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Chemisty Book Notes for Class XI


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Chemistry Sindh Text Book Board, Jamshoro.

INTERMEDIATE STAGE
CHEMISTRY

BOOK ONE

FOR CLASS XI

For
Sindh Textbook Board, Jamshoro.

Book arranged by www.mynoteslibrary.com  1

Chemistry Sindh Text Book Board, Jamshoro.

CONTENTS 

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE FUNDAMENTAL 3


CONCEPTS OF CHEMISTRY

CHAPTER 2 THREE STATES OF MATTER 7

CHAPTER 3 ATOMIC STRUCTURE 19

CHAPTER 4 CHEMICAL BONDING 25

CHAPTER 5 ENERGETICS OF CHEMICAL 30


REACTION

CHAPTER 6 CHEMICAL EQUILIIBRIUM 35

CHAPTER 7 SOLUTION AND ELECTROLYSIS 40

CHAPTER 8 INTRODUCTION TO CHEMICAL KINETICS 43

SCIENTIFIC REASONS 45
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Chemistry Sindh Text Book Board, Jamshoro.

Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION TO THE FUNDAMENTAL CONEPTS

CHEMISTRY: OF CHEMISTRY

The branch of science that deals with the properties, compositions and structure
of matter and the changes occurring in matter and the laws under which these
changes occur is called as chemistry.

BRANCHES OF CHEMISTRY:

  Organic chemistry
  Inorganic chemistry
  Physical chemistry
  Bio chemistry
  Analytical chemistry
  Nuclear chemistry
  Industrial chemistry
  Environmental chemistry

BASIC DEFINITIONS:

ATOM:

The smallest particle of an element is ca lled as an atom.

MOLECULE:

When two or more than two atoms are combined together is called as molecule.

FORMULA WEIGHT:

The total sum of the weights of the atoms present in a substance is called as
formula weight

MOLECULAR WEIGHT:

The sum of the atomic masses present in a substance is called as molecular


weight.

EMPIRICAL FORMULA:

The simplest formula of a chemical compound that expresses the number of each
kind of atom present in the molecule of a compound is called as empirical
formula.

Example:

The empirical formula of water is "H2O". It indicates that the water molecule is
composed of two elements hydrogen and one element of carbon and the ratio
between these two elements is 2:1.

DETERMINATION OF EMPIRICAL FORMULA:

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Chemistry

1. First detect the elements that are present in the co


2. Determine the masses of each element present in c
3. Then calculate the percentage of each element that
4. After that determine mole composition of each elem
5. in last Determine simplest ratio between the eleme

MOLECULAR FORMULA:

The formula that represents number of atoms in each


compound is called as molecular formula.

MOLECULAR MASS:

The sum of the masses present in a molecule is called

GRAM MOLECULAR MASS:

The molecular mass if expressed in grams then it is ca


mass
mass.

 MOLE: Search 
 
The atomic mass or molecular mass of a substance if
as mole.
FORMULA:
Chemistry

Number of moles of = mass of substance (in grams) /


mass or formula mass
5.  Zeros that locate the decimal point in numbers
necessarily
AVOGADRO’S significant. e.g. 40 have one signifi
NUMBER:

RULES
One mole OFofROUNDING
any substance OFF DATA: equal number of
contains
molecules or ions).Value of this number is 6.02 x 1023
RULE No 1:
ATOMIC MASS:
If the last digit is greater than 5, then add "1" to the l
all
Thedigits
weightfarther
of anto the right. 
atom is called as atomic mass. 1 uni
For example: 4.788
defined  as 1/12 of theare rounded
mass off tocarbon-12
 of a single the 4.78 or 4
ato

RULE NO 2:
SIGNIFICANT FIGURE:

If the last digit


Significant is less
figures are than 5, then
reliable digitssimply
knownwrite
withitcerta
as it
number to the last digit.
The number of significant figure refers to the precision
For example: 5.531
quantity, in this numbers are rounded as 5.53
the last digit mayif not
we be
want
pre
5.531
of last is rounded
digit off as 5.5 if we want two significant
is uncertain.

RULE
RULESNO
OF3:
SIGNIFICANT FIGURE:

If the
1. last digitzeros
All non is exactly equal to 5figures.
are significant then: E.g. 789 h
(A)
2. IfZero
the digit to benon
between retained is even,
significant then
digits arejust drop
signific
For example:
significant figures
3.35 is
3.  Zero rounded
locatingoff todecimal
the 3.3 for two
pointsignificant
in number,figure
less
3.3565 is rounded off to 3.356 if
E.g. 0.065 has 2 significant figureswe need four sign
(B)4.If the digit
  Final zerosto to
bethe
retained is the
right of odd,decimal
then add "1"are
point to
For example: 
have 4 significant figures.
4.15 is rounded off to 4.2 if we need two significant
4.1375 is rounded off to 4.138 if we need four sign
We know that zero is an even number
4.05 is rounded off to 4.0 if we need two significant
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ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF SIGNIFICANT

3.325 + 12.5 =15.825 (actual answer by using calc


Answer after rounding off: 15.8 

MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION OF SIGNIFICA

2.5337 x 3.8 =9.62806(actual answer by using calcul


Answer after rounding off: 10

STOICHIOMETRY:
The quantitative relationship between the reactants an
chemical equation is called as stoichiometry.

TYPES OF STOICHIOMETRIC CALCULATIONS:

It is divided into following three categories


1.  Mass-Mass relationship
2 Mass-Volume relationship
2.  Mass Volume relationship
3.  Volume-Volume relationship
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