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ISO 9001:2008 MEL-02-S Rev. # 02 Date: 10-January-2017

Students Lab Manual

For

(MEL II)

Prepared by: Muhammad Jalal, Haider Ali, Atif Muzaffar

Name Signature

Lab In-charge: FME

ISO 9001

Mr. Massab Junaid

Section:

Approved by:

Dr. S M Ahmad

Dean FME

Issued by:

In-charge Dr. Muhammad Ilyas

student section

i

Table of Contents

Pre Mid-Term Course Content.................................................................................................. iii

Post Mid-Term Course Content ................................................................................................ iv

Health & Safety Regulations ..................................................................................................... v

Lab Regulations ........................................................................................................................ vi

GENERAL LAB RUBRICS .................................................................................................... vii

1 Thrust Force of a Fan and verification of Newton’s Law .................................................. 1

2 Moment of Inertia ............................................................................................................... 9

3 Pulley System ................................................................................................................... 14

4 Centripetal Force .............................................................................................................. 18

5 Spring Potential and Gravitational Potential Energy & Elastic and Inelastic collision.... 22

6 Torque and Torsion .......................................................................................................... 28

7 Stresses in Thin- Walled Cylinders .................................................................................. 33

8 Stress and Strain relationship & Principal Stresses .......................................................... 37

9 Gyroscope ......................................................................................................................... 44

Problem Based Learning (PBL) Statements ............................................................................. 49

ii

Pre Mid-Term Course Content

The following experiments will be performed before Mid-Term Exam:

1. Thrust Force and verification of Newton’s law

2. Moment of Inertia

3. Pulley system

4. Centripetal Force

5. Spring Potential and Gravitational Potential Energy & Elastic and Inelastic collision

6. Torque and Torsion

iii

Post Mid-Term Course Content

The following experiments will be performed in the Post Mid-Term Session:

7. Stresses in thin walled cylinders

8. Stress and Strain relationship & Principal Stresses

9. Gyroscope

iv

Health & Safety Regulations

Users of any FME Laboratory must comply with the following safety instructions. At the

beginning of the course the instructor should brief the students about health and safety. The

students should know where the fire exits, fire extinguisher, fire alarm and the assembly point

are in case of emergency such as fire or earthquake etc.

• No experiments should be conducted without the presence of Lab engineer and

technician.

• Smoking is strictly prohibited inside the Lab.

• Always wear trousers, overall and safety shoes when you operate any machine and

perform any experiment. Shalwar Kameez and sandals are not allowed at all.

• There should be no over-crowding. Only one person should operate one machine. In

case, the experiment needs more than one person for the operation, other group mates

would join.

• Watch for over-head hanging hoists and cranes.

• Make sure that you stay away from hot exhaust lines and moving parts of machines.

• Before operating any machine, you must be aware of the following:

a. Location of fire extinguishers, fire blanket and the outside exits.

b. How the machine operates. Read instructions or manual of the machine before

operating it.

c. How to turn off the machine in case of damages.

• When you hear or see a danger alarm from the machine that you using, stop the

machine right away.

• Make sure that there is no fuel or oil spill on the floor.

• Do not run inside the lab and concentrate on the present task.

• When moving heavy equipment or gas cylinders, use carts.

• Always use the right tools for the given task.

• Handle the tools and equipment with extreme care and return the tools to their proper

places.

• For cleaning tools or equipment, use only the proper cleaner. Never use fuels such as

gasoline or diesel for cleaning.

• Handle fuels with extreme caution.

• Use the designated area for this purpose.

• Use the proper containers (safety cans) to carry fuels.

• Make sure there is no electric spark present.

• Do not leave fuels in open containers.

• Please leave the Lab clean and tidy at end of experiment.

v

Lab Regulations

Lab Course will be graded in the following way:

Regular Labs (45%)

Problem Based Learning (25%)

Final Exam (30%)

Note: Above grading policy is subject to change. If needed Lab Instructor/In

charge can modify it.

All students should bring their own lab manual available in services center, pencil,

ballpoint pen, graph paper etc.

Eating in Lab: Eating and drinking is strictly prohibited in lab. Anyone found

eating or drinking in lab will be marked absent for that lab.

Make up Lab: No Makeup lab will be allowed. However, with the permission from

the Dean one can perform experiments.

Late Comers: Students should come on time for the lab. Late comers will be

marked absent.

Schedule: Schedule will be provided at beginning of the course.

Duration: Duration of each practical experiment is 3 hours. The students should

keep themselves busy and get full understanding of the apparatus and the

experiments.

Cheating: Cheating will be handled in accordance with FME policy, the details of

which are given on FME website http://10.1.16.11/

Note:

1. Each member of every group should bring lab manual, scientific calculator

and graph paper.

2. Study and understand all the content related to the lab to be performed

before coming for the lab session.

3. Hand in lab reports before leaving the lab.

4. Next day submission of lab report will not be accepted.

5. Switch off mobile phones during lab session.

vi

GENERAL LAB RUBRICS

Levels of Proficiency

Proposed

PLO↓ Assessment 0<S≤4 4<S≤6 6<S≤8 8 < S ≤ 10

Technique

Performance

Poor Fair Good Excellent

Criteria ↓

Student does not

PLO8 Observation

come on time or

(May not be Student is in lab at start of

(Affective Punctuality student is absent NA NA

added in the final scheduled lab time. (S=10)

domain) for no reason.

grading)

(S=0)

Evaluation while Demonstrates

performing the either no, Demonstrates

Demonstrates fair good

PLO4 experiment incomplete or

operational skills Demonstrates excellent

through Apparatus incorrect operational skills

(Psychomotor and identify operational skills and identify

observation and Handling operational skills and identify

domain) parameters and parameters and uncertainties

following and is unable to parameters and

uncertainties

pertinent identify parameters uncertainties

procedure and uncertainties

Students are able

Students are not Students are fairly

to take into

able to take into able to take into

consideration to a Students are able to

consideration the consideration the

Appreciation for good extent the comprehensively take into

advancements in advancements in

Technological advancements in consideration the advancements

PLO 12 Through reports technology and technology and

Innovation and technology and in technology and possibly

possibly integrate possibly integrate

Advancement possibly integrate integrate all or some of them

all or some of them all or some of

all or some of into proposed solution.

into proposed them into proposed

them into

solution. solution.

proposed solution.

Demonstrates

Demonstrates no Demonstrates fair

good

understanding of understanding of

PLO5 understanding of Demonstrates excellent

modeling and modeling and

Through Lab Modeling and modeling and understanding of modeling and

(Cognitive simulation simulation

Reports Simulation simulation simulation techniques utilizing

domain) techniques techniques

techniques modern tools

utilizing modern utilizing modern

utilizing modern

tools tools

tools

Evaluation while

performing the

PLO4 experiment

Student recorded Student recorded Student recorded

through Student recorded data

(Psychomotor Data Capturing data with data with some data with

observation and accurately/precisely.

domain) substantial errors. errors. acceptable errors.

following

pertinent

procedure

Demonstrate no or Demonstrate fair Demonstrate good

little knowledge of knowledge of knowledge of Demonstrate excellent

PLO10 Through Graphical orthographic orthographic orthographic knowledge of orthographic

(Cognitive) individual reading and is reading and is reading and is reading and is unable to format

Communication

sheet/report unable to format unable to format unable to format and scale views

and scale views and scale views and scale views

vii

1 Thrust Force of a Fan and verification of

Newton’s Law

Part A

Thrust Force of a Fan

1.1 Objective

PART I

Determine the force of the fan using Newton’s Second law.

PART II

Determine the force of the fan by connecting the cart to a mass that hangs over a pulley.

Adjust the hanging mass until the cart does not move. Then turn the fan at an angle and

determine the component of the force.

PART III

Put the dynamic cart on a dynamic track and incline the track until the cart cannot climb the

inclined plane. Determine the component of the force.

1.2 Theory

The fan cart used in this experiment is run by the battery. The fan has two speed levels and it

can be turned at any angle from 0 to 180 degrees. When the fan is turned on, the wings of the

fan push the air back and as a result of the thrust, the whole fan cart moves against the air

flow.

1

1.3 Nomenclature

S. No. Parameter Symbol Unit

1 Force F [N]

2 Mass m [kg]

3 Acceleration a [m/s2]

4 Distance d [m]

5 Time taken to cover the distance t [sec]

6 Angle between the direction of the ϴ [deg]

cart and thrust force

7 Acceleration due to gravity g [m/s2]

8 Mass of the Cart m1 [kg]

9 Mass in the Hanger m2 [kg]

10 Normal Force acting on the cart FNORMAL [N]

11 Weight W [N]

1.4 Equipment

1. Dynamic cart track

2. Base and support rod

3. Hanger with weights

4. Stop watch

5. Fan cart

6. String

1.5 PART I

According to Newton’s Second Law, “Net force acting on a body equals its mass times

acceleration.”

F= ma (1.1)

2

To measure the acceleration (a), the time (t) to move the cart through a certain distance (d)

is required. Since,

𝑑 = (1/2) 𝑎𝑡 2 (1.2)

The acceleration can be calculated by this formula.

1.5.1 Procedure

1. Level the track by setting the fan cart on the track to see which way it rolls. Adjust the

leveling feet to raise or lower the ends until the cart placed on the track will not move.

2. Use the balance to find the mass of the cart. Record this value.

3. Set the fan at zero degrees. Turn the fan on to see which way it rolls. Turn the fan off.

4. Place the cart on the fixed end stop of the track and mark the initial release position of

the cart. Record this position. This will be the release position for all the trials.

5. Place the cart against the adjustable end stop of the track and record this final position

of the cart.

6. Turn the fan on. Release the cart from the initial release position and use stop watch

to measure the time it takes to hit the end stop.

*The person who releases the cart should also operate the stop watch. Add mass and repeat.

1.6 PART II

Considering Figure 1.2, Force of the fan will be given by,

F =mg (1.3)

Now if the fan is turned at an angle θ, the component of the force F that equals the hanging

weight (mg) is given by F Cos.

Now if the fan is turned at an angle , as shown in Figure 1.1, the component of the force F

that equals the hanging weight (mg) is given by

F cosθ = mg

3

and

F = mg / cosθ (1.4)

1.6.1 Procedure

1. Attach the pulley to the end of the track as shown in Figure 1.2. Place the fan cart on

the track and attach a string to the hole in the end of the cart and tie a mass hanger on

the other end of the string.

2. Set the fan at zero degrees. Turn the fan on. Adjust the hanging mass until the cart

doesn’t move. Record this value of mass.

3. Turn the cart at angle . Adjust the hanging mass until the cart does not move.

4. Change the angle and repeat the experiment.

For an object lying on the inclined plane, the weight W = mg can be resolved into two

components: mgsin and mgcos

The force of the fan is given by,

F= mg sin (1.5)

1.7.1 Procedure

1. Measure the hypotenuse H of the incline plane and record this value in Table 3.

2. Place the fan cart on the track. Turn the fan on. Incline the track until the cart cannot

climb the incline. Measure the height h of the track and record in Table 3 (Instructor

Manual).

3. Add mass and repeat.

Part B

Verification of Newton’s Second Law

Newton second law of motion describes the relationship between force and acceleration on a

body with some mass. This law gives the basis of dynamics in Newtonian physics. In this lab

we will experimentally verify the second law of motion and analyze the assumptions and

applications associated with it.

1.9 Objective

4

2. To study how the acceleration of an object down on an incline depends on the angle of the

incline and to obtain the acceleration due to gravity.

PART I

1.10 Objectives

To verify Newton’s second law

1.11 Theory

When using the second law to calculate the acceleration, it is necessary to determine the net

force that acts on the object. In this determination, a free body diagram helps enormously. A

free body diagram represents the object and the forces that act on it. Following diagram will

help in drawing the free body diagram for the system.

F = ma

Where “F” is the net force acting on the object of mass “m” and “a” is the resulting

acceleration of the object. For a cart of mass m1 on a horizontal track with a string attached

over a pulley to a mass m2, the net force (F) on the entire system cart and hanging mass (m2)

is the weight of the hanging mass. So,

F = m2 g (1.6)

According to Newton’s Second Law, this net force should be equal to “ma”, where m is the

total mass that is being accelerated at acceleration a, which in this case is

5

m1+m2 (1.7)

To obtain the acceleration, the cart will be started from rest. “t2” is the time it takes to travel a

certain distance (d). Acceleration is obtained using the following relation:

a =2d/t2 (1.9)

1.12 Assumptions:

1. Friction is ignored

2. Air drag is zero

3. String is rigid

1.13 Equipment

2. Super pulley with clamp

3. String

4. Stop watch

5. Mass balance

6. Dynamic cart track

7. Base and support rod

8. Mass hanger and mass set

9. Wooden or metal stopping block

1.14 Procedure

Level the track by setting the cart on the track to see which way it rolls. Adjust the leveling

feet to raise or lower the ends until the cart placed at rest on the track will not move.

2. Attach the pulley to the end of the track as shown in figure.

3. Place the dynamic cart on the track and attach the string to the hole in the end of the

cart and tie a mass hanger on the other end of the string. The string must be long

enough so the mass hanger reaches the floor.

4. Pull the cart back until the mass hanger reaches the pulley. Record this initial release

position. This will be the release position for all the trials.

6

5. Make a test run to determine how much mass is required on the mass hanger so that

the cart takes about two seconds to complete the run. Because of reaction time, too

short a total time will cause too much errors. Record the hanging mass in the table.

6. Place the cart against the adjustable end stop on the pulley and record the final

position of the cart.

7. Measure the time at least 5 times and record the values in the table.

8. Increase the mass of the cart and repeat the procedure two more times.

PART II

1.15 Objective

To study how the acceleration of an object down on an incline depends on the angle of the

incline and to obtain the acceleration due to gravity.

1.16 Theory

A body rolling/sliding down on inclined plane is being pulled by gravity. The acceleration

due to gravity is always straight down as shown.

The component of gravity which is parallel to the inclined plane is “g sinθ” [m/s2]. This is the

net acceleration of the body,

In this experiment, to measure the acceleration, the cart will be started from rest and the time

“t 2” [s] it takes to travel a certain distance “d” will be measured. Acceleration can then be

calculated using the equation

a = 2d / t2

7

A plot of acceleration versus sinθ should give a straight line with a slope equal to the

acceleration due to gravity “g”.

1.17 Equipment

2. Dynamic cart track

3. Base and support rod

4. Stop watch

1.15 Procedure

2. Setup the cart on the track against the end stop and record this value, it should be the

final position value.

3. Pull the cart up to the top of the track and record the initial position where the cart

will be released from rest.

4. Release the cart from rest and use the stopwatch to measure time it takes the cart to hit

the end stop. The person who releases the cart should also operate the stopwatch.

5. Repeat this for a couple of times. Record the values. Lower the end of the track by 1

cm and measure the time.

6. Repeat the experiment for 6 different angles, by lowering the track.

8

2 Moment of Inertia

2.1 Problem statement

The rotational version of Newton's Second Law ( = I) is completely analogous to the linear

version (F = ma). But this similarity masks the fact that rotational motion is actually a bit

more complicated. In particular, torque () is a more complicated variable than force (F), and

moment of inertia (I) is a more complicated quantity than mass (m). In this experiment we

will study the above parameters and will practically see the effect of radius and mass on

moment of inertia.

2.2 Objective

To investigate certain aspects of how the moment of inertia of an object depends on its

geometry.

Hint:

To do this, you will apply a torque to an object, and measure its acceleration. The moment of

inertia is easily calculated using the equation: =I, where I is moment of inertia in Kgm2,

is torque in N-m and is angular acceleration in rad/sec2.

2.3 Nomenclature

S. No Parameter Symbol Units

1 Torque acting on the pulley [Nm]

3 Radius of torque pulley r [m]

4 Gravitational acceleration g [m/sec2]

5 Tension in the string T [N]

6 Mass of solid disk M [kg]

7 Radius of solid disk R [m]

8 Moment of Inertia I [kgm2]

9 Angular velocity [rad/sec]

10 Angular acceleration [rad/sec2]

11 Radius of sliding mass R [m]

9

2.4 Theory

The equation for rotational motion holds only for rotational motion about a fixed axis, a

restriction for which there is no analog in the linear version of the equation.

You may have seen how torque depends on the point of application of the applied force. In

this experiment, you will investigate certain aspects of how the moment of inertia of an object

depends on its geometry.

For most purposes, the torque acting on a rotating disk can be calculated using the equation:

= 𝑚𝑔𝑟

This arrangement is shown in Figure 2.1. Weight of the hanging mass is acting on the disk

with a lever arm equal to the radius (r) of the torque pulley.

A more accurate calculation would take into account that the hanging mass m is accelerating

downward, so the tension T (N) of the thread is not equal to mg (N). In this case, applying

Newton’s second law (F = ma) to the hanging mass and the rotational version ( = I) to the

rotating disk, gives:

= rT (2.1)

As the summation of forces in the vertical direction is zero,

ma = mg – T (2.2)

Also we know that

= I (2.3)

Put for in (2.1), and get T

I

T=

r

Put above value of T in (2.2) to get

10

I

ma = mg − -

r

Using equation “a= r ” to replace a:

I

mr = mg −

r

Therefore:

mg

= I

mr +

r

This value for the angular acceleration can be substituted back into equation (2.3) to

determine the actual torque acting on the rotating disk:

mgr

= I = mr2

+1

I

To make things clear, the moment of inertia (I) of the disk can be replaced with its calculated

value, I= MR2/2. Where M=mass of disk and R=radius of the disk as shown in Figure 2.1.

Then:

mgr

= 2mr2

MR 2 +1

It's clear from this equation that if the mass and radius of the rotating disk are much greater

than the mass of the hanging weight and the radius of the torque pulley, as they are in this

apparatus, then this equation reduces to the simpler equation for torque:

= mgr

11

2.5 Apparatus

Rotational dynamics apparatus

2.6 Procedure

1. Set up the equipment as in Figure 2.2. Use the aluminum top disk and the small torque

pulley. Make sure that both valve pins are in the storage positions, so that the bottom

disk rests firmly on the base plate. Place tape over the 3 small holes in the top of the

aluminum disk.

2. Turn the air on and place the aluminum disk, torque pulley and sliding masses as

shown in Figure 2.2.

3. Be sure that the apparatus is leveled.

4. Attach the mass hanger, with a 20-gram mass, to the end of the thread. When the

thread is extended, the mass should almost reach the floor (ideally, the thread should

be 1 meter ± 1 cm long).

5. Adjust the pressure of the compressed air to approximately 9 psi.

6. Remove the sliding masses form the crosspiece and place them on the center post.

Use the hanging mass to apply a constant torque.

7. Wind the thread onto the torque pulley, until the mass is almost against the air pulley.

8. Hold the disk still until the display reads zero. Release the disk. As the disk rotates,

record each successive, non-zero reading of the display in Table. Record these values

as the hanging mass falls i.e. accelerating. Do not record any values that appear after

the mass has reached its highest point and started back down. You should get at least

six values for one fall. If you don't get that many, raise the apparatus and use a longer

piece of thread.

12

9. Measure the angular acceleration of the combined mass of the aluminum disk, the

torque pulley, the hub and rods, and the masses.

10. You can easily calculate the average angular acceleration within each time interval.

For example:2=(3-2)/(t3– t2); where t3 – t2 = 2 seconds, and angular velocity

(rad/s) is determined using the information written on the apparatus.

11. Replace the sliding masses on the crosspiece in the same orientation as they were in

on the center post. Position them as close as possible to the center hub. Measure and

record the distance of the center of the sliding masses from the axis of rotation.

Repeat your angular acceleration measurements and record in table.

12. Move each of the sliding masses 1.0 cm farther out from the center hub. Repeat the

measurements. Continue moving the masses out from the hub in increments of 1.0

cm. Each time measure the acceleration.

13

3 Pulley System

3.1 Problem statement

If you have ever looked at the end of a crane, or if you have ever noticed an engine hoist, or if

you have ever looked at the rigging on a sailboat, there is a block and tackle at work. A block

and tackle is an arrangement of rope and pulleys that allows you to trade force for distance.

As in many of the experiments you have performed, pulleys can be used simply to change the

direction of applied forces. However, systems of pulleys can also be arranged to perform

much the same function as a lever or an inclined plane, translating small-applied forces into

much larger forces.

3.2 Objective

In this experiment you will investigate how pulley systems can be used to amplify force and

to perform work.

3.3 Nomenclature

S. No Parameter Symbol Units

1 Mechanical Advantage M.A [Unit less]

2 Weight to be lifted Fout [N]

3 Force applied Fin [N]

3.4 Theory

In figure 3.1, if you are going to suspend the weight in the air then you have to apply an

upward force of 100 N to the rope. Obviously, if the rope is 100 meter long and you want to

lift the weight up 100 meter, you have to pull in 100 meter of rope to do it.

14

Now imagine that you add a pulley to the system, as shown in the Figure 3.2 :

Does this change anything? Not really. The only thing that changes is the direction of the

force you have to apply to lift the weight. You still have to apply 100 N of force to keep the

weight suspended, and you still have to reel in 100 meter of rope in order to lift the weight

100 meter.

15

This arrangement changes things in an interesting way. You can see that the weight is now

suspended by two ropes rather than one. That means the weight is split equally between the

two ropes, so each one holds less than 100 N. So, if you want to hold the weight suspended in

the air, you have to apply less than 100 N of force (the ceiling exerts the rest of force on the

other end of the rope). If you want to lift the weight 100 meter higher, then you have to reel

in twice as much rope – 200 meter of rope must be pulled in. This demonstrates a force-

distance tradeoff. The force has been cut in half but the distance the rope must be pulled has

doubled.

A block and tackle can contain as many pulleys as you like, although at some point the

amount of friction in the pulley shafts begins to become a significant source of resistance.

As with the lever and the inclined plane, pulley systems can be understood by analyzing

either the forces acting in the system or the work performed on and by the system.

The mechanical advantage of the pulley system is the ratio of Input force to the output Force

𝐹𝑖𝑛

𝑀𝐴 =

𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑡

3.5 Apparatus

1. Experiment Board.

2. Small pulley (2)

3. Pulley block

4. Large Pulley (2)

5. Spring balance

6. Masses

3.6 Procedure

In this experiment, the effects of friction are more pronounced than with the lever or the

inclined plane. To investigate the effects of friction in the pulleys:

1. Weigh a mass hanger with a 200-gram mass on the spring balance. Record your result.

2. Set up the equipment as in Figure 3.1, using the same mass hanger and mass. Record

the reading on the spring balance.

3. Tap on the experiment board, just enough so that the string is allowed to move slightly

in the pulley. Does the reading on the spring balance change? How does pulley friction

affect the transfer of force between the spring balance and the hanging mass?

In an ideal pulley system there would be no friction in the pulleys. The force from the spring

balance would be transferred completely to the hanging mass.

16

As with the lever and the inclined plane, pulley systems can be understood by analyzing

either the forces acting in the system or the work performed on and by the system. Set up

each of the pulley systems shown in Figure 3.2. For each pulley system, fill in the table.

17

4 Centripetal Force

4.1 Problem statement

Newton second law of motion describes the relationship between force and acceleration on a

body with some mass. This law gives the basis of dynamics in Newtonian physics. In this lab

we will experimentally verify the second law of motion and analyze the assumption. At

amusement parks, many rides whirl you around on circular paths. A model airplane attached

to a guideline often flies on a circle. In circus you might have seen a trick in which a car

vertically travels in circular path, and many satellites, including the moon, orbit the earth on

nearly circular paths. All of these are experiencing the centripetal force. Our goal in this

experiment is to understand how mass of the object and radius from the center of the circle

can affect the centripetal force.

4.2 Objective

To study the effect of centripetal force on an object, traveling on a circular path, by varying

the radius of the circle & the mass of the object, i.e. in two parts

Part I

The radius of the circle

Part II

The mass of the object

5.3 Nomenclature

S. No. Parameter Symbol Unit

1. Centripetal Force Fc [N]

2. Mass of hanging object m [kg]

3. Gravitational acceleration g [m/s2]

2. Mass of the object M [kg]

3. Velocity of the object v [m/sec]

4. Radius of Circle in which r [m]

object moves

5. Circumference of Circle C [m]

6. Time of one revolution T [s]

7. Angular Velocity [rad/s]

5.4 Theory

Newton’s 2nd law indicates that whenever an object accelerates, there must be a net force to

18

create the acceleration. Thus in uniform circular motion, there must be a net force to produce

the centripetal acceleration.

When an object of mass M, attached to a string of length “r”, is rotating in a circle, the force

on the object is given by,

Mv 2

Fc = = Mr2

r

There is a relationship between period and speed “v”, where v is distance traveled

(circumference of the circle = 2 r) divided by the time T.

2πr

v= T

If the radius is known, the speed can be calculated from the period and vice versa, and the

centripetal force can then be calculated using the relation

4π2 Mr

Fc =

T2

4.5 Equipment

1. Centripetal Force Assembly

2. Stop Watch

3. Graph paper

4. String

5. Rotating Platform

6. Balance

7. Mass and Hanger set

19

4.6 Apparatus

4.7 Procedure

PART I (Varying Radius)

1. The centripetal force and the mass of the hanging object will be held constant for this part

of the experiment. Weigh the object and record its mass in Table 1. Hang the object from

the side post and connect the string to the object.

2. The string must pass under the pulley on the center post.

3. Attach the clamp on the pulley to the end of the track nearer to the hanging object. Attach

a string to a hanging object and hang a known mass (m) over the clamp on the pulley.

Record this mass in Table 1. This establishes the constant centripetal force.

4. Select a radius by aligning the line on the side post with any desired position on the

measuring tape. While pressing down on the side post to assure that it is vertical, tighten

the thumbscrew on the side post to secure its position. Record this radius in Table 1.

5. The object on the side bracket must hang vertically. On the center post, adjust the spring

bracket vertically until the string from which the object hangs on the side post is aligned

with the vertical line on the side post.

6. Align the indicator bracket on the center post with the orange indicator.

7. Remove the mass that is hanging over the pulley and then remove the pulley.

8. Rotate the apparatus; increase the speed until the orange indicator is centered with the

indicator bracket on the center post. This indicates that the string supporting the hanging

object is once again vertical and thus the hanging object is at the desired radius.

9. Maintaining the speed, use a stopwatch and measure time for ten revolutions. Divide the

time by ten and record the period in table 3.

10. Move the side post to a new radius and repeat the procedure. Do this for a total of five

radii.

20

PART II (Varying mass)

1. The radius of rotation will be held constant for this part of the experiment.

2. Weigh the object with the additional side masses in the place. Record its mass. Hang the

object from the side post and connect the string from the spring to the object. The string

must pass under the pulley on the center post.

3. Attach the clamp-on pulley to the end of the track nearer to the hanging object and hang a

known mass over the clamp-on pulley. Record this mass. This establishes the constant

centripetal force.

4. Select a radius by aligning the line on the side post with any desired position on the

measuring tape. While pressing down on the side post to assure that it is vertical, tighten

the thumbscrew on the side post to assure its position. Record this radius in table 3.

5. The object on the side bracket must hang vertically on the center post, adjust the spring

bracket vertically until the string from which the object hangs on the side post is aligned

with the vertical line on the side post.

6. Align the indicator bracket on the center post with the orange indicator.

7. Remove the mass that is hanging over the pulley and remove the pulley.

8. Rotate the apparatus increasing the speed until the orange indicator is centered in the

indicator bracket on the center post. This indicates that the string supporting the hanging

object is once again vertical and thus the hanging object is at the desired radius.

9. Maintaining this speed, use a stopwatch to measure time for ten revolutions. Divide the

time by ten and record the period in table 3.

10. Vary the mass of the object by removing the side masses. Keep the radius constant and

measure the new period. Weigh the object again and record the mass and period.

21

5 Spring Potential and Gravitational

Potential Energy & Elastic and Inelastic

collision

Part A

Spring Potential and Gravitational Potential Energy

The principle of conservation of energy states that energy can neither be created nor

destroyed, but can only be transformed from one form to another. This experiment aims to

verify this law by converting spring potential energy to gravitational potential energy.

5.2 Objective

To examine spring potential energy and gravitational potential energy and to show how

energy is conserved.

5.3 Nomenclature

S.No. Parameter Symbol Unit

1. Potential Energy P.E [J]

22

5.4 Theory

The Potential Energy (P.E) of a spring compressed a distance “x” form equilibrium is given

by;

1 2

P. E = kx

2

According to Hooke’s law, the force exerted by the spring is proportional to the distance the

spring is compressed or stretched.

F = kx

Thus the spring constant can experimentally be determined by applying different forces to

compress or stretch the spring at different distances and then plotting a graph between force

and distance. The slope of the resulting straight line will be equal to the spring constant k.

Gravitational potential energy (P.E) is the energy that an object has by virtue of its position.

The gravitational potential energy gained by a cart, as it climbs an incline is given by

P. E = mgh

If energy is conserved, the potential energy of the compressed spring will be

completely converted to gravitational potential energy.

5.5 Equipment

1. Dynamic cart with spring plunger

2. Dynamic cart track

3. Super pulley with clamp

4. Mass hanger and mass set

5. Base and support rod

6. Meter stick

7. String

5.6 Procedure

Part I

1. Level the track by setting the cart to see which way it rolls. Adjust the leveling feet to

raise or lower the ends until the cart placed on the track will not move.

2. Measure and record the mass of the cart.

3. Set the cart on the track with the spring plunger against the stopping block as shown

in figure 6.1. Attach a string to the cart and attach the other end to a mass hanger,

passing the string over the pulley.

4. Record the cart position in table 1.

23

5. Add mass to the mass hanger and record the new position. Repeat this for a total of 5

different masses.

Part II

1. Remove the leveling feet.

2. Remove the string from the cart and cock the spring plunger to its maximum

compression position. Place the cart against the end stop. Measure the distance the

spring plunger is compressed and record value in table 2.

3. Incline the track and measure its height and hypotenuse (Fig. 6.2) to determine the

angle of track. Record the angle in table 2.

4. Record the initial position of the cart in table 2.

5. Release the plunger by tapping it with a stick and record the distance the cart goes up

the track. Repeat this five times.

6. Change the angle of inclination and repeat the measurements for two more times.

24

Figure 5.2 Experimental Setup for Part-II

Part B

Elastic and Inelastic Collision

In principal, it is always possible to use Newton’s second law to predict how an object will

accelerate under the influence of a net force. But in the situations like when a rifle is fired, a

moment-to-moment description of the force on bullet is hard to obtain. Similarly when a

batsman hits a ball, it is very difficult to collect the complete information about the change of

forces during the collision. However, using impulse-momentum theorem and the law of

conservation of momentum, information about such situations can be obtained. In this

experiment, we will study the law of conservation of momentum.

5.8 Objective

To qualitatively explore the conservation of momentum for elastic and inelastic collisions

5.9 Theory

When two bodies collide with each other, the total momentum p=mv (m=mass and

v=velocity) of both bodies is conserved, regardless of the type of collision. Following are the

types of collisions:

25

5.9.1 Elastic Collision

An elastic collision is one in which the total kinetic energy of the system after the collision is

equal to the total kinetic energy before the collision. An example is the collision in which

colliding carts bounce off each other, as will be demonstrated in this particular experiment.

5.9.2 Inelastic Collision

An inelastic collision is one in which the total kinetic energy of the system is not the same

before and after the collision. If the objects stick together after colliding, the collision is said

to be completely inelastic. An example is the collision in which two colliding carts hit and

stick to each other, as will be demonstrated in this particular experiment.

5.10 Equipment

1. Dynamic cart

2. Collision cart with bumper magnet set installed

3. Dynamic cart track

5.11 Procedure

Level the track by setting a cart on the track and observe which side it rolls to. Raise that end

(or lower the other) by adjusting the leveling feet at the end of the track so that a cart placed

on the track will not move.

Orient the two carts so that their magnetic bumpers repel each other.

Case 1: Place one cart in the middle of the track. Give the other cart an initial velocity

towards the cart at rest.

Case 2: Start the carts with one at each end of the track. Give each cart approximately the

same velocity towards each other.

Case 3: Start both carts at one end of the track. Give the first cart a slow velocity and the

second cart a faster velocity so that the second cart catches the first cart.

Put two mass bars in one of the carts so that the mass of one cart is approximately three times

(3M) the mass of the other cart (1M).

26

Case 1: Place the 3M cart at rest in the middle of the track. Give the other cart an initial

velocity towards the cart at rest.

Case 2: Place the 1M cart at rest in the middle of the track. Give the 3M cart an initial

velocity towards the cart at rest.

Case 3: Start the carts with one at each end of the track. Give each cart approximately the

same velocity towards each other.

Case 4: Start both carts at one end of the track. Give the first cart a slow velocity and the

second cart a faster velocity so that the second cart catches the first cart. Perform experiment

for both cases~ with 1M cart first and then the 3M cart first.

Orient the two carts so that their hook and pile ends face each other. Repeat the cases as listed

in Part I and II.

27

6 Torque and Torsion

6.1 Problem statement

The design of a structure or machine to serve some definite purpose almost always involves

consideration of the following questions:

1. What are the loads that come upon the structure and its parts?

2. How large, in what form and of what material should these parts be made so that

they may sustain these loads safely and economically?

For this we have to study and examine the relationship between external forces acting on the

solid bodies and the internal response generated by these forces

Torque and torsion are external and internal forces respectively. Torque is generated in

circular power transmission shafts, drive shafts, axles, ship propellers and torsion based

suspensions etc.

6.2 Objectives

6.2.1 PART A

torsional loading and to determine the modulus of rigidity of the material.

6.2.2 PART B

To find out the value of torque on a torsionally loaded specimen using “Torsion Testing

Apparatus”.

6.3 Nomenclature

S. No. Parameter Symbol Unit

1. Torque T (Nm)

2. Shear modulus G [N/m2]

3. Length of shaft L [m]

4. Diameter of the shaft D [m]

5. Radius of the shaft r [m]

6. Angular deformation [rad]

7. Applied torque Ta [Nm]

8. Mass M [Kg]

9. Gravitational acceleration g [m/sec2]

28

10. Radius of the pulley r [m]

11. Polar moment of inertia J [m4]

12. Location of dial gauge X [m]

PART A

Relationship between torque and deflection

6.4 Apparatus

Cussons Torsion Apparatus

6.5 Theory

In engineering, torque or torsion measurement is commonly required to be made for various

reasons; for example, torsion tests are made on materials to determine such properties as

modulus of elasticity in shear, G, and the torsional yield strength. Also torsion tests are

conducted on parts like shafts, axles and tools which are subjected to torsional loading.

Elastic elements subjected to torque exhibit angular deformation. In a circular shaft of length

L and diameter D, subjected to a torque T, angular deformation will be produced. The

twisting produced at any cross-section is proportional to the distance x from the fixed end.

Over the length L, torque will be

T G / L D 4 / 32 G / L r 4 / 2 (6.1)

29

The geometric properties like D and L (or the measurement location x from the fixed end)

will be known. Hence by measuring and knowing G for the material used, T can be

computed. If the applied torque Ta is known, difference between T and Ta will exhibit the

performance of the equipment and the experiment. Angular deformation can be measured

by several methods. A simple arrangement using a dial gauge or, a sophisticated system of

strain gauges can be used.

In our experiment we will use the dial gauge indicator.

The two specific objectives are:

curve.

2. To investigate the threshold characteristic of the Cussons Torsion Apparatus.

The following assumptions are made when considering the shaft subjected to pure torque T:

1. The twisting action is uniform along the whole length of the shaft

2. Radii remain straight

3. Cross-sections remain plane

These assumptions generally hold if the deformation is elastic and the shaft is circular. In our

case we will use a circular shaft.

1. T = (G /L) ( J) [Nm]

L

2. G = (slope)( J ) [N/m2]

3. J = πD4 /32 (Polar moment of inertia) [m4]

4. Ta = Mgr [Nm]

6.6 Procedure

This apparatus which can be set up on a bench can take specimen up to 6 mm in diameter and

450 mm long. The torsion head is supported in ball bearing to minimize friction and improve

accuracy with small loads. The torque is applied using a couple arms, which applies pure

torque (without side loads) using twin cords from diametrically opposite points. These cords

pass over a system of guide pulleys to a load hanger. 180o dial and pointer measure angular

deflection with an accuracy of about 1o.

The dial indicator may be used at any point along the specimen. One end of the specimen is

clamped rigidly in the slot at the end of frame while the other end is fitted into the slot

provided in the torsion head. The dial gauge is set with its vertical axis 50 mm from the

center of the specimen.

30

Set up the specimen as described and position the dial gauge at four different locations:

X

= 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 0.9

L

Apply loads from 0.5 kg to 5 kg in increments of 0.5 kg and note the corresponding angular

deflection “”.

Shear modulus for different materials:

G = 83 x 103MPa (Steel)

G = 41 x 103MPa (copper)

G = 28 x 103MPa (Aluminum)

PART B

Failure due to torsion

6.7 Objectives

To find out the value of torque and deflection until its failure on a torsionally loaded

specimen by using “Torsion Testing Apparatus”

6.8 Apparatus

2. Specimen (Steel/Aluminum)

3. Torsion testing apparatus

6.9 Procedure

In this experiment, different metallic rods are subjected to torsional loading. These can be

stressed until fracture. In each case, torque and twisting angle arc measured. Specimen made

of various materials, with different diameters and lengths may be investigated. The effective

torque is recorded with the aid of a reference rod equipped with strain gauges. The torque is

directly displayed on a digital display of a strain gauge measurement amplifier.

The torsional loading is transmitted to the specimen by a worm gear and hand wheel. The

twisting angle at the output and the input is read off by 360o scale. At the input side of the

gear there is an addition of a 5-digit revolution counter, with reference torsion rod and strain

gauges. The specimen is mounted on one side to the loading device and on the other side to

the torque measurement device.

The load torque applied to the specimen produces shear stress in the measurement torsion

rod. These shear stresses are proportional to the load torque. Strain gauges are used for

detecting the shear stresses. Because strain gauges can only measure strain but not twisting,

they must be applied in the direction of the maximum principal stress. In the case of pure

31

torsion, the maximum of principal stress will occur at an angle of 45o to the axis of the torsion

rod.

1. Mount the specimen between the loading device and the torque-measuring unit.

2. Use the l5mm hexagon socket.

3. Make sure that the shifting specimen holder of the load device is in the mid position.

4. Make sure that there is no preload on the specimen, if necessary turn the hand wheel

at the input of the worm gear until the readout of the amplifier is zero.

5. Set both indicators at the input and at the output shaft of the worm gear to zero.

6. Set dial gauge of the compensation unit to zero.

7. Reset revolution counter.

1. Turn the load wheel at the input of the gear clockwise to load specimen. Turn it only

for a defined angle increment.

2. For the first rotation choose an increment of a quarter rotation (90o), for the second

and third rotation to a half rotation (180o) and for the 4th to 10th rotation of one

rotation.

3. Fracture will occur between 90 and 200 rotations.

4. Compensate the deformation of the measuring torsion rod after each angle increment.

5. Read out the torque value from the display of the amplifier and notice it together with

the indicated twist angle. Tabulate the results.

32

7 Stresses in Thin- Walled Cylinders

In stress analysis problems, one is interested in finding the maximum and the minimum

normal stress and the maximum shearing stress at a point, which can be further used for

analysis. Stresses and strains on objects can be determined both analytically and

experimentally. The thin cylinder apparatus has been developed to enable and determine the

principal strains and to verify analytical formulae for stress and strain with actual measured

results on a thin cylinder under pressure.

7.2 Objectives

1. To obtain the circumferential stress system in an “open ends” condition, where the

cylinder is relieved of all longitudinal stress and thereby, determine the value of Young’s

Modulus and Poisson’s ratio.

2. To obtain the biaxial stress system, that is when both longitudinal and circumferential

stresses are set up in the cylinder.

7.3 Nomenclature

S.No. Parameter Symbol Unit

1. Hoop stresses [from gauge 1 & 6] σH [N/m2]

2. Longitudinal stresses[from gauge 2] σL [N/m2]

3. Internal pressure p [MPa]

4. Wall thickness of cylinder t [mm]

5. Internal diameter of cylinder d [mm]

6. Hoop or circumferential strain H Unit less

7. Longitudinal strain L Unit less

8. Poisson’s ratio Unit less

9. Young’s modulus E [N/m2]

33

7.4 Theory

By symmetry the two principal stresses will be circumferential or hoop and longitudinal.

These are given by:

pd

σH = (7.1)

2t

pd

σL = (7.2)

4t

Where

d = 76.14mm

t = 3.18mm

The cylinder in this condition has no end constraint and therefore the longitudinal component

of stress will be zero, though there will be some strain in this direction due to Poisson’s

effect. The principal strains for this condition are:

H = H / E (7.3)

L = -H /E (7.4)

Where

To determine the value of Poisson’s ratio, we divide the above two equations to get:

L / H = - (7.5)

= actual strain from gauge 2 (-ive) /average actual strain from gauges 1 and 6 (+ive).

7.4.2 Closed Ends Conditions

By constraining the ends, a longitudinal as well as circumferential stress will be imposed

upon the cylinder. The principal strains for this condition are given by:

H = 1/ E (H - L) (7.6)

L = 1/ E (L - H) (7.7)

7.5 Apparatus

1. Thin cylinder apparatus

2. Electrical rosette strain gauges

3. Strain indicator

34

7.6 Procedure

7.6.1 Open ends condition

1. Ensure that the return valve on the pump is fully screwed so that oil can return to the

oil reservoir.

2. At zero pressure, each strain gauge should be brought to zero or the initial strain

readings recorded as appropriate for subsequent adjustment.

3. Screw the adjustment screw until it reaches the stop. This moves the plate away from

the left hand end plate and thus the longitudinal load is diverted from the cylinder to

the plate.

4. Close the return valve and operate the hand pump to pump oil into the cylinder to get

a pressure reading of 0.5MPa. Note hoop strain readings (H) on strain gauges 1 and 6.

5. Increase pressure by 0.5MPa and note corresponding readings on gauges 1 and 6.

Continue until a maximum of 3.0MPa.

6. Now note again the strain readings, except by decrementing the pressure from 3.0MPa

to 0 MPa. This used to analyze any effects of hysteresis.

7. Note hoop strain readings for gauges 1 and 6.

By calculating the respective hoop stresses (H) at these intermediate pressures and then

plotting a graph of H against L, the value of Young’s Modulus may be determined. Graphs

of both gauges may be plotted and the average of value for the Young’s Modulus may be

determined. A value for Poisson’s ratio may be determined by taking the ratio of longitudinal

and circumferential strains.

7.6.2 Closed ends condition

1. Ensure that the return valve on the pump is fully screwed.

2. Unscrew the adjustment screws. This will leave the plate to be in contact with the

left end of the cylinder hence both the faces of cylinders will be in engaged and

longitudinal stress will be produced.

3. At zero pressure each strain gauge should he brought to zero, or the initial strain

readings recorded as appropriate for subsequent adjustment.

4. Now close the return valve and operate the hand pump to pump oil into the cylinder

and push the piston to the end of the cylinder.

5. Increase pressure to 3.0MPa.

6. Note hoop strain readings for gauges 1 and 6 in the table.

The experimental strains can now be compared with the expected strain for gauges 3, 4 and 5.

The experimental values of principal strains found from gauges 1, 2 and 6 can also be

compared with theoretical values from equation 3, 4, 6 and 7.

35

Figure 7.1 Experimental setup

36

8 Stress and Strain relationship & Principal

Stresses

Part A

8.1 Problem statement

Stress and strain developed in loaded members are considered for they play important roles in

framed structures and machines. Examples include trusses, landing gears, and hydraulic

cranes. It is important to avoid excessive deformation, or strain, that may prevent a structure

from serving its intended purpose. The relationship between stress and strain is described

with the aid of a stress-strain diagram and helps in analyzing mechanical properties of the test

piece.

8.2 Objectives

1. To demonstrate the relationship between stress and strain using the Flexural Cantilever

Apparatus.

2. To find the value of Modulus of Elasticity (Young’s Modulus) of an Aluminum beam

using the same apparatus.

8.3 Nomenclature

S.No Parameter Symbol Unit

1. Stress σ [N/m2]

2. Strain ε Unit less

3. Elastic Modulus E [N/m2]

4. Load applied P [N]

5. Effective Beam Length L [m]

6. Beam width b [m]

7. Beam thickness t [m]

8. Minimum principle strain min Unit less

10. Strain measured along corresponding 1,2,,2 Unit less

axis using rosette

11. Poisson’s ratio Unit less

37

12. Maximum Stress max [N/m]

13. Minimum Stress min [N/m]

14. Angle between gauge I and min [rad]

longitudinal beam axis

15. Angle between gauge I and lateral max [rad]

beam axis .

8.4 Theory

The purpose of this experiment is to calculate the modulus of elasticity of an aluminum beam

by loading the beam in cantilever bending. The modulus of elasticity, a fundamental constant

for linear elastic materials, is an index of the stiffness of the material. For many common

structural materials including aluminum alloys and steels, strain is an essentially linear

function of the stress over the range of stresses normally encountered by load-carrying

members. The sketch below represents a typical stress-strain diagram for a metal under

uniaxial stress. By definition, the slope of the linear portion of the diagram is the modulus of

elasticity. Therefore,

E = (8.1)

Figure 8.1 Stress Strain Diagram

Stress is a defined concept, and is not directly measurable. Because of this, determination of

the stress in a complex structural member or mechanical part ordinarily requires measurement

of the strains and subsequent calculation of the stresses from Hook’s law. Experimental stress

analysis is a popular engineering tool used in the design of safe and reliable products and

engineering structure.

Experimental stress analysis applies from preliminary design to the finished product.

Several practical techniques are available for this purpose e.g. photo elastic coating

and models, electrical resistance strain gauges and acoustical strain gauges.

The modern bonded electrical resistance strain gauges are widely used for the testing

of loaded parts, members and structures, as they are more accurate than other

available instruments.

38

Experimental stress analysis is becoming increasingly important as primary sensing

element in loads cells as well as in pressure, force, torque, displacement and other

special transducers (structural testing).

8.5 Apparatus

1. Cantilever flexural frame

1 1

2. High strength aluminum alloy beam,8 × 1 × 12 2 (in3 )

3. Electrical strain gauges

4. Strain indicator

5. Laboratory weights with mass hanger

6. Scale

8.6 Procedure

1. Measure the dimensions of the aluminum beam. Measure the total length from where

the beam is fastened to the free end.

2. Setup the strain indicator as described in the inside panel and connect the strain gauge

to the binding post as shown in the wiring diagram.

3. Attach a mass hanger to the free end of the beam. Record the strain indicator reading.

4. Increment the load in steps and note the corresponding strain readings. Continue

taking readings until the free end is deflected to its maximum position.

5. Now reverse the procedure by decrementing the same loads and noting corresponding

strains. (This will be used for study of any hysteresis effects)

6. Calculate the corresponding stresses to loads applied by using the following flexure

formula:

6PL

= (8.2)

bt2

Figures 8.2a and 8.2b are showing wiring diagrams of flexor and strain indicator. The

numbering on each diagram shows the corresponding wires to be connected.

39

Figure 8.2aWiring diagram of flexor

40

Part B

Principal Stresses

For design purposes, we normally seek the largest positive (tensile) and negative

(compressive) normal stresses and the largest shear stress. These tensile and compressive

stresses are called the Principal Stresses and they can be determined by using a strain rosette

and Wheatstone bridge.

8.9 Objectives

1. To determine the principal stresses on an aluminum beam using the flexure Cantilever

Apparatus.

2. To determine the value of Poisson’s ratio using the same apparatus.

3. To determine the angles between strain gauge and principal axes using the flexure

cantilever apparatus and comparing them with measurements through a protractor

directly on the rosette.

8.10 Theory

The purpose of this experiment is to measure the strains along three different axes

surrounding a point on a cantilever beam, calculate the principal strains and then the principal

stresses from these strains, and compare the results with the stress calculated from the flexure

formula for such a beam and with the help of these values, also find the value of Poisson’s

Ratio for that particular material.

The three axes along which strains are to be measured can be arbitrarily oriented about the

point of interest. For computational convenience, however, it is preferable to space the

measurement axes apart by submultiples of it, such as /3(60o) or /4(45o). An integral array

of strain gages intended for simultaneous multiple strain measurements about a point is

known “rosette”. Three-gage strain rosettes are commercially available in two principal forms

corresponding to the above angles. These are known as the “delta” or equiangular rosette and

the 450 rectangular rosette respectively.

41

min = A – B and max = A + B (8.3)

Where

A = (1 + 2)/2

B = [1/(2)1/2][( 1 - 2)2 + (2 - 3)2]1/2

And

min and max = Minimum and Maximum Principal strains respectively.

1, 2 and 3 = Strains measured along corresponding axes of rosette elements

For computation of Poisson’s ratio:

= min / max (8.4)

The principal stresses can be calculated by substituting the principal strains from equation

(8.3) into the biaxial expressions for Hook’s Law:

max = E / 1 - 2 (max + min) (8.6)

= 6PL/bt2 (8.7)

To calculate the angles between gauge 1 and principal axes:

(2 ε2 −1 −3 )

min = ½ tan –1 (8.8)

( 1 −3 )

max = max + 90o (8.9)

Where:

min = angle between gauge I and longitudinal beam axis [rad].

max = angle between gauge I and lateral beam axis [rad] .

8.11 Apparatus

1. Cantilever flexural frame.

1 1

2. High strength aluminum alloy beam, 8 × 1 × 12 2 (in3 )

3. Electrical rosette strain gauges

4. Strain indicator

5. Laboratory weights with mass hanger

42

6. Micrometer or Vernier calipers

7. Scales

8. Protractor

8.12 Procedure

1. Measure the dimensions of the aluminum beam. Measure the total length from where

the beam is fastened and from the center gauge to the free end.

2. Setup the strain indicator as described in the inside panel and connect the strain gauge

to the binding post as shown in the wiring diagram 8.4a .

3. Turn the strain indicator off and disconnect the independent gauge element 1 lead

from the P+ binding post, leaving the common leads connected.

4. Connect the cable lead from the gauge control 2 and note the reading on the indicator

display. This is the initial reading on gauge 2 and should be recorded.

5. Repeat this procedure for gauge element 3 remembering to leave the balance control

fixed in its original position at all times.

6. Calculate load P [MPa] to produce 100MPa stress using equation (6.7).

7. Leave gauge 3 connected; apply this load P to the free end. Record the corresponding

strain.

8. Leaving the load on the beam, repeat the above procedure for gauge elements 2 and 1.

9. Measure with a protractor the counterclockwise angles between gauge 1 and the

longitudinal and lateral beam axes.

10. With the last gauge still connected, remove the load from the beam. The strain

indicator should now indicate the same as the initial reading for this gauge. If the

readings are not closely coincident, the sources of error should be pinpointed and the

experiment should be repeated.

43

9 Gyroscope

9.1 Problem statement

Gyroscopes can be very perplexing objects because they move in peculiar ways and even

seem to defy gravity. These special properties make gyroscopes extremely important in

everything from your bicycle to the advanced navigation system on the space shuttle. A

typical airplane uses about a dozen gyroscopes in everything from its compass to its

autopilot. The Russian Mir space station used 11 gyroscopes to keep its orientation to the sun,

and the Hubble Space Telescope has a batch of navigational gyros as well. Gyroscopic effects

are also central to things like yo-yos and Frisbees.

9.2 Nomenclature:

S. No. Parameter Symbol Units

1. Angle of outer gimbal. [rad]

2. Angle of inner gimbals. [rad]

3. Angle of the Rotor. [rad]

4. Torque τ [Nm]

5. Moment of Inertia I [kgm2]

9.3 Theory

A gyroscope consists essentially of a rotor which may spin freely about its geometric axis.

When mounted in a Cardan’s suspension (Figure9.4), gyroscope may assume any orientation,

but its mass center must remain fixed in space. In order to define the position of a gyroscope

at a given instant, we shall select a fixed frame of reference OXYZ, with the origin O located

at the mass center of the gyroscope and the Z axis directed along the line defined by bearings

A and A’ of the outer gimbals, and we shall consider a reference position of the gyroscope in

which the two gimbals and a gravity diameter DD1 of the rotor are located in the fixed XZ

plane (Figure9.4) The Gyroscope may be brought from this reference position into any

arbitrary position by means of the following steps:

1. A rotation of the outer gimbals through an angle about the axis AA’

2. A rotation of the inner gimbals through about BB’

3. A rotation of the rotor through about CC’

The angles ,, are called the Eulerian angles; they completely characterize the position of

the gyroscope at any given instant. Their derivatives ,, and define, respectively, the rate

of precession, the rate of notation and the rate of spin of the notation, and the rate of spin of

44

the gyroscope at the instant considered. The mysterious effect is precession. For example if

you have a spinning gyroscope and you try to rotate its spin axis, the gyroscope will instead

try to rotate about an axis at right angles to your force axis.

In Figure 9.1 (1), the gyroscope is spinning on its axis.

In figure 9.1 (2), a force is applied to try to rotate the spin axis.

In figure 9.1 (3), the gyroscope is reacting to the input force along an axis perpendicular to

the input force.

9.3.2 Cause of precession:

Let's look at two small sections of the gyroscope as it is rotating -- the top and the bottom,

like this:

When the force is applied to the axle, the section at the top of the gyroscope will try to move

to the left, and the section at the bottom of the gyroscope will try to move to the right, as

shown. If the gyroscope is not spinning, then the wheel flops over. If the gyroscope is

spinning, think about what happens to these two sections of the gyroscope: Newton's first law

45

of motion states that a body in motion continues to move at a constant speed along a straight

line unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. So the top point on the gyroscope is acted on

by the force applied to the axle and begins to move toward the left. It continues trying to

move leftward because of Newton's first law of motion, but the gyro's spinning rotates it, like

this:

This effect is the cause of precession. The different sections of the gyroscope receive forces

at one point but then rotate to new positions! When the section at the top of the gyro rotates

90 degrees to the side, it continues in its desire to move to the left. The same holds true for

the section at the bottom -- it rotates 90 degrees to the side and it continues in its desire to

move to the right. These forces rotate the wheel in the precession direction. As the identified

points continue to rotate 90 more degrees, their original motions are cancelled. So the

gyroscope's axle hangs in the air and processes. When you look at it this way you can see that

precession isn't mysterious at all -- it is totally in keeping with the laws of physics!

In order to compute the components of the angular velocity and of the angular momentum of

the gyroscope, we shall use a rotating system of axes OXYZ attached to the inner gimbals,

with the y axis along BB’ and the z axis along CC’ (Figure.9.4)

A couple or torque must act on the disk in a plane perpendicular to the plane of the disk and

to the plane of paper, with a clockwise sense of rotation, the magnitude of the couple will be

I

This couple is called the gyroscopic couple. Thus, if we apply to the gyroscope a couple Mo

about an axis perpendicular to its axis of spin, the gyroscope will precess about an axis

perpendicular to both the spin axis and the couple axis.

9.4 Equipment

1. Cussons Electrical Gyroscope,

2. Stopwatch and

3. Optical tachometer

46

9.5 Procedure

1. Place the 50 gram weight on to the inner gimbals extension shaft at the motor end.

Slacken the clamp screw to release the inner gimbals from the outer gimbals. Adjust

the position of the 50 gram on the motor end inner gimbals extension shaft until the

gyroscope is balanced about the Y-Y’ axis.

2. Hold one of the extension bars so that the spin axis is horizontal whilst rotating the

speed control clockwise until the required rotational speed of the gyroscope is

achieved. Measure the rotational speed using the optical tachometer.

3. Release the extension bar with the spin axis horizontal and if necessary adjust the

position of the 50 gram balance weight so that the gyroscope remains horizontal and

does not rotate about the Z-Z’ axis.

4. Take hold of one of the extension bars and place 150 gram weight on the rotor inner

gimbals extension shaft at the 10cm mark. Release the extension bar with the spin

axis horizontal and measure the period of precession and the direction of precession.

Measure the gyroscope speed.

5. Repeat the procedure at paragraph 4 above moving the weight to different distances

from the vertical column. Take more readings by adding a second and then a third

weight to the extension bar.

6. If required, move the weights to the other extension bar and repeat the measurements.

47

Figure 9.4 Electrical Gyroscope

48

Problem Based Learning (PBL) Statements

PBL statements will shared with students soon.

49

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