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Q.1.(a) Which Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) will you propose for the

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specification given above?

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A.1.(a)

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SDLC is a process followed for a software project, within a software organization. It consists of a

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detailed plan describing how to develop, maintain, replace and alter or enhance specific software. The
life cycle defines a methodology for improving the quality of software and the overall development 2
process.
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The following figure is a graphical representation of the various stages of a typical SDLC.

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Stage 1: Planning and Requirement Analysis

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Requirement analysis is the most important and fundamental stage in SDLC. It is performed by the
senior members of the team with inputs from the customer, the medicine department, market surveys
and domain experts in the industry. This information is then used to plan the basic project approach and

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to conduct product feasibility study in the economical, operational, and technical areas.

Stage 2: Defining Requirements

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Once the requirement analysis is done the next step is to clearly define and document the product

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requirements and get them approved from the customer or the market analysts. This is done through
.SRS. . Software Requirement Specification document which consists of all the product requirements to

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be designed and developed during the project life cycle.

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Stage 3: Designing the product architecture

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SRS is the reference for product architects to come out with the best architecture for the product to be
developed. Based on the requirements specified in SRS, usually more than one design approach for the
product architecture is proposed and documented in a DDS - Design Document Specification.

Stage 4: Building or Developing the Product


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In this stage of SDLC the actual development starts and the product is built. The programming code is
generated as per DDS during this stage. If the design is performed in a detailed and organized manner,
code generation can be accomplished without much hassle.

Stage 5: Testing the Product

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This stage is usually a subset of all the stages as in the modern SDLC models, the testing activities are
mostly involved in all the stages of SDLC. However this stage refers to the testing only stage of the
product where products defects are reported, tracked, fixed and retested, until the product reaches the
quality standards defined in the SRS.

Stage 6: Deployment in the Market and Maintenance

Once the product is tested and ready to be deployed it is released formally in the appropriate market.
Sometime product deployment happens in stages as per the organizations. business strategy. The
product may first be released in a limited segment and tested in the real business environment (UAT-
User acceptance testing).

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Q.1.(b) Justify you selection by evaluating suitability of at least two SDLCs.

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We select Spiral and V model for University Library Management System :-

Causing for selecting spiral model:-


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The spiral model combines the idea of iterative development with the systematic, controlled aspects of
the waterfall model.
Spiral model is a combination of iterative development process model and sequential linear
development model i.e. waterfall model with very high emphasis on risk analysis.
It allows for incremental releases of the product, or incremental refinement through each iteration
around the spiral.

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Causing for selecting V model:-

Under V-Model, the corresponding testing phase of the development phase is planned in parallel. So

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there are Verification phases on one side of the .V. and Validation phases on the other side. Coding
phase joins the two sides of the V-Model.

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Costs
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Q.2.(a) Justify you selection by evaluating suitability of at least two SDLCs. 5
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The newly implemented Medical store system created additional costs that were not incurred with the
paper-chart system. There are 2 cost categories: the system costs and the induced costs. The system
costs include the direct costs to build the system infrastructure, to develop the Medical Stores
applications, and to purchase office supplies. The induced costs were required to smooth the Medical
Store adoption. The first cost was to scan the existing paper-charts into the Medical Stores system. The
second cost was to provide assistance to doctors through medical transcriptionists (MTs). MTs are
typists who enter medical records into the Medical Stores system instead of the physicians at the point
of care.

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Q.2.(b)What may be the financial benefits of installing such a system?

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A.2.(b)

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1) More efficient operations

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Because Medical Store management software provides an overview of day-to-day details such as
patient appointments and staff reports, it serves as a helpful point of reference for tasks that have yet
to be completed. Such systems also safeguard against forgetting important details, and can keep a

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checklist of yet-to-be-completed tasks. Because small Medical Stores often lack the resources of

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hospitals or larger offices, software can significantly help staff members manage their daily workflows.

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2) Easier access to records

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Medical Store management software stores important data in a safe, easily accessible location. Rather

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than using an outdated method such as a filing cabinet, such systems allow Medical Stores to keep
digital copies of important information. If a doctor has a question about a referring physician, or a past
medication, he or she can access the information almost instantly. Staff members can also easily find
insurance and billing information. When team members can find relevant documents, the Medical Store
can operate in an accurate, timely manner.
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Many software systems are linked to electronic medical records. These records, of course, are used
primarily for proper diagnosis and treatment. Having a digitalized copy of patient records allows
providers to quickly access pertinent information in order to guarantee an accurate diagnosis. Many
solo Medical Stores use free, cloud-based software, such as Kareo or Medical Store Fusion, which allow
workers to easily schedule appointments, complete insurance, store patient information, and more.
While Medical Stores can choose between traditional client-server and cloud-based alternatives, many
prefer the flexibility that the latter option provides. If users need to access data remotely or want to
avoid the cost associated with in-house servers, cloud-based systems are now a viable (and possibly
superior) alternative.

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3) Simplified billing

Medical Store management software allows Medical Stores to easily bill patients and process claims.
Popular solutions, such as Epic’s Resolute Professional Billing system, allow users to easily complete
financial transactions. They also provide an overview of past transactions. Many online Medical Store
management systems can be integrated with patient portals or comprehensive EHRs, and allow patients
to access their bills through a secure online site. This helps decrease payment time and keeps patients
notified of any problems.
Medical Store management software helps medical offices run more smoothly, stores data in a safe
location, and allows Medical Stores to easily bill patients. Proper implementation of the system will
enable Medical Stores to transition from old, outdated methods to new methods. The system will

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improve efficiency and accuracy and provide easier access to relevant data. As such, it is a worthwhile

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investment for small Medical Stores.

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Q.2.(c)Perform a cost-benefit analysis for the proposed software and report its findings.

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A.2.(c)
Cost-Benefit Analysis

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In this study a CBA based on cash flows of SMC was carried out. The detailed items of costs and benefits

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were determined based on differential costing, which is mainly used for decision making in managerial
accounting, after comparison of workflows between the paper-chart system and the Medical Store

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system. This was a conservative CBA in that this study excluded any potential or qualitative benefits .

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The financial costs and benefits were obtained primarily through the SMC accounting records. The costs

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of Medical Store implementation were the actual measured value. However, the benefits were
calculated by using the difference between actual measured values and expected values without the

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Medical Store system. Therefore, when data were not available, capital amounts were determined by
the opinions of experts, such as medical record administrators, care floor nurses, and IT engineers. The
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measured amounts were converted to present values (PV) using SMC's expected interest rate. Then, the
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net present value (NPV), the benefit-cost ratio (BCR), and the discounted payback period (DPP) were
calculated.Q.2.(d)List the major tasks and milestones of the Project and make a project schedule. You
must make both GANTT and PERT charts. Explain the two charts drawn by you.

Q.2.(d)
A.2.(d)
Gantt Chart :-The Gantt chart was first developed and introduced by Charles Gantt in 1917. It deals with
the sequence of tasks needed to complete the project. In this chart, each horizontal bar represents a

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task. The length of the bar shows the time required to complete the task. On an X-Y chart, the X-axis
stands for the time in which the project will get completed. The Gantt chart is a very effective tool in
assessing a project’s status. It basically emphasizes and shows how much time is required for
completing a task.

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Pert Chart:-

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Program Evaluation and Review Technique charts were developed and introduced in 1950 by the U.S.
Navy. They were developed to manage large projects which had complex tasks and a very high intertask
dependency. The charts have an initiation node, and the initiation node later branches into many

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networks of tasks.

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Q.3(a) Study the system and create a software requirement specification. You must identify either
the processes or objects while analyzing. During the analysis give consideration to possible input and
output of the processes.

A.3.(a)
Specific Requirements

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The specific requirements are :-

Introduction –

This subsection contains the requirements for the e-store. These requirements are organized by the
features discussed in the vision document. Features from vision documents are then refined into use
case diagrams and to sequence diagram to best capture the functional requirements of the system. All
these functional requirements can be traced using tractability matrix.

Sell Configured to Ordered Products.

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The system shall display all the products that can be configured.
The system shall allow user to select the product to configure.

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The system shall display all the available components of the product to configure
The system shall enable user to add one or more component to the configuration.

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The system shall notify the user about any conflict in the current configuration.
The system shall allow user to update the configuration to resolve conflict in the current configuration.

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The system shall allow user to confirm the completion of current configuration

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Provide comprehensive product details.

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The system shall display detailed information of the selected products.

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The system shall provide browsing options to see product details.

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Detailed product Categorizations

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The system shall display detailed product categorization to the user.

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Provide Search facility.

The system shall enable user to enter the search text on the screen.

The system shall enable user to select multiple options on the screen to search.
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The system shall display all the matching products based on the search

The system shall display only 10 matching result on the current screen.

The system shall enable user to navigate between the search results.

The system shall notify the user when no matching product is found on the search.

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Maintain customer profile.


The system shall allow user to create profile and set his credential.

The system shall authenticate user credentials to view the profile.

The system shall allow user to update the profile information.

Q.3.(b)After identifying the requirements, create Analysis Models. You may either use the
classical approach and draw Entity relationship diagram and data flow diagrams (DFD’s) up to level 2-
3;
or

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you may take object oriented analysis approach and create class diagram, use case diagram, use cases
etc.

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A.3.(b)

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G DFD from 0 Level to 2 level
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Class Digram

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G N E N USE CASE DIGRAM

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Q.4. (a) Design the system architecture and the database as per the needs of the system. You
must perform normalization on tables up to 3 rd normal form. The table design must include Primary
and Foreign keys and constrains.

A.4. (a)
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Q.4(b) Create the system flow chart or detailed process design and state transition diagrams. Also
design the user input screens and output report formats.

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State Transition Digram

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Q.5.Design various unit test cases for different testing techniques/strategies.

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Test case Design Technique

Following are the typical design techniques in software engineering:

1. Deriving test cases directly from a requirement specification or black box test design technique. The
Techniques include:
· Boundary Value Analysis (BVA)
· Equivalence Partitioning (EP)
· Decision Table Testing

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· State Transition Diagrams

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· Use Case Testing

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2. Deriving test cases directly from the structure of a component or system:
· Statement Coverage
· Branch Coverage

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· Path Coverage
· LCSAJ Testing

3. Deriving test cases based on tester's experience on similar systems or testers intuition:

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· Error Guessing

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· Exploratory Testing

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