Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 138

Table of Contents

S.No. Contents
Page No.
List of
Figures………………………………………………………………………iv

List of
Tables…………………………………………………………………………
…...v

1.
Introduction……………………………………………………………
………….1

2. Competency……………………………………………………
………………….2

2.1Meaning & Definition……………………….


………………………….2
2.2History…………………………………………………
………………..2

3. Components of
competency………………………………………………………3

ii
3.1
Knowledge……………………………………………………………..
.4
3.2
Skill…………………………………………………………………….
.4
3.3
Attitude…………………………………………………………………
4
3.4 Who Identifies Competencies?
…………………………………………5
3.5 Behavior
Indicators……………………………………………………..6

4. Reasons for Competency Mapping

5. Classification of
Competencies…………………………………………………...7

5.1Types of Basic
Competencies…………………………………………..7
5.2 Type of Professional
Competencies…………………………………….8

6. Types of Organizational
Competencies…………………………………………….9

ii
6.1 Generic
Competencies…………………………………………………...9
6.2 Managerial
Competencies……………………………………………….11
6.3 Functional/ Technical
Competencies……………………………………12

7. Competency
Mapping………………………………………………………………
13

7.1
Definition………………………………………………………………
…13
7.2
Process…………………………………………………………………
…13

8. Need for Competency


Mapping………………………………………………………..14

9. Areas of
Implementation………………………………………………………
……….16

ii
9.1 Recruitment and
Selection………………………………………………...16
9.2 Training and
Development……………………………………………….17

ii
8.3 Career and succession
planning…………………………………………..17
8.4 Rewards and
Recognition………………………………………………...18
8.5 Performance Management
System……………………………………….18

9. Advantages of Competency
Mapping…………………………………………………..19

9.1 For the


company……………………………………………………….19
9.2 For
managers…………………………………………………………..19
9.3 For
employees………………………………………………………….20
9.4 Traditional Job Analysis versus Competency
Approach………………20

10. Disadvantages of Competency


Mapping………………………………………………21

11. Model of Competency


Mapping……………………………………………………….22

11.1

iii
Definition………………………………………………………
……..22
11.2 Developing the
model………………………………………………...22
11.3 Data Collection
Methods……………………………………………...27

11.3.1 Literature
Review…………………………………………...27
11.3.2 Focus
Groups……………………………………………….27
11.3.3 Behavioral Event
Interviews………………………………..28
11.3.4
Surveys…………………………………………………
…...28
11.3.5
Observations……………………………………………
…...28
11.3.6 Work
Logs…………………………………………………..29
11.3.7 360 degree
feedback………………………………………...29

12. Process of Competency


Mapping………………………………………………………30

iii
12.1 Laying Down Of
Objectives………………………………………….31
12.2 Preparation of The
Questionnaire…………………………………….31
12.3 Collection of
Responses……………………………………………...32
12.4 Analysis
……………………………………………………………...32

12.4.1 The Opportunity


Algorithm………………………………...32

12.5
Findings…………………………………………………………
……33

13. Competency Mapping at Ready-mix Concrete


Company……………………………..34

14. Competency Mapping at Ambuja


Cement…………………………………………….36

15.
Conclusion……………………………………………………………
………………..37

iii
References………………………………………………………
…….…………....38

iii
List of Figures

S.No. Figure
Page No.
3.1 Components of
Competency…………………………………………….3
3.2 Iceberg Model of components of
competency………………………….5
7.1 Need for Competency
Mapping………………………………………..15
8.1 Areas of Implementation of Competency
Mapping……………………16
11.1 Stages In Developing An Organization Wide
Competency Model…….23
11.2 Steps for implementing the Competency Mapping
model……………..24
12.1 Process of Competency

iv
Mapping………………………………………30
13.1 Organization
Chart……………………………………………………..34
13.2 Hierarchy defining various
designations……………………………….35

iv
List of Tables

S.No. Table
Page

4.1 Basic Competencies


………………………………………………8
9.1 Job Analysis versus Competency
Approach………………………20

v
v
1. Introduction
Competency mapping is a process through which one assesses and
determines one’s strengths as an individual worker and in some cases,
as part of an organization. It generally examines two areas: emotional
intelligence or emotional quotient (EQ), and strengths of the
individual in areas like team structure, leadership, and decision-
making. Large organizations frequently employ some form
of competency mapping to understand how to most effectively
employ the competencies of strengths of workers. They may also
use competency mapping to analyze the combination of strengths in
different workers to produce the most effective teams and the highest
quality work.

Competency mapping can also be done for contract or freelance


workers, or for those seeking employment to emphasize the specific
skills which would make them valuable to a potential employer. These
kinds of skills can be determined, when one is ready to do the work,

Competency Mapping\Introduction 1
by using numerous books on the subject. One of the most popular
ones is Now, Discover Your Strengths by Marcus Buckingham and
Donald Clifton, initially published in 2001.

Buckingham and Clifton’s book, and others like it,


practice competency mapping through testing, having the person sift
through past work experiences, and by analyzing learning types.
However, the disadvantage to using a book alone is that most people
may have a few blind spots when they analyze their own competency.
Their perception of how others react to them may not be accurate.

Competency mapping also requires some thought, time, and analysis,


and some people simply may not want to do the work involved to
sufficiently map competencies. Thus a book like the above is often
used with a human resources team, or with a job coach or
talented headhunter. Competency mapping alone may not produce
accurate results unless one is able to detach from the results in
analyzing past successes and failures. Many studies find that people

Competency Mapping\Introduction 1
often overestimate their abilities, making self-
competency mapping results dubious.
The value of competency mapping and identifying emotional
strengths is that many employers now purposefully screen employees
to hire people with specific competencies. They may need to hire
someone who can be an effective time leader or who has
demonstrated great active listening skills. Alternately, they may need
someone who enjoys taking initiative or someone who is very good at
taking direction. When individuals must seek new jobs, knowing
one’s competencies can give one a competitive edge in the job market.

Usually, a person will find themselves with strengths in about five to


six areas. Sometimes an area where strengths are not present is worth
developing. In other cases, competency mapping can indicate finding
work that is suited to one’s strengths, or finding a department at one’s
current work where one's strengths or needs as a worker can be
exercised.
A problem with competency mapping, especially when conducted by

Competency Mapping\Introduction 1
an organization is that there may be no room for an individual to work
in a field that would best make use of his or her competencies. If the
company does not respond to competency mapping by reorganizing
its employees, then it can be of little short-term benefit and may
actually result in greater unhappiness on the part of individual
employees. A person identified as needing to learn new things in order
to remain happy might find himself or herself in a position where no
new training is ever required. If the employer cannot provide a
position for an employee that fits him or her
better, competency mapping may be of little use.

Ongoing and unrelenting economic, social and technological changes


have spurred the need for flexible, skilled workers who can help their
organizations succeed and sustain a competitive advantage. To be
relevant within organizations and indispensable to clients and
customers alike, workplace learning and performance professionals
must continually reassess their competencies, update their skills and
have the courage to make necessary changes. Businesses and
managing business has and will always be complex. There is no

Competency Mapping\Introduction 1
denying the need to perform through a combination of utilizing
predictive or forecasting tools, techniques and methods, yet without
trivializing the need to sustain and drive a motivated high performing
workforce. The company’s need to sustain in a competitive
environment, gave rise to the need to understand and learn to establish
the context of competency mapping.

This report gives an overview of the competency mapping. The report


presents the meaning and history of competency approach in the first
section. In the following sections the components and types of
competencies have been covered. Further the report discusses the
meaning of competency mapping and also defines the competency
map. The section that follows discusses the main advantages and
disadvantages of competency mapping. The role of competencies in
an organization as a vital tool for recruitment, selection and retention
and the areas of application are discussed in the trailing section. The
next section analyses how competency frameworks can be designed
developed and implemented. It also discusses how to develop
customized competency models based on the management

Competency Mapping\Introduction 1
philosophy, customer needs, and existing processes of the
organization.

The report also reveals the results of Industrial visits to Ambuja


Cement Ltd. and Ready Concrete Mix Ltd. In this section the
procedures followed by the respective organizations have been
discussed and the stage of implementation of competency mapping
has been analyzed and presented for both the organizations.

Competency Mapping\Introduction 1
2.Competency
2.1 Definition
Competency can be defined as the process of identifying key
attributes and skills for each position and process within the company.
Competency mapping is of great importance in any organization.

Competency mapping plays a vital role in selecting, recruiting and


retaining the right people. When the competency required for a
particular position is mapped, an accurate job profile is created. With
the job profile well defined, the entire recruitment process becomes
easier. The candidate who applies for the position is aware of what the
position demands. The interviewers who interview the candidate are
sure of what to look for in him. This increases the chances of retention
as the new employee and the company know what to expect from each
other. Too often, ambiguity about the roles desired by the company
and the expectations carried by the new employee is a cause of
disappointment for both the employee and employer after the

Competency Mapping\Competency 2
employee joins the company.

However, competency mapping as an exercise is expensive. In


involves investment in terms of time, money and effort. This requires
the backing of the top management. Clarity is required in matters of
organizational goals and strategies and core competency. There is not
a standard competency mapping process that will work in all
situations and in all companies. Experts suggest that each company
must develop a model that is unique to itself. This model must bear in
mind its strategy, customers, goals etc. In spite of the investment
involved, a competency mapping exercise that is done well is a great
asset for the company. A Human resources Policy that is founded on
competency is considered to be the best HR policy. Most of the
activities of the HR department such as recruitment, training and
appraisal are made more effective and meaningful when they are
based on a concrete and comprehensive competency mapping.

Once the employee has entered the organization, it is natural for the

Competency Mapping\Competency 2
employee to want to ascend the corporate ladder. As the skills and
qualities required for each position in the hierarchy is clearly defined,
employees who seek growth are aware of what is expected of them.
This enables the employee to align his efforts in the direction of the
company’s requirement. It also brings a degree of transparency to the
whole process and motivates the employees.

Apart from recruiting and promotion, competency mapping is a great


development tool for the employee. It assesses the inherent strengths
and weakness of the individual and helps him develop himself. It also
gives direction to the training machinery within the organization as
the training programs will be better suited to meet the employees’
needs.

A combination of knowledge, skills, attitude and personality of an


individual as applied to a role or job in the context of the present and
future environment that accounts for sustained success within the
framework of Organizational Values.

Competency Mapping\Competency 2
Competencies include the collection of success factors necessary for
achieving important results in a specific job or work role in a
particular organization. Success factors are combinations of
knowledge, skills, and attributes (more historically called “KSA’s”)
that are described in terms of specific behaviors, and are demonstrated
by superior performers in those jobs or work roles. Attributes include:
personal characteristics, traits, motives, values or ways of thinking
that impact an individual’s behavior.

Competence is a standardized requirement for an individual to


properly perform a specific job. It encompasses a combination
of knowledge, skills and behavior utilized to improve performance.
More generally, competence is the state or quality of being adequately
or well qualified, having the ability to perform a specific role.

For instance, management competency includes the traits of systems


thinking and emotional intelligence, and skills in influence

Competency Mapping\Competency 2
and negotiation. A person possesses a competence as long as the
skills, abilities, and knowledge that constitute that competence are a
part of that person, enabling the person to perform effective action
within a certain workplace environment. Therefore, one might not
lose knowledge, a skill, or an ability, but still lose a competence if
what is needed to do a job well changes.

Competence is also used to work with more general descriptions of


the requirements of human beings in organizations and communities.
Examples are educations and other organizations that want to have a
general language to tell what a graduate of an education must be able
to do in order to graduate or what a member of an organization is
required to be able to do in order to be considered competent. An
important detail of this approach is that all competences have to be
action competences, which means that a person shows in action that
that person is competent. In the military the training system for this
kind of competence is called artificial experience, which is the basis
for all simulators.

Competency Mapping\Competency 2
General definition

Competence is shown in action in a situation and context that might


be different the next time a person has to act. In emergency contexts,
competent people will react to the situation following behaviors they
have previously found to succeed, hopefully to good effect. To be
competent a person needs to be able to interpret the situation in the
context and to have a repertoire of possible actions to take and have
trained in the possible actions in the repertoire, if this is relevant.
Regardless of training, competence grows through experience and the
extent of an individual to learn and adapt.

However, there has been much discussion among academics about the
issue of definitions. The concept of competence has different
meanings, and continues to remain one of the most diffuse terms in
the management development sector, and the organizational and
occupational literature

Competency Mapping\Competency 2
General competence

Within a specific organization or professional


community, professional competence, is frequently valued. They are
usually the same competencies that must be demonstrated in a job
interview. But today there is another way of looking at it: that there
are general areas of occupational competence required to retain a
post, or earn a promotion. For all organizations and communities there
is a set of primary tasks that competent people have to contribute to
all the time. For a university student, for example, the primary tasks
could be:

 Handling theory

 Handling methods

 Handling the information of the assignment

The four general areas of competence are:

Competency Mapping\Competency 2
1. Meaning Competence: The person assessed must be able to

identify with the purpose of the organization or community and


act from the preferred future in accordance with the values of
the organization or community.

2. Relation Competence: The ability to create and nurture

connections to the stakeholders of the primary tasks must be


shown.

3. Learning Competence: The person assessed must be able to

create and look for situations that make it possible to


experiment with the set of solutions that make it possible to
complete the primary tasks and reflect on the experience.

4. Change Competence: The person assessed must be able to act

in new ways when it will promote the purpose of the


organization or community and make the preferred future come
to life.

Occupational Competence

Competency Mapping\Competency 2
The Occupational Competence movement was initiated by David
McClelland in the 1960s with a view to moving away from traditional
attempts to describe competence in terms
of knowledge, skills and attitudes and to focus instead on the specific
self-image, values, traits, and motive dispositions (i.e. relatively
enduring characteristics of people) that are found to consistently
distinguish outstanding from typical performance in a given job or
role. It should be noted that different competences predict outstanding
performance in different roles, and that there is a limited number of
competences that predict outstanding performance in any given job or
role. Thus, a trait that is a "competence" for one job might not predict
outstanding performance in a different role.

Nevertheless, as can be seen from Raven and Stephenson, there have


been important developments in research relating to the nature,
development, and assessment of high-level competencies in homes,
schools, and workplaces.

Competency Mapping\Competency 2
Competency model

Competencies are characteristics which drive outstanding


performance in a given job, role or function. A competency model
refers to a group of competencies required in a particular job and
usually number 7 to 9 in total. The number and type of competencies
in a model will depend upon the nature and complexity of work along
with the culture and values of the organisation in which the work
takes place.

Since the early 70’s, leading organizations have been using


competencies to help recruit, select and manage their outstanding
performers after Dr David McClelland, Harvard Business
School Professor of Psychology, found that traditional tests such as
academic aptitude and knowledge tests, did not predict success in the
job.

More recent research by individuals such as Daniel Goleman in

Competency Mapping\Competency 2
Emotional Intelligence and Richard Boyatzis, in The Competent
Manager, have reinforced and emphasised the importance of
competencies as essential predictors of outstanding performance.

A competence model, also known as a competency framework, uses


the five competences described earlier. These will support the primary
tasks and the job specific tasks. Together these tasks reflect the
purpose of the job.

2.2History
A team of Educationists lead by Benjamin Bloom in the USA in mid
fifties laid the foundation for identifying educational objectives and
thereby defining the knowledge, attitudes and skills needed to be
developed in education. David McClelland the famous Harvard
Psychologist has pioneered the competency movement across the
world. His classic books on "Talent and Society", "Achievement
Motive", "The Achieving Society", "Motivating Economic
Achievement" and "Power the Inner Experience" brought out several

Competency Mapping\Competency 2
new dimensions of the competencies. These competencies exposed by
McClelland dealt with the affective domain in Bloom's terminology.

The turning point for competency movement is the article published in


American Psychologist in 1973 by McClelland, wherein he presented
that traditional achievement and intelligence scores may not be able to
predict job success and what is required is to profile the exact
competencies required to perform a given job effectively and measure
them using a variety of tests.
Latter McBer a Consulting Firm founded by David McClelland and
his associate Berlew have specialized in mapping the competencies of
entrepreneurs and managers across the world. They even developed a
new and yet simple methodology called the Behavior Event
Interviewing (BEI) to map the competencies.

Competency Mapping\Competency 2
3. Components of Competency

Competency has three major components which are as follows:

 Knowledge
 Skills
 Attitude

0100090000037800000002001c0000000000040000000301080005
0000000b0200000000050000000c025e13751e040000002e011800
1c000000fb021000070000000000bc020000000001020222537973
74656d0013751e000067af0000ac5d120004ee8339e04e1c000c020
000040000002d01000004000000020101001c000000fb0238ff0000
000000009001000000000440001254696d6573204e657720526f6d
616e0000000000000000000000000000000000040000002d010100
050000000902000000020d000000320ab800000001000400000000

Competency Mapping\Components of Competency 3


Figure 3.1 : Components of Competency

Competency Mapping\Components of Competency 3


3.1 Knowledge:
It refers to the information a person possesses about specific areas,
knowledge comprises many factors like memory, numerical ability,
linguistic ability, and is, therefore, a complex competency.
Knowledge is something that we acquire and store intellectually. It
comes from learning or experience and it is held in our minds as a
resource that we can tap into. Our knowledge provides the necessary
theory, rationale and background to allow us to tackle a task and gives
us the ability to make appropriate decisions regarding next steps. We
design theoretical approaches based on our knowledge, which allows
us to specify the outcome. Knowledge allows us to understand,
analyze, plan, evaluate and measure. The greater our knowledge, the
more accurate our prediction. Knowledge ensures that skills are
applied in the right fashion.
It can be either:
 Scientific Knowledge
 Technical Knowledge

Competency Mapping\Components of Competency 4


 Job Knowledge

3.2 Skill:
Skill on the other hand is the talent we have that enables us to execute
what is in our minds. Skill is our ability to “do” - it is practical, it
produces results and consequences. Skills can be learned, practiced
and then stored away to be called upon when required. The greater our
skill level, the greater our ability is to see the objective brought to
fruition. Skill allows us to achieve, create, accomplish and deliver.
Conviction and passion are the spark or initiative – it is skill that
sustains the effort.
It represents intelligent application of knowledge, experience, and
tools. This is the procedural "know how" knowledge (what one can
do), either covert (e.g., deductive or inductive reasoning) or
observable e.g. "active listening" skill in an interview. They are
demonstrated abilities or proficiencies, which are developed and
learned from past work and life experience.

Competency Mapping\Components of Competency 4


If your knowledge is faulty and your skill is high, then you will go
brilliantly along the wrong path. If your knowledge is high and your
skill is weak, then you may go limpingly and haltingly in the correct
direction, but never arrive. To achieve the highest results, you need to
be both knowledgeable and skillful. Knowledge points the way; skill
walks the path.
The combination of knowledge and skill provides competency. When
individuals are competent then they are able to do the job the way it is
intended to be done. To drive competency requires a continuing
investment in effective training.

3.3 Attitudes:
Attitudes are predispositions to other individuals, groups, objects,
situations, events, issues, etc. For example attitude to a particular
occupation or type of machine or a particular technology all influence
our behavior. If a person does not have a positive attitude to
computers or IT, he is not likely to use a computer. If he is not
positive about the uses of ERP or SAP, he is not likely to use the ERP
or SAP. Attitudes determine the kind of things we choose and whether
we are likely to approach a particular situation or not or whether we

Competency Mapping\Components of Competency 4


are open to try out the technology or meet the customer or sell a
particular product with high motivation, etc.
An attitude is a hypothetical construct that represents an individual's
degree of like or dislike for an item. Attitudes are generally positive or
negative views of a person, place, thing, or event—this is often
referred to as the attitude object. People can also be conflicted or
ambivalent toward an object, meaning that they simultaneously
possess both positive and negative attitudes toward the item in
question.

Attitudes decide our approach or avoidance behavior. They are


normally conceptualized as positive or negative. A positive attitude
makes us to treat that object, technology, method, situation, and
person or group more positively and therefore we appreciate it and
promote the same.

Knowledge and skills tend to be visible and relatively surface,


characteristics of people. But attitude, trait and motive competencies

Competency Mapping\Components of Competency 4


are more hidden “deeper” and central to personality.

Competency Mapping\Components of Competency 4


Surface knowledge and skills are relatively easy to develop. But core
motive and trait competencies are at the base of the personality and
are more difficult to assess and develop. This has been depicted below
in the form of an iceberg model.

Figure 3.2: Iceberg


Model of
components of competency

3.4 Who Identifies competencies?


Competencies can be identified by one of more of the following
category of people:
 Experts

Competency Mapping\Components of Competency 5


 HR Specialists
 Job analysts
 Psychologists
 Industrial Engineers etc.
In consultation with: Line Managers, Current & Past Role holders,
Supervising Seniors, Reporting and Reviewing Officers, Internal
Customers, Subordinates of the role holders and Other role set
members of the role.

Competency Mapping\Components of Competency 5


3.5 Behavior Indicators
A Competency is described in terms of key behaviors that enables
recognition of that competency at the work place.
These behaviors are demonstrated by excellent performers on-the-job
much more consistently than average or poor performers. These
characteristics generally follow the 80-20 rule in that they include the
key behaviors that primarily drive excellent performance.
Following are some key behavior indicators in an employee:

• Independently researches for information and solutions to


issues
• Ability to know what needs to be done or find out (research)
and take steps to get it done
• Ask questions when not sure of what the problem is or to gain
more information.
• Able to identify the underlying or main problem.
• Shows willingness to experiment with new things.

Competency Mapping\Components of Competency 6


• Develops a list of decision making guidelines to help arrive at
logical solutions.

Competency Mapping\Components of Competency 6


4.Reasons for Competency Mapping

Competency Mapping is excessively used in the organization to


determine the crucial elements and activities. The basic reasons due to
which the mapping of the competencies is done are as follows:

1. Once the competencies are determined, proper training can be


provided to the individuals to work more efficiently on the
processes.

2. Key performance areas can be improved by understanding the


fields where there is a gap between the actual and the desired
results.

3. If the competencies are determined for the given job, then the
person whose career panning phase is taking place can consider
those competencies and can be ready for the same.

4. Through competency mapping, the individual is preparing himself


for the next set of responsibilities.

Competency Mapping\Components of Competency 6


5. With the help of the competency mapping the individual can alter
the style of work where the gap exists.

6. By overcoming the differences in the desired level and the actual


status of performance the individual can feel the increase in the
self confidence and the motivation level.

7. Competency based approach can lead the individual to derive


much efficient results (with more accuracy) as compared to work
in a non-competency derived situation.

8. Helps the individual to determine the areas where the development


is required and thus leads the individual to develop a self
development plan.

9. Competency mapping leads the individual to understand the actual


position and the gap from the desired status of work.

10.Competency mapping plays a crucial role in career planning of the


individual in the organization.

Competency Mapping\Components of Competency 6


Competency Mapping\Components of Competency 6
4.Classification of Competencies

Competencies can broadly be classified into two categories


 Basic Competencies
 Professional Competencies.

Basic competencies are inherent in all individuals. Only their degree


of existence differs. For example, problem solving is a competency
that exists in every individual but in varying degrees.
Professional competencies are over and above the basic
competencies, and are job related. For example, handling a sales call
effectively is a competency that a sales personnel would be required
to have.
Hence, it can be simply said that,
Competencies = Basic Competencies + Professional Competencies

4.1 Types of Basic Competencies

Competency Mapping\Classification of Competencies 7


The basic competencies encompass the following:
1. Intellectual Competencies: Those which determine the intellectual
ability of a person.
2. Motivational Competencies: Those which determine the level of
motivation in an individual.
3. Emotional Competencies: Those which determine an individual's
emotional quotient.
4. Social Competencies: Those that determine the level of social
ability in a person.

It has been proved by various scholars that all individuals have


competencies. Only the combination and degree of these
competencies differ from individual to individual. Hence,
organizations have to identify the critical basic competencies required
for individual employees to deliver their best in their organization.
The importance of mapping the competencies proves critical for
organizational success.

Competency Mapping\Classification of Competencies 7


Motivational Competencies: Intellectual Competencies:
o Continuous Learning o Communication
o Perseverance o Creativity
o Achievement Orientation o Analytical Ability
o Time Management o Planning and Organizing

Social Competencies: Emotional Competencies:


o Team Work o Initiative
o Inter-personal Skills o Optimism
o Responsibility o Self Confidence
o Customer Satisfaction o Leadership
o Managing Stress
o Managing Change

These competencies have been presented below in the form of a grid.

Table 4.1: Basic Competencies

4.2 Types of Professional Competencies:


The professional competencies encompass the

Competency Mapping\Classification of Competencies 8


 Knowledge
 Experience
 Expertise gained by an individual employee.

Competency Mapping\Classification of Competencies 8


5. Types of Organizational Competencies

The previous section classified competency as basic competencies and


professional competencies. This section analyses the types of
competencies in an organization. Competencies in organizations tend
to fall into following broad categories:
 Generic Competencies
 Managerial Competencies
 Functional/Technical Competencies

We now delve into greater depths of each of these.


5.1 Generic Competencies
Competencies which are considered essential for all staff, regardless
of their function or level, i.e. Communication, program execution,
processing tools, linguistic, etc. These competencies include broad
success factors not tied to a specific work function or industry (often

Competency Mapping\Types of Organizational Competencies 9


focusing on leadership or emotional intelligence behaviors).

They can be represented as below, followed by a brief explanation of


each of them:

 Human

• Communication

• Team Working & Interpersonal Effectiveness

• Influencing Ability

• Achievement Orientation

• Networking Ability

Communication: Competency of Communication is defined as the


set of human attributes required to communicate ideas, thoughts and
feelings clearly and correctly using oral or written means.

Competency Mapping\Types of Organizational Competencies 9


Team Working & Interpersonal Effectiveness: Competency of
Interpersonal Effectiveness and Team working is defined as the set of
human attributes required to impact team or group working to achieve
the team objectives.

Influencing Ability: Competency of Influencing ability is defined as


the set of human attributes required to Impact the outcome of an
interaction.

Achievement Orientation: Competency of Achievement orientation


is defined as the set of human attributes required to continuously seek
and achieve higher goals.

Networking Ability: Competency of Networking Ability is defined


as the set of human attributes required to maintain contact and
relationship with different people from different fields

Competency Mapping\Types of Organizational Competencies 10


 Conceptual

• Creative Thinking

• Strategic Thinking

• Tolerance to non-compliance, non-congruence, non-


conformance

Creative Thinking: Competency of Creative thinking is defined as


the set of human attributes required to generate solutions.

Strategic Thinking: Competency of Strategic thinking is defined as


the set of human attributes required to visualize near and distant future
conditions and develop appropriate organizational response.

Tolerance to non-compliance, non-congruence, non-conformance:


Competency of Tolerance to non-compliance, non-congruence, non-
conformance is defined as the set of human attributes required to
remain unfazed when encountered with unfamiliar and unacceptable

Competency Mapping\Types of Organizational Competencies 10


situations.

Competency Mapping\Types of Organizational Competencies 10


5.2 Managerial Competencies
Competencies which are considered essential for staff with managerial
or supervisory responsibility in any service or program.
They are as presented below:

• Customer Orientation

• Organizing Skills

• Cross functional Perspective

• Planning Skills

• Execution Skills

• Analytical Skills

• Decision Making

• Delegation:

• Leadership

Competency Mapping\Types of Organizational Competencies 11


• Developing and supporting subordinates for effectiveness

Customer Orientation: Competency of customer orientation is


defined as the set of human attributes required to understand and
satisfy customer’s needs and requirements.

Organizing Skills: Competency of organizing is defined as the set of


human attributes required to establish, nurture and troubleshoot
organizational processes and relationships for effective delivery of
objectives.

Cross functional Perspective: Competency of Cross functional


perspective is defined as the set of human attributes required to
understand one’s own job in relation with other functions within the
organization.

Planning Skills: Competency of Planning is defined as the set of


human attributes required to understand inter relationships and
requirements of different activities to be performed to achieve the

Competency Mapping\Types of Organizational Competencies 11


desired objectives.

Competency Mapping\Types of Organizational Competencies 11


Execution Skills: Competency of Job execution is defined as the set
of human attributes required to carry out the assigned activities to the
satisfaction of the customer cost effectively.

Analytical Skills: Competency of Analytical skills is defined as the


set of human attributes required to understand and interpret the data
and information.

Decision Making: Competency of decision making is defined as the


set of human attributes required to decide the course of action under
any situation.

Delegation: Competency of delegation is defined as the set of human


attributes required to empower the subordinates for effective
operations.

Leadership: Competency of Leadership is defined as the set of


human attributes required to take responsibility for accomplishing the

Competency Mapping\Types of Organizational Competencies 12


desired objectives.

Developing and supporting subordinates for effectiveness:


Competency of Developing and supporting subordinates is defined as
the set of human attributes required to enable the subordinates to be
effective in the assigned job and contribute to the organization.

5.3 Functional/Technical Competencies

Specific competencies which are considered essential to perform any


job in the organization within a defined technical or functional area of
work.

Business Awareness: Competency of Business Awareness is defined


as the set of human attributes required to take business decisions for
achieving business objectives.

Business Skills: Competency of Business Skills is defined as the set


of human attributes required to effectively perform the functional
business processes.

Competency Mapping\Types of Organizational Competencies 12


Technical Skills: Competency of Technical Skills is defined as the set
of human attributes required to effectively perform the technical
responsibilities of the job position. The technical skills have to be
primarily assessed through technical interview or written test.

Competency Mapping\Types of Organizational Competencies 12


6. Process of Competency Mapping

6.1 Introduction
Competency mapping is the process of identification of the
competencies required to perform successfully a given job or role or a
set of tasks at a given point of time. It generally examines two areas:
emotional intelligence or emotional quotient (EQ), and strengths of
the individual in areas like team structure, leadership, and decision-
making.
It consists of breaking a given role or job into its constituent tasks or
activities and identifying the competencies (technical, managerial,
behavioral, conceptual knowledge, an attitudes, skills, etc.) needed to
perform the same successfully.

6.2 Process
The competency mapping process does not fit the one-size-fits all
formula. It has to be specific to the user organization. It is better to

Competency Mapping\Competency Mapping 13


develop models that draw from but are not defined by existing
research, using behavioural interview methods so that the organization
creates a model that reflects its own strategy, its own market, its own
customers, and the competencies that bring success in that specific
context (including national culture). Start with small, discrete groups
or teams, ideally in two directions-a 'horizontal slice' across the
business that takes in a multi-functional or multi-site group, more or
less at the same organizational level, and a 'vertical slice' taking in one
whole department or team from top to bottom. From that, the
organization can learn about the process of competency modelling,
and how potential alternative formats for the models may or may not
fit the needs of the business.

It is important to focus on one or two key areas of implementation


rather than the whole HRD agenda in one scoop. So if recruitment and
selection or performance management are the key strategic needs of
the business, and where the pain is being felt, then start there. It is
advisable to begin with a 'horizontal' slice of the management or

Competency Mapping\Competency Mapping 13


senior-most team as the benefits will percolate down to the whole
organization.

Methodology for designing: The most effective route to employ


recognized best-practice internal research methodology using
behavioural event interview (BEI) techniques to selectively sample
the target population (supplemented with expert panels and
'Competency Requirement Questionnaires' to engage wider population
samples) and so build up the models from the data that emerges. This
data should be triangulated against clear top-down input in terms of
organizational strategy and business objectives, and also against
external research relevant and analogous to the organization’s
situation-not as a driver, but as a reference point. Once the
behavioural data is collected, it should be sorted, categorized and
levelled carefully to create models that are both concise and
comprehensive, simple and sophisticated. Developing BEI skills
within the organization has the added benefit that once the model is
complete, it can be used more effectively by transferring these skills

Competency Mapping\Competency Mapping 13


to selection interviewing, development assessments, and so on.

International organizations must ensure that the methodology does not


screen-out those competencies that do not match the culturally-
influenced pre-conceptions of the head office (wherever it is situated)
of what high-performance competencies are. This is a common
error…the universalist, all-powerful 'global leadership model'.

Competency Mapping process is designed to consistently measure and


assess individual and group performance as it relates to the
expectations of the organization and its customers. It is used to
identify key attributes (knowledge, skills, and behavior attributes) that
are required to perform effectively in a job or an identified process.
Competency Mapping juxtaposes two sets of data. One set is based on
organizational workflow and processes. It starts with the clear
articulation of workflow and processes, including all quality and
quantity requirements, inputs and outputs, decision criteria, and most
important, internal and external customer requirements. The other set

Competency Mapping\Competency Mapping 13


of data is based on individual and group performance capabilities. It is
collected through the utilization of a variety of assessment tools and
procedures (which may include a robust 360- degree feedback
process) to assess the extent to which individuals and groups can
consistently demonstrate over time the competencies required to meet
the expectations. Where the output from the organizational maps meet
the individual and group performance capabilities, an overall trend
line is created that identified where in the process specific
developmental opportunities exists, and with what specific population.
Competency Mapping process can be the foundation for aligning
workflow and process outputs with critical customer requirements
with a foundation of required employee attributes and competencies.

In any organization, one of the major concern areas for the Human
Resource Department is to determine the competencies of the
processes and to evaluate the strength level of the person working on
it. Competency Mapping has emerged as a major concern for the
organization in the recent times and has attracted the attention of the
top management. To conduct the competency mapping certain steps
needs to be followed, which can be summarized as follows:

Competency Mapping\Competency Mapping 13


1. At the initial level, H.R. Personnel should select the job(s) from
which the competencies are to be identifies.

2. Before starting the competency procedure, a specific profile is to


be set for the jobs which are to be evaluated in the future.

3. A small meeting with the person who is handling the process or the
job is done.

4. People (on the job) are asked about the responsibility, duties,
pressure, performance limits and power structure.

5. All the data collected is to be recorded in a systematic sequence.

6. All the activities which are crucial for the proper execution of the
activity of the process are marked separately.

7. Information from the superiors, peers, co-workers and subordinates

Competency Mapping\Competency Mapping 13


are also collected.

8. All the people who are not directly attached to the process but
indirectly are attached to it are asked about the major competency
issues.

9. The information can be collected from direct interview or through


questionnaires or e-mails (whatever is suitable).

10.All the information is collected, systematically evaluated and


processed by the H.R. personnel and the crucial factors (which are
necessary for the success of the process) are determined.

11.These competencies are noted for the future reference of the job
and the job holder respectively.

12.After assessing the competency requirement for the job, the present
level of the individual working on the process is judged.

13.In case of discrepancy in between the actual requirement of the

Competency Mapping\Competency Mapping 13


capability and the desired level, the individual working with the
specific set of process (s) is provided with the training.

14.For determining the present level of the individual (working on the


process), Competency Identification worksheet can be prepared.

15.The worksheet includes all the issues related to the job and the data
collected form the individuals directly or indirectly in the
organization.

16.All the employees would be properly informed about the


competencies which are crucial for performing their task or job.

17.The data collected will be reserved with the HR Department for the
future reference (for next competency mapping or job up-gradation
process).

Competency Mapping\Competency Mapping 13


6.3 Common Steps In Competency Mapping

First: A job analysis is carried out by asking employees to fill in a


questionnaire that asks them to describe what they are doing, and what
skills, attitudes and abilities they need to have to perform it well.
There would be a bit that requests them to list down attributes needed
to make it up to the next level, thus making it behavioural as well as
skill-based.

Second: Having discovered the similarities in the questionnaires, a


competency-based job description is crafted and presented to the
personnel department for their agreement and additions if any.

Third: Having agreed on the job requirements and the skills and
attitudes needed to progress within it and become more productive,
one starts mapping the capability of the employees to the benchmarks.
There are several index points within the responsibility level. An
almost (but not quite) arbitrary level of attainment is noted against

Competency Mapping\Competency Mapping 13


each benchmark indicating the areas where the assessee is in terms of
personal development and achievement.

These give an adept HR manager a fairly good picture of the


employee to see whether he (or she) needs to perform better or to
move up a notch on the scale. Once the employee `tops' every
indicator at his level, he moves on to the next and begins there at the
bottom - in short, he is promoted.

This reasonably simple though initially (the first year only) tedious
method helps everybody to know what the real state of preparedness
of an organization to handle new business (or its old one) because it
has a clear picture of every incumbent in the organization.

It helps in determining the training and development needs and


importantly it helps to encourage the best and develop the rest. A win-
win situation for everyone.

Competency Mapping\Competency Mapping 13


Competency Mapping\Competency Mapping 13
7. Need for Competency Mapping

With global economy and the world becoming a global village, firms
have become more aware of the need for having competent employees
and developing distinguished competencies for every organization.
This need arose due to the following reasons:

• Increased cost of manpower


• Need for ensuring that competent people are available for
performing various critical roles.
• Downsizing adds to the consequent need to get a lot of thing
done with fewer people and thus reduce manpower costs and
pass on the advantage to the customer.
• Recognition that technology, finances, customers and markets,
systems and processes can all be set right or managed
effectively if we have the right kind of human resources.

Competency Mapping\Need for Competency mapping 14


• The need for focus in performing roles-need for time
management, nurturing of competence, increased emphasis on
performance management systems.
• And recognition of the strategic advantage given by employee
competencies in building the core competencies of the
organization.

Several organizations have realized the importance of this in the last


one decade and hence the rush for competency mapping.

In good organizations with competent HR managers, competency


mapping should already be in existence. Traditionally HR directors
and their top management have always paid attention to competencies
and incorporated them in their appraisal system. For example when
L&T, LIC or NDDB, HLL, Bharat Petroleum, etc. revised their
performance appraisal systems, they focused on the assessment of
competencies

Competency Mapping\Need for Competency mapping 14


Competency Mapping\Need for Competency mapping 14
. The following figure summarizes the need for competency mapping

Figure 7.1: Need for Competency Mapping

Competency mapping therefore is important and is an essential


exercise. Every well managed firm should have well defined roles and
list of competencies required for performing each role effectively.
Such list should be used for recruitment, performance management,

Competency Mapping\Need for Competency mapping 15


promotions, placement and training needs identification.

Competency Mapping\Need for Competency mapping 15


8. Areas of Implementation

The competency mapping can be applied to the areas depicted in the


following diagram:

Figure 8.1:
Areas of

Implementation of Competency Mapping

Competency Mapping\Areas of Implementation 16


8.1 Recruitment and selection
Competencies can be used to construct a template for use in
recruitment and selection. Information on the level of a competency
required for effective performance would be used to determine the
competency levels that new hires should possess. Depending upon the
accepted definition, competency data may take the form of behaviors,
skills, abilities and other characteristics.
Competency based selection can be a way to gain competitive
advantage. Some of these advantages are listed below:
 A firm that knows how to assess competencies can effectively
hire the best at a reasonable price, for example hire under priced
but highly entrepreneurial MBA’s from lesser-known business
schools.

Competency Mapping\Areas of Implementation 16


 There is high turnover due to high failure rate among new hires.
The organization needs to identify new hires with the potential
to become future managers or leaders.
 A gap between the competencies needed and what the
organization can hire for indicates the training new hires will
need.
 A lengthy training period may transpire before new hires
become productive. New hires with the competencies to do a
job become fully productive faster.

8.2 Training and Development


It involves identifying gaps and helping employees develop in the
right direction. Knowing the competency profile for a position allows
individuals to compare their own competencies to those required by
the position or the career path. Training or development plans could
focus on those competencies needing improvement.
If the training programs can be aligned to the development needs
emerging out of the appraisal system and to the market led training

Competency Mapping\Areas of Implementation 17


needs they can contribute better to both individual and business
objectives. This can be achieved in the following manner:
 Firstly determine the competencies for a particular position
 Secondly identify the competencies of the person holding that
position
 By mapping the competencies, identify gaps in terms of the
competencies for that role and the competencies of the person
doing that role to diagnose the training and development needs.
 Identify the most appropriate training and development
methodology for each trainable competency
Accordingly, the person can be trained on those competencies only.
Competency based training programs clearly tell what should be the
competency level of the person entering the program. This would
drastically reduce the training cost for the organization.

8.3 Career and succession planning


It involves assessing employees’ readiness or potential to take on new

Competency Mapping\Areas of Implementation 17


challenges. Determining a person job fit can be based on matching the
competency profile of an individual to the set of competencies
required for excellence within a profession. Individuals would know
the

Competency Mapping\Areas of Implementation 17


competencies required for a particular position and therefore would
have an opportunity to decide if they have the potential to pursue that
position or not.

8.4 Rewards and Recognition


Competency based pay is compensation for individual characteristics
for skills and competencies over and above the pay a job or
organizational role itself commands. One way of improving employee
performance is by recognizing and rewarding effort. Competency pay
is the best way to do so. Rewarding employees for their ability to
make the best use of their skills and competencies in accordance with
the organization’s needs was the logic behind this once popular HR
tool.
Various elements are considered for arriving at compensation
increase. Enhancement in competencies has to be one of them. There
is a need for competency based compensation system
 To attract more competent than average employees
 To reward for results and competencies developed
 To motivate employees to maintain and enhance their skills and
competencies regularly
By rewarding employees who develop relevant competencies the
organization can benefit by improving its own capability to face the

Competency Mapping\Areas of Implementation 18


future

8.5 Performance Management System


Performance has two dimensions
 Achieving business results
 Developing individual competencies
These days performance appraisal is seen by managers and employees
as a bureaucratic “paperwork” exercises that they do not take
seriously because it has little impact on employee development.
Performance appraisals do not address the employees’ questions about
skill development or career advancement. Competency based
performance management would:
 Focus on “HOW” of performance and not on “WHAT” of
performance i.e. not on results but how the results are achieved
 Link to development of the individual and not just rewards
Competency based PMS shift the emphasis of appraisal from
organization results to employee behaviors and competencies
demonstrated and hence help identify development gaps.

Competency Mapping\Areas of Implementation 18


9. Advantages of Competency Mapping

There are several advantages of competency mapping over traditional


job analysis. The following section analyzes each of them in relation
to the company, the managers and the individual employees. The
section also gives a comparative view of the competency based
approach and the job analysis approach.

9.1 For the company


The advantages of competency mapping for the companies or
organizations are as follows:
 Establishes expectations for performance excellence
 Improved job satisfaction and better employee retention
 Increase in the effectiveness of training and professional
development programs because of their link to success
criteria.

Competency Mapping\Advantages of Competency Mapping 19


 Provides a common understanding of scope and
requirements of a specific role
 Provides a common, organization wide standard for
career levels that enable employees to move across
business boundaries
 Help companies “raise the bar” of performance
expectations
 Help teams and individuals align their behaviors with key
organizational strategies

9.2 For Managers


The competency mapping provides following advantages to the
managers:
 Identify performance criteria to improve the accuracy and ease
of the selection process
 Provide more objective performance standards
 Easier communication of performance expectations

Competency Mapping\Advantages of Competency Mapping 19


 Provide a clear foundation for dialogue to occur between the
managers and employees and performance, development and
career-oriented issues

Competency Mapping\Advantages of Competency Mapping 19


9.3 For employees
The employees in an organization get the following advantages by
competency mapping:
 Identify the behavioral standards of performance excellence
 Provide a more specific and objective assessment of their
strengths and the tools required to enhance their skills
 Enhances clarity on career related issues
 Helps each understand how to achieve expectations

9.4 Traditional Job Analysis versus Competency Approach

Competency Mapping\Advantages of Competency Mapping 20


Job Analysis leads to…. Competency model leads to….

• Long list of tasks and skills / • A distilled set of underlying


knowledge required to characteristics.
perform each of those tasks. • Data generation from
• Data generation from subject outstanding performers in
matter experts; job addition to subject matter
incumbents. experts and other job
• Effective performance. incumbents.
• Outstanding performance.

Table 9.1: Job Analysis versus Competency Approach

Competency Mapping\Advantages of Competency Mapping 20


Competency Mapping\Advantages of Competency Mapping 20
10. Disadvantages of Competency Mapping

In spite of the several advantages offered by competency mapping,


there are few drawbacks to the approach. Some of these are discussed
below:

1. A problem with competency mapping, especially when


conducted by an organization is that there may be no room for
an individual to work in a field that would best make use of his
or her competencies.

2. If the company does not respond to competency mapping by


reorganizing its employees, then it can be of little short-term
benefit and may actually result in greater unhappiness on the
part of individual employees.

3. If too much emphasis is placed on 'inputs' at the expense of


'outputs', there is a risk that it will favor employees who are

Competency Mapping\Disadvantages of Competency Mapping 21


good in theory but not in practice and will fail to achieve the
results that make a business successful.

4. They can become out of date very quickly due to the fast pace
of change in organizations and it can therefore be expensive
and time consuming to keep them up-to-date. .

Competency Mapping\Disadvantages of Competency Mapping 21


11. Model of Competency Mapping

11.1 Definition
A competency mapping model is an organizing framework that lists
the competencies required for effective performance in a specific job,
job family (e.g., group of related jobs), organization, function, or
process. Individual competencies are organized into competency
models to enable people in an organization or profession to
understand, discuss, and apply the competencies to workforce
performance.

The competencies in a model may be organized in a variety of


formats. No one approach is inherently best; organizational needs will
determine the optimal framework. A common approach is to identify
several competencies that are essential for all employees and then
identify several additional categories of competencies that apply only
to specific subgroups. Some competency models are organized

Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 22


according to the type of competency, such as leadership, personal
effectiveness, or technical capacity. Other models may employ a
framework based on job level, with a basic set of competencies for a
given job family and additional competencies added cumulatively for
each higher job level within the job family.

11.2 Developing the model


The following are the steps involved in designing and developing the
competency mapping model:

 Strategize – assess business needs, evaluate contextual drivers,


engage stakeholders and set goals.

 Initiate – identify methodologies, develop project plans, review


existing data, benchmark competencies, and collect competency
data.

 Model – analyze and synthesize data, identify competencies


and develop models, and validate models.

Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 22


Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 22
 Pilot – develop implementation and evaluation plans, develop
and initiate competency applications, and continuously
communicate activities.

 Link – link to all human resources system components, and


phase in implementation of other competency' based
applications.

 Evaluate – establish and evaluate measures, and continuously


improve the system.

Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 23


Content Validation session

Study Identified Jobs Review list of probable Competencies

fy major categories Construct


of skills Competency Definitions

ify Probable competencies


Assign proficiency levels

Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 23


Reinforce proficiency of critical
Refine competencies
competency definitions, if necessary

Figure 11.1: Stages In Developing An Organization Wide


Competency Model

Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 23


These steps have been segregated in view of implementing the model
and are depicted in the following figure:

Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 24


Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 24
Figure 11.2: Steps for implementing the Competency Mapping
model

Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 24


Following is a brief description of each of these steps:
Step 1: Identify departments for competency mapping
Decide and select the departments within the organization which we
would like to include into our study. The departments should be
chosen based on their criticality and importance to the organization.

Step 2: Identifying hierarchy within the organization and


selection of levels
Study the organization hierarchy across each of the selected
departments.

Step 3: Obtain the job descriptions.


For all the levels at every department obtain each role’s job
description. Job descriptions are a basic human resources management
tool that can help to increase individual and organizational
effectiveness..
For each employee, a good, up-to-date job description helps the

Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 25


incumbent to understand:
their duties and responsibilities;
the relative importance of the duties; and,
how their position contributes to the mission, goals, and objectives of
the organization.
For the organization, good job descriptions contribute to
organizational effectiveness by:
ensuring that the work carried out by staff is aligned with the
organizations mission; and,
Helping management clearly identify the most appropriate employee
for new duties and realigning work loads.

Step 4: Preparation of semi structured interview


In structured interviews, carefully planned questions are asked
individually of job incumbents, their managers, or others familiar with
the job. Benchmarking interviews with other organizations are
especially useful in achieving a broader view of the job or
determining which competencies are more universally deemed

Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 25


necessary for a particular job. However, it is important to be cautious
in applying the information collected from other organizations as
there are many variables such as work environment, culture, and
differences in job responsibilities that may limit the relevance of the
information.

Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 25


Step 5: Scheduling of interviews
Obtain a list of employees from respective department heads and
accordingly schedule interviews. A minimum of 5 candidates are to be
interviewed at each level in each department.

Step 6: Recording of interview details


The candidate’s answers and opinions have to be recorded in as much
detail as possible for further reference during the project.

Step 7: Preparation of a list of Skills


As per the interview and the details that were generated from the
candidate, generate a list of skills observed for the job. Thereon a list
of identified competencies should be drawn for each interviewed
candidate.

Step 8: Repeat for next levels and functions.


The interviews and appropriate recording of answers should be done

Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 26


at all remaining levels and other departments within the Torrent
Research Center.

Step 9: Make the list of the competencies required for the


department for each level and each function giving behavioral
indicators.
For each position at each department a list of competencies observed
from both the job description and the semi structured interview (list of
skills) should be drawn up.
Each competency should be given a name and an appropriate
definition that clearly indicates its meaning and essence.

Step 10: Validate identified competencies and proficiency levels with


Head of Departments.
Confirm competency definitions with respective Head Of
Department’s and obtain from the required proficiency levels of each
competency that is ideal for each role. Also locate any missing
competencies.

Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 26


Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 26
Step 11: Preparation of competency matrix
Prepare a matrix defining competencies required and corresponding
proficiency levels for each level across all departments.

Step 12: Mapping of competencies


Map the competencies of selected employees against the competency
matrix as per their employee level and department. Here an
employee’s actual proficiency level of a particular competency would
be mapped against the target proficiency level.

11.3 Data Collection Methods


One of the major steps in developing the model for competency
mapping is to collect the data. This sub-section discusses some of
these methods in detail.

11.3.1 Literature Review


A preliminary approach to defining job content and identifying
required competencies is to conduct a review of the literature to learn

Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 27


about previous studies of the job or similar jobs. Quite often, no
previous studies have been conducted. However, if they do exist, they
can be extremely helpful in providing an introduction to the job and a
preliminary list of competencies to consider. Sources of published
literature include books, professional journals, association magazines,
theses, and dissertations. Unpublished studies may be available from
professional associations, consulting firms, colleges and universities
that offer training programs for your target job, and through the
Internet. The quality of these studies will vary widely and they need to
be critically evaluated before use.

11.3.2 Focus Groups


In focus groups, a facilitator works with a small group of job
incumbents, their managers, supervisees, clients, or others to define
the job content or to identify the competencies they believe are
essential for performance. A series of focus groups is often conducted
to allow many people in the organization to provide input. There are
different approaches to conducting focus groups. Typically, the

Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 27


facilitator will use a prepared protocol of questions to guide a
structured discussion. Expert panels are a special type of focus group
in which persons who are considered

Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 27


highly knowledgeable about the job and its requirements meet to
develop a list of competencies required for success.

11.3.3 Behavioral Event Interviews


In behavioral event interviews (BEI), top performers are interviewed
individually about
what they did, thought, said, and felt in challenging or difficult
situations. The competencies that were instrumental in their success
are extrapolated from their stories. Often, average and low performers
are also interviewed to provide a comparison. The interviewer will ask
questions such as: “Tell me about a time when you had an extremely
challenging client” or “Give me an example of a situation at work in
which you had to make a difficult decision.”

11.3.4 Surveys
In surveys, job incumbents, their supervisors, and perhaps senior
managers complete a questionnaire administered either in print or

Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 28


electronically. The survey content is based on previous data collection
efforts such as interviews, focus groups, or literature reviews. The
respondents are typically asked to assign ratings to each listed job
element or competency. For example, respondents may be asked how
critical a competency is to effective job performance, how frequently
the competency is used on the job, the degree to which the
competency differentiates superior from average performers, and if
the competency is needed on entry to the job or can be developed over
time. Survey respondents are usually asked to provide in writing any
additional information that they feel is important.

11.3.5 Observations
In this data collection method, the research team visits high
performing incumbents and observes them at work. The more
complex the job and the greater the variety in job tasks, the more time
is required for an observation. For a very routine job in which the
same task is repeated over and over throughout the day, an
observation of a couple hours might suffice. For very complex jobs,

Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 28


observation of a week or more may be required. If the job changes
based on work cycles, seasons, or other factors, the observations may
have to be conducted over a period of weeks or

Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 28


months. The observation process may include asking employees to
explain what they are doing and why. Sometimes observations of
average and low performers are also conducted to establish
a basis for comparison. The competencies required for effective
performance are then inferred from the observations by persons who
are experts in competency identification.

11.3.6 Work Logs


In the work log method of data collection, job incumbents enter into
logs or diaries their daily work activities with stop and start times for
each activity. Depending on the complexity and variety of the job,
incumbents may be asked to make log entries for several days, weeks,
or months.

11.3.7 360 degree feedback


It’s a process whereby an individual (the recipient) is rated on their
performance by people who know something about their work (the

Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 29


raters). This can include direct reports, peers and managers and in
some cases customers or clients, in fact anybody who is credible to
the individual and is familiar with their work can be included in the
feedback process. This is usually in addition to completing a self-
assessment on performance. The resulting information is presented to
the individual with the aim of helping them to gain a better
understanding of their skills and development areas. Each source can
provide a different perspective on the individual’s
skills, attributes and other job relevant characteristics and thus help to
build up a richer, more complete and accurate picture than could be
obtained from any one source.

Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 29


Competency Mapping\Model of Competency Mapping 29
12. Process of Competency Mapping

Competency mapping requires a lot of planning and efforts of the HR


department as it’s a lengthy and a time consuming process. It is
essential to lay down the entire plan first, and then take it forward.
0100090000037800000002001c000000000004000000030108000500
00000b0200000000050000000c025e13751e040000002e0118001c000
000fb021000070000000000bc02000000000102022253797374656d00
13751e000067af0000ac5d120004ee8339e04e1c000c02000004000000
2d01000004000000020101001c000000fb0238ff00000000000090010
00000000440001254696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000000000000
0000000000000000000000040000002d010100050000000902000000
020d000000320ab80000000100040000000000781e561320005b0004
0000002d010000030000000000

Figure 12.1: Process of Competency Mapping

Competency Mapping\Process of Competency Mapping 30


The diagram explains the flow of the Competency Mapping
Methodology. Each of the stages is explained in detail below:

12.1 Laying Down Of Objectives


Before conducting any research it is very essential to understand the
reason or the objectives one is planning to establish through the
research. Therefore it is vital to list down the objectives which will
help to plan the exercise in accordance with the objectives and
ultimately establish what we desire to arrive at.
The objectives of Competency Mapping are as follows:
 To establish a Competency Model, which
will create a benchmark for all the
employees in the organization and will help
in performing all HR functions more
efficiently.
 To map the competencies of the existing
employees and understand where they fall
low or average in comparison to the

Competency Mapping\Process of Competency Mapping 31


competencies essential for their job/role.
This will help in identifying training and
development needs for the employees.

12.2 Preparation of The Questionnaire


The data required for competency mapping for the middle
management is collected by undertaking “JOB EVALUATION”
which includes the preparation of a “Role Profile Questionnaire”.
This questionnaire is designed keeping in mind the objectives of the
project. The questions are framed in such a way so as to derive
accurate and appropriate responses relevant to the project.

There are various tools of Competency Mapping for the employees as


discussed earlier in the report. The application of these tools is visible
in the questionnaire. These tools include:

 Rank Order Rating


 Behavioral Event Interview

Competency Mapping\Process of Competency Mapping 31


Rank Order Rating is used to find out which competencies are
required for each job/role and their order of importance to each
profile. The Behavioral Event Interview is a set of open ended
questions to find out the STAR’s (Situation, Task, Action and
Results).

Competency Mapping\Process of Competency Mapping 31


Once the questionnaire is prepared, the responses are collected from
the employees belonging to the middle level management by a one on
one interaction with each respondent.

12.3 Collection of Responses


This stage consumes the maximum time. As the employees to be
interviewed belong to the middle management, they are usually pre-
occupied with their work and therefore it becomes difficult for them
to spare time for the questionnaire. Hence this stage takes almost a
month to complete.

12.4 Analysis
Once the data is collected from all the employees belonging to the
middle level management, the data is then analyzed manually.

To establish the Competency Model, the analysis is based on the


ratings provided by each employee to the different competencies. The

Competency Mapping\Process of Competency Mapping 32


highest rated competencies form the critical competencies in the
model and the others follow in the other categories.

Another technique used is called the Opportunity Algorithm which


is used to map the current competencies of the employees in relation
to the competencies rated by the employees in question 2. The
Opportunity Algorithm was introduced by the Harvard School of
Business and is one of the most successful formulae used by many big
organizations. The Opportunity Algorithm is explained in brief below:

12.4.1 The Opportunity Algorithm


How can a company discover and prioritize the most promising skills
and opportunities in their Human Resources to achieve their desired
goals/objectives.

Executives struggle with this question every day and an outcome


based on research offers a surprisingly simple answer. The best
outcomes spring from those skills that are important to the job/role but

Competency Mapping\Process of Competency Mapping 32


are not satisfied entirely or that are partially satisfied by the existing
job/role holders.

Competency Mapping\Process of Competency Mapping 32


Selecting the richest areas of opportunity from a long list of outcomes
is critical since chasing the less promising ones is a drain on one’s
resources. Fortunately, a simple mathematical formula known as
“Opportunity calculation” makes it possible to discover the most
promising areas. The formula [Importance + (Importance –
Satisfaction) = Opportunity] yields highly accurate results. The
companies ask the job/role holders to quantify on a scale, the
importance of each desired outcome (skill) and the degree to which it
is currently satisfied (how they assess themselves on each of the
desired outcome). Those rankings are inserted into the formula,
resulting in an overall opportunity score.

After the application of the formula one arrives at various opportunity


scores for each of the job/role holders. The highest score depicts the
skills which the job/role holder should give his immediate attention
and look for improvement in those areas. The job/role holder then
looks at the second highest score and sharpens those skills later, after

Competency Mapping\Process of Competency Mapping 33


successful improvement in the first area where he scored the highest
score. These scores will differ from individual to individual and from
job/role to job/role.

12.5 Findings
With the help of the Opportunity Algorithm and the ratings provided
by the employees, the Competency Model and the Competency
Scorecard for each employee can be established.

Competency Mapping\Process of Competency Mapping 33


13. Competency Mapping at Ready-mix Concrete Company

Ready-mix Concrete industry is a fast growing and booming industry,


so the employees working in this well known ready mix concrete
company should not only possess basic knowledge about the concrete
and cement industry but also be competent enough to contribute in the
development and growth of the company. This is where “Competency
Mapping” comes into picture, which helps to discover what kind of
competency is required to deliver superior performances and
eventually help the company grow leaps and bounds.

The company has its plants spread across various cities like Mumbai,
Bangalore, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Pune, Surat, Goa, Chennai,
Kolkata, Nasik, Chandigarh, Jaipur and NCR.

The following is the general organization chart of the company:


0100090000037800000002001c000000000004000000030108000500
00000b0200000000050000000c025e13751e040000002e0118001c000
000fb021000070000000000bc02000000000102022253797374656d00

Competency Mapping\Competency Mapping at Ready Mix Concrete Company 34


Figure 13.1: Organization Chart

Competency Mapping\Competency Mapping at Ready Mix Concrete Company 34


CEO & ED
Senior Officer
CFO & CS
Officer
General Manager Top Management VP’s
Asst. Officer
Dy. General Manager
Asst. General Manager
Senior Manager
Manager
Dy. Manager
Asst. Manager

Each region follows a normal hierarchy which defines various


designations in each department. The hierarchy is explained with the
help of the following diagram:

Competency Mapping\Competency Mapping at Ready Mix Concrete Company 35


Figure 13.2: Hierarchy defining various designations

The RMC Company is in the initial stage of implementing the


Competency Mapping Process. The procedure followed is as follows:
• Laying down of Objectives
• Preparation of questionnaire and distributing it amongst all the
employees
• Collecting of data and responses through Experts and Resource
Panels, Critical event interviews and generic competency
dictionaries.

Competency Mapping\Competency Mapping at Ready Mix Concrete Company 35


• Analysis of data to build up a model.
• Building up of Model

Competency Mapping\Competency Mapping at Ready Mix Concrete Company 35


14. Competency Mapping at Ambuja Cement

At Ambuja Cements, competency mapping is at its nascent stage.


Here performance management is a cyclical process aimed at
improving performance (e.g.: achievement of business objectives).
This process is implemented by following the principles underlying
Performance Management, namely:

• Measurement
o establish performance measures
o establish measurable behavioral goals that will improve
performance
o measure current behaviors
• Appraisal
o compare the current behaviors with the behavioral goals
and identify the main differences
• Action

Competency Mapping\Competency Mapping at Ambuja Cement 36


o For each difference, you plan how to bring actual
behaviors in line with the goals, in order to improve the
performance
o implement the plan

• Monitoring
o Check that the new plans are being followed
o At an appropriate time, you return to the appraisal stage
to assess the impact of the changes on the behavioral and
performance measures

Competency Mapping\Competency Mapping at Ambuja Cement 36


15. Conclusion

Competency Mapping therefore, is a process of identifying key


competencies for an organization and/or a job and incorporating those
competencies throughout the various processes (i.e. job evaluation,
training, recruitment) of the organization.

A lot is going on in recent times on the issue of competency mapping.


A lot of resources are spent and consultants are being invited to do
competency mapping. Increased manpower costs, need for ensuring
that competent people man critical positions, and the need to be
competitive and recognition of the strategic advantages of having
good human resources have compelled firms to be more competency
driven.

In the report we have discussed how competent employees have


become need of the hour in every organization and it is now essential

Competency Mapping\Conclusion 37
that they undertake competency mapping, identify models, gaps and
imbibe this as an every day practice in an organization.

Often competency mapping runs the risk of being just another new-
fangled process that happens to be the flavour of the season. Such a
powerful organisational tool is often resorted just because rival
organisations have implemented it and not because there is genuine
appreciation of its benefits. Competency mapping should not be seen
as just another means to apportion and dispense rewards.

All the stakeholders must see in the exercise an opportunity for long-
term growth. The key is to look at competency mapping as going
beyond mere processes. And to see in it an exercise that has a
significant and lasting value to project managers as well as to the
organisation.

Competency Mapping\Conclusion 37
Competency Mapping\Conclusion 37
References
Industries Visited

1. RMC India Ltd.


Infocom Network Ltd,
194, Arvind Chambers,
2nd floor, Sai Service Compond,
W.E. Highway, Andheri (E)
2. Ambuja Cements Limited
Elegant Business Park
Behind Kotak Mahindra Bank
MIDC Cross Road - B, off Andheri Kurla Road
Andheri (E), Mumbai - 59

Books and Journals:

a. T.V.Rao, Performance management and appraisal


systems: HR tools for global competencies, Sage
publications.

2. Sudipta, “Competency based HR”, Express Computer, 10 Jan


2005.

3. Sudipta, “Competency mapping”, Express Computer, 10 Jan


2005.

4. M. Verma, V. Sinha, “Don’t take your junior colleagues for


granted: Cos Using Feedback
From Peers & Subordinates To Assess Executives”, Economic
Times Mumbai, Sep 3, 2007.

Website references:
www.tvrls.com
www.careertrainer.com
www.indianmba.com
www.citehr.com
www.hrworkbench.in/eng
en.allexperts.com/q/Human-Resources-2866/competency-mapping-
1.htm
i
Competency Mapping\References 38