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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ اﻟﻔﻨﻲ واﻟﺘﺪرﻳﺐ اﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ‬


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬




١٠٢
   ١٠٢  ‫א‬
    

 

 W،،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬        ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  
‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ،  
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
     ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ،‫א‬   
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬? ?? ?‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

   W    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬      
   ١٠٢  ‫א‬
    

 
  ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  K
 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ،  ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬
 W‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
 ‫א‬‫א‬ •
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬
K‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬
   ١٠٢  ‫א‬
    

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬





      


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ اﻟﻔﻨﻲ واﻟﺘﺪرﻳﺐ اﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬

١
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬    

 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫• א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬‫• א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬ •

.%100‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ٤W‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬ •

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K١J ‫א‬

-١-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬    

 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬ .1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K 
 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ .2
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬ •

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬    

 ‫א‬.1.2
Field Surveying‫א‬
Aerial SurveyingK‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 Field Surveying‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Plane Surveying‫א‬‫• א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬٢٥٠‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬    

Geodetic Surveying (‫)א‬‫א‬‫• א‬


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Aerial Surveying ‫א‬‫ א‬-‫ب‬
‫א‬،
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬ ‫א‬
 W‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫• א‬
 K‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K
 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫ א‬-‫ﺟـ‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
E ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬
.‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬    

‫א‬‫א‬ .2.2
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W

Topographic Surveying ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬-‫أ‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬Ground Control Points ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Cadastral Surveying ‫א‬‫ א‬-‫ب‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

Route Surveying ‫א‬‫א‬ -‫ﺟـ‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

Hydrographic Surveying ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬-‫د‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬    

Mine Surveying ‫א‬ -‫هـ‬


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

Engineering Surveying ‫א‬‫ א‬-‫ﻣـ‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
KKK،،E،F‫א‬،E‫א‬،،F‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬

  .3
‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
KKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬

 Ellipsoid of Revolution‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Plumb Bob‫• א‬
‫א‬E ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬    

Vertical Line ‫א‬‫• א‬


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
 Horizontal Line‫א‬‫• א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

 Horizontal plane ‫א‬‫• א‬
K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

Vertical Plane ‫א‬‫• א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

Level Surface‫א‬‫• א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Level Line ‫א‬‫• א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-٧-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬    

 Horizontal Distance ‫א‬‫• א‬


‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K

 Vertical Distance ‫א‬‫• א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Horizontal Angle ‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 Vertical Angle ‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Zenith Angle ‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K180‫א‬

 Elevation of a Point  •
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

-٨-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬    

 Elevation Difference ‫א‬ •


‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫ א‬.4
 W‫א‬ 
E F‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
،‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬،E F‫א‬
‫א‬F‫א‬،E
  ‫א‬F
 KE‫א‬،

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬    

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬.5
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬-1
‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K -2
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬E،،F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬-3
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬K6
 ‫א‬‫ א‬1.6
‫א‬‫א‬W
  ‫א‬
، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
 ‫א‬K
 ‫א‬
E،F‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬E،،F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K
 EF‫א‬‫א‬،  ‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬    

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Units of Measurement ‫א‬‫א‬ .٢٫٦
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 
K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K10000
 F١٢‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، E
 ‫א‬K ٥٢٨٠‫א‬K ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ٤٣٥٦٠‫א‬
English F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٫١‫ و א‬١٫١‫א‬K‫א‬
 KEMetric SystemF‫א‬‫א‬(System

 E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ :1.1‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ 

1 Kilometer = 1000 meters 1 mile = 5280 feet
1 meter =100 centimeters 1 mile = 1760 yard  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
1 centimeter = 10 millimeters 1 mile = 320 rods Units of length measurement
1 decimeter = 10 centimeters 1 mile = 80 chains
 1 foot=12 inches 
1 yard= 3feet
1 rod=16.5 feet
1 chain=66 feet
1 chain =100 links
1 foot=0.3048 m
1 km=0.62137 miles
1 inch=25.4 mm

- ١١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬    

 E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ :2.١‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬

1hectare (ha)= 1000 m2 1 acre = 43560 ft2


1 square kilometer =1000000 m2 1 acre=10 square chains ‫א‬‫א‬
1 square kilometer = 100 hectares 1 are = 100 m2 Units of area
1 hectare = 100 ares 1 hectare=2.471 acres measurement
1 km2=247.1 acres

Cubic centimeter, Cubic inch, Cubic feet,


Cubic meters Cubic yard ‫א‬‫א‬
Units of Volume
measurement


1 revolution = 360degrees revolution = 360degrees
1 degree=60 minutes 1 degree=60 minutes  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
1 minute=60 seconds 1 minute=60 seconds Units of angles
measurement


‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٩٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٣٦٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
‫א‬DEG‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K 
 KDegree

١٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٤٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
‫א‬GRA‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬Gradient

- ١٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬    

‫א‬π2 π ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
 K‫א‬ π ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
2

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬.٣٫٦

.‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬:٣٫١ ‫א‬

 ‫א‬    


2π 400 360  ‫א‬‫א‬
π 200 180  ‫א‬
π/2 100 90  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
π/4 50 45  ‫א‬
 
 60‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ :
 K60‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 1.11111Z‫א‬‫א‬
 54Z 0.9Z‫א‬‫א‬
 57°17'45" Z57.29578Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ .7
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬
 ‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬    

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬.1.7
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬ 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬.2.7
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ .٣٫٧
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬.٤٫٧
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K
 ‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬    

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٥ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ اﻟﻔﻨﻲ واﻟﺘﺪرﻳﺐ اﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

٢
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬    

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫• א‬
K‫א‬ •

K٪100‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ٥W‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬ •
K‫א‬ •
K‫א‬ •

 W‫א‬‫א‬
.١–‫א‬

- ١٦ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬    

 .1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬
‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Measurement of horizontal distance ‫א‬‫א‬ .2
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Direct Method ‫א‬‫ א‬.1.2
K ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ 
‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬1.2 ‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W1.2 ‫א‬
- ١٧ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬    

Indirect Method ‫א‬‫ א‬.2.2


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬ H‫א‬‫א‬ θ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ S‫א‬‫א‬

H = S . Cos θ
: ١ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 141.2162.2‫ا‬
 .H‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W2.2‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 Cos θ = H
S
 ،
 ‫א‬‫א‬J H
 ‫א‬‫א‬- S
 H = S .Cos θ =141.216 x Cos 1° 20′ = 141.178 m

  ‫א‬ 
  ،(٣٫٢  ‫ )א‬ ‫א‬‫ ا‬ ‫א‬  ‫ א‬ ‫א‬ -‫ب‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(S)‫א‬‫א‬(h)‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٨ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬    


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ : ٣٫٢‫א‬
 H 2 + h 2 = S2
 H 2 = S2 - h 2
 H = S2 - h 2
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٤٫٢ ‫ א‬: ٢ ‫ﻣــﺜﺎل‬
 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬:4.2‫א‬
: ‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 H 2 + h 2 = S2
 H = S2 - h 2
 WH
 H = 253.1012 - 3.7212
 H = 253.074 m

- ١٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬    

.‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -‫ﺟـ‬

 EhF‫א‬EθF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬E5.2‫א‬F


 EhF‫א‬EθF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W5.2‫א‬

H
 Cotan θ =
h
 H = h .Cotan θ
.()  ( Cotan ) 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٦٫٢‫ א‬:3 


 K‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬: 6.2‫א‬
 W‫א‬
  θ = 0.85937°

 h= 1.5 m
 WH‫א‬‫א‬
- ٢٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬    

 H = 1.5 .Cotan 0.85937 = 113.268 m



Methods of measuring distances ‫א‬ .٣
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

(pacing) ‫ א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .1.3


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
.
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬E‫א‬F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

Passometer‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬Pedometer‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
KK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K1/1001/50‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
- ٢١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬    

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(Tapes) ‫ א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ .2.3
‫א‬K  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫ א‬- ‫أ‬


‫א‬‫א‬(Bronze)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬Metallic Tape‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(Copper)‫א‬(Brass)
‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٢٥،٢٠،١٥،١٠‫א‬‫א‬
٥٠،٣٠،
 ١–١{٥‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
‫א‬(Feet)‫א‬‫א‬(Inches)‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬

- ٢٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬    

  •
 •
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
‫א‬
K

‫ א‬‫ א‬-‫ب‬
‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
١٠٠٣٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١٠٠٠‫א‬٣٣٠٠١
‫א‬‫א‬K ١٠{٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬(Inches)‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 K(Feet)
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

Invar Tape ‫א‬ -‫ﺟـ‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬EF٪35Nickel‫א‬٪65Steel ‫א‬
10030‫א‬6‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE‫א‬100‫א‬F
 .(Triangulation)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٢٣ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬    

 ‫א‬‫ א‬-‫د‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -1
 K‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -2
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -3
‫א‬‫ א‬-4
K‫א‬‫א‬

(‫א‬) ‫א‬ -‫هـ‬

 ‫א‬-1
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 ‫א‬ -2
‫א‬K ‫א‬
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬-3
‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬FK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EW ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

- ٢٤ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬    

Equipment used for taping ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬.٤


 W‫א‬

Plumb Bob‫• א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬E  F‫א‬‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬




‫א‬‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Range Poles‫א‬‫• א‬
٣32‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K  ‫א‬‫א‬٦
 

- ٢٥ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬    


E ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Taping Pins‫א‬ •
4020 ٦3‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

- ٢٦ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬    

 Pegs ‫• א‬
‫א‬‫א‬E٧٫٢‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ 3020٦3
،
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
20.5‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K٣٠١٠



 : 7.2‫א‬

 Level ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E٨٫٢‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬    

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ : 8.2‫א‬

(‫א‬) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 W(TheodoliteF

 (ClinometerF‫א‬ J 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

- ٢٨ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬    

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬A‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 The Abney Level‫א‬J 
‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬.٥
 W‫א‬
  •
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٢٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬    

 •
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 •
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K
‫א‬‫ א‬.١٫٥
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
:
‫א‬ 198‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬10
 K‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 20Z‫א‬‫א‬
 19.90Z‫א‬‫א‬
 198Z ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫؟‬Z‫א‬‫א‬

19.9 ‫س‬
 ‫ ﻣﺘﺮ‬197.01 = ‫⇐ س‬ =
20 198

- ٣٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬    

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫ ) א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬‫ א‬ ‫ اﻟﻨﺎﺷﺊ‬‫ א‬.2.5


Correction for Temperature (‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
(‫ د‬- ١‫ )د‬α = ‫ﺣـ‬
 W
 ‫א‬‫א‬J 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١
‫א‬‫א‬ J 
K10-6x١١{٢‫א‬J α

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬.٣٫٥
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W

‫ ل‬.( ‫ ش‬- 1‫) ش‬
= ‫ ﺣـ‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫ م‬.E
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 
 ‫א‬‫א‬J 
 ‫א‬‫א‬J 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J E

E = 20 x 104N/mm2E =14.5 x 104N/mm2‫א‬

- ٣١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬    

Electronic Distance Measurement ‫א‬ .٦


‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬EGeodimeterF١٩٥٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
 ‫• א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E١٠FE٥٠F‫א‬ •
K

‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬EMicrowaves‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬Modulated Light Waves‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 KModulated Radio Waves‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫ א‬.1.6
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .1.1.6
 W‫א‬٣‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬ •
 K‫• א‬
 K‫א‬EF‫א‬ •

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬    

‫א‬WEDM‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬
F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
KEInfrared lightF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬EDM‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ A B ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
 K‫א‬
 
‫א‬EReflectorF‫א‬‫• א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EDM‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K

 WE9.2FAB‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ :9.2‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬    

A‫א‬E ،،F‫א‬EDM‫א‬ •
.B‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬A‫א‬‫א‬ •
KB‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ A ‫א‬ EDM ‫א‬

B ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬EDM‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
‫א‬‫א‬  
KEDM‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ESF‫א‬‫א‬
W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 S = 1/2 V.t
‫א‬‫א‬t ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬v
‫א‬EDM‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KS‫א‬
 KEDM‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬α ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EDM‫א‬‫א‬

B‫א‬hr‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
KAB‫א‬‫א‬A‫א‬he‫א‬EDM‫א‬

- ٣٤ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬    

‫א‬‫א‬ BA‫א‬(DF‫א‬‫א‬
W‫א‬‫א‬S‫א‬‫א‬
D = S.Cos(α)

α‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ESF‫א‬‫א‬(DF‫א‬‫א‬
EDM‫א‬‫א‬ h r B‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬B A‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬ h e A‫א‬

 D = (S2 - d 2 )1/2

 K10.2‫א‬d


 K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W10.2‫א‬

 ( h r + B ‫ ) ﻣﻨﺴﻮب اﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ‬- ( h e + A ‫ = ) ﻣﻨﺴﻮب اﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ‬d

 K11.2‫א‬

- ٣٥ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬    


 K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W11.2‫א‬

 ( h e + A ‫ﻣﻨﺴﻮب اﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ‬ ) - ( h r + B ‫ﻣﻨﺴﻮب اﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ‬ )= d

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .2.1.6
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢٠١‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .3.1.6
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬.2.6
 W‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

- ٣٦ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬    

‫א‬‫א‬ .1.2.6
٠{٩٠{٤‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .2.2.6
 K١٠٠{٨‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .3.2.6
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٣٧ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ اﻟﻔﻨﻲ واﻟﺘﺪرﻳﺐ اﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

٣
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬    

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫• א‬
‫• א‬
 ‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬‫א‬ •

K٪100‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ٤W‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬ •
K‫א‬ •

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 ١J ‫א‬

- ٣٨ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬    

 ‫א‬K١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
.‫• ﺕﺴﺘﺨﺪم ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت اﻟﺤﺼﺮ اﻟﺰراﻋﻲ‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬ •
 W‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬-1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -2
 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
.‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ :‫ א‬-1
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ :‫ א‬-2
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫ א‬-3
K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W
 ‫א‬‫ א‬-4
 K‫א‬‫א‬

- ٣٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬    

 .2

.‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ :‫א‬
 W
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W ‫א‬‫• א‬
 K
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫• א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫• א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫• א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 W
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬(1.3‫א‬FE‫א‬F‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


- ٤٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬    

 ‫א‬:1.3‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ •
KE2.3‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ :2.3 ‫א‬


 ‫א‬.3
‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ .١٫٣
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
- ٤١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬    

‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ J 
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬W‫א‬ J 

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
W
 K‫א‬‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬‫א‬ •
 K١٢٠٣٠‫א‬‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬.2.3
‫א‬ •
K‫א‬
 .(3.3‫א‬F‫א‬

- ٤٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬    



A

 1
 ‫א‬W3.3 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬
 KE4.3‫א‬F
2

E
 D
C 
B

A
1
 :4.3‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬
 WE5.3‫א‬F

- ٤٣ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬    

E
 D
C 
B

A
 1

 :5.3‫א‬
‫א‬ •
 E6.3‫א‬F‫א‬



  :6.3‫א‬

- ٤٤ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬    

‫א‬ .٤
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬١٠٠٠‫א‬‫א‬١ 11000

 ‫א‬ .1.4
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 ٢٠٠٠:١٥٠W١‫א‬-1
٥٠٠٠W١٥٠٠W١‫א‬ -2
١٠٠٠٠٠W١٥٠٠W١EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬-3
٥٠٠٠٠٠W١٢٥٠٠٠٠W١‫א‬‫א‬J 4
٥٠٠٠٠٠W١٢٥٠٠٠٠W١‫א‬-5
١٠٠٠٠٠٠W١٢٥٠٠٠٠W١‫א‬J 6

 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -1
 K٥٠٠٠٠٠‫א‬
١٠٠٠٠٠٠W١٢٥٠٠٠٠W١‫א‬‫א‬ -2
٢٥٠٠٠٠W١٥٠٠W١‫א‬‫א‬-3

 ‫א‬‫א‬.٢٫٤
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Verbal statement ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬.1.2.4
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١٠٠٠‫א‬١WK‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٤٥ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬    

 Representative fraction ‫א‬‫ א‬.2.2.4


،٢،١‫א‬١‫א‬
 K١٠٨،٤،٢{٥

 W
.... ، 1 1 1
1000 ، 100 ، 10  
......، 1 1 1
2000 ، 200 ، 20
......، 1 1 1
2500 ، 250 ، 25
.....، 1 1 1
4000 ، 400 ، 40
.....، 1 1 1
5000 ، 500 ، 50
....، 1 1 1
8000 ، 800 ، 80

٥٠٠٠‫א‬٥٠٠٠‫א‬٥٠٠٠\١٥٠٠٠:١
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٥٠٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫ א‬.٣٫٢٫٤
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 J
 KJ
- ٤٦ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬    

 Bar Scale or Graphic Scale ‫א‬‫א‬J 


‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٧٫٣‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬



  :7.3‫א‬

Diagonal Scale ‫א‬‫ א‬-‫ب‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٨٫٣‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٤٧ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬    


 KW8.3‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬.٥
 .١٫٥
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 •
 •
- ٤٨ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬    

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٢٫٥

 W 2 ‫ م‬‫א‬‫א‬ 1‫م‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

‫م‬
 1 x‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬
‫م‬
2

2
1‫م‬ x ‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬
2
2‫م‬
 W
K٥٠٠٢٠٠٠W١‫א‬٢٥٠٠W١
 K‫؟‬٥٠٠٠W١‫א‬‫א‬

: ‫اﻟﺤﻞ‬
‫م‬
 1 x‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬
‫م‬
2

 ‫ ﻣﺘﺮ‬625 = 2500 x 1 x 500 =
1 x 3000

625
 ‫ ﺱﻢ‬12.5 = 100 x Z‫א‬‫א‬
5000

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٣٫٥
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٤٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬    

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٩{٣‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W9.3‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ اﻟﻔﻨﻲ واﻟﺘﺪرﻳﺐ اﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٤
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫• א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

K٪100‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ٦W‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬ •
K‫א‬ •

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 ١J ‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    

  .١
 WE١{٤‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫• א‬
K‫• א‬
K •
K‫• א‬


 W١{٤‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬،‫א‬

(Closed Traverse) ‫א‬ •
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(Open Traverse) ‫א‬ •
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(Triangulation)  •
‫א‬‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬.2
Magnetic Meridian ‫א‬‫ א‬.1.2
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬

 Geographic Meridian ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٢.2
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٣٫٤ ‫ و א‬٢٫٤‫א‬F

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬:٢٫٤‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬:٣٫٤‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    

Arbitrary or Assumed Meridian ‫א‬‫ א‬.3.2


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ .٣
Azimuth‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٤{٤‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬E
 ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٤{٤‫א‬F٣٦٠‫א‬‫א‬،٣٦٠‫א‬

 Bearing ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
‫א‬FJ  J  ‫א‬‫א‬ 
K
 ‫א‬‫א‬٩٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ KE٥{٤
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٩٠‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٩٠FW‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٥{٤‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 W‫א‬

 K??‫א‬??‫א‬??‫א‬??‫א‬W‫א‬
Deflection Angle‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٦{٤‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٧{٤‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    

Angle to the Right ‫א‬‫א‬ •



 ‫א‬‫א‬W٧{٤‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٧{٤‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Interior Angles ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
KE٨{٤‫א‬F‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 E٢J F١٨٠W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬J 


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٨{٤‫א‬

: 
:(٩{٤‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ :١ 

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬



 ٤٠ ‫ﺣـ‬ 
 ٣٠ ‫ﺟـ‬ ‫ب ﺟـ‬
 ٣٥ ‫ش‬ ‫ﺟـ د‬
 ٢٥ ‫ش‬ ‫دأ‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬W٩{٤‫א‬
 ١٤٠Z٤٠–١٨٠Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٢١٠Z٣٠H١٨٠Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٣٢٥Z٣٥–٣٦٠Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K٢٥Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

.‫א‬‫א‬E١٠{٤‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ :٢ 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K١١٠

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    


 ‫א‬‫א‬W١٠{٤‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
 ٩٢ 
 ٧٨ 
 ١٢٠ 
 ٤٢ 
 ٢٠٨ 

:‫א‬
 ١١٠Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٨٠Z١١٠–١٨٠Z١‫א‬‫א‬
 ٣٢Z٧٨–٨٠–١٨٠Z٢‫א‬‫א‬
 ٢١٢Z٣٢H١٨٠Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٨٨Z٣٢–١٢٠Z١‫א‬‫א‬
 ٢٧٢Z٨٨–٣٦٠Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٥٠Z٤٢–E٨٨–١٨٠FZ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ١٥٨Z٥٠–٢٠٨Z١‫א‬‫א‬

- ٥٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    

 ٢٢Z١٥٨–١٨٠Z١‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ :٣ 
‫א‬،E١١{٤‫א‬F
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
 ٩٠ 
 ١٣٠ 
 ٢٠ 
 ١٢٠ 


 ‫א‬‫א‬W١١{٤‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٩٠Z
 ١٣٠Z
 ٣٤٠Z٢٠–٣٦٠Z
 ١٦٠Z

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٩٠Z٩٠–١٨٠Z
- ٦٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    

 ٥٠Z١٣٠–١٨٠Z
 ٢٠٠Z٢٠H١٨٠Z
 ٢٠Z١٦٠–١٨٠Z

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ، (١٢٫٤ ‫ )א‬‫א‬ :٤ 
. 84ο 27′ 45′′ ‫و‬ 28ο 40′ 30′′ 
:‫א‬


 W١٢٫٤‫א‬

: ‫ ﺟـ‬ ‫ ب‬‫א‬‫א‬

27 ο
40′ 30′′
84 27′ 45′′
ο

___________
111ο 67′ 75′′

 112 ο 8′ 15′′ 

  112 ο 8′ 15′′ - 180 ο = ‫ أ‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٦١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    

‫א‬‫א‬.٤
 W‫א‬‫א‬

(Compass) ‫ א‬.١٫٤
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
.‫א‬‫א‬   

:‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -‫أ‬
 ‫א‬ Magnetic Needle   :‫א‬
Graduated circle 
 Sighting marks ‫و‬
Compass Forms ‫א‬ -‫ب‬
 W‫א‬
 Surveyor's Compass‫א‬J
 Prismatic Compass‫א‬‫א‬J

Surveyor' s Compass ‫א‬ .١-‫ب‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ •
F‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬  •
KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(Two levels)‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
K

- ٦٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬S‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬AB‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٩٠
 W‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
E ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ •
‫א‬ A‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬FBE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
S‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬٦٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (W)‫א‬EF
KS٦٥ W‫א‬‫א‬

Prismatic Compass ‫א‬‫ א‬٢ -‫ب‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
١٥-٦ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (Compass Box)  •
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

- ٦٣ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    


‫א‬ Pivot‫א‬ •
 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،Compass Ring‫א‬ •
K
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬٣٦٠‫א‬٢٧٠‫א‬١٨٠ ٩٠
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 ١٨٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Prism •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
KObject Vane •
‫א‬‫א‬ Leveling Bubble •
K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
،ABWhole Circle Bearing or Azimuth‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
Reference ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KMeridian
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(A)

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬
 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    

EBF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KAB‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Plane Table ‫א‬‫ א‬.٢٫٤
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
Sextant ‫ א‬.٣٫٤
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Optical Square ‫א‬‫ א‬.٤٫٤
،٤٥‫א‬‫א‬،E١٣{٤‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬K
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬
 K‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    



 ‫א‬‫א‬W١٣{٤‫א‬

K
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
K
 
K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
  ‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬

 E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬K٥٫٤
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  Transit ‫א‬‫א‬J
 K
 E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬١٤{٤‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٦٦ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    

 METLAND FET 110‫א‬W١٤{٤‫א‬



 K‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬-

 WEAlidadeF‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫• א‬
‫א‬ •
‫א‬‫• א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ •
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
‫א‬‫א‬W
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،EVerticalFV‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
KEHorizontalF(HzF

 ‫ א‬-
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٦٧ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    

 ‫א‬ -
 W
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
‫א‬‫א‬EOptical PlummetF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ •
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K١
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٢
K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬K٣
K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٤
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٥
K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KK١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٢
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٦٨ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    

 ‫א‬‫א‬ •

 WE١٥٫٤‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
EVF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
EAzF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬191.96،‫א‬‫א‬87.25 ‫א‬



 Wild‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W١٥{٤‫א‬
 E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F

- ٦٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    

 ‫א‬‫א‬ •
 ‫א‬‫א‬،E
 ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
K ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Calculation of Coordinates ‫א‬‫א‬K٥

‫א‬‫א‬E١٦٫٤‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬K‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
∆ E = D Sin θ 
 ij ij ij 
 
∆ N ij = D ij Cos θ ij 
 

j
θij
∆Nj

Dij

i
Nj
Ni

Ei ∆Eij
Ej

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬:١٦٫٤‫א‬

E = E + ∆ E 
 j i ij 
 
 N j = N i + ∆ E ij 
 

- ٧٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    

، ‫ﺣﻴﺚ أن‬

 i‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Ei

i ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Ni

j ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Ej

j‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Nj

ij‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ θ ij

j ‫ و‬i ‫א‬‫א‬ D ij

 W

1
D = ∆ E 2 + ∆ N 2  2
ij  ij ij 

∆E
-1 ij
 θ ij = tan
∆N
ij

- ٧١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ اﻟﻔﻨﻲ واﻟﺘﺪرﻳﺐ اﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

٥
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬    

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫• א‬
K‫א‬‫• א‬
 K‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬ •

K٪100‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ٧W‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬ •
K‫א‬ •

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 ١J ‫א‬

- ٧٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬    

 .1

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬K،
 Trigonometric Leveling ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 Checkerboard leveling ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 Differential Leveling ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  .2
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬W‫א‬‫• א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W  ‫א‬ •
‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE١٫٥‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


K‫א‬‫א‬W١{٥‫א‬

- ٧٣ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬    

K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W ‫א‬ •


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 KE٢٫٥‫א‬F‫א‬

 ‫א‬W٢٫٥‫א‬
 A‫א‬
 B‫א‬
 C‫א‬

Bench Marks : ‫א‬‫א‬ •
 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

- ٧٤ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬    

‫א‬‫ א‬.٣
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٣٫٥‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

C
B
‫א‬
 
   ‫א‬
α

D ‫א‬‫א‬
E


 ‫א‬‫א‬ :3.5‫א‬
 WDE
  CE = DC sin α       WCE
 AB = AD + CE – BC    WBA‫א‬
 A‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WAB
 K‫א‬‫א‬B‫א‬‫א‬WBC

 K٣٠٠‫א‬‫א‬
 W
B‫א‬300‫א‬‫א‬50,60 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬1,40‫א‬‫א‬،245,00A‫א‬
 K2,35

- ٧٥ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬    

:‫א‬
DC = 50,25 m
α= 300
AD = 1,40 m
BC = 2,35 m

CE = DC sin α
CE = 50,60 sin (300) = 25,30 m
AB = AD + CE –BC
AB = 1,40 + 25,30 – 2,35 = 24,35 m.
 B‫א‬
 K269.35= 24,35H245,00

 ‫א‬‫א‬4K
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬.1.4
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 F
 KE٤٫٥‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٧٦ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬    


 ‫א‬‫א‬ :4.5‫א‬
K ‫א‬‫א‬BA‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 Kab‫א‬
 Aa‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Wa
 Bb‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Wb
 W‫א‬
 b - a = ∆ z ‫א‬‫א‬
 b–aHAZB
 bJ aHZAZ ZB

 ‫א‬‫ א‬.2.4

 WE٥٫٥‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

- ٧٧ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬    



 METLAND‫א‬‫א‬W٥٫٥‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫ א‬E
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ :٥٫٥‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
٣‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬J ٤
 ‫א‬‫א‬J ٥

- ٧٨ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬    


 ‫א‬‫א‬:٦٫٥‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٦

 W‫א‬‫א‬ •
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤F‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬J 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 .(UF

- ٧٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬    


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٧{٥‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٨{٥‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬J 
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬

- ٨٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬    

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 V1‫א‬V1V2‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬V1‫א‬V1 V′ ‫א‬
1
 KE٩٫٥

 ‫א‬‫א‬W٩{٥‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬K3K4
٥٣‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K KE١٠٫٥‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬


- ٨١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬    

 ‫ א‬:١٠٫٥ ‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

- ٨٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬    


  W‫א‬
W‫א‬‫א‬
 K
٩٠W‫א‬
 K‫א‬١٠
 KW‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬Z‫א‬K
 ‫א‬ZKK
 KKKKKKK‫א‬ZKKK


 ‫א‬ : ١٠٫٥‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W١١{٥‫א‬

- ٨٣ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬    

W‫א‬‫א‬ E
‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

: ‫ب( اﻟﻘﺮاءة ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻘﺎﻣﺔ‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬١٢{٥‫א‬


 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K(UF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


- ٨٤ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬    

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١٣{٥‫א‬

0
3 N0 2 N0 1 ‫א‬‫א‬
0 0 1 ‫א‬‫א‬
2 7 3 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
2 6 9 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
5 3 7 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
0,225 0,763 1,397 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ :١٫٥ ‫اﻟﺠﺪول‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬100 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬

- ٨٥ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬    



 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ : ١٤٫٥ ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬٢{٥‫א‬

3 2 1 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
2075 1404 890  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 2075  1404  890  ‫א‬
4150 2208 1780 ‫א‬
2275 1468 990  ‫א‬‫א‬
1875 1338 790 ‫א‬‫א‬
400 130 200 ‫א‬
 L40000 L13000  L20000 100x‫א‬
L40 L13  L20

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 K
- ٨٦ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬    

‫א‬ .٥


 KW١٥{٥‫א‬

 WA‫א‬‫א‬B‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬B‫א‬A‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 a‫א‬‫א‬A‫א‬‫א‬
 b‫א‬‫א‬A‫א‬‫א‬
 B‫א‬A‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬a‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬b‫א‬‫א‬

 b - a = ∆ z ‫א‬‫א‬
 –Z‫א‬‫א‬
 K،‫א‬‫א‬

- ٨٧ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬    

 ‫א‬‫א‬W١٦{٥‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W١٧{٥‫א‬


- ٨٨ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬    


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W١٨{٥‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬.١٫٥
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
A ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KB‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬B‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬A
‫א‬B‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬B‫א‬‫א‬
C‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٨٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬    


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W١٩{٥‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬W
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W


 ‫ یﺒﻴﻦ اﻟﻤﻴﺰاﻥﻴﺔ اﻟﻔﺮﻗﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﻘﻔﻠﺔ‬:٢٠٫٥ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ EJ F‫א‬ EHF‫א‬ ‫א‬
167,280 - 1,632 R
167,602 0,322 1,310 1,517 1
167,936 0,334 1,183 0,886 2
167,091 -0,845 1,731 1,675 3
167,277 0,186 1,489 R
-0,003 5,713 5,710

- ٩٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬    

-0,003=5,713-5,710
-0,003=167,28-167,277
 3 =‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ZEF‫א‬‫א‬
‫ﻃﻮل اﻟﻤﻴﺰاﻥﻴﺔ ﺏﺎﻟﻜﻴﻠﻮﻣﺘﺮ‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 5=‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
10 = ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 20 = ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

:‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬.2.5
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
،B ‫א‬‫א‬A‫א‬‫א‬
 KDC
1A‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬‫א‬
1B‫א‬‫א‬
 2B‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬‫א‬
 2C‫א‬‫א‬  
 3C‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬‫א‬
 3D‫א‬‫א‬  

- ٩١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬    


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ :١٩٫٥ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

 ‫א‬.6
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬30 ‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K30‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬.1.6
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
 K
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

- ٩٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬    

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ .2.6
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬-1
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ •
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫• א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W  ‫א‬ •
 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬W ‫א‬ •
 ‫א‬


 ١‫א‬‫א‬W٢٠٫٥ ‫א‬

- ٩٣ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬    

 .3.6
 W‫א‬‫א‬
W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W ‫א‬‫א‬ •
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫• א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫• א‬
 K‫א‬‫• א‬
 


- ٩٤ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ اﻟﻔﻨﻲ واﻟﺘﺪرﻳﺐ اﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٦
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    

‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
K‫א‬‫• א‬
 K‫א‬ •

K٪100‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ٧W‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬ •
K‫א‬ •

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 ١J ‫א‬

- ٩٦ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    

.1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K 2
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫• א‬

 :١٫٦‫א‬
 V = a3
 W
 ‫א‬a
 ‫א‬V

- ٩٧ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    

‫א‬‫א‬ •

 ‫א‬‫א‬:٢٫٦‫א‬

 V=bLh
 W
 ‫א‬Zb 
 ‫א‬= L
 ‫ = א‬h
 K‫א‬‫א‬ =V

‫א‬‫• א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬:٣٫٦‫א‬
 V = 1 S h
3

- ٩٨ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    

 W
 ‫א‬ZS
 ‫א‬Zh
 K‫א‬‫א‬=V

‫א‬‫• א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬:٤٫٦‫א‬

 V = h  S + S + S S 
3 1 2 1 2

 W
 ‫א‬ZS1
 ‫א‬= S2
 ‫א‬Zh
 K‫א‬‫א‬=V


- ٩٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    

 ‫א‬‫• א‬



 ‫א‬‫א‬:٥٫٦‫א‬

 V = π r2 h

 W
 ‫א‬Zr
 ‫א‬Zh
 ‫א‬‫א‬=V

 ‫א‬‫• א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬:٦٫٦‫א‬

- ١٠٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    

 V = 1  π h r 2 
3 
 W
 ‫א‬Zr
 ‫א‬Zh
 ‫א‬‫א‬=V

‫א‬‫• א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬:٧٫٦‫א‬

 V = π  r 2 + r 2 + r r  h
3  1 2 1 2

 W
 ‫א‬Zr1

 ‫א‬Zr2
 ‫א‬Zh




- ١٠١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    

 ‫א‬‫• א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬:٨٫٦‫א‬

 V= 1 bLh
2
 W
 ‫א‬Zb

 ‫א‬ZL
 ‫א‬Zh

 W‫א‬‫• א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬:٩٫٦‫א‬

- ١٠٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    

 V= 1 
 S + S  h
2  1 2

 W
 ‫א‬ZS1

 ‫א‬ZS2
 ‫א‬Zh

 W‫א‬‫א‬S2‫א‬S1‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 V = h  S + S + 4S
6  1 2 
 W
 ‫א‬ZS1

 ‫א‬ZS2
 h‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ZS
 ‫א‬Zh
 K‫א‬‫א‬ZV

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ :١٠٫٦‫א‬

- ١٠٣ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    




h + h + h + h 
 V =S 1 2 3 4
 4 
 
 
 W
 ‫א‬ZS

 ‫א‬‫א‬h4 h3، h2،h1




‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬:١١٫٦‫א‬



h + h + h 
 V =S 1 2 3
 
 3 
 
 W
 ‫א‬ZS

 ‫א‬‫א‬ h3، h2،h1



 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬-V

- ١٠٤ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    

 
 W1
‫א‬‫א‬(22,00)E40,00F
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬15 x 30‫א‬‫א‬10 x 20‫א‬
 ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 W
 ‫א‬‫א‬ZS1

 ‫א‬‫א‬ZS2
 ‫א‬Zh
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ZV

V =  S + S  h
 1 2 2
2
  450 =30 x 15ZS1
2
 200 = 20 x 10ZS2
 18 = 40,00-22,00Zh
 3 5850 = (450 +200) x  18 ZV
2

3
‫ م‬5850 = V

 ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ZS

 30 + 20   15 + 10 
 S= 

  
 2  
 2 

 S = 25 . 12,5 = 2‫ م‬312.5

- ١٠٥ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    

 V= h 
 S + S + 4S
6  1 2 

 V = 18 (450 + 200 + 4 . 312,5) = 3‫ م‬5700


6

 V = 3‫ م‬5700

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٪2,63 150‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 W2
‫א‬24،32  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ 5‫א‬‫א‬ 812‫א‬‫א‬9‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، 6‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
2 (24 + 32)
‫ م‬252 = 9 x = S1
2
2 (8 + 12)
‫ م‬50 = 5 x = S2
2

 ٣ 6 h
906= (50 + 252) = (S + S ) = V
2 2 1 2

 ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

1  9 + 5   8 + 24   12 + 32 
2
‫م‬133=  x  +  = S
2  2   2   2 

  ‫א‬


8 + 24  12 + 32 ‫א‬‫א‬Z S
2 2
 K‫א‬ 9 + 5
2
 3834= (133 x4 + 50 + 252) 6 = (S x 4 + S + S ) h = V
6 2 1 6
- ١٠٦ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬.3
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Profiles‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 :١٢٫٦‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 :١٣٫٦‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -1
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -2
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 3
- ١٠٧ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    

 ‫א‬‫א‬-4
 W‫א‬W
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬1.2=‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬1.1=‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬



 ‫א‬‫א‬:١٤٫٦‫א‬


L L +L L +L L +L L
 V =S x 1 +S ( 1 2 )+S ( 2 3 )+S ( 3 4 )+S x 4
1 2 2 2 3 2 4 2 5 2

 ‫א‬‫א‬=V

- ١٠٨ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬.4
K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،h2،h1‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ h4،h3
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

h +h +h +h
 ( 4 3 2 1) S= V
4
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  V = S ( h + 2 h + 3 h + 4 h + ...... + n h n )
4 1 2 3 4
 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J S
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬-h1
 KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬-h2
 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬-h3
 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬-h4
 KE‫א‬n‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬n‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J hn
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 V = S ( h + 2 h + 3 h + 4 h + ...... + n h n )
3 1 2 3 4

- ١٠٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    

: 
‫א‬‫א‬40‫א‬111‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE6,00F‫א‬


 :١٥{٦‫א‬
‫א‬  
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬:١٫٦
h h h h
4 3 2 1
0.4
0.8
0.20
0.40  
0.60
- 0.20 0.4
0.80
  0.4
0.60
1.40 0 1.80 1.60 ‫א‬

 V=S(h +2h +4h )
4 1 2 4
2
‫ م‬740 = 20 x 37 = S

- ١١٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    

 V = 740 ( 1.60 + 2 x 1.80 + 4 x 1.40)


4
3
‫ م‬1998 = V

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

: 
‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬20
 KE3,80F‫א‬



 :١٦٫٦‫א‬

- ١١١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    

 ‫א‬‫ א‬:٢٫٦

h h h h h h h
7 6 5 4 3 2 1
1.90 J  1.50 1.20 1.70 1.00 0.4
2.20 2.20 2.60
0.80 3.00
1.50 1.30
 1.70
2.40
4.10 0 1.50 1.20 6.20 12.00 0.4 ‫א‬

200 = 1 x 20x20=S
 2
2
 V = S (h + 2h +3h + 4h +5h +6h +7h )
3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
 V = 200 ( 0.4 + 2 x 12 + 3 x 6.20 + 4 x 1.20 + 5 x 1.50 + 0 + 7 x 4.10)
3
3
‫ م‬5600 = V
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

: 

‫א‬ ‫א‬40‫א‬111 ‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬20x37 
 K‫א‬‫א‬E5,60F

- ١١٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    


 ‫א‬‫א‬:١٧٫٦‫א‬

 W‫א‬

 3 185=  0 + 0.40 + 0.20 + 0.4  x20x 37=EFV
 
 4 

83.25=  0.2 + 0.40 + 0 + 0  x( 10 + 20 )x 37=EFV


3  
 4  2
12.83=  0.20 + 0 + 0  x 10 x 37=EFV
3  
 3  2
83.25=  0.4 + 0.20 + 0 + 0  x( 10 + 20 ) x 37=EFV
3  
 4  2
55.5=  0.2 + 0.40 + 0 + 0  x10x 37=EFV
3  
 4 

27.75=  0.2 + 0 + 0 + 0  x( 10 + 20 ) x 37=EFV


3  
 4  2
 EFVHEFVHEFVHEFVHEFVHEFV=‫א‬
 27.75+55.50 + 83.25+12.33+83.25+185=‫א‬
 3447.08=‫א‬

- ١١٣ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    

 W‫א‬
 3 12.33=  0.20 + 0 + 0  ( 10 x 37 )=E1FV
 
 3  2
83.25=  0 + 0 + 0.4 + 0.2  x( 10 + 20 )x 37=E2FV
3  
 4  2
24.67=  0.40 + 0 + 0  x 10 x 37=E3FV
3  
 3  2
55.50=  0.2 + 0.40 + 0 + 0  x10 x 37=E4FV
3  
 4 

12.33=  0.20 + 0 + 0  ( 10 x 37 ) =E5FV


3  
 3  2
 E5FVHE4FVHE3FVHE2FVHE1FV=‫א‬
 12.33+ 55.50 + 24.67+83.25+12.33=‫א‬
 3188.08=‫א‬

‫א‬‫ א‬.5
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 6.00‫א‬‫א‬6.00
 K6.00‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬6.00‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١١٤ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    



 ‫א‬‫א‬:١٨{٦‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 E6.00FE7.00FE8.00F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 E7.00FE8.00F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 ‫א‬‫א‬x
(7.00) ‫ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ‬+ (8.00) ‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ آﻨﺘﻮر‬
‫آﻨﺘﻮر‬
= 7 ← 8 
2
 ‫א‬‫א‬x
(6.00) ‫ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ آﻨﺘﻮر‬+ (7.00) ‫ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ آﻨﺘﻮر‬= 6 ← 7 
2
  6 ← 7 + 7 ← 8  = ‫א‬
E6.00F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E5.00F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Fx[E6.00F‫א‬J E5.00F‫א‬] =‫א‬

- ١١٥ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    

 
:1 
‫א‬‫א‬
 W

٢
 ٢٢٠Z١٧‫א‬‫א‬
٢
 ٣٣٠Z١٦‫א‬‫א‬
٢
 ٤٤٠Z١٥‫א‬‫א‬
٢
 ٥٥٠Z١٤‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٥{٠٠F‫א‬‫א‬
 E١٥J ١٦FHE١٦J ١٧FZ‫א‬
 
440 + 330 330 + 220
1x + 1x Z‫א‬
2 2
 ٣٦٦٠Z٣٨٥H٢٧٥Z‫א‬
٣
 ٦٦٠Z‫א‬

440 − 550
 ٣٥٥Z 1 x Z‫א‬
2

 :٢

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬

 ٢١٣٠Z٢٦‫א‬
٢
 ٢٥٠Z٢٤‫א‬

- ١١٦ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    

 ٢
٣٦٠Z٢٢‫א‬


٢
 ٤٨٠Z٢٠‫א‬
٢
 ٥٦٠Z١٨‫א‬
٢
 ٦٦٠Z١٦‫א‬
٢
 ٧٨٠Z١٤‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(20.00F‫א‬‫א‬
 E٢٠٢٢FHE٢٢٢٦FHE٢٤٢٦FZ‫א‬
 ٨٤٠H٦١٠H٣٨٠Z‫א‬
 ٣١٨٣٠Z‫א‬
 E٢٠١٤FHE٢٠١٦FHE٢٠١٨FZ‫א‬

6+4 4+2 2
 E FE٦٦٠–٧٨٠FHE FE٥٦٠–٦٦٠FH E٤٨٠–٥٦٠FZ
2 2 2
 ٦٠٠H٣٠٠H٨٠Z
 ٣٩٨٠Z
 ٣٩٨٠Z‫א‬

- ١١٧ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ اﻟﻔﻨﻲ واﻟﺘﺪرﻳﺐ اﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


‫א‬
‫א‬

٧
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬    

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

K٪100‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ٨W‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ •

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 ١J ‫א‬







- ١١٨ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬    

 K١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬K٢
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ J 
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ J 


‫א‬‫א‬
 K

‫א‬ .٣
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫ א‬.١٫٣
Planimeter‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٫٧‫א‬‫א‬F
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١١٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬    



 Placom KP 80W١{٧‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬   •
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫• א‬

 A = f (R f − Ri )

 ،
 EFinal ReadingF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  R f
 EInitial ReadingF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  R i
‫א‬f‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،EInstrument FactorF‫א‬J f
 K

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫• א‬

- ١٢٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬    

 A = f (R f - R i ) + C
Zero F‫א‬‫א‬C،
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ECircle

‫א‬‫ א‬.2.3
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W
Triangle ‫• א‬

 KArea 

 Area = S (S - a)(S - b)(S - c)

- ١٢١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬    

a+b+c
S= ، ‫ﺣﻴﺚ أن‬
2

SQUARE‫• א‬




 AB = BD = DC = CA = a
‫د‬ 
 Area = a 2

 RECTANGLE ‫• א‬



- ١٢٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬    

 AC = BD = a

 BA = DC = b

Area = a x b

Parallelogram ‫א‬‫א‬ •

 AB = DC = b

 Area = b x h

Trapezium ‫א‬ •

- ١٢٣ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬    

Area = [(h1 +h2).b +a.h1 + c.h2]/2ِ




Area = [(h +h).b +a.h + a.h]/2 = b.h + a.hِ


Area = (π.r2. θ)/360

Area = π.r2 

- ١٢٤ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬    

Area = (2.L.r )/3

Area = π.r1.r2

Area = r.L/2

Area = ِπ. r. r 2 + h 2

- ١٢٥ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬    

Area = ِ2 . π .r. h

Area = ِ π . s . (R + r)


 ‫ א‬‫ א‬.3.3
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬

Trapezoidal Method ‫א‬ •
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

- ١٢٦ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬    

 W٢{٧‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬J L

 W ACDB‫א‬٧٫٢‫א‬



h +h
 Area = L. ( 1 n + h 2 + h 3 + h 4 + ..... + h n-1)
2

:١

 K٧٫٣‫א‬


- ١٢٧ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬    

 W٣{٧‫א‬

 h n −1 = h 6 

h +h
 Area = L. ( 1 7 + h 2 + h 3 + h 4 + h 5 + h 6 )
2

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 2 ‫ م‬1.06 = 2.16 x 0.81 = 1‫س‬
2

 2 ‫ م‬1.11 = 2 x 1.11 = 2‫س‬
2

 2 ‫ م‬2.17 = 2‫ س‬+ 1‫ س = س‬‫א‬
‫أ‬

 K‫א‬
 W‫א‬

h +h
 Area = L. ( 1 n + h 2 + h 3 + h 4 + ..... + h n-1) =‫א‬
2

 ،

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J L

 ‫א‬‫א‬J h
 ‫א‬‫א‬J n

- ١٢٨ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬    

 (2.50 + 3.03 + 4.05 + 4.51 + 4.18 + 3.48 + 3.52 + 2 + 2.61 ) 1.5 = ‫س ب‬


2

 2‫ م‬41.36 =
‫سب‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 2 ‫ م‬43.53 = 41.36 + 2.17 = ‫ س ب‬+ ‫س = س‬
‫أ‬

Simpson‘s One Third Rule  •
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W

L
 (4∑ ( ‫ )اﻷﻋﻤﺪة اﻟﺰوﺟﻴﺔ‬+ 2∑ ( ‫اﻟﻔﺮدیﺔ‬ ‫ )اﻷﻋﻤﺪة‬+ h n + h ) =‫א‬
1 3
 ‫א‬J L

 ‫א‬J n


:٢ 

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 [(2.5 + 4.05 + 4.18 + 3.52 )4 + ( 3.03 + 4.51 + 3.48 )2 + 2 + 2.61)] 1.5 =‫א‬
3

 2 ‫ م‬41.82 = ( 57 + 22.04 + 4.61) 1.5 =‫א‬
3

2 ‫ م‬٤٣{٩٩Z٢{١٧H٤١{٨٢W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٢٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬    

 ‫א‬‫א‬K٤
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬EStationF‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٤٫٧‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K٤،٣،٢،١‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٤{٧‫א‬


 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٥{٧‫א‬

- ١٣٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬    

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٥{٧‫א‬
 ١‫א‬–٢‫א‬=‫א‬‫א‬
١‫א‬K 2′ 2 3 3′  3′ 3 4 4′ ‫א‬٢‫א‬
 K 2′ 2 1 1′  1′ 1 4 4′ ‫א‬

 1 (X 4 + X 3 ) (Y4 − Y3 ) + 1 (X 3 + X 2 ) (Y3 − Y2 ) =٢‫א‬
2 2

 1 (X 4 + X1) (Y4 − Y1) + 1 (X1 + X 2 ) (Y1 − Y2 ) =١‫א‬
2 2

 ١‫א‬–٢‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬
Y =  ‫ و‬X = W ‫א‬‫א‬

  (( ‫ ع‬- ‫ س ( ) ع‬+ ‫ ) س‬+ ( ‫ ع‬- ‫ س ( ) ع‬+ ‫)) س‬ 1 = ‫א‬‫א‬


 2 3 2 3 3 4 3 4  2

[ (( 2 ‫ ع‬- 1‫ ( ) ع‬2 ‫ س‬+ 1 ‫ ) س‬+ ( 1 ‫ ع‬- 4‫( ) ع‬1‫ س‬+ 4 ‫ ])) س‬12 −

 ،‫א‬‫א‬
 [ ( 3 ‫ ع‬- 1‫ ) ع‬4 ‫ س‬+ ( 2 ‫ ع‬- 4‫ ) ع‬3 ‫ س‬+ (1 ‫ ع‬- 3‫ ) ع‬2 ‫ س‬+ ( 4 ‫ ع‬- 2‫ ) ع‬1 ‫ ]) س‬12 =

- ١٣١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ اﻟﻔﻨﻲ واﻟﺘﺪرﻳﺐ اﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

٨
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬    

 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫ א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬

K٪100‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ٤W‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ •

 W‫א‬‫א‬
١–‫א‬

- ١٣٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬    

 .١
‫א‬E١٫٨‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W،‫א‬

Horizontal Angle‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
Vertical Angle ‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
Slope Distance ‫א‬‫• א‬
 Horizontal Distance‫א‬‫• א‬
Vertical Distance‫א‬‫• א‬

‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣ ﻞ‬Total Station ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Electronic tacheometer ‫א‬‫א‬)
E ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (Data CollectorF
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬E ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K

- ١٣٣ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬    


 ‫א‬‫א‬:١٫٨‫א‬
 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .٢
 W‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫• א‬
KEKKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫• א‬
KE‫א‬F‫• א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬

‫ ﻣﺴﺎوئ اﺳﺘﺨﺪام أﺟﻬﺰة اﻟﻤﺤﻄﺔ اﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬.٣


 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
KEEDMF‫א‬
- ١٣٤ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬    

EF‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (Traversing) ‫ א‬.٤
‫א‬‫א‬EIF‫א‬ •
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٫٨‫א‬F‫א‬
 K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
E ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬E ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
KE‫א‬‫א‬(IIFEIFF‫א‬

‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣ ﻞ‬Total Station ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Electronic tacheometer ‫א‬‫א‬)
E ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(Data CollectorF
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬E ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K

KEIF‫א‬EIIF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ I‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬KE‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬    

‫א‬(E,D,C,B,AF‫א‬E  ‫א‬‫א‬
KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

C
II B

A
.

I D
E
.
.

III
 ‫א‬‫א‬:٢٫٨‫א‬

F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
‫א‬‫א‬(AzimuthsF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E ‫א‬
E, D, F‫א‬‫א‬(IE, ID, IC, IB, IA)‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬L‫א‬EC, B, A
‫א‬EI‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
KE‫א‬‫א‬

EIIIF،EIF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
‫א‬،2.8‫א‬
 ‫א‬KEIF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K(IIIFEIF‫א‬
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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬    

E
 ‫א‬LF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
KEIIF(IF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


  •
‫א‬L
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬









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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
    

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬،،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،E١٩٩٧FKK1

 K‫א‬،،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،E١٩٨٣F،K2

‫א‬‫א‬،E١٩٨٤F،‫א‬&‫א‬K3
 K،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،E١٩٨٥F،‫א‬&‫א‬K٤
 K،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،E١٩٧٤FK٥

‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬،E١٩٩٩F‫א‬&،K٦
 K،‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،E١٩٨٣F‫א‬&‫א‬K٧
 KK،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E١٩٩٨FK٨
 K
،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،E١٩٩٩F&K٩
 K‫א‬

- ١٣٨ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
    


rd
10. Barry F. kavanagh (1997), Surveying : with construction applications. 3 Edition,
Prentice Hall, New Jersey, U.S.A.

 11. James R. Wirshing & Roy H. Wirshing (1985) Theory and Problems of
  Introductory Surveying, Schaum’s Outline Series, McGraw-Hill.

- ١٣٩ -
 ‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
    

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Right Angles .١

c
a

A b C

a
sin A = = cos B
c
b
cos A = = sin B
c
a
tan A = = cot B
b
c
sec A = = cosec B
b
c
 cosec A = = sec B
a
b
cot A = = tan B
a

Derived Relationships .٢

a = c sin A = c cos B = b tan A = b cot B = c 2 - b 2

b = c cos A = c sin B = a cot A = a tan B = c 2 - a 2

a a b b
c= = = = = a 2 + b2
sin A cos B sin B cos A
- ١٣٢ -
 ‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
    

Oblique Triangles .٣

c
a

A C
b

Sine Law -a

a b c
= =
sin A sin B sin C

Cosine Law -b
a 2 = b 2 + c 2 - 2 bc cos A

b 2 = a 2 + c 2 - 2 ac cos B

c 2 = a 2 + b 2 - 2 ab cos C

General Trigonometric Formulas .٤

1 1
sin A = 2 sin A cos A = 1 - cos 2 A = tan A cos A
2 2

1 1
cos A = 2 cos 2 A - 1 = 1 - sin 2 A
2 2

1 1
cos A = cos 2 A - sin 2 A = 1 - sin 2 A
2 2

sin A sin 2A
tan A = = = sec 2 A - 1
cos A 1 + cos 2A
- ١٣٣ -
 ‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
    

Addition and Subtraction Identities -a

sin (A ± B) = sin A . cos B ± sin B . cos A

cos (A ± B) = cos A . cos B ± sin A . sin B

tan A ± tan B
tan (A ± B) =
1 ± tan A . tan B

1 1
sin A + sin B = 2 sin ( A + B) . sin (A - B)
2 2

1 1
sin A − sin B = 2 cos ( A + B) . sin (A - B)
2 2

1 1
cos A + cos B = 2 cos ( A + B) . cos (A - B)
2 2

1 1
cos A − cos B = 2 sin ( A + B) . sin (A - B)
2 2

double-Angle Identities -b

sin 2A = 2 sin A . cos A

cos 2A = cos 2 A - sin 2 A = 1 - 2 sin 2 A = 2 cos 2 A - 1

2 tan A
tan 2A =
1 − tan 2 A

Half-Angle Identities -c

A 1 - cos A
sin =
2 2

A 1 + cos A
cos =
2 2

A sin A
tan =
2 1 + cos A

- ١٣٤ -
 ‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
    

‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬
١  W‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
٢  ‫א‬
٢  ‫א‬‫א‬
٣  ‫א‬
٥  ‫א‬‫א‬
٦  

٩  ‫א‬‫א‬
١٠  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
١٠  ‫א‬‫א‬
١٠
 ‫א‬‫א‬
١١ ‫א‬‫א‬
١٣  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
١٣  ‫א‬‫א‬
١٤  ‫א‬‫א‬
١٤  ‫א‬
١٤  ‫א‬‫א‬
١٤  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
    

 ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 ١٧          K١
 ١٧        ‫א‬‫א‬K٢
١٨ ‫א‬‫א‬K٢{١
 ٢٠       ‫א‬‫א‬K٢{٢
 ٢١        ‫א‬K٣
 ٢١      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K١{٣
 ٢٢      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٢{٣
 ٢٥    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٤
 ٢٩     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٥
 ٣٠       ‫א‬‫א‬K١{٥
 ٣١     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٢{٥
 ٣١   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٣{٥ 
 ٣٢       ‫א‬K٦
 ٣٢      ‫א‬‫א‬K١{٦
 ٣٢    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K1.1.6
 ٣٦  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K2.1.6  
 ٣٦  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K3.1.6  
 ٣٦    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٢{٦ 
 ٣٧    ‫א‬‫א‬K1.2.6 
 ‫א‬‫א‬K2.2.6  
 ٣٨       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬K3.2.6  
٣٨     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
    

 ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 ٣٩           ‫א‬K١
 ٤٠           K٢

 ٤١         ‫א‬K٣
٤١       ‫א‬‫א‬K١{٣
 ٤٢      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٢{٣ 

 ٤٥          ‫א‬K٤
 ٤٥         ‫א‬K١{٤
 ٤٥         ‫א‬‫א‬K٢{٤
 ٤٥      ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬.1.2.4 
 ٤٦       ‫א‬‫א‬K2.2.4 

 ٤٦       ‫א‬‫א‬K٣{٢{٤  
 ٤٨        ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٥
 ٤٨           K١{٥ 
 ٤٩    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٢{٥
 ٤٩        ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٣{٥
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٥٢           K١
 ٥٣       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬.2
٥٣ ‫א‬‫א‬K١{٢
 ٥٣        ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٢{٢

 ٥٥         ‫א‬‫א‬K٣{٢
 ٥٥         ‫א‬ K٣
 ‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
    

٦٢ ‫א‬‫א‬ K٤
٦٢ ‫ א‬K١{٤
٦٥         ‫א‬‫ א‬K٢{٤
٦٥ ‫א‬K٣{٤
٦٥ ‫א‬‫א‬K٤{٤
 ٦٦      E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ K٥{٤
٧٠ ‫א‬‫א‬K٥
 ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 ٧٣            K١
 ٧٣          K٢
٧٥          ‫א‬‫א‬K٣
 ٧٦          ‫א‬‫ א‬K٤
٧٦        ‫א‬ ‫א‬ K١{٤
٧٧ ‫א‬‫ א‬K٢{٤
٨١ ‫א‬K٣{٤
٨٧ ‫א‬K٥
٨٩         ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K١{٥
٩١        ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٢{٥
 ٩٢          ‫א‬K٦
 ٩٢       ‫א‬‫א‬ K١{٦
٩٣        ‫ א‬‫א‬K٢{٦
 ٩٤           K٣{٦
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
٩٧           K١
 ٩٧        ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٢
 ‫א‬  ١٠٢  ‫א‬
    

 ١٠٧       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٣
١٠٩ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬.4
١١٦ ‫א‬‫ א‬.5
 ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
١١٩  .1
 ١١٩         ‫א‬K٢
 ١١٩         ‫א‬ K٣
 ١٢١        ‫א‬‫א‬K١{٣
١٢٦         ‫א‬‫א‬K٢{٣
١٢٨         ‫ א‬‫ א‬.3.3
 ١٣٠      ‫א‬‫א‬K٤
 ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
١٣٣            .1
١٣٤       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢
 ١٣٤       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٣
١٣٥ ‫ اﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬K٤
 ١٣٨‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

GOTEVOT appreciates the financial support provided by BAE SYSTEMS