond

Empirical hardness number is calculated or


read off on digital display, which is based on
the cross sectional area or depth of the
impression.

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TYPES OF HARDNESS TESTS

ROCKWELL HARDNESS TESTS


 There are two types of Rockwell tests:
 Rockwell: the minor load is 10 kg, the major load is 60, 100, or
150 kg.
 Superficial Rockwell: the minor load is 3 kg and major loads are
15, 30, or 45 kg.
 In both tests, the indenter may be either a diamond cone or 1/16,
1/8, 1/4 and 1/2 in. diameter steel ball, depending upon the
characteristics of the material being tested.
 Rockwell hardness values are expressed as a combination of a
hardness number and a scale symbol representing the indenter
and the minor and major loads. The hardness number is expressed
by the symbol HR and the scale designation where there are 30
different scales.
For example, 50 HRB indicates that the material has a hardness
reading of 50 on the B scale.
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ROCKWELL HARDNESS SCALES

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SUPERFICIAL ROCKWELL HARDNESS SCALES

62
A - Cemented carbides, thin steel and shallow case
hardened steel
B - Copper alloys, soft steels, aluminum alloys, malleable
iron.
C - Steel, hard cast irons, pearlitic malleable iron, titanium,
deep case hardened steel and other materials harder than
B 100
D - Thin steel and medium case hardened steel and pearlitic
malleable iron
E - Cast iron, aluminum and magnesium alloys, bearing
metals
F - Annealed copper alloys, thin soft sheet metals
G - Phosphor bronze, beryllium copper, malleable irons
H - Aluminum, zinc, lead
K, L, M, P, R, S, V - Bearing metals and other very soft or
thin materials, including plastics.
63
BRINELL HARDNESS TESTS, HB

• The oldest of the hardness test methods in common use on


engineering materials today.
• Diameter of hardened steel (or WC) indenter is 10 mm.
• Load range between 500 and 3000 kg (in 500 kg increments).
• Correlation between hardness and tensile strength
•TS (psi) = 500 x HB
•TS (MPa) = 3.45 x HB
- frequently used to determine the hardness metal forgings and
castings that have a large grain structures.

A value reported as "60 HB 10/1500/30" means that a Brinell


Hardness of 60 was obtained using a 10mm diameter ball with
a 1500 kilogram load applied for 30 seconds.
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KNOOP AND VICKERS HARDNESS TESTS

 Two other hardness testing techniques are Knoop, HK and


Vickers, HV (sometimes also called diamond pyramid).

 For each test a very small diamond indenter having pyramidal


geometry is forced into the surface of the specimen.

 Since the indenter size is very small, these two techniques


known as microindentation tests

 Applied load are much smaller, ranging between 1 and 1000 g.

 Both techniques are well suited for measuring the hardness of


small and selected specimen regions

 Knoop is used for testing brittle materials such as ceramics.


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HARDNESS: MEASUREMENT

66
CREEP

- is the tendency of a solid material to slowly move or


deform permanently under the influence of stress

 Creep is a time-dependent and permanent


deformation of materials when subjected to a
constant load at high temperature.
Examples: turbine blades, steam generators.

67
STAGES OF CREEP

In the initial stage, strain occurs at a relatively rapid rate but


the rate gradually decreases until it becomes approximately
constant during the second stage. This constant creep rate
is called the minimum creep rate or steady-state creep rate
since it is the slowest creep rate during the test. In the third
stage, the strain rate increases until failure occurs.
68
Toughness
- it is a measure of the ability of a material to absorb
energy up to fracture.
- also defined as the amount of energy per volume that
a material can absorb before rupturing.
- requires a balance of strength and ductility

To measure toughness – calculate the area under the


stress strain curve from a tensile test – this value is
simply called “material toughness” and it has unit
energy per volume.

69
70
3 Variables that have a profound influence on the toughness of a
material.

1.) strain rate


A material may possess satisfactory toughness under static loads
but may fail under dynamic loads or impact.

2.) temperature
As temperature is lowered, the ductility and toughness also decrease.

3.) notch effect


Notch effect has to due with the distribution of stress. A material
might display good toughness when the applied stress is uniaxial; but
when a multiaxial stress state is produced due to the presence of a
notch, the material might not withstand the simultaneous elastic and
plastic deformation in the various directions.

71
TOUGHNESS PROPERTIES
1) Impact Toughness
The impact toughness (AKA Impact strength) of a material can be
determined with a Charpy or Izod test. These tests are named
after their inventors and were developed in the early 1900’s.

The two tests use different specimens and methods of holding


the specimens, but both tests make use of a pendulum-testing
machine. For both tests, the specimen is broken by a single
overload event due to the impact of the pendulum. A stop pointer
is used to record how far the pendulum swings back up after
fracturing the specimen.

72
PREPARED BY:- MRS. NORAZEAN SHAARI (UNISEL) 73
The impact toughness of a metal is determined by
measuring the energy absorbed in the fracture of the
specimen.

 Potential energy = height of the pendulum times


the weight of the specimen.

 Absorbed energy = the difference in potential


energy of the pendulum at the start and the end
of the test.
74
Impact toughness versus temperature graph for a steel

It can be seen that at low temperatures the material is more


brittle and impact toughness is low. At high temperatures the
material is more ductile and impact toughness is higher. The
transition temperature is the boundary between brittle and ductile
behavior and this temperature is often an extremely important
consideration in the selection of a material.
75
DUCTILE-TO-BRITTLE TRANSITION

As temperature decreases a ductile material can become


ductile-to-brittle transition

Alloying usually increases the ductile-to-brittle transition


temperature. FCC metals remain ductile down to very low
temperatures.

For ceramics, this type of transition occurs at much higher


temperatures than for metals.

The ductile-to-brittle transition can be measured by impact


testing: the impact energy needed for fracture drops
suddenly over a relatively narrow temperature range –
temperature of the ductile-to-brittle transition. 76
2) Notch toughness

Notch toughness is the ability that a material possesses to absorb


energy in the presence of a flaw.

3) Fracture toughness

Fracture toughness is an indication of the amount of stress required to


propagate a preexisting flaw.

It is a very important material property since the occurrence of flaws is


not completely avoidable in the processing, fabrication, or service of a
material/component. Flaws may appear as cracks, voids, metallurgical
inclusions, weld defects, design discontinuities, or some combination
thereof.

Fracture toughness is also used to evaluate the ability of component


consisting a flaw to resist fracture.
77
STRESS-INTENSITY FACTOR

KI = Yσ(πa)1/2
 Where:
KI = stress-intensity factor in MPa(m) ½ or psi(inch) ½
σ = applied nominal stress in MPa or psi
a= edge-crack length or half the length of an internal through
crack in meters or inches
Y = dimensionless geometric constant on the order of 1

78
Example Problem
 A structural plate component of an engineering design must
support 207MPa in tension. If aluminum alloy 2024-T851 is
used for this application, what is the largest internal flaw
size that this material can support?(Use Y=1; KI = 26.4
MPa(m) ½)
Solution:
KI = Yσ(πa)1/2
Using Y=1 and KI = 26.4 MPa(m) ½
a = 1/π(KI/σ)2 = 1/ π(26.4 MPa(m) ½/207MPa)2
a = 5.18 mm

 Thus, the largest internal crack size that this plate can
support is 2a, or (2)(5.18mm) = 10.36 mm. 79
FUNDAMENTAL OF FRACTURE
 Fracture: separation of a body into pieces due to stress.

 Steps in fracture:
 crack formation
 crack propagation

 In general metal fractures can be classified as ductile or brittle

 Ductile fracture :
 Extensive plastic deformation
 Main cause for their occurrence is overloading of the component
 Crack is “stable”: resists further extension unless applied stress is
increased
 Brittle fracture :
 Relatively little plastic deformation
 Crack is “unstable”: propagates rapidly without increase in applied
stress

 Ductile fracture is preferred in most applications

80
DUCTILE VS BRITTLE FAILURE
• Classification:
Fracture Very Moderately
Brittle
behavior: Ductile Ductile

Large Moderate Small


• Ductile Ductile: Brittle:
fracture is usually warning before No
desirable! fracture warning

81
EXAMPLE: FAILURE OF A PIPE

• Ductile failure:
--one piece

• Brittle failure:
--many pieces

82
MODERATELY DUCTILE FAILURE
• Evolution to failure:
void void growth shearing
necking and linkage fracture
nucleation at surface
s

• Resulting 50
50mm
mm
fracture
surfaces
(steel)
100 mm
particles
serve as void
nucleation
sites. 83
DUCTILE VS. BRITTLE FAILURE

cup-and-cone fracture brittle fracture

84
FATIGUE FAILURE

Under fluctuating / cyclic stresses, failure can occur at loads


considerably lower than tensile or yield strengths of material under a
static load. This failure that occurs under repeated or cyclic
stressing are called fatigue failures.

Estimated to causes 90% of all failures of metallic structures (bridges,


aircraft, machine components, etc.)

Fatigue failure is brittle-like (relatively little plastic deformation) - even


in normally ductile materials. Thus sudden and catastrophic!

Applied stresses causing fatigue may be axial (tension or compression),


flextural (bending) or torsional (twisting).

Fatigue failure proceeds in three distinct stages: crack initiation in the


areas of stress concentration (near stress raisers), incremental
crack propagation, final catastrophic failure.
85
CYCLIC STRESSES

(a) Periodic and symmetrical about


zero stress

(b) Periodic and asymmetrical


about zero stress

(c) Random stress fluctuations


86
Cyclic stresses are characterized by maximum, minimum and mean stress, the range of stress, the
stress amplitude, and the stress ratio

s max  s min
Mean _ stress : s m =
2
Range _ of _ stress : s r = s max  s min
sr s max  s min
Stress _ amplitude: s a = =
2 2
s min
Stress _ ratio : R =
s max
Remember the convention that tensile stresses are positive,
compressive stresses are negative
87
Fatigue properties of a material (S-N curves) are tested in rotating-bending tests in fatigue
testing apparatus.

Result is commonly plotted as S (stress) vs. N (number of cycles to failure)


Low cycle fatigue: high loads, plastic and elastic deformation
High cycle fatigue: low loads, elastic deformation (N >105)

88
89
FATIGUE LIMIT, FATIGUE STRENGTH, FATIGUE LIFE

 Fatigue limit (endurance limit) occurs for some


materials (some Fe and Ti allows). In this case, the
S—N curve becomes horizontal at large N. The fatigue
limit is a maximum stress amplitude which the
material never fails, no matter how large the number
of cycles is.

 In most alloys, S decreases continuously with N. In


this cases the fatigue properties are described by
 Fatigue strength: stress at which fracture occurs after
specified number of cycles (e.g. 107)
 Fatigue life: Number of cycles to fail at specified stress level

90
FATIGUE LIFE CALCULATIONS

Where:
Nf = fatigue life in cycles
af = critical crack size
ao = initial crack size
91
EXAMPLE:

An alloy plate is subjected to constant-amplitude


uniaxial fatigue cyclic tensile and compressive stresses
of magnitudes of 120 and 30 MPa, respectively. The
static properties of the plate are a yield strength of
1400 MPa and a fracture toughness of 45 MPa√m. If
the plate contains a uniform through thickness edge
crack of 1.00 mm, how many fatigue cycles are
estimated to cause fracture? Use the equation
da/dN(m/cycle)=2.0x10-12∆K 3(MPa√m)3. Assume Y=1
in the fracture tougness equation.

92
CLASSIFICATIONS OF METAL ALLOYS

Classifications of metals based on their formability:


a.) cast alloys – are metals that are hard to form
which the components of these metals are fabricated
by casting
b.) wrought alloys – are metals that can be deformed
Three factors that account ferrous materials produced in
larger quantities:
1. availability of abundant raw materials combined with
economical extraction
2. ease of forming
3. their versatile mechanical and physical properties
STEELS
Low Alloy High Alloy
low carbon Med carbon high carbon
<0.25 wt% C 0.25-0.6wt% C 0.6-1.4wt% C

heat
Name plain HSLA plain plain tool stainless
treatable
Cr,V Cr, Ni Cr, V,
Additions none none none Cr, Ni, Mo
Ni, Mo Mo Mo, W

Example 1010 4310 1040 4340 1095 4190 304, 409

Uses auto bridges crank pistons wear drills high T


struc. towers shafts gears applic. saws applic.
sheet press. bolts wear dies turbines
vessels hammers applic. furnaces
blades Very corros.
resistant
increasing strength, cost, decreasing ductility 94
Steels are ferrous alloys with less than 2.14%C. Steels
are alloys of iron and carbon plus other alloying
elements. Alloying additions are necessary for many
reasons including: improving properties, improving
corrosion resistance, etc.

Low carbon steels: These are arguably produced in the


greatest quantities than other alloys.
These materials are easily machinable and weldable.
Typical applications of these alloys include: structural
shapes, tin cans, automobile body components,
buildings, etc.
Medium carbon steels: These are stronger than low
carbon steels. However these are of less ductile than
low carbon steels.
Typical applications include: railway tracks & wheels,
gears, other machine parts which may require good
combination of strength and toughness.

High carbon steels: These are strongest and hardest of


carbon steels, and of course their ductility is very
limited.
They possess very high wear resistance, and capable
of holding sharp edges. Thus these are used for tool
application such as knives, razors, hacksaw blades, etc.
Stainless steels:

The name comes from their high resistance to


corrosion i.e. they are rust-less (stain-less).
Steels are made highly corrosion resistant by
addition of special alloying elements, especially
a minimum of 12% Cr along with Ni and Mo.

Typical applications include cutlery, razor blades,


surgical knives, etc.
Stainless steels are mainly three kinds:
 Ferritic stainless steels
Ferritic stainless steels are principally Fe-Cr-C alloys with 12-14%
Cr. They also contain small additions of Mo, V, and Nb.

They are relatively low in cost since they do not contain nickel.
They are used mainly as general construction materials in which
their special corrosion and heat resistance is required.
Austenitic stainless steels
 Austenitic stainless steels usually contain 18% Cr and 8%
Ni in addition to other minor alloying elements. Other
alloying additions include Ti, Nb, Mo (prevent weld decay),
Mn and Cu (helps in stabilizing austenite).

 They normally have better corrosion resistance than ferritic


and martenistic ones.

 Typical applications are chemical and food processing,


welding chemical tanks and process equipment, tank cars
for chemicals.
 Martensitic,semi-austenitic steels
Martensitic stainless steels are essentially Fe-Cr alloys containing
12 to 17% Cr with sufficient carbon (0.15 to 1% C). Since the
composition of martensitic stainless steels is adjusted to optimize
strength and hardness, the corrosion resistance of these steels is
relatively poor compared to ferritic and austenitic types.
Typical applications are machine parts, pump shafts, bolts, valves
and surgical tools.

Austenitic steels are most corrosion resistant, and they are


produced in large quantities. Austenitic steels are non-
magnetic as against ferritic and martensitic steels, which
are magnetic.
CAST IRONS

 Ferrous alloys with > 2.1 wt% C


 more commonly 3 - 4.5 wt% C
 Low melting – relatively easy to cast
 Generally brittle

Based on the form of carbon present, cast irons are


categorized as gray, white, nodular and malleable cast irons.

101
TYPES OF CAST IRON
Gray cast iron
graphite flakes
weak & brittle in tension
stronger in compression
excellent vibrational dampening
wear resistant
Typical applications include: base structures, bed
for heavy machines, etc.
Ductile or nodular cast iron
add Mg and/or Ce
graphite as nodules not flakes
matrix often pearlite – stronger but less ductile
Typical applications include: pump bodies, crank
shafts, automotive components, etc.
102
White cast iron
< 1 wt% Si
pearlite + cementite
very hard and brittle
their use is limited to wear resistant applications
such as rollers in rolling mills.

Malleable cast iron


heat treat white iron at 800-900ºC
graphite in rosettes
reasonably strong and ductile
Typical applications include: railroad,
connecting rods, marine and other heavy-
duty services.

103
Compacted graphite iron
 relatively high thermal conductivity
 good resistance to thermal shock
 lower oxidation at elevated
temperatures

LIMITATIONS OF FERROUS ALLOYS


1) Relatively high densities
2) Relatively low electrical conductivities
3) Generally poor corrosion resistance
104
FERROUS ALLOYS
Iron-based alloys

• Steels
• Cast Irons

Nomenclature for steels (AISI/SAE)


10xx Plain Carbon Steels
11xx Plain Carbon Steels (resulfurized for machinability)
15xx Mn (1.00 - 1.65%)
40xx Mo (0.20 ~ 0.30%)
43xx Ni (1.65 - 2.00%), Cr (0.40 - 0.90%), Mo (0.20 - 0.30%)
44xx Mo (0.5%)

where xx is wt% C x 100


example: 1060 steel – plain carbon steel with 0.60 wt% C 105
NONFERROUS ALLOYS
• Cu Alloys
• Al Alloys
Brass: Zn is subst. impurity
(costume jewelry, coins, -low r: 2.7 g/cm 3

corrosion resistant) -Cu, Mg, Si, Mn, Zn additions


Bronze : Sn, Al, Si, Ni are strengthened (structural
subst. impurities aircraft parts
(bushings, landing & packaging)
gear) NonFerrous • Mg Alloys
Cu-Be: -very low r: 1.7g/cm3
precip. hardened Alloys -ignites easily
for strength
-aircraft, missiles
• Ti Alloys
-relatively low r: 4.5 g/cm3 • Refractory metals
vs 7.9 for steel • Noble metals -high melting T’s
-reactive at high T’s -Ag, Au, Pt -Nb, Mo, W, Ta
-space applic. -oxid./corr. resistant
106
Aluminum alloys:

These are characterized by low density, high thermal & electrical


conductivities, and good corrosion resistant characteristics. As Al
has FCC crystal structure, these alloys are ductile even at low
temperatures and can be formed easily. However, the great
limitation of these alloys is their low melting point (660 ْC),
which restricts their use at elevated temperatures.

Chief alloying elements include: Cu, Si, Mn, Mg, Zn. Recently,
alloys of Al and other low-density metals like Li, Mg, Ti gained
much attention as there is much concern about vehicle weight
reduction. Al-Li alloys enjoy much more attention especially as
they are very useful in aircraft and aerospace industries.

Common applications of Al alloys include: beverage cans,


automotive parts, bus bodies, aircraft structures, etc.
Copper alloys:

As history goes by, bronze has been used for thousands of


years. It is actually an alloy of Cu and Sn. Unalloyed Cu is
soft, ductile thus hard to machine, and has virtually unlimited
capacity for cold work. One special feature of most of these
alloys is their corrosion resistant in diverse atmospheres.

Common most Cu alloys: Brass, alloys of Cu and Zn where


Zn is substitutional addition (e.g.: yellow brass, catridge
brass, muntz metal, gilding metal); Bronze, alloys of Cu and
other alloying additions like Sn, Al, Si and Ni. Bronzes are
stronger and more corrosion resistant than brasses.

Applications of Cu alloys include: costume jewelry, coins,


musical instruments, electronics, springs, bushes, surgical
and dental instruments, radiators, etc.
Magnesium alloys:

The most sticking property of Mg is its low density among all


structural metals. Mg has HCP structure, thus Mg alloys are
difficult to form at room temperatures. Hence Mg alloys are
usually fabricated by casting or hot working. As in case of
Al, alloys are cast or wrought type.

Major alloying additions are: Al, Zn, Mn and rare earths.


Common applications of Mg alloys include: hand-held
devices like saws, tools, automotive parts like steering
wheels, seat frames, electronics like casing for laptops,
camcoders, cell phones etc.
Titanium alloys:

Ti and its alloys are of relatively low density, high


strength and have very high melting point. At the same
time they are easy to machine and forge.

However the major limitation is Ti’s chemical reactivity


at high temperatures, which necessitated special
techniques to extract. Thus these alloys are expensive.
They also possess excellent corrosion resistance in
diverse atmospheres, and wear properties.

Common applications include: space vehicles, airplane


structures, surgical implants, and petroleum & chemical
industries.
Refractory metals:
These are metals of very high melting points.
For example: Nb, Mo, W and Ta. They also possess
high strength and high elastic modulus.
Common applications include: space vehicles, x-ray
tubes, welding electrodes, and where there is a need
for corrosion resistance.

Noble metals:
These are eight all together: Ag, Au, Pt, Pa, Rh, Ru, Ir
and Os. All these possess some common properties
such as: expensive, soft and ductile, oxidation resistant.
Ag, Au and Pt are used extensively in jewelry, alloys are
Ag and Au are employed as dental restoration
materials; Pt is used in chemical reactions as a catalyst
and in thermocouples.
Fabrication of Metals

Metals are fabricated by different means to achieve metals


and alloys of desired characteristics. There been many kinds
of fabrication techniques, and for a particular metal use of
these depend on properties of metal, product shape-size-
properties, cost, etc.

Metal fabrication techniques are mainly four kinds:


Casting - to give a shape by pouring in liquid metal into a
mold that holds the required shape, and letting harden the
metal without external pressure.
Forming – to give shape in solid state by applying pressure.
Machining – in which material is removed in order to give it
the required shape.
Joining – where different parts are joined by various means.
Metal casting

This technique is employed when


(a) product is large and/or complicated shape
(b) particular material is low in ductility.

This is also employed as it is usually economical


compared with other techniques.

Different casting techniques include: sand, die,


investment, continuous casting.
Sand casting:
The common casting method where sand is used as
casting material. A two piece mold (cope and drag) is
formed by compact packing of sand around a pattern
of required shape.

• Sand Casting • What material will withstand T


(large parts, e.g., >1600ºC
auto engine blocks) and is inexpensive and easy to
mold?
• Answer: sand!!!
Sand Sand
• To create mold, pack sand around
molten metal form (pattern) of desired shape

114
Investment casting (lost wax casting)

In this pattern is made of wax. Then fluid slurry of


casting material is poured over which eventually
hardens and holds the required shape.
Subsequently, pattern material is heated to leave
behind the cavity. This technique is employed when
high dimensional accuracy, reproduction of fine
details, and an excellent finish are required.
• (low volume, complex shapes e.g., jewelry, turbine blades)

115
Investment casting (lost wax casting)

(b) Multiple patterns


(a) Wax pattern
assembled to wax
(injection molding)
sprue

(c) Shell built 


(d) dry ceramic immerse into ceramic
melt out the wax slurry
fire ceramic (burn  immerse into fine sand
wax) (few layers)

(e) Pour molten metal (gravity)


 cool, solidify (f) Break ceramic shell
[Hollow casting: (vibration or water
pouring excess metal before blasting)
solidification

(g) Cut off parts


(high-speed friction
saw)
 finishing (polish)
Die casting
Metal is forced into mold by external pressure at high
velocities. Usually a permanent two-piece mold made of steel
is used. In this technique rapid cooling rates are achieved, thus
inexpensive.
-- high volume
-- for alloys having low melting
temperatures

117
Continuous casting

Solidification and primary forming process are combined,


where refined metal is cast directly into a continuous strand
which is cooled by water jets. This technique is highly
automated and more efficient. Uniform composition
through-out the casting is achievable when compared with
ingot-cast products.
- simple shapes
(e.g., rectangular slabs,
cylinders)

molten
solidified
Metal forming

In these techniques, a metallic piece is subjected to


external pressures (in excess of yield strength of the
material) to induce deformation, thus material
acquires a desired shape.

These are basically two types – one that performed


at relatively low temperatures, cold working; and the
other performed at high temperatures, hot working.

Most common forming techniques are: forging,


rolling, extrusion, and drawing.
Forging: This involves deforming a single piece of metal,
usually, by successive blows or continuous squeezing. Forged
products have outstanding grain structures and very good
mechanical properties.
Typical products include: crane hooks, wrenches, crank
shafts, connecting rods.
Rolling: Most widely used forming technique because of high
production rate and close dimensional control of final product.
It involves passing a piece of metal between two rotating
rolls. Deformation is terms of reduction in thickness resulting
from applied compressive forces. This technique is typically
employed to produce sheets, strips, foil, I-beams, rails, etc.

stationary die
tf Vf Vf
to to tf
Vo
Vo

rolling die
thread rolling machine
Drawing: It is pulling of material though die orifice using
tensile forces. Again a reduction in cross-section results with
corresponding change in length.

Typical drawing strand includes number of dies in a series


sequence.

Rods, wire, and tubes are commonly produced using drawing


technique.
stock (bar) die
wire

F (pulling force)
Extrusion: In this technique a piece of material is forced
though a die orifice by a compressive force. Final product
emerging from die will have the desired shape and reduced
cross sectional area, and will constant cross-section over very
long lengths.

Typical extrusion products are: rods, (seamless) tubes,


complicated shapes for domestic purpose.

chamber die

extruded shape
hydraulic
stock
piston

chamber
Machining

This technique employs removable of metal from


selected areas of the workpiece to give final shape
to the product. This is in direct contrast with metal
forming where metal is moved and volume is
conserved.

Machining usually is employed to produce shapes


with high dimensional tolerance, good surface finish,
and often with complex geometry. And another
important note is that when number of product
pieces required is small, machining is preferred over
forming as special tool cost will be less.
Joining

There been many joining techniques, especially for metallic


materials.
These include: welding, brazing, soldering, and riveting. In
these techniques, two pieces are joined together either by
adhesive/cohesive bonding and/or mechanical locking.

Welding, brazing, and soldering involve melting of either


parent metal or external metallic liquid (filler material) which
upon cooling provides cohesive bonds.

In riveting, pieces are put together by mechanical locking.


These techniques are employed to join two pieces of same
metal with complicated shapes, or of different metals because
of difficulty in fabricating them using one of the previous
methods. This may be employed when on-part fabrication is
expensive or inconvenient.
PLASTIC FIBER ELASTOMER
WHAT IS POLYMER ?!
POLYMERS
 large molecules made up of many single repeating
units
-> monomers
 These repeating units join together by
covalent bonds

 The chemical process that join the monomers


together
- POLYMERIZATION
POLYMERS
Polymers can be divided into 2 types :

 naturally occurring polymers

 synthetic polymers
NATURALLY OCCURRING POLYMERS

Polymers that exist in plants or animals

Types of naturally occurring polymers


 protein : muscles
 carbohydrates : cellulose
 natural rubber : latex
SYNTHETIC POLYMERS

 Polymers made in industry from chemical


substances

 Scientists are able to copy structures of natural


polymers to produce synthetic polymers through
scientific research
SYNTHETIC POLYMERS
 many of raw materials for synthetic polymers
are obtain from
-> petroleum

 types of synthetic polymers


 plastics
 fibers
 elastomers
PLASTICS
 composed of polymers of carbon and hydrogen
alone or with oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine or sulfur in
the backbone

 Properties of plastics :-
 strong
 malleable
 inert to chemical
 insulators of electricity
and heat
PLASTICS
 example of plastics are :-
 polythene (polyethylene)
 polyvinylchloride (PVC)
 polypropene (polypropylene)
 polystyrene
 Perspex
 Bakelite
FIBERS
 long chain polymers that withstand stretching
 example of fibers are :-
polyamide nylon,
terylene
phenol-formaldehyde (PF)
acrylic polymers
ELASTOMERS
 polymer that can regain its original shape after
being stretched or pressed
 example of elastomers are :-
Styrene-butadiene rubber(SBR)
Polyisoprene (IR)
Polybutadiene (BR)
Chloroprene Rubber (CR)
THANK YOU….!!!