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ME-242

Solid Mechanics Lab (MEL-II)


ISO 9001:2008 MEL-02-S Rev. # 02 Date: 10-January-2017

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


Students Lab Manual
For

Solid Mechanics Lab


(MEL II)
Prepared by: Muhammad Jalal, Haider Ali, Atif Muzaffar

Name Signature

Reviewed by: Dr. Sohail Malik, Assistant Professor,


Lab In-charge: FME
ISO 9001
Mr. Massab Junaid
Section:
Approved by:
Dr. S M Ahmad
Dean FME
Issued by:
In-charge Dr. Muhammad Ilyas
student section

i
Table of Contents
Pre Mid-Term Course Content.................................................................................................. iii
Post Mid-Term Course Content ................................................................................................ iv
Health & Safety Regulations ..................................................................................................... v
Lab Regulations ........................................................................................................................ vi
GENERAL LAB RUBRICS .................................................................................................... vii
1 Thrust Force of a Fan and verification of Newton’s Law .................................................. 1
2 Moment of Inertia ............................................................................................................... 9
3 Pulley System ................................................................................................................... 14
4 Centripetal Force .............................................................................................................. 18
5 Spring Potential and Gravitational Potential Energy & Elastic and Inelastic collision.... 22
6 Torque and Torsion .......................................................................................................... 28
7 Stresses in Thin- Walled Cylinders .................................................................................. 33
8 Stress and Strain relationship & Principal Stresses .......................................................... 37
9 Gyroscope ......................................................................................................................... 44
Problem Based Learning (PBL) Statements ............................................................................. 49

ii
Pre Mid-Term Course Content
The following experiments will be performed before Mid-Term Exam:
1. Thrust Force and verification of Newton’s law
2. Moment of Inertia
3. Pulley system
4. Centripetal Force
5. Spring Potential and Gravitational Potential Energy & Elastic and Inelastic collision
6. Torque and Torsion

iii
Post Mid-Term Course Content
The following experiments will be performed in the Post Mid-Term Session:
7. Stresses in thin walled cylinders
8. Stress and Strain relationship & Principal Stresses
9. Gyroscope

iv
Health & Safety Regulations
Users of any FME Laboratory must comply with the following safety instructions. At the
beginning of the course the instructor should brief the students about health and safety. The
students should know where the fire exits, fire extinguisher, fire alarm and the assembly point
are in case of emergency such as fire or earthquake etc.
• No experiments should be conducted without the presence of Lab engineer and
technician.
• Smoking is strictly prohibited inside the Lab.
• Always wear trousers, overall and safety shoes when you operate any machine and
perform any experiment. Shalwar Kameez and sandals are not allowed at all.
• There should be no over-crowding. Only one person should operate one machine. In
case, the experiment needs more than one person for the operation, other group mates
would join.
• Watch for over-head hanging hoists and cranes.
• Make sure that you stay away from hot exhaust lines and moving parts of machines.
• Before operating any machine, you must be aware of the following:
a. Location of fire extinguishers, fire blanket and the outside exits.
b. How the machine operates. Read instructions or manual of the machine before
operating it.
c. How to turn off the machine in case of damages.
• When you hear or see a danger alarm from the machine that you using, stop the
machine right away.
• Make sure that there is no fuel or oil spill on the floor.
• Do not run inside the lab and concentrate on the present task.
• When moving heavy equipment or gas cylinders, use carts.
• Always use the right tools for the given task.
• Handle the tools and equipment with extreme care and return the tools to their proper
places.
• For cleaning tools or equipment, use only the proper cleaner. Never use fuels such as
gasoline or diesel for cleaning.
• Handle fuels with extreme caution.
• Use the designated area for this purpose.
• Use the proper containers (safety cans) to carry fuels.
• Make sure there is no electric spark present.
• Do not leave fuels in open containers.
• Please leave the Lab clean and tidy at end of experiment.

v
Lab Regulations
Lab Course will be graded in the following way:
Regular Labs (45%)
Problem Based Learning (25%)
Final Exam (30%)
Note: Above grading policy is subject to change. If needed Lab Instructor/In
charge can modify it.
All students should bring their own lab manual available in services center, pencil,
ballpoint pen, graph paper etc.
Eating in Lab: Eating and drinking is strictly prohibited in lab. Anyone found
eating or drinking in lab will be marked absent for that lab.
Make up Lab: No Makeup lab will be allowed. However, with the permission from
the Dean one can perform experiments.
Late Comers: Students should come on time for the lab. Late comers will be
marked absent.
Schedule: Schedule will be provided at beginning of the course.
Duration: Duration of each practical experiment is 3 hours. The students should
keep themselves busy and get full understanding of the apparatus and the
experiments.
Cheating: Cheating will be handled in accordance with FME policy, the details of
which are given on FME website http://10.1.16.11/
Note:
1. Each member of every group should bring lab manual, scientific calculator
and graph paper.
2. Study and understand all the content related to the lab to be performed
before coming for the lab session.
3. Hand in lab reports before leaving the lab.
4. Next day submission of lab report will not be accepted.
5. Switch off mobile phones during lab session.

vi
GENERAL LAB RUBRICS
Levels of Proficiency
Proposed
PLO↓ Assessment 0<S≤4 4<S≤6 6<S≤8 8 < S ≤ 10
Technique
Performance
Poor Fair Good Excellent
Criteria ↓
Student does not
PLO8 Observation
come on time or
(May not be Student is in lab at start of
(Affective Punctuality student is absent NA NA
added in the final scheduled lab time. (S=10)
domain) for no reason.
grading)
(S=0)
Evaluation while Demonstrates
performing the either no, Demonstrates
Demonstrates fair good
PLO4 experiment incomplete or
operational skills Demonstrates excellent
through Apparatus incorrect operational skills
(Psychomotor and identify operational skills and identify
observation and Handling operational skills and identify
domain) parameters and parameters and uncertainties
following and is unable to parameters and
uncertainties
pertinent identify parameters uncertainties
procedure and uncertainties
Students are able
Students are not Students are fairly
to take into
able to take into able to take into
consideration to a Students are able to
consideration the consideration the
Appreciation for good extent the comprehensively take into
advancements in advancements in
Technological advancements in consideration the advancements
PLO 12 Through reports technology and technology and
Innovation and technology and in technology and possibly
possibly integrate possibly integrate
Advancement possibly integrate integrate all or some of them
all or some of them all or some of
all or some of into proposed solution.
into proposed them into proposed
them into
solution. solution.
proposed solution.
Demonstrates
Demonstrates no Demonstrates fair
good
understanding of understanding of
PLO5 understanding of Demonstrates excellent
modeling and modeling and
Through Lab Modeling and modeling and understanding of modeling and
(Cognitive simulation simulation
Reports Simulation simulation simulation techniques utilizing
domain) techniques techniques
techniques modern tools
utilizing modern utilizing modern
utilizing modern
tools tools
tools
Evaluation while
performing the
PLO4 experiment
Student recorded Student recorded Student recorded
through Student recorded data
(Psychomotor Data Capturing data with data with some data with
observation and accurately/precisely.
domain) substantial errors. errors. acceptable errors.
following
pertinent
procedure
Demonstrate no or Demonstrate fair Demonstrate good
little knowledge of knowledge of knowledge of Demonstrate excellent
PLO10 Through Graphical orthographic orthographic orthographic knowledge of orthographic
(Cognitive) individual reading and is reading and is reading and is reading and is unable to format
Communication
sheet/report unable to format unable to format unable to format and scale views
and scale views and scale views and scale views

vii
1 Thrust Force of a Fan and verification of
Newton’s Law
Part A
Thrust Force of a Fan
1.1 Objective
PART I
Determine the force of the fan using Newton’s Second law.
PART II
Determine the force of the fan by connecting the cart to a mass that hangs over a pulley.
Adjust the hanging mass until the cart does not move. Then turn the fan at an angle and
determine the component of the force.
PART III
Put the dynamic cart on a dynamic track and incline the track until the cart cannot climb the
inclined plane. Determine the component of the force.
1.2 Theory
The fan cart used in this experiment is run by the battery. The fan has two speed levels and it
can be turned at any angle from 0 to 180 degrees. When the fan is turned on, the wings of the
fan push the air back and as a result of the thrust, the whole fan cart moves against the air
flow.

1
1.3 Nomenclature
S. No. Parameter Symbol Unit
1 Force F [N]
2 Mass m [kg]
3 Acceleration a [m/s2]
4 Distance d [m]
5 Time taken to cover the distance t [sec]
6 Angle between the direction of the ϴ [deg]
cart and thrust force
7 Acceleration due to gravity g [m/s2]
8 Mass of the Cart m1 [kg]
9 Mass in the Hanger m2 [kg]
10 Normal Force acting on the cart FNORMAL [N]
11 Weight W [N]

1.4 Equipment
1. Dynamic cart track
2. Base and support rod
3. Hanger with weights
4. Stop watch
5. Fan cart
6. String
1.5 PART I
According to Newton’s Second Law, “Net force acting on a body equals its mass times
acceleration.”
F= ma (1.1)

Figure 1.1 Cart on dynamic cart

2
To measure the acceleration (a), the time (t) to move the cart through a certain distance (d)
is required. Since,
𝑑 = (1/2) 𝑎𝑡 2 (1.2)
The acceleration can be calculated by this formula.
1.5.1 Procedure
1. Level the track by setting the fan cart on the track to see which way it rolls. Adjust the
leveling feet to raise or lower the ends until the cart placed on the track will not move.
2. Use the balance to find the mass of the cart. Record this value.
3. Set the fan at zero degrees. Turn the fan on to see which way it rolls. Turn the fan off.
4. Place the cart on the fixed end stop of the track and mark the initial release position of
the cart. Record this position. This will be the release position for all the trials.
5. Place the cart against the adjustable end stop of the track and record this final position
of the cart.
6. Turn the fan on. Release the cart from the initial release position and use stop watch
to measure the time it takes to hit the end stop.
*The person who releases the cart should also operate the stop watch. Add mass and repeat.
1.6 PART II
Considering Figure 1.2, Force of the fan will be given by,
F =mg (1.3)
Now if the fan is turned at an angle θ, the component of the force F that equals the hanging
weight (mg) is given by F Cos.

Figure 1.2 Cart with hanging mass

Now if the fan is turned at an angle , as shown in Figure 1.1, the component of the force F
that equals the hanging weight (mg) is given by
F cosθ = mg

3
and
F = mg / cosθ (1.4)

1.6.1 Procedure
1. Attach the pulley to the end of the track as shown in Figure 1.2. Place the fan cart on
the track and attach a string to the hole in the end of the cart and tie a mass hanger on
the other end of the string.
2. Set the fan at zero degrees. Turn the fan on. Adjust the hanging mass until the cart
doesn’t move. Record this value of mass.
3. Turn the cart at angle . Adjust the hanging mass until the cart does not move.
4. Change the angle and repeat the experiment.

1.7 PART III


For an object lying on the inclined plane, the weight W = mg can be resolved into two
components: mgsin and mgcos
The force of the fan is given by,
F= mg sin (1.5)

1.7.1 Procedure
1. Measure the hypotenuse H of the incline plane and record this value in Table 3.
2. Place the fan cart on the track. Turn the fan on. Incline the track until the cart cannot
climb the incline. Measure the height h of the track and record in Table 3 (Instructor
Manual).
3. Add mass and repeat.
Part B
Verification of Newton’s Second Law

1.8 Problem statement

Newton second law of motion describes the relationship between force and acceleration on a
body with some mass. This law gives the basis of dynamics in Newtonian physics. In this lab
we will experimentally verify the second law of motion and analyze the assumptions and
applications associated with it.

1.9 Objective

1. To verify Newton’s Second Law.

4
2. To study how the acceleration of an object down on an incline depends on the angle of the
incline and to obtain the acceleration due to gravity.

PART I

1.10 Objectives
To verify Newton’s second law

1.11 Theory

When using the second law to calculate the acceleration, it is necessary to determine the net
force that acts on the object. In this determination, a free body diagram helps enormously. A
free body diagram represents the object and the forces that act on it. Following diagram will
help in drawing the free body diagram for the system.

Figure 1.3 Free body diagram of system

According to the Newton’s Second Law

F = ma

Where “F” is the net force acting on the object of mass “m” and “a” is the resulting
acceleration of the object. For a cart of mass m1 on a horizontal track with a string attached
over a pulley to a mass m2, the net force (F) on the entire system cart and hanging mass (m2)
is the weight of the hanging mass. So,

F = m2 g (1.6)

According to Newton’s Second Law, this net force should be equal to “ma”, where m is the
total mass that is being accelerated at acceleration a, which in this case is

5
m1+m2 (1.7)

This experiment will check if,

m2g= (m1+m2) a (1.8)

To obtain the acceleration, the cart will be started from rest. “t2” is the time it takes to travel a
certain distance (d). Acceleration is obtained using the following relation:

a =2d/t2 (1.9)

1.12 Assumptions:

1. Friction is ignored
2. Air drag is zero
3. String is rigid

1.13 Equipment

1. Dynamic cart (MF-9430)


2. Super pulley with clamp
3. String
4. Stop watch
5. Mass balance
6. Dynamic cart track
7. Base and support rod
8. Mass hanger and mass set
9. Wooden or metal stopping block

1.14 Procedure

Level the track by setting the cart on the track to see which way it rolls. Adjust the leveling
feet to raise or lower the ends until the cart placed at rest on the track will not move.

1. Use the balance to find the mass of cart.


2. Attach the pulley to the end of the track as shown in figure.
3. Place the dynamic cart on the track and attach the string to the hole in the end of the
cart and tie a mass hanger on the other end of the string. The string must be long
enough so the mass hanger reaches the floor.
4. Pull the cart back until the mass hanger reaches the pulley. Record this initial release
position. This will be the release position for all the trials.

6
5. Make a test run to determine how much mass is required on the mass hanger so that
the cart takes about two seconds to complete the run. Because of reaction time, too
short a total time will cause too much errors. Record the hanging mass in the table.
6. Place the cart against the adjustable end stop on the pulley and record the final
position of the cart.
7. Measure the time at least 5 times and record the values in the table.
8. Increase the mass of the cart and repeat the procedure two more times.

PART II

1.15 Objective

To study how the acceleration of an object down on an incline depends on the angle of the
incline and to obtain the acceleration due to gravity.

1.16 Theory

A body rolling/sliding down on inclined plane is being pulled by gravity. The acceleration
due to gravity is always straight down as shown.

Figure 1.4 Body rolling on inclined plane

The component of gravity which is parallel to the inclined plane is “g sinθ” [m/s2]. This is the
net acceleration of the body,
In this experiment, to measure the acceleration, the cart will be started from rest and the time
“t 2” [s] it takes to travel a certain distance “d” will be measured. Acceleration can then be
calculated using the equation

a = 2d / t2

(Assume zero friction and constant mass)

7
A plot of acceleration versus sinθ should give a straight line with a slope equal to the
acceleration due to gravity “g”.

1.17 Equipment

1. Dynamic cart with Mass


2. Dynamic cart track
3. Base and support rod
4. Stop watch

1.15 Procedure

1. Set up the track as shown in figure 1.5 at the end.


2. Setup the cart on the track against the end stop and record this value, it should be the
final position value.
3. Pull the cart up to the top of the track and record the initial position where the cart
will be released from rest.
4. Release the cart from rest and use the stopwatch to measure time it takes the cart to hit
the end stop. The person who releases the cart should also operate the stopwatch.
5. Repeat this for a couple of times. Record the values. Lower the end of the track by 1
cm and measure the time.
6. Repeat the experiment for 6 different angles, by lowering the track.

Figure 1.5 Cart on inclined track

8
2 Moment of Inertia
2.1 Problem statement
The rotational version of Newton's Second Law ( = I) is completely analogous to the linear
version (F = ma). But this similarity masks the fact that rotational motion is actually a bit
more complicated. In particular, torque () is a more complicated variable than force (F), and
moment of inertia (I) is a more complicated quantity than mass (m). In this experiment we
will study the above parameters and will practically see the effect of radius and mass on
moment of inertia.
2.2 Objective
To investigate certain aspects of how the moment of inertia of an object depends on its
geometry.
Hint:
To do this, you will apply a torque to an object, and measure its acceleration. The moment of
inertia is easily calculated using the equation: =I, where I is moment of inertia in Kgm2, 
is torque in N-m and  is angular acceleration in rad/sec2.
2.3 Nomenclature
S. No Parameter Symbol Units
1 Torque acting on the pulley  [Nm]

2 Hanging mass m [kg]


3 Radius of torque pulley r [m]
4 Gravitational acceleration g [m/sec2]
5 Tension in the string T [N]
6 Mass of solid disk M [kg]
7 Radius of solid disk R [m]
8 Moment of Inertia I [kgm2]
9 Angular velocity  [rad/sec]
10 Angular acceleration  [rad/sec2]
11 Radius of sliding mass R [m]

9
2.4 Theory
The equation for rotational motion holds only for rotational motion about a fixed axis, a
restriction for which there is no analog in the linear version of the equation.
You may have seen how torque depends on the point of application of the applied force. In
this experiment, you will investigate certain aspects of how the moment of inertia of an object
depends on its geometry.
For most purposes, the torque acting on a rotating disk can be calculated using the equation:
 = 𝑚𝑔𝑟

This arrangement is shown in Figure 2.1. Weight of the hanging mass is acting on the disk
with a lever arm equal to the radius (r) of the torque pulley.

Figure 2.1 Disk with hanging mass


A more accurate calculation would take into account that the hanging mass m is accelerating
downward, so the tension T (N) of the thread is not equal to mg (N). In this case, applying
Newton’s second law (F = ma) to the hanging mass and the rotational version ( = I) to the
rotating disk, gives:
 = rT (2.1)
As the summation of forces in the vertical direction is zero,
ma = mg – T (2.2)
Also we know that
 = I (2.3)
Put for  in (2.1), and get T
I
T=
r
Put above value of T in (2.2) to get

10
I
ma = mg − -
r
Using equation “a= r  ” to replace a:
I
mr = mg −
r
Therefore:
mg
 = I
mr +
r

This value for the angular acceleration can be substituted back into equation (2.3) to
determine the actual torque acting on the rotating disk:

mgr
 = I = mr2
+1
I

To make things clear, the moment of inertia (I) of the disk can be replaced with its calculated
value, I= MR2/2. Where M=mass of disk and R=radius of the disk as shown in Figure 2.1.
Then:
mgr
 = 2mr2
MR 2 +1

It's clear from this equation that if the mass and radius of the rotating disk are much greater
than the mass of the hanging weight and the radius of the torque pulley, as they are in this
apparatus, then this equation reduces to the simpler equation for torque:
 = mgr

11
2.5 Apparatus
Rotational dynamics apparatus

Figure 2.2 Rotational Dynamics Apparatus

2.6 Procedure
1. Set up the equipment as in Figure 2.2. Use the aluminum top disk and the small torque
pulley. Make sure that both valve pins are in the storage positions, so that the bottom
disk rests firmly on the base plate. Place tape over the 3 small holes in the top of the
aluminum disk.
2. Turn the air on and place the aluminum disk, torque pulley and sliding masses as
shown in Figure 2.2.
3. Be sure that the apparatus is leveled.
4. Attach the mass hanger, with a 20-gram mass, to the end of the thread. When the
thread is extended, the mass should almost reach the floor (ideally, the thread should
be 1 meter ± 1 cm long).
5. Adjust the pressure of the compressed air to approximately 9 psi.
6. Remove the sliding masses form the crosspiece and place them on the center post.
Use the hanging mass to apply a constant torque.
7. Wind the thread onto the torque pulley, until the mass is almost against the air pulley.
8. Hold the disk still until the display reads zero. Release the disk. As the disk rotates,
record each successive, non-zero reading of the display in Table. Record these values
as the hanging mass falls i.e. accelerating. Do not record any values that appear after
the mass has reached its highest point and started back down. You should get at least
six values for one fall. If you don't get that many, raise the apparatus and use a longer
piece of thread.

12
9. Measure the angular acceleration of the combined mass of the aluminum disk, the
torque pulley, the hub and rods, and the masses.
10. You can easily calculate the average angular acceleration within each time interval.
For example:2=(3-2)/(t3– t2); where t3 – t2 = 2 seconds, and angular velocity 
(rad/s) is determined using the information written on the apparatus.
11. Replace the sliding masses on the crosspiece in the same orientation as they were in
on the center post. Position them as close as possible to the center hub. Measure and
record the distance of the center of the sliding masses from the axis of rotation.
Repeat your angular acceleration measurements and record in table.
12. Move each of the sliding masses 1.0 cm farther out from the center hub. Repeat the
measurements. Continue moving the masses out from the hub in increments of 1.0
cm. Each time measure the acceleration.

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3 Pulley System
3.1 Problem statement
If you have ever looked at the end of a crane, or if you have ever noticed an engine hoist, or if
you have ever looked at the rigging on a sailboat, there is a block and tackle at work. A block
and tackle is an arrangement of rope and pulleys that allows you to trade force for distance.
As in many of the experiments you have performed, pulleys can be used simply to change the
direction of applied forces. However, systems of pulleys can also be arranged to perform
much the same function as a lever or an inclined plane, translating small-applied forces into
much larger forces.

3.2 Objective
In this experiment you will investigate how pulley systems can be used to amplify force and
to perform work.

3.3 Nomenclature
S. No Parameter Symbol Units
1 Mechanical Advantage M.A [Unit less]
2 Weight to be lifted Fout [N]
3 Force applied Fin [N]

3.4 Theory

Figure 3.1 Suspended weight

In figure 3.1, if you are going to suspend the weight in the air then you have to apply an
upward force of 100 N to the rope. Obviously, if the rope is 100 meter long and you want to
lift the weight up 100 meter, you have to pull in 100 meter of rope to do it.

14
Now imagine that you add a pulley to the system, as shown in the Figure 3.2 :

Figure 3.2 A simple pulley

Does this change anything? Not really. The only thing that changes is the direction of the
force you have to apply to lift the weight. You still have to apply 100 N of force to keep the
weight suspended, and you still have to reel in 100 meter of rope in order to lift the weight
100 meter.

Figure 3.3shows the arrangement after adding a second pulley:

Figure 3.3 A pulley system

15
This arrangement changes things in an interesting way. You can see that the weight is now
suspended by two ropes rather than one. That means the weight is split equally between the
two ropes, so each one holds less than 100 N. So, if you want to hold the weight suspended in
the air, you have to apply less than 100 N of force (the ceiling exerts the rest of force on the
other end of the rope). If you want to lift the weight 100 meter higher, then you have to reel
in twice as much rope – 200 meter of rope must be pulled in. This demonstrates a force-
distance tradeoff. The force has been cut in half but the distance the rope must be pulled has
doubled.

A block and tackle can contain as many pulleys as you like, although at some point the
amount of friction in the pulley shafts begins to become a significant source of resistance.

As with the lever and the inclined plane, pulley systems can be understood by analyzing
either the forces acting in the system or the work performed on and by the system.
The mechanical advantage of the pulley system is the ratio of Input force to the output Force
𝐹𝑖𝑛
𝑀𝐴 =
𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑡

3.5 Apparatus
1. Experiment Board.
2. Small pulley (2)
3. Pulley block
4. Large Pulley (2)
5. Spring balance
6. Masses

3.6 Procedure
In this experiment, the effects of friction are more pronounced than with the lever or the
inclined plane. To investigate the effects of friction in the pulleys:

1. Weigh a mass hanger with a 200-gram mass on the spring balance. Record your result.
2. Set up the equipment as in Figure 3.1, using the same mass hanger and mass. Record
the reading on the spring balance.
3. Tap on the experiment board, just enough so that the string is allowed to move slightly
in the pulley. Does the reading on the spring balance change? How does pulley friction
affect the transfer of force between the spring balance and the hanging mass?

In an ideal pulley system there would be no friction in the pulleys. The force from the spring
balance would be transferred completely to the hanging mass.

16
As with the lever and the inclined plane, pulley systems can be understood by analyzing
either the forces acting in the system or the work performed on and by the system. Set up
each of the pulley systems shown in Figure 3.2. For each pulley system, fill in the table.

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4 Centripetal Force
4.1 Problem statement
Newton second law of motion describes the relationship between force and acceleration on a
body with some mass. This law gives the basis of dynamics in Newtonian physics. In this lab
we will experimentally verify the second law of motion and analyze the assumption. At
amusement parks, many rides whirl you around on circular paths. A model airplane attached
to a guideline often flies on a circle. In circus you might have seen a trick in which a car
vertically travels in circular path, and many satellites, including the moon, orbit the earth on
nearly circular paths. All of these are experiencing the centripetal force. Our goal in this
experiment is to understand how mass of the object and radius from the center of the circle
can affect the centripetal force.

4.2 Objective
To study the effect of centripetal force on an object, traveling on a circular path, by varying
the radius of the circle & the mass of the object, i.e. in two parts
Part I
The radius of the circle
Part II
The mass of the object

5.3 Nomenclature
S. No. Parameter Symbol Unit
1. Centripetal Force Fc [N]
2. Mass of hanging object m [kg]
3. Gravitational acceleration g [m/s2]
2. Mass of the object M [kg]
3. Velocity of the object v [m/sec]
4. Radius of Circle in which r [m]
object moves
5. Circumference of Circle C [m]
6. Time of one revolution T [s]
7. Angular Velocity  [rad/s]

5.4 Theory
Newton’s 2nd law indicates that whenever an object accelerates, there must be a net force to

18
create the acceleration. Thus in uniform circular motion, there must be a net force to produce
the centripetal acceleration.

When an object of mass M, attached to a string of length “r”, is rotating in a circle, the force
on the object is given by,

Mv 2
Fc = = Mr2
r

There is a relationship between period and speed “v”, where v is distance traveled
(circumference of the circle = 2 r) divided by the time T.
2πr
v= T

If the radius is known, the speed can be calculated from the period and vice versa, and the
centripetal force can then be calculated using the relation
4π2 Mr
Fc =
T2
4.5 Equipment
1. Centripetal Force Assembly
2. Stop Watch
3. Graph paper
4. String
5. Rotating Platform
6. Balance
7. Mass and Hanger set

19
4.6 Apparatus

Figure 4.1 Centripetal Force Apparatus

4.7 Procedure
PART I (Varying Radius)
1. The centripetal force and the mass of the hanging object will be held constant for this part
of the experiment. Weigh the object and record its mass in Table 1. Hang the object from
the side post and connect the string to the object.
2. The string must pass under the pulley on the center post.
3. Attach the clamp on the pulley to the end of the track nearer to the hanging object. Attach
a string to a hanging object and hang a known mass (m) over the clamp on the pulley.
Record this mass in Table 1. This establishes the constant centripetal force.
4. Select a radius by aligning the line on the side post with any desired position on the
measuring tape. While pressing down on the side post to assure that it is vertical, tighten
the thumbscrew on the side post to secure its position. Record this radius in Table 1.
5. The object on the side bracket must hang vertically. On the center post, adjust the spring
bracket vertically until the string from which the object hangs on the side post is aligned
with the vertical line on the side post.
6. Align the indicator bracket on the center post with the orange indicator.
7. Remove the mass that is hanging over the pulley and then remove the pulley.
8. Rotate the apparatus; increase the speed until the orange indicator is centered with the
indicator bracket on the center post. This indicates that the string supporting the hanging
object is once again vertical and thus the hanging object is at the desired radius.
9. Maintaining the speed, use a stopwatch and measure time for ten revolutions. Divide the
time by ten and record the period in table 3.
10. Move the side post to a new radius and repeat the procedure. Do this for a total of five
radii.

20
PART II (Varying mass)
1. The radius of rotation will be held constant for this part of the experiment.
2. Weigh the object with the additional side masses in the place. Record its mass. Hang the
object from the side post and connect the string from the spring to the object. The string
must pass under the pulley on the center post.
3. Attach the clamp-on pulley to the end of the track nearer to the hanging object and hang a
known mass over the clamp-on pulley. Record this mass. This establishes the constant
centripetal force.
4. Select a radius by aligning the line on the side post with any desired position on the
measuring tape. While pressing down on the side post to assure that it is vertical, tighten
the thumbscrew on the side post to assure its position. Record this radius in table 3.
5. The object on the side bracket must hang vertically on the center post, adjust the spring
bracket vertically until the string from which the object hangs on the side post is aligned
with the vertical line on the side post.
6. Align the indicator bracket on the center post with the orange indicator.
7. Remove the mass that is hanging over the pulley and remove the pulley.
8. Rotate the apparatus increasing the speed until the orange indicator is centered in the
indicator bracket on the center post. This indicates that the string supporting the hanging
object is once again vertical and thus the hanging object is at the desired radius.
9. Maintaining this speed, use a stopwatch to measure time for ten revolutions. Divide the
time by ten and record the period in table 3.
10. Vary the mass of the object by removing the side masses. Keep the radius constant and
measure the new period. Weigh the object again and record the mass and period.

21
5 Spring Potential and Gravitational
Potential Energy & Elastic and Inelastic
collision
Part A
Spring Potential and Gravitational Potential Energy

5.1 Problem statement


The principle of conservation of energy states that energy can neither be created nor
destroyed, but can only be transformed from one form to another. This experiment aims to
verify this law by converting spring potential energy to gravitational potential energy.

5.2 Objective
To examine spring potential energy and gravitational potential energy and to show how
energy is conserved.

5.3 Nomenclature
S.No. Parameter Symbol Unit
1. Potential Energy P.E [J]

2. Mass of cart m [kg]

3. Gravitational acceleration g [m/sec2]

4. Vertical height travelled by cart h [m]

5. Horizontal distance travelled by cart d [m]

6. Inclined Angle  [deg]

7. Spring Constant k [N/m]

8. Distance travelled by cart x [m]

22
5.4 Theory
The Potential Energy (P.E) of a spring compressed a distance “x” form equilibrium is given
by;
1 2
P. E = kx
2
According to Hooke’s law, the force exerted by the spring is proportional to the distance the
spring is compressed or stretched.
F = kx
Thus the spring constant can experimentally be determined by applying different forces to
compress or stretch the spring at different distances and then plotting a graph between force
and distance. The slope of the resulting straight line will be equal to the spring constant k.
Gravitational potential energy (P.E) is the energy that an object has by virtue of its position.
The gravitational potential energy gained by a cart, as it climbs an incline is given by
P. E = mgh
If energy is conserved, the potential energy of the compressed spring will be
completely converted to gravitational potential energy.

5.5 Equipment
1. Dynamic cart with spring plunger
2. Dynamic cart track
3. Super pulley with clamp
4. Mass hanger and mass set
5. Base and support rod
6. Meter stick
7. String

5.6 Procedure
Part I

1. Level the track by setting the cart to see which way it rolls. Adjust the leveling feet to
raise or lower the ends until the cart placed on the track will not move.
2. Measure and record the mass of the cart.
3. Set the cart on the track with the spring plunger against the stopping block as shown
in figure 6.1. Attach a string to the cart and attach the other end to a mass hanger,
passing the string over the pulley.
4. Record the cart position in table 1.

23
5. Add mass to the mass hanger and record the new position. Repeat this for a total of 5
different masses.

Figure 5.1 Experimental Setup for Part-I

Part II
1. Remove the leveling feet.
2. Remove the string from the cart and cock the spring plunger to its maximum
compression position. Place the cart against the end stop. Measure the distance the
spring plunger is compressed and record value in table 2.
3. Incline the track and measure its height and hypotenuse (Fig. 6.2) to determine the
angle of track. Record the angle in table 2.
4. Record the initial position of the cart in table 2.
5. Release the plunger by tapping it with a stick and record the distance the cart goes up
the track. Repeat this five times.
6. Change the angle of inclination and repeat the measurements for two more times.

24
Figure 5.2 Experimental Setup for Part-II

Part B
Elastic and Inelastic Collision

5.7 Problem statement


In principal, it is always possible to use Newton’s second law to predict how an object will
accelerate under the influence of a net force. But in the situations like when a rifle is fired, a
moment-to-moment description of the force on bullet is hard to obtain. Similarly when a
batsman hits a ball, it is very difficult to collect the complete information about the change of
forces during the collision. However, using impulse-momentum theorem and the law of
conservation of momentum, information about such situations can be obtained. In this
experiment, we will study the law of conservation of momentum.

5.8 Objective
To qualitatively explore the conservation of momentum for elastic and inelastic collisions

5.9 Theory
When two bodies collide with each other, the total momentum p=mv (m=mass and
v=velocity) of both bodies is conserved, regardless of the type of collision. Following are the
types of collisions:

25
5.9.1 Elastic Collision
An elastic collision is one in which the total kinetic energy of the system after the collision is
equal to the total kinetic energy before the collision. An example is the collision in which
colliding carts bounce off each other, as will be demonstrated in this particular experiment.
5.9.2 Inelastic Collision
An inelastic collision is one in which the total kinetic energy of the system is not the same
before and after the collision. If the objects stick together after colliding, the collision is said
to be completely inelastic. An example is the collision in which two colliding carts hit and
stick to each other, as will be demonstrated in this particular experiment.

5.10 Equipment
1. Dynamic cart
2. Collision cart with bumper magnet set installed
3. Dynamic cart track

5.11 Procedure
Level the track by setting a cart on the track and observe which side it rolls to. Raise that end
(or lower the other) by adjusting the leveling feet at the end of the track so that a cart placed
on the track will not move.

Part I: Elastic Collision

Orient the two carts so that their magnetic bumpers repel each other.

Case 1: Place one cart in the middle of the track. Give the other cart an initial velocity
towards the cart at rest.

Case 2: Start the carts with one at each end of the track. Give each cart approximately the
same velocity towards each other.
Case 3: Start both carts at one end of the track. Give the first cart a slow velocity and the
second cart a faster velocity so that the second cart catches the first cart.

Part II: Elastic Collision for Carts with Unequal Mass


Put two mass bars in one of the carts so that the mass of one cart is approximately three times
(3M) the mass of the other cart (1M).

26
Case 1: Place the 3M cart at rest in the middle of the track. Give the other cart an initial
velocity towards the cart at rest.

Case 2: Place the 1M cart at rest in the middle of the track. Give the 3M cart an initial
velocity towards the cart at rest.

Case 3: Start the carts with one at each end of the track. Give each cart approximately the
same velocity towards each other.

Case 4: Start both carts at one end of the track. Give the first cart a slow velocity and the
second cart a faster velocity so that the second cart catches the first cart. Perform experiment
for both cases~ with 1M cart first and then the 3M cart first.

Part III: Inelastic Collision


Orient the two carts so that their hook and pile ends face each other. Repeat the cases as listed
in Part I and II.

27
6 Torque and Torsion
6.1 Problem statement
The design of a structure or machine to serve some definite purpose almost always involves
consideration of the following questions:
1. What are the loads that come upon the structure and its parts?
2. How large, in what form and of what material should these parts be made so that
they may sustain these loads safely and economically?
For this we have to study and examine the relationship between external forces acting on the
solid bodies and the internal response generated by these forces
Torque and torsion are external and internal forces respectively. Torque is generated in
circular power transmission shafts, drive shafts, axles, ship propellers and torsion based
suspensions etc.

6.2 Objectives
6.2.1 PART A

To observe the relationship between torque and deflection of a specimen subjected to


torsional loading and to determine the modulus of rigidity of the material.

6.2.2 PART B
To find out the value of torque on a torsionally loaded specimen using “Torsion Testing
Apparatus”.

6.3 Nomenclature
S. No. Parameter Symbol Unit
1. Torque T (Nm)
2. Shear modulus G [N/m2]
3. Length of shaft L [m]
4. Diameter of the shaft D [m]
5. Radius of the shaft r [m]
6. Angular deformation  [rad]
7. Applied torque Ta [Nm]
8. Mass M [Kg]
9. Gravitational acceleration g [m/sec2]

28
10. Radius of the pulley r [m]
11. Polar moment of inertia J [m4]
12. Location of dial gauge X [m]

PART A
Relationship between torque and deflection
6.4 Apparatus
Cussons Torsion Apparatus

6.5 Theory
In engineering, torque or torsion measurement is commonly required to be made for various
reasons; for example, torsion tests are made on materials to determine such properties as
modulus of elasticity in shear, G, and the torsional yield strength. Also torsion tests are
conducted on parts like shafts, axles and tools which are subjected to torsional loading.
Elastic elements subjected to torque exhibit angular deformation. In a circular shaft of length
L and diameter D, subjected to a torque T, angular deformation  will be produced. The
twisting produced at any cross-section is proportional to the distance x from the fixed end.
Over the length L, torque will be
  
T  G / L D 4 / 32  G / L r 4 / 2  (6.1)

Figure 6.1 Element subjected to torque

29
The geometric properties like D and L (or the measurement location x from the fixed end)
will be known. Hence by measuring  and knowing G for the material used, T can be
computed. If the applied torque Ta is known, difference between T and Ta will exhibit the
performance of the equipment and the experiment. Angular deformation  can be measured
by several methods. A simple arrangement using a dial gauge or, a sophisticated system of
strain gauges can be used.
In our experiment we will use the dial gauge indicator.
The two specific objectives are:

1. To investigate the influence of measurement location (x/L) on the slope of T versus 


curve.
2. To investigate the threshold characteristic of the Cussons Torsion Apparatus.

The following assumptions are made when considering the shaft subjected to pure torque T:

1. The twisting action is uniform along the whole length of the shaft
2. Radii remain straight
3. Cross-sections remain plane

These assumptions generally hold if the deformation is elastic and the shaft is circular. In our
case we will use a circular shaft.

Some important formulae which are needed in this experiment are:

1. T = (G  /L) ( J) [Nm]
L
2. G = (slope)( J ) [N/m2]
3. J = πD4 /32 (Polar moment of inertia) [m4]
4. Ta = Mgr [Nm]

6.6 Procedure
This apparatus which can be set up on a bench can take specimen up to 6 mm in diameter and
450 mm long. The torsion head is supported in ball bearing to minimize friction and improve
accuracy with small loads. The torque is applied using a couple arms, which applies pure
torque (without side loads) using twin cords from diametrically opposite points. These cords
pass over a system of guide pulleys to a load hanger. 180o dial and pointer measure angular
deflection with an accuracy of about 1o.

The dial indicator may be used at any point along the specimen. One end of the specimen is
clamped rigidly in the slot at the end of frame while the other end is fitted into the slot
provided in the torsion head. The dial gauge is set with its vertical axis 50 mm from the
center of the specimen.

30
Set up the specimen as described and position the dial gauge at four different locations:
X
= 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 0.9
L
Apply loads from 0.5 kg to 5 kg in increments of 0.5 kg and note the corresponding angular
deflection “”.
Shear modulus for different materials:
G = 83 x 103MPa (Steel)
G = 41 x 103MPa (copper)
G = 28 x 103MPa (Aluminum)

PART B
Failure due to torsion

6.7 Objectives

To find out the value of torque and deflection until its failure on a torsionally loaded
specimen by using “Torsion Testing Apparatus”

6.8 Apparatus

1. Digital torque meter


2. Specimen (Steel/Aluminum)
3. Torsion testing apparatus

6.9 Procedure
In this experiment, different metallic rods are subjected to torsional loading. These can be
stressed until fracture. In each case, torque and twisting angle arc measured. Specimen made
of various materials, with different diameters and lengths may be investigated. The effective
torque is recorded with the aid of a reference rod equipped with strain gauges. The torque is
directly displayed on a digital display of a strain gauge measurement amplifier.

The torsional loading is transmitted to the specimen by a worm gear and hand wheel. The
twisting angle at the output and the input is read off by 360o scale. At the input side of the
gear there is an addition of a 5-digit revolution counter, with reference torsion rod and strain
gauges. The specimen is mounted on one side to the loading device and on the other side to
the torque measurement device.

The load torque applied to the specimen produces shear stress in the measurement torsion
rod. These shear stresses are proportional to the load torque. Strain gauges are used for
detecting the shear stresses. Because strain gauges can only measure strain but not twisting,
they must be applied in the direction of the maximum principal stress. In the case of pure

31
torsion, the maximum of principal stress will occur at an angle of 45o to the axis of the torsion
rod.

6.9.1 Mounting the specimen

In this test, short specimen made of steel/aluminum is used.


1. Mount the specimen between the loading device and the torque-measuring unit.
2. Use the l5mm hexagon socket.
3. Make sure that the shifting specimen holder of the load device is in the mid position.
4. Make sure that there is no preload on the specimen, if necessary turn the hand wheel
at the input of the worm gear until the readout of the amplifier is zero.
5. Set both indicators at the input and at the output shaft of the worm gear to zero.
6. Set dial gauge of the compensation unit to zero.
7. Reset revolution counter.

6.9.2 Loading the specimen


1. Turn the load wheel at the input of the gear clockwise to load specimen. Turn it only
for a defined angle increment.
2. For the first rotation choose an increment of a quarter rotation (90o), for the second
and third rotation to a half rotation (180o) and for the 4th to 10th rotation of one
rotation.
3. Fracture will occur between 90 and 200 rotations.
4. Compensate the deformation of the measuring torsion rod after each angle increment.
5. Read out the torque value from the display of the amplifier and notice it together with
the indicated twist angle. Tabulate the results.

32
7 Stresses in Thin- Walled Cylinders

7.1 Problem statement


In stress analysis problems, one is interested in finding the maximum and the minimum
normal stress and the maximum shearing stress at a point, which can be further used for
analysis. Stresses and strains on objects can be determined both analytically and
experimentally. The thin cylinder apparatus has been developed to enable and determine the
principal strains and to verify analytical formulae for stress and strain with actual measured
results on a thin cylinder under pressure.

7.2 Objectives
1. To obtain the circumferential stress system in an “open ends” condition, where the
cylinder is relieved of all longitudinal stress and thereby, determine the value of Young’s
Modulus and Poisson’s ratio.
2. To obtain the biaxial stress system, that is when both longitudinal and circumferential
stresses are set up in the cylinder.

7.3 Nomenclature
S.No. Parameter Symbol Unit
1. Hoop stresses [from gauge 1 & 6] σH [N/m2]
2. Longitudinal stresses[from gauge 2] σL [N/m2]
3. Internal pressure p [MPa]
4. Wall thickness of cylinder t [mm]
5. Internal diameter of cylinder d [mm]
6. Hoop or circumferential strain H Unit less
7. Longitudinal strain L Unit less
8. Poisson’s ratio  Unit less
9. Young’s modulus E [N/m2]

33
7.4 Theory
By symmetry the two principal stresses will be circumferential or hoop and longitudinal.
These are given by:
pd
σH = (7.1)
2t
pd
σL = (7.2)
4t
Where
d = 76.14mm
t = 3.18mm

7.4.1 Open Ends Conditions


The cylinder in this condition has no end constraint and therefore the longitudinal component
of stress will be zero, though there will be some strain in this direction due to Poisson’s
effect. The principal strains for this condition are:

H = H / E (7.3)

L = -H /E (7.4)

Where
To determine the value of Poisson’s ratio, we divide the above two equations to get:
L / H = - (7.5)
 = actual strain from gauge 2 (-ive) /average actual strain from gauges 1 and 6 (+ive).
7.4.2 Closed Ends Conditions
By constraining the ends, a longitudinal as well as circumferential stress will be imposed
upon the cylinder. The principal strains for this condition are given by:
H = 1/ E (H - L) (7.6)
L = 1/ E (L - H) (7.7)
7.5 Apparatus
1. Thin cylinder apparatus
2. Electrical rosette strain gauges
3. Strain indicator

34
7.6 Procedure
7.6.1 Open ends condition
1. Ensure that the return valve on the pump is fully screwed so that oil can return to the
oil reservoir.
2. At zero pressure, each strain gauge should be brought to zero or the initial strain
readings recorded as appropriate for subsequent adjustment.
3. Screw the adjustment screw until it reaches the stop. This moves the plate away from
the left hand end plate and thus the longitudinal load is diverted from the cylinder to
the plate.
4. Close the return valve and operate the hand pump to pump oil into the cylinder to get
a pressure reading of 0.5MPa. Note hoop strain readings (H) on strain gauges 1 and 6.
5. Increase pressure by 0.5MPa and note corresponding readings on gauges 1 and 6.
Continue until a maximum of 3.0MPa.
6. Now note again the strain readings, except by decrementing the pressure from 3.0MPa
to 0 MPa. This used to analyze any effects of hysteresis.
7. Note hoop strain readings for gauges 1 and 6.
By calculating the respective hoop stresses (H) at these intermediate pressures and then
plotting a graph of H against L, the value of Young’s Modulus may be determined. Graphs
of both gauges may be plotted and the average of value for the Young’s Modulus may be
determined. A value for Poisson’s ratio may be determined by taking the ratio of longitudinal
and circumferential strains.
7.6.2 Closed ends condition
1. Ensure that the return valve on the pump is fully screwed.
2. Unscrew the adjustment screws. This will leave the plate to be in contact with the
left end of the cylinder hence both the faces of cylinders will be in engaged and
longitudinal stress will be produced.
3. At zero pressure each strain gauge should he brought to zero, or the initial strain
readings recorded as appropriate for subsequent adjustment.
4. Now close the return valve and operate the hand pump to pump oil into the cylinder
and push the piston to the end of the cylinder.
5. Increase pressure to 3.0MPa.
6. Note hoop strain readings for gauges 1 and 6 in the table.
The experimental strains can now be compared with the expected strain for gauges 3, 4 and 5.
The experimental values of principal strains found from gauges 1, 2 and 6 can also be
compared with theoretical values from equation 3, 4, 6 and 7.

35
Figure 7.1 Experimental setup

Figure 7.2 Strain gauges

36
8 Stress and Strain relationship & Principal
Stresses

Part A

Stress and Strain Relationship


8.1 Problem statement
Stress and strain developed in loaded members are considered for they play important roles in
framed structures and machines. Examples include trusses, landing gears, and hydraulic
cranes. It is important to avoid excessive deformation, or strain, that may prevent a structure
from serving its intended purpose. The relationship between stress and strain is described
with the aid of a stress-strain diagram and helps in analyzing mechanical properties of the test
piece.

8.2 Objectives
1. To demonstrate the relationship between stress and strain using the Flexural Cantilever
Apparatus.
2. To find the value of Modulus of Elasticity (Young’s Modulus) of an Aluminum beam
using the same apparatus.

8.3 Nomenclature
S.No Parameter Symbol Unit
1. Stress σ [N/m2]
2. Strain ε Unit less
3. Elastic Modulus E [N/m2]
4. Load applied P [N]
5. Effective Beam Length L [m]
6. Beam width b [m]
7. Beam thickness t [m]
8. Minimum principle strain min Unit less

9. Minimum principle strain max Unit less


10. Strain measured along corresponding 1,2,,2 Unit less
axis using rosette
11. Poisson’s ratio  Unit less

37
12. Maximum Stress max [N/m]
13. Minimum Stress min [N/m]
14. Angle between gauge I and min [rad]
longitudinal beam axis
15. Angle between gauge I and lateral max [rad]
beam axis .

8.4 Theory
The purpose of this experiment is to calculate the modulus of elasticity of an aluminum beam
by loading the beam in cantilever bending. The modulus of elasticity, a fundamental constant
for linear elastic materials, is an index of the stiffness of the material. For many common
structural materials including aluminum alloys and steels, strain is an essentially linear
function of the stress over the range of stresses normally encountered by load-carrying
members. The sketch below represents a typical stress-strain diagram for a metal under
uniaxial stress. By definition, the slope of the linear portion of the diagram is the modulus of
elasticity. Therefore,

E = (8.1)





Figure 8.1 Stress Strain Diagram

Stress is a defined concept, and is not directly measurable. Because of this, determination of
the stress in a complex structural member or mechanical part ordinarily requires measurement
of the strains and subsequent calculation of the stresses from Hook’s law. Experimental stress
analysis is a popular engineering tool used in the design of safe and reliable products and
engineering structure.
 Experimental stress analysis applies from preliminary design to the finished product.
 Several practical techniques are available for this purpose e.g. photo elastic coating
and models, electrical resistance strain gauges and acoustical strain gauges.
 The modern bonded electrical resistance strain gauges are widely used for the testing
of loaded parts, members and structures, as they are more accurate than other
available instruments.

38
 Experimental stress analysis is becoming increasingly important as primary sensing
element in loads cells as well as in pressure, force, torque, displacement and other
special transducers (structural testing).
8.5 Apparatus
1. Cantilever flexural frame
1 1
2. High strength aluminum alloy beam,8 × 1 × 12 2 (in3 )
3. Electrical strain gauges
4. Strain indicator
5. Laboratory weights with mass hanger
6. Scale
8.6 Procedure
1. Measure the dimensions of the aluminum beam. Measure the total length from where
the beam is fastened to the free end.
2. Setup the strain indicator as described in the inside panel and connect the strain gauge
to the binding post as shown in the wiring diagram.
3. Attach a mass hanger to the free end of the beam. Record the strain indicator reading.
4. Increment the load in steps and note the corresponding strain readings. Continue
taking readings until the free end is deflected to its maximum position.
5. Now reverse the procedure by decrementing the same loads and noting corresponding
strains. (This will be used for study of any hysteresis effects)
6. Calculate the corresponding stresses to loads applied by using the following flexure
formula:
6PL
 = (8.2)
bt2

8.7 Wiring diagrams


Figures 8.2a and 8.2b are showing wiring diagrams of flexor and strain indicator. The
numbering on each diagram shows the corresponding wires to be connected.

39
Figure 8.2aWiring diagram of flexor

Figure 8.2b Wiring diagram of strain indicator

40
Part B
Principal Stresses

8.8 Problem Statement


For design purposes, we normally seek the largest positive (tensile) and negative
(compressive) normal stresses and the largest shear stress. These tensile and compressive
stresses are called the Principal Stresses and they can be determined by using a strain rosette
and Wheatstone bridge.
8.9 Objectives
1. To determine the principal stresses on an aluminum beam using the flexure Cantilever
Apparatus.
2. To determine the value of Poisson’s ratio using the same apparatus.
3. To determine the angles between strain gauge and principal axes using the flexure
cantilever apparatus and comparing them with measurements through a protractor
directly on the rosette.
8.10 Theory
The purpose of this experiment is to measure the strains along three different axes
surrounding a point on a cantilever beam, calculate the principal strains and then the principal
stresses from these strains, and compare the results with the stress calculated from the flexure
formula for such a beam and with the help of these values, also find the value of Poisson’s
Ratio for that particular material.

Figure 8.3 Delta and 450 rectangular rosette


The three axes along which strains are to be measured can be arbitrarily oriented about the
point of interest. For computational convenience, however, it is preferable to space the
measurement axes apart by submultiples of it, such as /3(60o) or /4(45o). An integral array
of strain gages intended for simultaneous multiple strain measurements about a point is
known “rosette”. Three-gage strain rosettes are commercially available in two principal forms
corresponding to the above angles. These are known as the “delta” or equiangular rosette and
the 450 rectangular rosette respectively.

For computation of principal strains using a rectangular strain gauge rosette:

41
min = A – B and max = A + B (8.3)

Where
A = (1 + 2)/2
B = [1/(2)1/2][( 1 - 2)2 + (2 - 3)2]1/2

And
min and max = Minimum and Maximum Principal strains respectively.
1, 2 and 3 = Strains measured along corresponding axes of rosette elements
For computation of Poisson’s ratio:
 = min / max (8.4)

The principal stresses can be calculated by substituting the principal strains from equation
(8.3) into the biaxial expressions for Hook’s Law:

min = E / 1 - 2 (min + max) (8.5)


max = E / 1 - 2 (max + min) (8.6)

The flexure formula to calculate the corresponding stresses to loads applied:


= 6PL/bt2 (8.7)
To calculate the angles between gauge 1 and principal axes:
(2 ε2 −1 −3 )
min = ½ tan –1 (8.8)
( 1 −3 )
max = max + 90o (8.9)
Where:
min = angle between gauge I and longitudinal beam axis [rad].
max = angle between gauge I and lateral beam axis [rad] .
8.11 Apparatus
1. Cantilever flexural frame.
1 1
2. High strength aluminum alloy beam, 8 × 1 × 12 2 (in3 )
3. Electrical rosette strain gauges
4. Strain indicator
5. Laboratory weights with mass hanger

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6. Micrometer or Vernier calipers
7. Scales
8. Protractor
8.12 Procedure
1. Measure the dimensions of the aluminum beam. Measure the total length from where
the beam is fastened and from the center gauge to the free end.
2. Setup the strain indicator as described in the inside panel and connect the strain gauge
to the binding post as shown in the wiring diagram 8.4a .
3. Turn the strain indicator off and disconnect the independent gauge element 1 lead
from the P+ binding post, leaving the common leads connected.
4. Connect the cable lead from the gauge control 2 and note the reading on the indicator
display. This is the initial reading on gauge 2 and should be recorded.
5. Repeat this procedure for gauge element 3 remembering to leave the balance control
fixed in its original position at all times.
6. Calculate load P [MPa] to produce 100MPa stress using equation (6.7).
7. Leave gauge 3 connected; apply this load P to the free end. Record the corresponding
strain.
8. Leaving the load on the beam, repeat the above procedure for gauge elements 2 and 1.
9. Measure with a protractor the counterclockwise angles between gauge 1 and the
longitudinal and lateral beam axes.
10. With the last gauge still connected, remove the load from the beam. The strain
indicator should now indicate the same as the initial reading for this gauge. If the
readings are not closely coincident, the sources of error should be pinpointed and the
experiment should be repeated.

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9 Gyroscope
9.1 Problem statement
Gyroscopes can be very perplexing objects because they move in peculiar ways and even
seem to defy gravity. These special properties make gyroscopes extremely important in
everything from your bicycle to the advanced navigation system on the space shuttle. A
typical airplane uses about a dozen gyroscopes in everything from its compass to its
autopilot. The Russian Mir space station used 11 gyroscopes to keep its orientation to the sun,
and the Hubble Space Telescope has a batch of navigational gyros as well. Gyroscopic effects
are also central to things like yo-yos and Frisbees.

9.2 Nomenclature:
S. No. Parameter Symbol Units
1. Angle of outer gimbal.  [rad]
2. Angle of inner gimbals.  [rad]
3. Angle of the Rotor.  [rad]
4. Torque τ [Nm]
5. Moment of Inertia I [kgm2]

9.3 Theory

9.3.1 Motion of Gyroscope Eulerian Angles


A gyroscope consists essentially of a rotor which may spin freely about its geometric axis.
When mounted in a Cardan’s suspension (Figure9.4), gyroscope may assume any orientation,
but its mass center must remain fixed in space. In order to define the position of a gyroscope
at a given instant, we shall select a fixed frame of reference OXYZ, with the origin O located
at the mass center of the gyroscope and the Z axis directed along the line defined by bearings
A and A’ of the outer gimbals, and we shall consider a reference position of the gyroscope in
which the two gimbals and a gravity diameter DD1 of the rotor are located in the fixed XZ
plane (Figure9.4) The Gyroscope may be brought from this reference position into any
arbitrary position by means of the following steps:
1. A rotation of the outer gimbals through an angle  about the axis AA’
2. A rotation of the inner gimbals through  about BB’
3. A rotation of the rotor through  about CC’
The angles ,, are called the Eulerian angles; they completely characterize the position of
the gyroscope at any given instant. Their derivatives ,, and define, respectively, the rate
of precession, the rate of notation and the rate of spin of the notation, and the rate of spin of

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the gyroscope at the instant considered. The mysterious effect is precession. For example if
you have a spinning gyroscope and you try to rotate its spin axis, the gyroscope will instead
try to rotate about an axis at right angles to your force axis.

Figure 9.1 Gyroscope spinning on its axis


In Figure 9.1 (1), the gyroscope is spinning on its axis.
In figure 9.1 (2), a force is applied to try to rotate the spin axis.
In figure 9.1 (3), the gyroscope is reacting to the input force along an axis perpendicular to
the input force.
9.3.2 Cause of precession:
Let's look at two small sections of the gyroscope as it is rotating -- the top and the bottom,
like this:

Figure 9.2 Force applied to spin axis

When the force is applied to the axle, the section at the top of the gyroscope will try to move
to the left, and the section at the bottom of the gyroscope will try to move to the right, as
shown. If the gyroscope is not spinning, then the wheel flops over. If the gyroscope is
spinning, think about what happens to these two sections of the gyroscope: Newton's first law

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of motion states that a body in motion continues to move at a constant speed along a straight
line unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. So the top point on the gyroscope is acted on
by the force applied to the axle and begins to move toward the left. It continues trying to
move leftward because of Newton's first law of motion, but the gyro's spinning rotates it, like
this:

Figure 9.3 Reaction of gyroscope to applied force

This effect is the cause of precession. The different sections of the gyroscope receive forces
at one point but then rotate to new positions! When the section at the top of the gyro rotates
90 degrees to the side, it continues in its desire to move to the left. The same holds true for
the section at the bottom -- it rotates 90 degrees to the side and it continues in its desire to
move to the right. These forces rotate the wheel in the precession direction. As the identified
points continue to rotate 90 more degrees, their original motions are cancelled. So the
gyroscope's axle hangs in the air and processes. When you look at it this way you can see that
precession isn't mysterious at all -- it is totally in keeping with the laws of physics!
In order to compute the components of the angular velocity and of the angular momentum of
the gyroscope, we shall use a rotating system of axes OXYZ attached to the inner gimbals,
with the y axis along BB’ and the z axis along CC’ (Figure.9.4)
A couple or torque  must act on the disk in a plane perpendicular to the plane of the disk and
to the plane of paper, with a clockwise sense of rotation, the magnitude of the couple will be
  I
This couple is called the gyroscopic couple. Thus, if we apply to the gyroscope a couple Mo
about an axis perpendicular to its axis of spin, the gyroscope will precess about an axis
perpendicular to both the spin axis and the couple axis.

9.4 Equipment
1. Cussons Electrical Gyroscope,
2. Stopwatch and
3. Optical tachometer

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9.5 Procedure
1. Place the 50 gram weight on to the inner gimbals extension shaft at the motor end.
Slacken the clamp screw to release the inner gimbals from the outer gimbals. Adjust
the position of the 50 gram on the motor end inner gimbals extension shaft until the
gyroscope is balanced about the Y-Y’ axis.
2. Hold one of the extension bars so that the spin axis is horizontal whilst rotating the
speed control clockwise until the required rotational speed of the gyroscope is
achieved. Measure the rotational speed using the optical tachometer.
3. Release the extension bar with the spin axis horizontal and if necessary adjust the
position of the 50 gram balance weight so that the gyroscope remains horizontal and
does not rotate about the Z-Z’ axis.
4. Take hold of one of the extension bars and place 150 gram weight on the rotor inner
gimbals extension shaft at the 10cm mark. Release the extension bar with the spin
axis horizontal and measure the period of precession and the direction of precession.
Measure the gyroscope speed.
5. Repeat the procedure at paragraph 4 above moving the weight to different distances
from the vertical column. Take more readings by adding a second and then a third
weight to the extension bar.
6. If required, move the weights to the other extension bar and repeat the measurements.

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Figure 9.4 Electrical Gyroscope

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Problem Based Learning (PBL) Statements
PBL statements will shared with students soon.

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