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MID PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

Name : Farah Navaya Baquita Tafara (MGT 4 / 2016)

Introduction
In this assignment, it will talk about Interviewing Candidates. The interview perhaps is
the most influential factor in the academic employment process. Although curriculum vitae,
cover letters and recommendations are essential aspects that typically, determine whether the
candidate will be invited for interview, the on-site interview typically is the final determining
factor in the selection process. Academicians involved in the interview process use the personal
interview to confirm or to negate impressions conveyed by their curriculum vitae, supporting
documents, and recommendations.
Employment interviews are a popular selection technique from many viewpoints. In
organizations around the world, employment interviews continue to be one of the most
frequently used methods to assess candidates for employment.
Interviews may either be structured or unstructured. Unstructured interviews are a
ubiquitous tool for making screening decisions despite a vast literature suggesting that they have
little validity. Structured interview have been proposed in the literature. For example, Huffcutt
and Arthur (1994) defined structured interview as “the degree of discretion that an interviewer is
allowed in conducting the interview” (p. 186) and proposed two dimensions: (a) standardization
of interview questions and (b) standardization of response scoring.

Analysis
The structured interview is focused on a set number of clearly defined criteria, usually
competencies. The questions are carefully structured to obtain specific information about the
criteria and the answers are scored against a consistent scoring range and assessed for evidence
of relevant ability. In situational interviewing candidates are presented with a future hypothetical
situation and asked to explain how they would deal with it. In situational interviewing candidates
are presented with a future hypothetical situation and asked to explain how they would deal with
it.
The content dimension includes the components of structured interview that is (a) basing
questions on a job analysis; (b) asking the same questions of each applicant; (c) limiting
prompting, follow-up, and elaboration on questions; (d) using better types of questions; (e) using
longer interviews or larger number of questions; (f) controlling ancillary information; and (g) not
allowing questions from applicant until after the interview. The evaluation dimension includes
the components of structured interview that is (a) rating each answer or using multiple
scales;(b)using anchored rating scales;(c)taking notes; (d)using multiple interviewers; (e) using
the same interviewer(s) across all applicants; (f) not discussing applicants/answers between
interviews; (g) providing interviewer training; and (h)using statistical, rather than clinical,
prediction.
The interviewer compares the answers to positive and negative descriptions of the
behaviors. Interviewing is one of the best established selection techniques, it suffers from a
number of problems. Researchers sometimes classified interviews dichotomously as being
unstructured or structured, although the components of the interview that led to such
determination varied. Other general labels used to describe structured interviews included:
situational, behavioral, conventional structured, and structured situational.
Unstructured interviews are a ubiquitous tool for making screening decisions
despite a vast literature suggesting that they have little validity. Studies of human resource
executives suggest that they believe more in the validity of unstructured interviews than other
screening methods, even when they are aware that the evidence suggests that structured
assessment is superior. Unstructured interviews expose interviewers to so many casual
observations about the interviewee that have little or unknown diagnosticity that interviewers
cannot help but get more information than they can use and thus, they must ignore some cues.
Just as one can, post hoc, fit a “significant” statistical model to pure noise, interviewers
have too many degrees of freedom to build a coherent story of interviewees’ responses. If the
interviewee gives a response that is inconsistent with the interviewer’s impression, the
interviewer can dynamically reformulate that impression, perhaps asking follow up questions
until hearing a set of responses that confirm an impression. Without structure, interviewers may
not ask questions intended to disconfirm these impressions. Because people are inclined to seek
information that confirms their hypotheses or avoid what might disconfirm them.
The ability to sensemake combined with the tendency for biased testing allows
unstructured interviewers to feel they understand an interviewee almost regardless of the
information they receive. To explore whether interviewers sensemake, we developed a random
responding system that the interviewees could use during the interview to see whether it would
perturb predictive accuracy or subjective confidence in interview impressions. We
experimentally tested the roles of dilution and sensemaking in the context of using unstructured
interviews to predict social outcomes. Study participants predicted the semester GPAs of other
students based on biographical information including GPA prior to the semester in question and
in some cases, an unstructured interview. In some conditions, the interviews were nonsense for
the task at hand because the interviewee secretly used a random responding system to answer
questions, literally providing random answers to questions that were independent of the
interviewee’s natural response. Consistent with sensemaking, participants who unknowingly
conducted random interviews were just as likely to indicate in post-interview surveys that they
got good information as those who conducted accruate interviews. This is the first evidence we
know of that unstructured interviews can be worse than invalid; they can actually decrease
accuracy. Yet, while interviews were harmful in this context, even our nonsense interviews
promoted a feeling of confidence in the interview impression. Consistent with dilution,
participants’ GPA predictions were more accurate without the unstructured interview and less
accurate than had they simply predicted that semester GPA would be equal to prior GPA, a
strong cue that they were given before making predictions.
The employment interview has been defined as “a face-to-face interaction conducted to
determine the qualifications of a given individual for a particular open position”. Today, the
employment interview is no longer limited to face-to-face interaction, having been expanded to
other media, including telephone (Oliphant, Hansen, & Oliphant, 2008) and computer-mediated
video chat (Chapman & Rowe, 2002). Because interpersonal interaction is a central component
of the employment interview, we define the employment interview as a personally interactive
process of one or more people asking questions orally to another person and evaluating the
answers for the purpose of determining the qualifications of that person in order to make
employment decisions. The modality of the interview can be variable, so long as there is still
interpersonal interaction and communication between the interviewer and interview. The
interpersonal interaction might include immediate (or synchronous) is the interview and
interviewer must participate in the interview at the fixed time and delayed (or asynchronous)
interaction is they participate in the interview according to their own schedule. The employment
interview has been one of the most widely used selection methods in the past 100 years. It is
often the only method used to assess applicants for employment or can serve as the initial screen
to the final step in a multiple-hurdle selection process. the employment interview is that
structured interviews are much more reliable and valid than unstructured interviews. Structured
Employment Interviews have a paper of organized around eight topics that have been the most
frequently studied during this time, including (a) the definition of structure; (b) reducing group
differences in interview ratings through structure; (c) impression management in structured
interviews; (d) measuring personality via structured interviews; (e) comparing situational (SQ)
versus past-behavior questions (PBQ); (f) developing rating scales; (g) probing, follow-up,
prompting, and elaboration on questions; and (h) reactions to structure.
Whetton and Cameron (2002) cite a six-step process of conducting an interview, what
they named as PEOPLE-oriented Selection Interview Process that is P = prepare, E = Establish
rapport, O = Obtain information, P= Provide information, L = lead to close, and E = evaluate.
Behavioral interview is more effective than ‗trait interview in a sense that the trait approach,
permits stereotyping candidates based on first impression rather than predicating a candidate‘s
future behavior based on his /her life history experiences. In this case interviewers observe how a
candidate will react under pressure as well as his or her values and ethics in stressful conditions.
Interviews should always be planned properly, meaning that interviewers must prepare
for the interview. Undoubtedly interview is a two-way process. It is an interviewer‘s best interest
to find good prospects, hire them, and have them stay in the organization. Therefore, the
interviewee should be provided sufficient information about the job and organization.
The task of HR managers does not complete just after the interview session. At least they
should verify the background investigation of the potential employee before finally offering the
job. Background investigations, or reference checks, are intended to verify that information on
the application form is correct and accurate and application. It occurs when an employer has
failed to properly investigate an employee‘s background and that employee is later involved in
wrongful conduct :
 State the purpose of the interview. HR managers should concretely state the type of
information that is hoped to get by the end of the interview.
 Analyze the résumés. HR managers should review the application forms, résumé, test
scores (if any) and any correspondence that would be useful in understanding the
applicant‘s background.
 Develop a job Profile. HR manager should identify the exact job requirements for the job
that will be needed, including needed skills, experience and expertise. This is more than a
job description and should reflect actual needs for the job.
 Train the interviewers. Once the interviewers are selected, the next step is to prepare
them for the interview session. HR managers must ensure that the interviewers hold
adequate skills for the interview.
 Develop job-related questions and answers. At this stage, HR professionals should
determine what questions to ask during the interview.
 Develop an evaluation sheet to keep score of each applicant. There are numerous scoring
systems which can be devised.
 Determine how to record information- audio tape or notes—and make sure that the
appropriate equipment or materials are available before the interview.
 Prepare suitable physical arrangements. The interview process should be efficiently run
to make a favorable impression on the candidates and to avoid unnecessary stress.
 Develop a method for observing the pre-and-post behavior of the candidate. This will
help the interviewers to rightly judge the personality and self-confidence of the candidate.

Conclusion
For the assignment, we know that Interview divided to 3 section that is Structured
Interviews, Unstructured Interviews and Employment Interviews. Structured Employment
Interviews ae an important area of research because they are more valid than Unstructured
Interviews, can improve decision making, and they are widely used in practice. In addition, they
are easy to use, the techniques are well known, and they are simple and low cost to implement.
Unstructured Interviews could harm predictive accuracy and whether interviewers would
believe they garnered useful information from the interview regardless of its quality. In addition
to the vast evidence suggesting that unstructured interviews do not provide incremental validity,
we provide direct evidence that they can harm accuracy. Because of sensemaking, interviewers
are likely to feel they are getting useful information from unstructured interviews, even when
they are useless. Because of dilution, this finding should be especially applicable when
interviewers already have valid biographical information at their disposal and try to use the
unstructured interview to augment it.
Interviewing process used to hire employees should be explored more
especially in making sure that organizations hired the right human resource for the job
vacancies in the organization.

References
http://rspublication.com/ijrm/2015/sep15/3.pdf
https://msu.edu/~morgeson/levashina_hartwell_morgeson_campion_2014.pdf
http://journal.sjdm.org/12/121130a/jdm121130a.pdf