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Dr. Ammar A. Ali

Tees are used primarily for special beam applications and as components in
connections and trusses.

7- Structural Steel Pipe and Tubing (Fig. 1.12)

(a) Pipe and (b) Square (c) Rectangular


Fig. 1.12 Structural steel pipe and tubing.

Steel pipe is covered by ASTM A53 grade B (Fy = 35 ksi and Fu = 60 ksi) and is available in
standard, extra-strong, and double-extra-strong weights, with wall thickness being the
influencing factor. These are abbreviated (for a 4-in. nominal diameter) as P4, PX4, and
PXX4, respectively.

The HSS (Hollow Structural Section) are given in the ASD manual, Part 1, Table 3 and in the
LRFD manual, Part 2, Table 2-3.

A round HSS is designated by nominal diameter and wall thickness, each expressed to three
decimal places, such as HSS5.563 × 0.258.

A square or rectangular HSS is designated by nominal outside dimensions and wall

thickness, each in rational numbers, such as HSS5 × 3 × .

Tubes make excellent compression members, although the connections usually involve
some welding. The most common use of tubes is in compression and tension members, but
they also used as beams in some situations. Structural members made of tubes are easier to
clean and maintain than their wide-flange counterparts.

8- Plates

Plates are used in assorted applications such as plate girder elements, gusset plates,
stiffenners, beam bearing plates, column base plates, …etc. Plates are avalible in various
thicknesses, although a minimum thickness increment of − in. is recommended.