0 vues

Transféré par keffy_bfk

- b is Code of Practice
- Reinforced C Vol_I
- SN008a-En-EU_NCCI- Buckling Lengths of Columns - Rigorous Approach
- Time Saving Design
- product-overview-en.pdf
- Lecture 1 Steel_BendingMoment
- Design of Beams
- QP_Civil Degree.pdf
- Ch6_sec3_4 (2)
- Summary Lecture 1 14
- Castillated Beams
- Bridge Results
- cfstcolumnssumit-130328114720-phpapp01
- Scheduling Steel Weight in Autodesk Revit 2015
- Beam Column
- Beams and Frames
- Finite Element Analysis of Doubly Curved Thin Concrete Shells with Square and Rectangular plan 15mx15m and 15mx10m under Uniformly Distributed Load using SAP2000
- civil ias
- 53 JNTUH Full Time Ph D in Engineering Under TEQIP II Programme Entrance Examination Syllabus
- Tp DesignContainerYardPortBalboa

Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 576

2019

Advance Design

Validation Guide

Version: 2019

Tests passed on: 24 July 2019

Number of tests: 610

INTRODUCTION

Each year, before its official release, each version of GRAITEC software - Advance

Design included - undergoes a series of validation tests. This complex validation process

is carried out along with and in addition to manual testing and beta testing, in order to

attain the "operational version" status. Its final outcome is the present guide, which

contains a thorough description of the automatic tests, highlighting both the theoretical

background and the results that our validation experts have obtained by using the current

software release.

Such tests are generally made of a reference (independent of the specific software

version tested), a transformation (a calculation or a data-processing scenario), a result

(given by the specific software version tested) and a difference, usually measured in

percentage as a drift from a specific set of reference values. Depending on the cases,

the used reference can be a theoretical calculation performed manually, a sample taken

from the technical literature, or the result of a previous version considered as accurate by

experience.

Starting with version 2012, Graitec Advance has made significant steps ahead in terms of

quality management by extending the scope and automating the testing process. While in

previous versions the tests had always been centered on the calculation results, which

were compared to a reference set, in the 2012 version, tests were extended to user

interface behavior, import/export procedures, etc.

The capacity to pass the tests automatically is another major improvement. The current

tests have obviously been passed on the “operational version”, but they are actually

passed on a daily basis during the development process as well. This ensures the

improvement of the daily quality by solving potential issues immediately after they have

been introduced in the code.

In the field of structural analysis and design, software users must always keep in mind

that the results depend, to a great extent, on the modeling (especially when dealing with

finite elements) and on the settings of the numerous assumptions and options available

in the software. A software package cannot entirely replace engineers’ experience and

analysis. Despite all the efforts we have made in terms of quality management, we

cannot guaranty the correct behavior and the validity of the results issued by Advance

Design in any given situation.

In this validation guide, we are providing a vast set of concrete test cases showing the

behavior of Advance Design in various areas and various conditions. The tests cover a

wide field of expertise: modeling, climatic load generation according to Eurocode 1,

combinations management, meshing, finite element calculation, reinforced concrete

design according to Eurocode 2, steel member design according to Eurocode 3, steel

connection design according to Eurocode 3, timber member design according to

Eurocode 5, seismic analysis according to Eurocode 8, report generation, import / export

procedures and user interface behavior.

We hope that this guide will highly contribute to the knowledge and the confidence you

keep placing in Advance Design.

Ionel DRAGU

Graitec Innovation CTO

ADVANCE VALIDATION GUIDE

Table of Contents

7.1 Verifying the export of a linear element to GTC (TTAD #10932, TTAD #11952) ..........................................16

7.2 Importing GTC files containing elements with circular hollow sections, from SuperSTRESS (TTAD #12197)16

7.3 System stability when importing AE files with invalid geometry (TTAD #12232) ..........................................16

7.4 Importing GTC files containing elements with haunches from SuperSTRESS (TTAD #12172) ....................16

7.5 Exporting an Advance Design model to DO4 format (DEV2012 #1.10) ........................................................16

7.6 Exporting an analysis model to ADA (through GTC) (DEV2012 #1.3) ..........................................................16

7.7 Exporting an analysis model to ADA (through GTC) (DEV2012 #1.3) ..........................................................17

7.8 Importing GTC files containing elements with circular hollow sections, from SuperSTRESS (TTAD #12197)17

7.9 Verifying the GTC files exchange between Advance Design and SuperSTRESS (DEV2012 #1.9) .............17

7.11 Importing IFC files containing continuous foundations (TTAD #12410) .......................................................17

7.12 Verifying the load case properties from models imported as GTC files (TTAD #12306) .............................17

7.13 Verifying the releases option of the planar elements edges after the model was exported and imported via

GTC format (TTAD #12137) ...................................................................................................................................18

7.14 Importing GTC files containing "PH.RDC" system (TTAD #12055) .............................................................18

8.1 Deleting a welded tube connection - 1 gusset bar (TTAD #12630) .............................................................. 20

9 MESH .................................................................................................................................. 21

9.1 Verifying the mesh for a model with generalized buckling (TTAD #11519) ...................................................22

9.3 Creating triangular mesh for planar elements (TTAD #11727) .....................................................................22

9.4 Verifying the mesh of a planar element influenced by peak smoothing. .......................................................22

9.5 Verifying the options to take into account loads in linear and planar elements mesh (TTAD #15251) .........22

10 REPORTS GENERATOR.................................................................................................... 23

10.1 Verifying the modal analysis report (TTAD #12718) ....................................................................................24

10.2 System stability when the column releases interfere with support restraints (TTAD #10557) .....................24

10.3 Modal analysis: eigen modes results for a structure with one level .............................................................24

10.6 Generating the critical magnification factors report (TTAD #11379) ............................................................24

10.7 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements forces result (on all quarters of super element) (TTAD

#12230) ..................................................................................................................................................................25

VII

10.8 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements forces result (on each 1/4 of mesh element) (TTAD

#12230) .................................................................................................................................................................. 25

10.10 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the EC2 calculation assumptions report (TTAD #11838) . 25

10.11 Verifying the shape sheet strings display (TTAD #12622) ........................................................................ 25

10.12 Verifying the Max row on the user table report (TTAD #12512) ................................................................ 26

10.13 Verifying the steel shape sheet display (TTAD #12657) ........................................................................... 26

10.14 Verifying the shape sheet for a steel beam (TTAD #12455) ..................................................................... 26

10.16 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements stresses (on end points and middle of super element)

(TTAD #12230)....................................................................................................................................................... 26

10.17 Verifying the Min/Max values from the user reports (TTAD# 12231) ........................................................ 26

10.18 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements forces result (on the end point of super element) (TTAD

#12230, #12261) .................................................................................................................................................... 27

10.19 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements forces result (on the start point of super element) (TTAD

#12230) ................................................................................................................................................................. 27

10.20 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements forces result (on start and end of super element) (TTAD

#12230) 27

10.21 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements displacements (on end points and middle of super

element) (TTAD #12230)........................................................................................................................................ 27

10.22 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements displacements (on start and end of super element)

(TTAD #12230)....................................................................................................................................................... 27

10.23 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements forces result (on end points and middle of super element)

(TTAD #12230)....................................................................................................................................................... 28

10.24 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements displacements (on all quarters of super element) (TTAD

#12230) .................................................................................................................................................................. 28

10.25 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements displacements (on each 1/4 of mesh element) (TTAD

#12230) .................................................................................................................................................................. 28

10.26 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements displacements (on the start point of super element)

(TTAD #12230)....................................................................................................................................................... 28

10.27 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements stresses (on each 1/4 of mesh element) (TTAD #12230)29

10.28 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements stresses (on all quarters of super element) (TTAD

#12230) 29

10.29 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements stresses (on the end point of super element) (TTAD

#12230, TTAD #12261) .......................................................................................................................................... 29

10.30 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements stresses (on the start point of super element) (TTAD

#12230) 29

10.31 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements displacements (on the end point of super element)

(TTAD #12230, TTAD #12261) .............................................................................................................................. 29

10.32 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements stresses (on start and end of super element) (TTAD

#12230) .................................................................................................................................................................. 30

10.33 Reports - Global envelope for efforts in linear elements with Min/Max Values and coresponding absicsa

position .................................................................................................................................................................. 30

10.34 Generating a report with modal analysis results (TTAD #10849) .............................................................. 30

VIII

ADVANCE VALIDATION GUIDE

11.1 EC8 / NF EN 1998-1-1 - France: Verifying torsors on walls with Seismic Loads (TTAD #16522) ...............32

11.2 EC8 / EN 1998-1-1 - General: Verifying the displacements results of a linear element for spectrum with

renewed building option (TTAD #14161) ................................................................................................................32

11.3 EC8 / SR EN 1998-1/NA - Romania: Verifying the spectrum results for EC8 seism (TTAD #12472) ..........32

11.5 EC8 / NF EN 1998-1-1 - France: Verifying the spectrum results for EC8 seism (TTAD #11478) ................32

11.6 EC8 / CSN EN 1998-1 - Czech Republic: Verifying the displacements results of a linear element

(DEV2012 #3.18) ....................................................................................................................................................33

11.7 Verifying signed concomitant linear elements envelopes on Fx report (TTAD #11517) .............................. 33

11.8 EC8 / NF EN 1998-1-1 - France: Verifying torsors on grouped walls from a multi-storey concrete structure33

11.9 PS92 - France: Verifying efforts and torsors on planar elements (TTAD #12974).......................................33

11.10 EC8 / NF EN 1993-1-8/NA - France: Verifying the damping correction influence over the efforts in

supports (TTAD #13011). .......................................................................................................................................33

11.11 EC8 / NF EN 1998-1-1 - France: Verifying seismic results when a design spectrum is used (TTAD

#13778) ..................................................................................................................................................................34

11.12 EC8 / NF EN 1998-1-1 - France: Generating forces results per modes on linear and planar elements

(TTAD #13797) .......................................................................................................................................................34

11.13 RPA99/2003 - Algeria: Verifying the displacements results of a linear element (DEV2013 #3.5) .............34

11.14 EC8 / NF EN 1998-1-1 - France: Verifying the sum of actions on supports and nodes restraints (TTAD

#12706) ..................................................................................................................................................................34

11.15 EC8 / NF EN 1998-1-1 - France: Verifying seismic efforts on planar elements with Q4 and T3-Q4 mesh

type (TTAD #14244) ...............................................................................................................................................34

11.16 EC8 / EN 1998-1-1 - General: Verifying the displacements results of a linear element for an envelope

spectrum (DEV2013 #8.2) ......................................................................................................................................35

11.17 PS92/2010 - France: Verifying the displacements results of a linear element for an envelope spectrum

(DEV2013 #8.2) ......................................................................................................................................................35

11.18 RPS 2011 - Morocco: Verifying the displacements results of a linear element for an envelope spectrum

(DEV2013 #8.2) ......................................................................................................................................................35

11.19 RPS 2011 - Morocco: Verifying the displacements results of a linear element (DEV2013 #3.6) ...............35

11.20 EC8 / SR EN 1998-1-1 - Romania: Verifying the displacements results of a linear element for an

envelope spectrum (DEV2013 #8.2) .......................................................................................................................35

11.21 EC8 / NF EN 1998-1-1 - France: Verifying earthquake description report in analysis with Z axis down

(TTAD #15095) .......................................................................................................................................................36

11.22 EC8 / EN 1998-1-1 - General: Verifying torsors on a 6 storey single concrete core subjected to horizontal

forces and seismic action .......................................................................................................................................36

11.23 EC8 / NF EN 1998-1-1 - France: verifying torsors on walls, elastic linear supports and user-defined

section cuts (TTAD #14460) ...................................................................................................................................36

11.24 EC8 / SR EN 1998-1-1 - Romania: Verifying action results and torsors per modes on point, linear and

planar supports (TTAD #14840) .............................................................................................................................36

12.1 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Determining lateral torsional buckling parameters for a I-shaped

laminated beam considering the load applied on the lower flange (ref. Test 41) ....................................................38

12.2 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a simply supported circular hollow section element

subjected to torsional efforts (ref. Test 18) .............................................................................................................38

IX

12.3 EC3 / EN 1993-1-1 - Romania: Verifying lateral-torsional buckling resistance of an I rolled beam laterally

restrained at mid-span............................................................................................................................................ 39

12.4 EC3 / CSN EN 1993-1-1 - Czech Republic: Compressed and bended profile ............................................ 40

12.5 AISC 360 2010 - United States of America: Compressive Force Resistance and Buckling Length (LRFD) 41

12.6 AISC 360-10 - United States of America: Verifying buckling lengths and lateral torsional buckling lengths

values after imposing them before starting the steel verification (TFSAD #14487) ................................................ 42

12.7 EC3 / SR EN 1993-1-1-2006 - Romania: Verifying the buckling resistance of a rectangular hollow section

column (R50*100/1) ............................................................................................................................................... 42

12.8 EC3 / SR EN 1993-1-1-2006 - Romania: Stability check for an IPE300 single span beam, simply supported43

12.9 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-6 - France: Buckling resistance of a class 4 circular hollow section .......................... 44

12.10 EC3 / EN 1993-1-1 - United Kingdom: Verifying the compression checks for an I section column ........... 45

12.11 AISC 360 2010 - United States of America: Example H.1 W-shape subject to combined compression and

bending (LRFD) ...................................................................................................................................................... 46

12.12 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying IPE450 column fixed on base subjected to axial

compression and bending moment, both applied on top (ref. Test 31)................................................................... 47

12.13 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying IPE600 simple supported beam, loaded with centric

compression and uniform linear efforts by Y and Z axis (ref. Test 32) ................................................................... 48

12.14 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying RHS300x150x9H class 1 simply supported beam, loaded

with centric compression, uniform linear horizontal efforts and a vertical punctual load in the middle (ref. Test 36)49

12.15 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying C310x30.8 class 4 cantilever, loaded with centric

compression, uniform linear horizontal efforts by Y and a vertical punctual load applied on the free end (ref. Test

35) .................................................................................................................................................................. 50

12.16 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying IPE300 beam, simply supported, loaded with centric

compression and uniform linear efforts by Y and Z axis (ref. Test 30) .................................................................. 51

12.17 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying CHS323.9x6.3H class 2 beam, loaded with centric

compression, uniform linear horizontal efforts by Y and a vertical punctual load in the middle (ref. Test 39) ......... 52

12.18 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying C310x30.8 class 3beam, loaded with centric compression,

uniform linear horizontal efforts by Y and a vertical punctual load in the middle (ref. Test 34) ............................... 53

12.19 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Determining lateral torsional buckling parameters for a I-shaped

welded built-up beam considering the load applied on the upper flange (ref. Test 42)........................................... 54

12.20 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Determining lateral torsional buckling parameters for a I-shaped

laminated beam considering the load applied on the lower flange (ref. Test 43) .................................................... 54

12.21 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a simply supported rectangular hollow section beam

subjected to torsional efforts (ref. Test 17) ............................................................................................................. 54

12.22 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying RHS350x150x5H class 4 column, loaded with centric

compression, punctual horizontal force by Y and a bending moment, all applied to the top (ref. Test 38) ............. 55

12.23 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying CHS508x8H class 3, simply supported beam, loaded with

centric compression, uniform linear horizontal efforts by Y and a vertical punctual load in the middle (ref. Test 40)56

12.24 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying UPN300 simple supported beam, loaded with centric

compression, uniform linear horizontal efforts by Y and punctual vertical force by Z axis (ref. Test 33) ................ 57

12.25 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying RHS350x150x8.5H class 3 column, loaded with centric

compression, punctual lateral load and bending moment, all applied to the top of the column (ref. Test 37) ......... 58

12.26 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Class section classification and compression verification of an

IPE300 column (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 1) ............................................................................. 59

12.27 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Class section classification and shear verification of an IPE300

beam subjected to linear uniform loading (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 2) ..................................... 65

12.28 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Class section classification and combined axial force with bending

moment verification of an IPE300 column (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 5) .................................... 71

X

ADVANCE VALIDATION GUIDE

12.29 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Class section classification and combined biaxial bending

verification of an IPE300 beam (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 6) .....................................................77

12.30 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Class section classification and bending moment verification of an

IPE300 column (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 4)..............................................................................83

12.31 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the classification and the resistance of a column subjected

to bending and axial load (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 8) .............................................................. 89

12.32 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the classification and the compression resistance of a

welded built-up column (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 9) .................................................................94

12.33 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the classification and the bending resistance of a welded

built-up beam (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 10) ............................................................................100

12.34 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Class section classification, shear and bending moment verification

of an IPE300 column (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 3) ...................................................................105

12.35 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Class section classification and compression resistance for an

IPE600 column (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 7)............................................................................113

12.36 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the buckling resistance of a CHS219.1x6.3H column

(evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 21) ...................................................................................................119

12.37 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the lateral torsional buckling of a IPE300 beam (evaluated

by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 22) ....................................................................................................................124

12.38 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the design plastic shear resistance of a rectangular hollow

section beam (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 12) .............................................................................130

12.39 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the resistance of a rectangular hollow section column

subjected to bending and shear efforts (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 13) .....................................133

12.40 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the buckling resistance of a RC3020100 column (evaluated

by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 20) ....................................................................................................................139

12.41 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Cross section classification and compression resistance verification

of a rectangular hollow section column (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 11) .....................................146

12.42 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying an user defined I section class 4 column fixed on the

bottom and with a displacement restraint at 2.81m from the bottom (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test

25) ................................................................................................................................................................ 150

12.43 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying an user defined I section class 3 column fixed on the

bottom (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 26) .......................................................................................182

12.44 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying an user defined I section class 3 beam simply supported

with a displacement restraint (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 27).....................................................205

12.45 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the buckling resistance for a IPE300 column (evaluated by

SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 19) .........................................................................................................................229

12.46 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a IPE400 column for compression, shear, bending

moment, buckling, lateral torsional buckling and bending and axial compression (evaluated by SOCOTEC France

- ref. Test 23) ........................................................................................................................................................235

12.47 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying an user defined I section class 4 column fixed on the

bottom and without any other restraint (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 24) ......................................270

12.48 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying an user defined I section class 1, column hinged on base

and restrained on top for the X, Y translation and Z rotation (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 29) .....295

12.49 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a rectangular hollow section column subjected to bending

and axial efforts (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 15).........................................................................333

12.50 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Determining lateral torsional buckling parameters for a I-shaped

welded built-up beam considering the load applied on the upper flange (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref.

Test 44) ................................................................................................................................................................ 339

12.51 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the bending resistance of a rectangular hollow section

column made of S235 steel (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 14).......................................................344

XI

12.52 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Comparing the shear resistance of a welded built-up beam made

from different steel materials (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 45) .................................................... 349

12.53 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-2 - France: Verifying the bending resistance of a purlin for a 15min duration ....... 353

12.54 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying an user defined I section class 1, column fixed on base

and without any other restraint (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 28) ................................................. 357

12.55 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a simply supported rectangular hollow section beam

subjected to biaxial bending (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 16) ..................................................... 385

12.56 NTC 2008 - Italy: Stability check for steel column hinged base .............................................................. 391

12.57 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1 - France: Buckling resistance of a steel column ................................................. 395

12.58 NTC 2008 - Italy: Deflection check on simply supported beam ............................................................... 399

12.59 AISC 360 2010 - United States of America: Deflection and Strength for a W-Shape Continuously Braced

Flexural Member in Strong-Axis Bending (LRFD) ................................................................................................ 401

12.60 EC3 / CSN EN 1993-1-1 - Czech Republic: Compressed IPE300 .......................................................... 404

12.61 EC3 / CSN EN 1993-1-1 - Czech Republic: Compressed U_profile ....................................................... 410

12.62 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying critical moment Mcr on a beam with intermediate restraints414

12.63 EC3 / CSN EN1993-1-1 - Czech Republic: Bended beam without stability failure .................................. 417

12.64 AISC 360 2010 - United States of America: Example G.1 W-shape in strong axis shear (LRFD) .......... 422

12.65 NTC 2008 - Italy: Strenght verification of a steel linear hollow section .................................................... 425

12.66 NTC 2008 - Italy: Lateral torsional buckling verification of a steel column .............................................. 431

12.67 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA France: Verifying the stability of an asymmetric I-shape subjected to axial

force and bending moment ................................................................................................................................... 459

12.68 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying critical bending moment on a IPE200 beam with complex

loading ................................................................................................................................................................ 472

12.69 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying critical moment Mcr of a beam with intermediate restraints

subject to upwards loading ................................................................................................................................... 480

12.70 EC3 / CSN EN1993-1-1 - Czech Republic: Tensioned diagonal ............................................................. 483

12.71 EC3 / EN 1993-1-1 - United Kingdom: Simply supported laterally restrained (from P364 Open Sections

Example 2) ........................................................................................................................................................... 488

12.72 EC3 / EN 1993-1-1 - United Kingdom: Laterally unrestrained beam (from P374 Hollow Sections Example

4) ................................................................................................................................................................ 490

12.73 NTC 2008 - Italy: Verifying the lateral torsional buckling of a IPE300 beam .......................................... 493

12.74 EC3 / EN 1993-1-1 - United Kingdom: Simply supported laterally restrained (from P374 Hollow Sections

Example 3) ........................................................................................................................................................... 500

12.75 EC3 / EN 1993-1-1 - United Kingdom: Pin-ended column (from P374 Hollow Sections Example 2) ...... 505

12.76 Generating the shape sheet by system (TTAD #11471) ......................................................................... 508

12.77 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the cross section optimization of a steel element (TTAD

#11516) ................................................................................................................................................................ 508

12.78 Verifying the shape sheet results for the elements of a simple vault (TTAD #11522) ............................. 508

12.79 Verifying the calculation results for steel cables (TTAD #11623) ............................................................ 508

12.80 Verifying results on square hollowed beam 275H according to thickness (TTAD #11770) ..................... 509

12.81 Verifying shape sheet on S275 beam (TTAD #11731) ............................................................................ 510

12.82 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the shape sheet results for a fixed horizontal beam (TTAD

#11545) ................................................................................................................................................................ 511

XII

ADVANCE VALIDATION GUIDE

12.83 Verifying the shape sheet results for a column (TTAD #11550) .............................................................. 511

12.84 CM66 (steel design) - France: Verifying the buckling length for a steel portal frame, using the roA roB

method ................................................................................................................................................................ 511

12.85 EC3 / EN 1993-1-1 - General: Verifying the buckling length for a steel portal frame, using the kA kB

method ................................................................................................................................................................ 511

12.86 CM66 (steel design) - France: Verifying the buckling length for a steel portal frame, using the kA kB

method ................................................................................................................................................................ 511

12.87 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA: Verifying the steel shape optimization when using sections from Advance

Steel Profiles database (TTAD #11873) ...............................................................................................................512

12.88 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the buckling length results (TTAD #11550) ....................512

12.89 Verifying the shape sheet for a steel beam with circular cross-section (TTAD #12533) ..........................512

12.90 Verifying the "Shape sheet" command for elements which were excluded from the specialized calculation

(TTAD #12389) .....................................................................................................................................................512

12.91 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Changing the steel design template for a linear element (TTAD

#12491) ................................................................................................................................................................ 512

12.92 EC3 / SR EN 1993-1-1-2006 - Romania: Fire verification: verifying the work ratios after performing an

optimization for steel profiles (TTAD #11975) .......................................................................................................513

12.93 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the buckling coefficient Xy on a class 2 section .............514

12.94 EC3 / EN 1993-1-1 - Germany: Lateral-torsional buckling for a two field column with HEA 200 .............515

12.95 EC3 / EN 1993-1-1 - United Kingdom: Oblique bending checks for an I section column ........................516

12.96 EC3 / EN 1993-1-1 - United Kingdom: Fz shear checks for an I section column ....................................517

12.97 EC3 / EN 1993-1-1 - United Kingdom: XLT stability value for an I section column..................................518

12.98 EC3 / EN 1993-1-1 - United Kingdom: Work Ratio stability value for an I section column ......................519

12.99 EC3 / EN 1993-1-1 - United Kingdom: X stability values for an I section column ....................................520

12.100 EC3 / EN 1993-1-1 - United Kingdom: C1, C2 & Mcr stability values for an I section column ...............521

12.101 EC3 / EN 1993-1-1 - United Kingdom: Mcr & XLT stability values for welded RHS beams ...................522

12.102 EC3 / EN 1993-1-1 - United Kingdom: Fy shear checks for an I section column ..................................523

12.103 EC3 / EN 1993-1-1 - United Kingdom: k stability values for an I section column ..................................524

12.104 EC3 / EN 1993-1-1 - United Kingdom: Mcr & XLT stability values for laminated RHS beams ..............525

13.1 EC5 / NF EN 1995-1-1 - France: Verifying a timber beam subjected to simple bending ...........................528

13.2 EC5 / NF EN 1995-1-1 - France: Verifying a timber column subjected to compression forces .................532

13.3 EC5 / NF EN 1995-1-1 - France: Verifying a timber beam subjected to combined bending and axial tension536

13.4 EC5 / NF EN 1995-1-1 - France: Verifying lateral torsional stability of a timber beam subjected to

combined bending and axial compression ............................................................................................................542

13.5 EC5 / NF EN 1995-1-1 - France: Verifying a timber column subjected to tensile forces ...........................547

13.6 EC5 / NF EN 1995-1-2 - France: Verifying the residual section of a timber column exposed to fire for 60

minutes .................................................................................................................................................................550

13.7 EC5 / NF EN 1995-1-2 - France: Verifying the fire resistance of a timber purlin subjected to simple bending553

13.8 EC5 / NF EN 1995-1-1 - France: Verifying a timber purlin subjected to biaxial bending and axial

compression .........................................................................................................................................................557

13.9 EC5 / NF EN 1995-1-1 - France: Verifying a timber purlin subjected to oblique bending ..........................562

XIII

13.10 EC5 / NF EN 1995-1-1 - France: Verifying a C24 timber beam subjected to shear force ....................... 566

13.11 EC5 / SR EN-1995-1-1-2004 - Romania: Timber column subjected to compression .............................. 570

13.12 Modifying the "Design experts" properties for timber linear elements (TTAD #12259)............................ 571

13.13 EC5 / NF EN 1995-1-1 - France: Verifying the timber elements shape sheet (TTAD #12337) ............... 571

13.14 EC5 / NF EN 1995-1-1 - France: Verifying the units display in the timber shape sheet (TTAD #12445) 571

13.15 EC5 / NF EN 1995-1-1 - France: Shear verification for a simply supported timber beam ....................... 571

13.16 EC5 / SR EN-1995-1-1-2004 - Romania: Timber column subjected to shear stress and torsion ............ 572

13.17 EC5 / SR EN-1995-1-1-2004 - Romania: Timber beam subjected to simple bending ............................. 573

13.18 EC5 / SR EN 1995-1-1 - Romania: Verifying compression strength for C14 circular column with fixed

base ................................................................................................................................................................ 574

XIV

7 Import / Export

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

7.1 Verifying the export of a linear element to GTC (TTAD #10932, TTAD #11952)

Test status: Passed

7.1.1 Description

Exports a linear element to GTC.

7.2 Importing GTC files containing elements with circular hollow sections, from SuperSTRESS

(TTAD #12197)

Test status: Passed

7.2.1 Description

Imports a GTC file from SuperSTRESS. The file contains elements with circular hollow section. Verifies if the cross

sections are imported from the attached "UK Steel Sections" database.

7.3 System stability when importing AE files with invalid geometry (TTAD #12232)

Test status: Passed

7.3.1 Description

Imports a complex model containing elements with invalid geometry.

7.4 Importing GTC files containing elements with haunches from SuperSTRESS (TTAD #12172)

Test status: Passed

7.4.1 Description

Imports a GTC file from SuperSTRESS. The file contains steel linear elements with haunch sections.

Test status: Passed

7.5.1 Description

Launches the "Export > Text file" command and saves the current project as a .do4 archive file.

The model contains all types of structural elements, loads and geometric objects.

Test status: Passed

7.6.1 Description

Exports the analysis model to ADA (through GTC) with:

- Export results: disabled

16

ADVANCE VALIDATION GUIDE

Test status: Passed

7.7.1 Description

Exports the analysis model to ADA (through GTC) with:

- Export results: enabled

- Export meshed model: disabled

7.8 Importing GTC files containing elements with circular hollow sections, from SuperSTRESS

(TTAD #12197)

Test status: Passed

7.8.1 Description

Imports a GTC file from SuperSTRESS when the "UK Steel Sections" database is not attached. The file contains

elements with circular hollow section. Verifies the cross sections definition.

7.9 Verifying the GTC files exchange between Advance Design and SuperSTRESS (DEV2012

#1.9)

Test status: Passed

7.9.1 Description

Verifies the GTC files exchange (import/export) between Advance Design and SuperSTRESS.

Test status: Passed

7.10.1Description

Exports to IFC format a model containing linear elements having sections of type "I symmetric" and "I asymmetric".

Test status: Passed

7.11.1Description

Imports an IFC file containing a continuous foundation (linear support) and verifies the element display.

7.12 Verifying the load case properties from models imported as GTC files (TTAD #12306)

Test status: Passed

17

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

7.12.1Description

Performs the finite elements calculation on a model with dead load cases and exports the model to GTC. Imports the

GTC file to verify the load case properties.

7.13 Verifying the releases option of the planar elements edges after the model was exported and

imported via GTC format (TTAD #12137)

Test status: Passed

7.13.1Description

Exports to GTC a model with planar elements on which the edges releases were defined. Imports the GTC file to

verify the planar elements releases option.

Test status: Passed

7.14.1Description

Imports a GTC file exported from Advance Design. The file contains the automatically created system "PH.RDC".

Test status: Passed

7.15.1Description

Exports a meshed model to GTC. The meshed planar element from the model contains a triangular mesh.

18

8 Joint Design

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Test status: Passed

8.1.1 Description

Deletes a welded tube connection - 1 gusset bar after the joint was exported to ADSC.

Test status: Passed

8.2.1 Description

Verifies the connections groups function.

20

9 Mesh

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

9.1 Verifying the mesh for a model with generalized buckling (TTAD #11519)

Test status: Passed

9.1.1 Description

Performs the finite elements calculation and verifies the mesh for a model with generalized buckling.

Test status: Passed

9.2.1 Description

Performs the finite elements calculation and verifies the mesh nodes of a concrete structure.

The structure consists of concrete linear elements (R20*20 cross section) and rigid supports; the loads applied on the

structure: dead loads, live loads, wind loads and snow loads, according to Eurocodes.

Test status: Passed

9.3.1 Description

Creates a triangular mesh on a planar element with rigid supports and self weight.

Test status: Passed

9.4.1 Description

The model consists in a c25/30 concrete planar element supported by three concrete columns (2 x R20/30, 1 x D40)

and one steel column (IPE400). Self-weight of elements is taken into account and 2 live loads of -20KN/m2,

respectively -100 KN/m2, are applied on the planar element.

9.5 Verifying the options to take into account loads in linear and planar elements mesh (TTAD

#15251)

Test status: Passed

9.5.1 Description

Verifies the options to take into account loads in linear and planar elements mesh.

22

10 Reports Generator

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Test status: Passed

10.1.1Description

Generates and verifies the modal analysis report.

10.2 System stability when the column releases interfere with support restraints (TTAD #10557)

Test status: Passed

10.2.1Description

Performs the finite elements calculation and generates the systems description report for a structure which has

column releases that interfere with the supports restraints.

The structure consists of steel beams and steel columns (S235 material, HEA550 cross section) with rigid fixed

supports.

10.3 Modal analysis: eigen modes results for a structure with one level

Test status: Passed

10.3.1Description

Performs the finite elements calculation and generates the "Characteristic values of eigen modes" report.

The one-level structure consists of linear and planar concrete elements with rigid supports. A modal analysis is

defined.

Test status: Passed

10.4.1Description

Generates the "Steel materials" report as a .txt file.

The model consists of a steel structure with supports and a base plate connection.

Test status: Passed

10.5.1Description

Generates the "Rules description" report as .rtf and .txt file.

The model consists of a steel structure with supports and a base plate connection. Two rules were defined for the

steel calculation.

24

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

10.6.1Description

Performs the generalised buckling calculation for a steel structure hall, and generates a critical magnification factors

report.

10.7 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements forces result (on all quarters of super

element) (TTAD #12230)

Test status: Passed

10.7.1Description

Performs the finite elements calculation and verifies the global envelope of linear elements forces results on all

quarters of super element by generating the "Global envelope of linear elements forces result report".

The model consists of a concrete portal frame with rigid fixed supports.

10.8 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements forces result (on each 1/4 of mesh element)

(TTAD #12230)

Test status: Passed

10.8.1Description

Performs the finite elements calculation and verifies the global envelope of linear elements forces results on each 1/4

of mesh element by generating the "Global envelope of linear elements forces result report".

The model consists of a concrete portal frame with rigid fixed supports.

Test status: Passed

10.9.1Description

Generates the "Model geometry" report to verify the model properties: total weight, largest structure dimensions,

center of gravity.

10.10 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the EC2 calculation assumptions report (TTAD

#11838)

Test status: Passed

10.10.1Description

Verifies the EC2 calculation assumptions report.

Test status: Passed

25

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

10.11.1Description

Verifies the shape sheet strings display for a steel beam with circular hollow cross-section.

10.12 Verifying the Max row on the user table report (TTAD #12512)

Test status: Passed

10.12.1Description

Verifies the Max row on the user table report.

Test status: Passed

10.13.1Description

Verifies the steel shape sheet display when the fire calculation is disabled.

10.14 Verifying the shape sheet for a steel beam (TTAD #12455)

Test status: Passed

10.14.1Description

Verifies the shape sheet for a steel beam.

Test status: Passed

10.15.1Description

Generates and verifies the shape sheet report.

10.16 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements stresses (on end points and middle of super

element) (TTAD #12230)

Test status: Passed

10.16.1Description

Performs the finite elements calculation and verifies the global envelope of linear elements stresses on end points

and middle of super element by generating the "Global envelope of linear elements stresses report".

The model consists of a concrete portal frame with rigid fixed supports.

10.17 Verifying the Min/Max values from the user reports (TTAD# 12231)

Test status: Passed

26

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

10.17.1Description

Performs the finite elements calculation and generates a user report containing the results of Min/Max values.

10.18 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements forces result (on the end point of super

element) (TTAD #12230, #12261)

Test status: Passed

10.18.1Description

Performs the finite elements calculation and verifies the global envelope of linear elements forces results on the end

point of super element by generating the "Global envelope of linear elements forces result report".

The model consists of a concrete portal frame with rigid fixed supports.

10.19 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements forces result (on the start point of super

element) (TTAD #12230)

Test status: Passed

10.19.1Description

Performs the finite elements calculation and verifies the global envelope of linear elements forces results on the start

point of super element by generating the "Global envelope of linear elements forces result report".

The model consists of a concrete portal frame with rigid fixed supports.

10.20 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements forces result (on start and end of super

element) (TTAD #12230)

Test status: Passed

10.20.1Description

Performs the finite elements calculation and verifies the global envelope of linear elements forces results on the start

and end of super element by generating the "Global envelope of linear elements forces result report".

The model consists of a concrete portal frame with rigid fixed supports.

10.21 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements displacements (on end points and middle of

super element) (TTAD #12230)

Test status: Passed

10.21.1Description

Performs the finite elements calculation and verifies the global envelope of linear elements displacements on end

points and middle of super element by generating the "Global envelope of linear elements displacements report".

The model consists of a concrete portal frame with rigid fixed supports.

10.22 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements displacements (on start and end of super

element) (TTAD #12230)

27

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Test status: Passed

10.22.1Description

Performs the finite elements calculation and verifies the global envelope of linear elements displacements on start

and end of super element by generating the "Global envelope of linear elements displacements report".

The model consists of a concrete portal frame with rigid fixed supports.

10.23 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements forces result (on end points and middle of

super element) (TTAD #12230)

Test status: Passed

10.23.1Description

Performs the finite elements calculation and verifies the global envelope of linear elements forces results on end

points and middle of super element by generating the "Global envelope of linear elements forces result report".

The model consists of a concrete portal frame with rigid fixed supports.

10.24 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements displacements (on all quarters of super

element) (TTAD #12230)

Test status: Passed

10.24.1Description

Performs the finite elements calculation and verifies the global envelope of linear elements displacements on all

quarters of super element by generating the "Global envelope of linear elements displacements report".

The model consists of a concrete portal frame with rigid fixed supports.

10.25 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements displacements (on each 1/4 of mesh

element) (TTAD #12230)

Test status: Passed

10.25.1Description

Performs the finite elements calculation and verifies the global envelope of linear elements displacements on each

1/4 of mesh element by generating the "Global envelope of linear elements displacements report".

The model consists of a concrete portal frame with rigid fixed supports.

10.26 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements displacements (on the start point of super

element) (TTAD #12230)

Test status: Passed

10.26.1Description

Performs the finite elements calculation and verifies the global envelope of linear elements displacements on the start

point of super element by generating the "Global envelope of linear elements displacements report".

The model consists of a concrete portal frame with rigid fixed supports.

28

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

10.27 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements stresses (on each 1/4 of mesh element)

(TTAD #12230)

Test status: Passed

10.27.1Description

Performs the finite elements calculation and verifies the global envelope of linear elements stresses on each 1/4 of

mesh element by generating the "Global envelope of linear elements stresses report".

The model consists of a concrete portal frame with rigid fixed supports.

10.28 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements stresses (on all quarters of super element)

(TTAD #12230)

Test status: Passed

10.28.1Description

Performs the finite elements calculation and verifies the global envelope of linear elements stresses on all quarters of

super element by generating the "Global envelope of linear elements stresses report".

The model consists of a concrete portal frame with rigid fixed supports.

10.29 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements stresses (on the end point of super element)

(TTAD #12230, TTAD #12261)

Test status: Passed

10.29.1Description

Performs the finite elements calculation and verifies the global envelope of linear elements stresses on the end point

of super element by generating the "Global envelope of linear elements stresses report".

The model consists of a concrete portal frame with rigid fixed supports.

10.30 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements stresses (on the start point of super element)

(TTAD #12230)

Test status: Passed

10.30.1Description

Performs the finite elements calculation and verifies the global envelope of linear elements stresses on the start point

of super element by generating the "Global envelope of linear elements stresses report".

The model consists of a concrete portal frame with rigid fixed supports.

10.31 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements displacements (on the end point of super

element) (TTAD #12230, TTAD #12261)

Test status: Passed

29

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

10.31.1Description

Performs the finite elements calculation and verifies the global envelope of linear elements displacements on the end

point of super element by generating the "Global envelope of linear elements displacements report".

The model consists of a concrete portal frame with rigid fixed supports.

10.32 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements stresses (on start and end of super element)

(TTAD #12230)

Test status: Passed

10.32.1Description

Performs the finite elements calculation and verifies the global envelope of linear elements stresses on start and end

of super element by generating the "Global envelope of linear elements stresses report".

The model consists of a concrete portal frame with rigid fixed supports.

10.33 Reports - Global envelope for efforts in linear elements with Min/Max Values and

coresponding absicsa position

Test status: Passed

10.33.1Description

The purpose of this test is to check the content of a report which returns a global envelope for efforts on linear

elements, with the Max/Min Valus.

The model consisits in a concrete simple frame, 3 LoadCases and several combinations.

The report returns the Max and Min values of the efforts, per linear element, and the position/abiscisa of these

Max/Min values.

Test status: Passed

10.34.1Description

Generates a report with modal results for a model with seismic actions.

30

11 Seismic Analysis

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

11.1 EC8 / NF EN 1998-1-1 - France: Verifying torsors on walls with Seismic Loads (TTAD #16522)

Test status: Passed

11.1.1Description

Concrete walls subjected to EQ loads with different q factors on the 2 directions X, Y;

Verification is made according to EC8 - FR NA.

11.2 EC8 / EN 1998-1-1 - General: Verifying the displacements results of a linear element for

spectrum with renewed building option (TTAD #14161)

Test status: Passed

11.2.1Description

Verifies the displacements results of a linear element for spectrum with renewed building option, according to

Eurocode EC8 standard. Performs the finite elements calculation and generates the displacements of linear elements

by load case and by element reports.

The concrete element (C20/25) has R20*30 cross section and a rigid point support. The loads applied on the

element: self weight and seismic loads for an envelope spectrum.

11.3 EC8 / SR EN 1998-1/NA - Romania: Verifying the spectrum results for EC8 seism (TTAD

#12472)

Test status: Passed

11.3.1Description

Performs the finite elements calculation and generates the "Displacements of linear elements by load case" report for

a concrete beam with rectangular cross section R20*30 with fixed rigid punctual support. Model loads: self weight

and seismic loads according to Eurocodes 8 Romanian standards (SR EN 1998-1/NA).

Test status: Passed

11.4.1Description

Verifies the torsors on walls. Eurocode 8 with French Annex is used.

11.5 EC8 / NF EN 1998-1-1 - France: Verifying the spectrum results for EC8 seism (TTAD #11478)

Test status: Passed

11.5.1Description

Performs the finite elements calculation and generates the "Displacements of linear elements by load case" report for

a concrete beam with rectangular cross section R20*30 with fixed rigid punctual support. Model loads: self weight

and seismic loads according to Eurocodes 8 French standards.

32

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

11.6 EC8 / CSN EN 1998-1 - Czech Republic: Verifying the displacements results of a linear

element (DEV2012 #3.18)

Test status: Passed

11.6.1Description

Verifies the displacements results of an inclined linear element according to Eurocodes 8 Czech standard. Performs

the finite elements calculation and generates the displacements of linear elements by load case and by element

reports.

The concrete element (C20/25) has R20*30 cross section and a rigid point support. The loads applied on the

element: self weight and seismic loads (CSN EN 1998-1).

11.7 Verifying signed concomitant linear elements envelopes on Fx report (TTAD #11517)

Test status: Passed

11.7.1Description

Performs the finite elements calculation on a concrete structure. Generates the "Signed concomitant linear elements

envelopes on Fx report".

The structure has concrete beams and columns, two concrete walls and a windwall. Loads applied on the structure:

self weight and a planar live load of -40.00 kN.

11.8 EC8 / NF EN 1998-1-1 - France: Verifying torsors on grouped walls from a multi-storey

concrete structure

Test status: Passed

11.8.1Description

Verifies torsors on grouped walls from a multi-storey concrete structure. EC8 with French Annex is used.

11.9 PS92 - France: Verifying efforts and torsors on planar elements (TTAD #12974)

Test status: Passed

11.9.1Description

Verifies efforts and torsors on several planar elements of a concrete structure subjected to horizontal seismic action

(according to PS92 norm).

11.10 EC8 / NF EN 1993-1-8/NA - France: Verifying the damping correction influence over the

efforts in supports (TTAD #13011).

Test status: Passed

11.10.1Description

Verifies the damping correction influence over the efforts in supports. The model has 2 seismic cases. Only one case

uses the damping correction. The seismic spectrum is generated according to the Eurocodes 8 - French standard

(NF EN 1993-1-8/NA).

33

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

11.11 EC8 / NF EN 1998-1-1 - France: Verifying seismic results when a design spectrum is used

(TTAD #13778)

Test status: Passed

11.11.1Description

Verifies the seismic results according to EC8 French Annex for a single bay single story structure made of concrete.

11.12 EC8 / NF EN 1998-1-1 - France: Generating forces results per modes on linear and planar

elements (TTAD #13797)

Test status: Passed

11.12.1Description

Generates reports with forces results per modes on a selection of elements (linear and planar elements) from a

concrete structure subjected to seismic action (EC8 French Annex).

11.13 RPA99/2003 - Algeria: Verifying the displacements results of a linear element (DEV2013 #3.5)

Test status: Passed

11.13.1Description

Verifies the displacements results of a vertical linear element according to Algerian seismic standard. Performs the

finite elements calculation and generates the displacements of linear elements by load case and by element reports.

The concrete element (C20/25) has R20*30 cross section and a rigid point support. The loads applied on the

element: self weight and seismic loads (RPA 99/2003).

11.14 EC8 / NF EN 1998-1-1 - France: Verifying the sum of actions on supports and nodes restraints

(TTAD #12706)

Test status: Passed

11.14.1Description

Verifies the sum of actions on supports and nodes restraints for a simple structure subjected to seismic action

according to EC8 French annex.

11.15 EC8 / NF EN 1998-1-1 - France: Verifying seismic efforts on planar elements with Q4 and T3-

Q4 mesh type (TTAD #14244)

Test status: Passed

11.15.1Description

Generates seismic results on planar element meshed with T3-Q4 mesh type and only Q4 mesh type.

34

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

11.16 EC8 / EN 1998-1-1 - General: Verifying the displacements results of a linear element for an

envelope spectrum (DEV2013 #8.2)

Test status: Passed

11.16.1Description

Verifies the displacements results of a vertical linear element according to Eurocode EC8 standard. Performs the

finite elements calculation and generates the displacements of linear elements by load case and by element reports.

The concrete element (C20/25) has R20*30 cross section and a rigid point support. The loads applied on the

element: self weight and seismic loads for an envelope spectrum.

11.17 PS92/2010 - France: Verifying the displacements results of a linear element for an envelope

spectrum (DEV2013 #8.2)

Test status: Passed

11.17.1Description

Verifies the displacements results of a vertical linear element according to French PS92/2010 standard. Performs the

finite elements calculation and generates the displacements of linear elements by load case and by element reports.

The concrete element (C20/25) has R20*30 cross section and a rigid point support. The loads applied on the

element: self weight and seismic loads for an envelope spectrum.

11.18 RPS 2011 - Morocco: Verifying the displacements results of a linear element for an envelope

spectrum (DEV2013 #8.2)

Test status: Passed

11.18.1Description

Verifies the displacements results of a vertical linear element according to Marocco seismic standard. Performs the

finite elements calculation and generates the displacements of linear elements by load case and by element reports.

The concrete element (C20/25) has R20*30 cross section and a rigid point support. The loads applied on the

element: self weight and seismic loads for an envelope spectrum (RPS 2011).

11.19 RPS 2011 - Morocco: Verifying the displacements results of a linear element (DEV2013 #3.6)

Test status: Passed

11.19.1Description

Verifies the displacements results of a vertical linear element according to Marocco seismic standard. Performs the

finite elements calculation and generates the displacements of linear elements by load case and by element reports.

The concrete element (C20/25) has R20*30 cross section and a rigid point support. The loads applied on the

element: self weight and seismic loads (RPS 2011).

11.20 EC8 / SR EN 1998-1-1 - Romania: Verifying the displacements results of a linear element for

an envelope spectrum (DEV2013 #8.2)

Test status: Passed

35

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

11.20.1Description

Verifies the displacements results of a vertical linear element according to Romanian EC8 appendix. Performs the

finite elements calculation and generates the displacements of linear elements by load case and by element reports.

The concrete element (C20/25) has R20*30 cross section and a rigid point support. The loads applied on the

element: self weight and seismic loads for an envelope spectrum.

11.21 EC8 / NF EN 1998-1-1 - France: Verifying earthquake description report in analysis with Z axis

down (TTAD #15095)

Test status: Passed

11.21.1Description

Verifying earthquake description report in analysis with Z axis down, according to the Eurocodes EC8 standard.

11.22 EC8 / EN 1998-1-1 - General: Verifying torsors on a 6 storey single concrete core subjected to

horizontal forces and seismic action

Test status: Passed

11.22.1Description

Verifies torsors on a 6 storey single concrete (C25/30) core subjected to horizontal forces and seismic action. The

calculation spectrum is generated considering Eurocode 8 General Annex rules. The walls describing the core are

grouped at each level.

11.23 EC8 / NF EN 1998-1-1 - France: verifying torsors on walls, elastic linear supports and user-

defined section cuts (TTAD #14460)

Test status: Passed

11.23.1Description

Verifies torsors on walls, elastic linear supports and user-defined section cuts for a concrete structure which is

subjected to seismic action defined according Eurocode 8 norm (French annex).

11.24 EC8 / SR EN 1998-1-1 - Romania: Verifying action results and torsors per modes on point,

linear and planar supports (TTAD #14840)

Test status: Passed

11.24.1Description

Verifies action results and torsors per modes on point, linear and planar supports of a simple concrete structure. The

seismic action is generated according to Eurocode 8 norm (Romanian annex).

36

12 Steel Design

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.1 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Determining lateral torsional buckling parameters for a I-

shaped laminated beam considering the load applied on the lower flange (ref. Test 41)

Test status: Passed

12.1.1Description

Determines the lateral torsional buckling parameters for a I-shaped laminated beam made of S235 steel, considering

the load applied on the lower flange. The loadings applied on the beam are: a uniformly distributed load and 2

punctual bending moments, acting opposite to each other, applied at beam extremities.

The determination is made considering the provisions from Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-1-1) French Annex.

12.2 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a simply supported circular hollow section

element subjected to torsional efforts (ref. Test 18)

Test status: Passed

12.2.1Description

Verifies a simply supported circular hollow section element made of S235 steel subjected to torsional efforts.

The verification is made according to Eurocode3 (EN 1993-1-1) French Annex.

38

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

beam laterally restrained at mid-span

Test status: Passed

12.3.1Description

Verifies lateral torsional-buckling resistance of a simply supported I rolled beam (HEA 400) made of S355 steel. The

beam, laterally restrained on supports and at its middle span, is subjected to bending efforts about its strong axis.

The verification is made according to Romanian Annex of EN 1993-1-1.

12.3.2Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

C1 Modification factor C1 1.77 adim 0.0000 %

C2 Modification factor C2 0 adim 0.0000 %

Mcr Mcr 3531.97 0.0071 %

kN*m

XLT Modified reduction factor for LTB 1 adim 0.0000 %

Work ratio Stability work ratio 75.2463 % 0.0616 %

39

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.4 EC3 / CSN EN 1993-1-1 - Czech Republic: Compressed and bended profile

Test status: Passed

12.4.1Description

Class section classification and combined axial force with bending moment verification of an IPE300 column

12.4.2Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Work ratio - Oblique Work ratio - oblique 87.2799 % 0.3217 %

40

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.5 AISC 360 2010 - United States of America: Compressive Force Resistance and Buckling

Length (LRFD)

Test status: Passed

12.5.1Description

Member AISC W14x132 ASTM A992 (Fy = 50 ksi) W-shape column to carry an axial dead load of 140 kips and live

load of 420 kips. The column is 30 ft long and is pinned top and

bottom in both axes. (LRFD)

12.5.2Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

FX Axial Force (kips) -0 kip 0.1190 %

Lfy Buckling Length (30Feet) 346.667 " -3.7036 %

41

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.6 AISC 360-10 - United States of America: Verifying buckling lengths and lateral torsional

buckling lengths values after imposing them before starting the steel verification (TFSAD

#14487)

Test status: Passed

12.6.1Description

Verifies buckling lengths and lateral torsional buckling lengths values on a W18x60 column made of ASTM A992

steel. Buckling lengths and lateral torsional buckling lengths values were manually imposed before starting AISC

steel verification.

hollow section column (R50*100/1)

Test status: Passed

12.7.1Description

Description: The test verifies the buckling resistance for a R50*100/1 column made of S235 steel.

The verifications are made according to Eurocode3 Romanian Annex.

42

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.8 EC3 / SR EN 1993-1-1-2006 - Romania: Stability check for an IPE300 single span beam,

simply supported

Test status: Passed

12.8.1Description

Verification of an IPE300 steel beam with a distributed load applied along the linear element; the beam is made of

S335 material and it is simply supported. The beam is subjected to a -30 kN/m uniform linear effort applied vertically.

12.8.2Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

MY My -0 kN*m 0.9393 %

FZ Fz -103.118 kN 3.1392 %

D D 1.02911 cm 1.8921 %

Work ratio - Fz Work ratio Fz 19.592 % -3.1537 %

Work ratio - Oblique Work ratio oblique 46.2245 % 0.4880 %

43

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.9 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-6 - France: Buckling resistance of a class 4 circular hollow section

Test status: Passed

12.9.1Description

Calculates the buckling resistance of a class 4 circular hollow section in pure compression and compares the value

with the results from the document from CTICM ("Revue Construction Métallique n°4 - 2011").

12.9.2Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Work ratio Buckling work ratio 84.9289 % 0.1520 %

44

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.10 EC3 / EN 1993-1-1 - United Kingdom: Verifying the compression checks for an I section

column

Test status: Passed

12.10.1Description

Verifying the compression steel checks for a vertical UKB356x171x67 S355 column subject to axial force and

bending moment

12.10.2Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Work ratio - Fx Compression 20 % 0.0000 %

45

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.11 AISC 360 2010 - United States of America: Example H.1 W-shape subject to combined

compression and bending (LRFD)

Test status: Passed

12.11.1Description

Determines the available compressive and flexural strengths. Checks for the combined effects of an ASTM A992

W14x99 and whether it has sufficient available strength to support the axial forces and moments together, obtained

from a second-order analysis that includes P-delta effects. The unbraced length is 14 ft and the member has pinned

ends. KLx = KLy = Lb= 14.0 ft.

12.11.2Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

FX Axial Load (but not Resistance) -400 kip 0.0000 %

Mz Strong Axis Moments (but not Resistance) 80 kip*ft 0.0000 %

My Weak Axis Moments (but not Resistance) -250 kip*ft 0.0000 %

46

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.12 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying IPE450 column fixed on base subjected to axial

compression and bending moment, both applied on top (ref. Test 31)

Test status: Passed

12.12.1Description

The test verifies an IPE450 column made of S275 steel.

The column is subjected to a -1000kN compression effort and a 200kNm bending moment by the Y axis.

The calculations are made according to Eurocode 3 French Annex.

12.12.2Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Xy Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 1 adim 0.0000 %

slenderness be the Y axis

Xz Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.85692 adim 0.0000 %

slenderness by the Z axis

Kyy Internal coefficient kyy 1.11282 adim 0.5003 %

Kyz Internal coefficient kyz 0.877347 adim 0.0000 %

Kzy Internal coefficient kzy 1.09248 adim 0.5004 %

Kzz Internal coefficient kzz 0.86131 adim 0.0000 %

47

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.13 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying IPE600 simple supported beam, loaded with

centric compression and uniform linear efforts by Y and Z axis (ref. Test 32)

Test status: Passed

12.13.1Description

The test verifies an IPE600 beam made of S275 steel.

The beam is subjected to a -3700kN compression force, a -10kN/m linear uniform vertical load and a -5kN/m linear

uniform horizontal load.

The calculations are made according to Eurocode 3 French Annex.

12.13.2Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Xy Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 1 adim 0.0000 %

slenderness by the Y axis

Xz Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.840341 adim 0.7001 %

slenderness by the Z axis

Kyy Internal coefficient kyy 1.38898 adim 0.0000 %

Kyz Internal coefficient kyz 1.50598 adim 0.0000 %

Kzy Internal coefficient kzy 1.28797 adim 0.2670 %

Kzz Internal coefficient Kzz 1.39645 adim 0.2657 %

48

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.14 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying RHS300x150x9H class 1 simply supported beam,

loaded with centric compression, uniform linear horizontal efforts and a vertical punctual

load in the middle (ref. Test 36)

Test status: Passed

12.14.1Description

The test verifies an RHS300x150x9H beam made of S275 steel.

The beam is subjected to 12 kN axial compression force, 7 kN punctual vertical load applied to the middle of the

beam and 3 kN/m linear uniform horizontal load.

The calculations are made according to Eurocode 3 French Annex.

12.14.2Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Xy Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.914476 adim 0.0000 %

slenderness by the Y axis

Xz Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.723364 adim 0.0000 %

slenderness after the Z axis

Kyy Internal coefficient kyy 1.00121 adim 0.0000 %

Kyz Internal coefficient kyz 0.576504 adim 0.0000 %

Kzy Internal coefficient kzy 0.628911 adim 0.0000 %

Kzz Internal coefficient kzz 1.00056 adim 0.0000 %

49

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.15 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying C310x30.8 class 4 cantilever, loaded with centric

compression, uniform linear horizontal efforts by Y and a vertical punctual load applied on

the free end (ref. Test 35)

Test status: Passed

12.15.1Description

The test verifies a C310x30.8 beam made of S355 steel.

The beam is subjected to 3.00 kN compression force, 1.80 kN punctual vertical load applied on the free end of the

beam and 1.2.kN/m linear uniform horizontal load.

The calculations are made according to Eurocode 3 French Annex.

12.15.2Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Work ratio - Fx Compression work ratio 0.229928 % 0.0000 %

Work ratio - Fy Share on Y axis work ratio 1.22815 % 0.0000 %

Work ratio - Fz Share on Z axis work ratio 0.411955 % 0.0000 %

Work ratio - Oblique Work ratio oblique 104.819 % -0.1724 %

Xy Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.619234 adim 0.0000 %

slenderness after the Y axis

Xz Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.0355441 0.0000 %

slenderness after the Z axis adim

50

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.16 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying IPE300 beam, simply supported, loaded with

centric compression and uniform linear efforts by Y and Z axis (ref. Test 30)

Test status: Passed

12.16.1Description

The test verifies an IPE 300 beam made of

The beam is subjected to a 20kN compression effort, a -10kN/m uniform linear effort applied vertically and a -5kN/m

linear uniform load applied horizontal.

The calculations are made according to Eurocode 3 French Annex.

12.16.2Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Xy Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.94547 adim 0.0000 %

slenderness after the Y axis

Xz Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.311324 adim 0.0000 %

slenderness after the Z axis

Kyy Internal coefficient kyy 1.05105 adim 0.0000 %

Kyz Internal coefficient kyz 0.91507 adim 0.0000 %

Kzy Internal coefficient kzy 0.543213 adim 0.0000 %

Kzz Internal coefficient kzz 1.03427 adim 0.0000 %

51

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.17 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying CHS323.9x6.3H class 2 beam, loaded with

centric compression, uniform linear horizontal efforts by Y and a vertical punctual load in the

middle (ref. Test 39)

Test status: Passed

12.17.1Description

The test verifies a CHS323.9x6.3H beam made of S275 steel.

The beam is subjected to 20 kN axial compression force, 50 kN punctual vertical load applied to the middle of the

beam and 4 kN/m linear uniform horizontal load.

The calculations are made according to Eurocode 3 French Annex.

12.17.2Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Xy Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.950034 adim 0.0000 %

slenderness by the Y axis

Work ratio - Fx Work ratio of compression 1.15624 % 0.0000 %

Work ratio - Fy Work ratio of share after Y 1.25831 % -0.1341 %

Work ratio - Work ratio oblique 14.2939 % 0.0000 %

Oblique

Kyy Internal coefficient kyy 0.997081 adim 0.0000 %

Kyz Internal coefficient kyz 0.598344 adim 0.0000 %

Kzy Internal coefficient kzy 0.598098 adim 0.0000 %

Kzz Internal coefficient kzz 0.997491 adim 0.0000 %

52

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.18 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying C310x30.8 class 3beam, loaded with centric

compression, uniform linear horizontal efforts by Y and a vertical punctual load in the middle

(ref. Test 34)

Test status: Passed

12.18.1Description

The test verifies an C310x30.8 beam made of S235 steel.

The beam is subjected to a 12 kN compression force, 8 kN PUNCTUAL vertical load applied to the middle of the

beam and 1.5 kN/m linear uniform horizontal load.

The calculations are made according to Eurocode 3 French Annex.

12.18.2Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Work ratio - Fx Work ratio of compression 1.30265 % 0.0000 %

Work ratio - Fy Work ratio of share by Y axis 2.31911 % 0.8309 %

Work ratio - Fz Work ratio of share by Z axis 1.38292 % 0.0000 %

Work ratio - Oblique Work ratio oblique 131.321 % -1.9993 %

Xy Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.833792 adim 0.0000 %

slenderness by the Y axis

Xz Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.0944245 adim 0.0000 %

slenderness by the Z axis

53

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.19 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Determining lateral torsional buckling parameters for a I-

shaped welded built-up beam considering the load applied on the upper flange (ref. Test 42)

Test status: Passed

12.19.1Description

Determines the lateral torsional buckling parameters for a I-shaped welded built-up beam made of S235 steel,

considering the load applied on the upper flange. The loadings applied on the beam are: a uniformly distributed load

and 2 punctual negative bending moments applied at beam extremities.

The determination is made considering the provisions from Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-1-1) French Annex.

12.20 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Determining lateral torsional buckling parameters for a I-

shaped laminated beam considering the load applied on the lower flange (ref. Test 43)

Test status: Passed

12.20.1Description

Determines the lateral torsional buckling parameters for a I-shaped laminated beam made of S235 steel, considering

the load applied on the lower flange.

The determination is made considering the provisions from Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-1-1) French Annex.

12.21 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a simply supported rectangular hollow section

beam subjected to torsional efforts (ref. Test 17)

Test status: Passed

12.21.1Description

Verifies a simply supported rectangular hollow section beam made of S235 steel subjected to torsional efforts.

The verification is made according to Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-1-1) French Annex

54

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.22 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying RHS350x150x5H class 4 column, loaded with

centric compression, punctual horizontal force by Y and a bending moment, all applied to the

top (ref. Test 38)

Test status: Passed

12.22.1Description

The test verifies a RHS350x150x5H column made of S355 steel.

The column is subjected to 680 kN compression force, 5 kN punctual horizontal load and 200 kNm bending moment,

all applied to the top.

The calculations are made according to Eurocode 3 French Annex.

12.22.2Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Xy Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.964215 adim 0.0000 %

slenderness by the Y axis

Xz Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.854244 adim 0.0000 %

slenderness by the Z axis

Kyy Internal coefficient kyy 1.08796 adim 0.0000 %

Kyz Internal coefficient kyz 1.0179 adim 0.0000 %

Kzy Internal coefficient kzy 1.03881 adim 0.0000 %

Kzz Internal coefficient kzz 0.971914 adim 0.0000 %

55

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.23 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying CHS508x8H class 3, simply supported beam,

loaded with centric compression, uniform linear horizontal efforts by Y and a vertical

punctual load in the middle (ref. Test 40)

Test status: Passed

12.23.1Description

The test verifies a CHS508x8H beam made of S235 steel.

The beam is subjected to 20 kN axial compression force, 30 kN punctual vertical load applied to the middle of the

beam and 7 kN/m linear uniform horizontal load.

The calculations are made according to Eurocode 3 French Annex.

12.23.2Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Xy Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.971293 adim 0.0000 %

slenderness by the Y axis

Work ratio - Fx Work ratio of compression 0.577201 % 0.0000 %

Work ratio - Fy Work ratio of share by the Y axis 2.74818 % 1.7844 %

Kyy Inrenal coefficient kyy 1.00029 adim 0.0000 %

Kyz Internal coefficient kyz 1.00021 adim 0.0000 %

Kzy Internal coefficient kzy 1.00029 adim 0.0000 %

Kzz Internal coefficient kzz 1.00021 adim 0.0000 %

56

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.24 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying UPN300 simple supported beam, loaded with

centric compression, uniform linear horizontal efforts by Y and punctual vertical force by Z

axis (ref. Test 33)

Test status: Passed

12.24.1Description

The test verifies an upn300 beam made of S235 steel.

The beam is subjected to 20 kN compression force, 50 kN PUNCTUAL vertical load applied to the middle of the

beam and 5kN/m linear uniform horizontal load.

The calculations are made according to Eurocode 3 French Annex.

12.24.2Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Work ratio - Fx Work ratio of compression 1.44739 % 0.0000 %

Work ratio - Fy Work ratio of share by the Y axis 0.523468 % 0.0000 %

Work ratio - Fz Work ratio of share by the Z axis 5.95157 % -0.8072 %

Work ratio - Oblique Work ratio oblique 93.2275 % 0.0000 %

Xy Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.867496 adim 0.0000 %

slenderness by the Y axis

Xz Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.227084 adim 0.0000 %

slenderness by the Z axis

57

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.25 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying RHS350x150x8.5H class 3 column, loaded with

centric compression, punctual lateral load and bending moment, all applied to the top of the

column (ref. Test 37)

Test status: Passed

12.25.1Description

The test verifies a RHS350x150x8.5H column made of S275 steel.

The column is subjected to 680 kN compression force, 5 kN horizontal load applied on Y axis direction and 200 kNm

bending moment after the Y axis. All loads are applied on the top of the column.

The calculations are made according to Eurocode 3 French Annex.

12.25.2Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Xy Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.959822 adim 0.0000 %

slenderness by the Y axis

Xz Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.834835 adim 0.0000 %

slenderness by the Z axis

Kyy Internal coefficient Kyy 1.0529 adim 0.0314 %

Kyz Internal coefficient kyz 0.916822 adim 0.0000 %

Kzy Internal coefficient Kzz 1.02245 adim 0.0313 %

Kzz Internal coefficient kzz 0.890307 adim 0.0000 %

58

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.26 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Class section classification and compression verification

of an IPE300 column (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 1)

Test status: Passed

12.26.1Description

Classification and verification of an IPE 300 column made of S235 steel.

The column is connected to the ground by a fixed connection and is free on the top part.

On top, the column is subjected to a 100 kN force applied gravitationally, defined as a live load.

The dead load will be neglected.

12.26.2Background

Classification and verification of sections for an IPE 300 column made from S235 steel. The column is connected to

the ground by a fixed connection and is free on the top part. On top, the column is subjected to a 100kN force applied

gravitationally, defined as a live load. The dead load will be neglected.

This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

■ Reference: Guide de validation Eurocode 3 Part1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001;

■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);

■ Element type: linear.

The following load cases and load combination are used:

■ Exploitation loadings (category A): Q = -100kN,

■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

Units

Metric System

59

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Materials properties

Boundary conditions

The boundary conditions are described below:

■ Outer:

► Support at start point (x=0) restrained in translation and rotation along X, Y and Z axis,

► Support at end point (z = 5.00) free.

■ Inner: None.

In this case, the column is subjected only to compression, therefore the distribution of stresses along the section is

like in the picture below:

To determine the web class, we use Table 5.2 sheet 1, from EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 5.5.2

60

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

According to Table 5.2 and the column section geometrical properties, the next conclusions can be found:

1

Therefore:

To determine the flanges class, we will use Table 5.2, sheet 2, from EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 5.5.2

61

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

According to the Table 5.2 and the column section geometrical properties, the next conclusions can be found:

c 56.45mm

5.276

t 10.7mm

1

Therefore:

c 56.45mm

5.276 9 * 9 this means that the column flanges are Class 1.

t 10.7mm

A cross-section is classified by quoting the heist (least favorable) class of its compression elements.

According to the calculation above, the column section have a Class 2 web and Class 1 flanges; therefore the class

section for the entire column section will be considered Class 2.

According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 5.5.2(6)

62

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

The design resistance of the cross-section force Nc,Rd shall be determined as follows:

A* fy

For Class 1, 2 or 3 cross-section Nc , Rd

M0

Where:

A section area A=53.81cm2

Fy nominal yielding strength for S235 fy=235MPa

Therefore:

A* fy 53.81*104 * 235

N c , Rd 1.264535MN 1264.54kN

M0 1

According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 6.2.4(2)

■ Linear element: S beam,

■ 6 nodes,

■ 1 linear element.

Compressive resistance work ratio

Work ratio [%]

63

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Result name Result description Reference value

Work ratio Compressive resistance work ratio [%] 8%

12.26.3Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Work ratio - Fx Work ratio Fx 7.90805 % -1.1494 %

64

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.27 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Class section classification and shear verification of an

IPE300 beam subjected to linear uniform loading (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test

2)

Test status: Passed

12.27.1Description

Classification and verification of an IPE 300 beam made of S235 steel.

The beam is subjected to a 50 kN/m linear uniform load applied gravitationally.

The force is considered to be a live load and the dead load is neglected.

12.27.2Background

Classification and verification of sections for an IPE 300 beam made from S235 steel. The beam is subjected to a

50 kN/m linear uniform load applied gravitationally. The force is considered to be a live load and the dead load is

neglected.

This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

■ Reference: Guide de validation Eurocode 3 Part1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001;

■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);

■ Element type: linear.

The following load cases and load combination are used:

■ Exploitation loadings (category A): Q = -50kN/m,

■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

Units

Metric System

Materials properties

65

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Boundary conditions

The boundary conditions are described below:

■ Outer:

► Support at start point (x=0) restrained in translation along X, Y and Z axis,

► Support at end point (x = 5.00) restrained in translation along Y and Z axis and rotation restrained on X

axis

■ Inner: None.

According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 5.5.2

In this case the stresses distribution along the section is like in the picture below:

■ compression for the top flange

■ compression and tension for the web

■ tension for the bottom flange

To determine the web class it will be used the Table 5.2 sheet 1, from EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 5.5.2.

66

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

According to the Table 5.2 and the beam section geometrical properties, the next conclusions can be found:

67

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Therefore:

To determine the flanges class it will be used the Table 5.2, sheet 2, from EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter

5.5.2

According to the Table 5.2 and the beam section geometrical properties, the next conclusions can be found:

c 56.45mm

5.276

t 10.7mm

0.92

68

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Therefore:

c 56.45mm

5.276 9 * 9 * 0.92 8.28 this means that the column flanges are Class 1.

t 10.7mm

A cross-section is classified by quoting the heist (least favorable) class of its compression elements.

According to the calculation above, the beam section have a Class 1 web and Class 1 flanges; therefore the class

section for the entire beam section will be considered Class 1.

According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 5.5.2(6)

The design resistance of the cross-section Vpl,Rd shall be determined as follows:

fy

Av *

V pl , Rd 3

M0

According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 6.2.6(2)

Where:

Av: section shear area for rolled profiles Av A 2 * b * t f (t w 2 * r ) * t f

2

A: cross-section area A=53.81cm

b: overall breadth b=150mm

h: overall depth h=300mm

hw: depth of the web hw=248.6mm

r: root radius r=15mm

tf: flange thickness tf=10.7mm

tw: web thickness tw=7.1mm

fy: nominal yielding strength for S275 fy=275MPa

Therefore:

fy 275

Av * 25.68 *104 *

V pl , Rd 3 3 0.4077MN 407.7kN

M0 1

For more:

Verification of the shear buckling resistance for webs without stiffeners:

hw

72 *

tw

According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 6.2.6(7)

M1 1

1.20 * 1.20 * 1.20

M0 1

235 235

0.92

fy 275

69

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

hw 248.6 1.20

35.01 72 * 72 * 93.91

tw 7.1 0.92

There is no need for shear buckling resistance verification

According to: EC3 Part 1,5 EN 1993-1-5-2004 Chapter 5.1(2)

■ Linear element: S beam,

■ 6 nodes,

■ 1 linear element.

Work ratio - Fz

Result name Result description Reference value

Fz Shear force 125 kN

Work ratio Work ratio - Fz 31 %

12.27.3Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Fz Fz -125 kN 0.0000 %

Work ratio - Fz Work ratio Fz 30.6579 % -1.1035 %

70

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.28 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Class section classification and combined axial force with

bending moment verification of an IPE300 column (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test

5)

Test status: Passed

12.28.1Description

Classification and verification of an IPE 300 column made of S235 steel.

The column is connected to the ground by a fixed connection and is free on the top part.

The column is subjected to a 500 kN compressive force applied on top and a 5 kN/m uniform linear load applied on

all the length of the column, on the web direction, both defined as live loads.

The dead load will be neglected.

12.28.2Background

Classification and verification of sections for an IPE 300 column made from S235 steel. The column is connected to

the ground by a fixed connection and is free on the top part. The column is subjected to a 500kN compressive force

applied on top and a 5kN/m uniform linear load applied for all the length of the column, on the web direction, both

defined as live loads. The dead load will be neglected.

This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

■ Reference: Guide de validation Eurocode 3 Part1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001;

■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);

■ Element type: linear.

The following load cases and load combination are used:

■ Exploitation loadings (category A): Q1 = 500kN, Q2 = 5kN/m,

■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

Units

Metric System

71

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Materials properties

Boundary conditions

The boundary conditions are described below:

■ Outer:

► Support at start point (x=0) restrained in translation and rotation along X, Y and Z axis,

► Support at end point (z = 5.00) free.

■ Inner: None.

According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 5.5.2

In this case the column is subjected to compression and lateral load, therefore the stresses distribution on the most

stressed point (the column base) is like in the picture below.

Table 5.2 sheet 1, from EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 5.5.2 determines the web class.

72

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

According to Table 5.2 and the column section geometrical properties, the next conclusions can be found:

N Ed 0.500

2 1 2 1 0.21 1

A f y 0.005381 235

1 N 1 0.5

1 Ed 1 1.10 0.5

2 f y t d 2 235 0.2486 0.0071

73

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Therefore:

42 42 * 1

69.92

0.67 0.33 0.67 0.33 * (0.21)

Therefore:

c 42

35.014 69.92

t 0.67 0.33

This means that the column web is Class 3.

Table 5.2, sheet 2, from EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 5.5.2 determines the flanges class.

74

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

According to Table 5.2 and the column section geometrical properties, the next conclusions can be found:

Therefore:

A cross-section is classified by quoting the heist (least favorable) class of its compression elements.

According to the calculation above, the column section have a Class 3 web and Class 1 flanges; therefore the class

section for the entire column section will be considered Class 3.

According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 5.5.2(6)

Cross sections for class 3, the maximum longitudinal stress should check:

In this case:

In absence of shear force, for Class 3 cross-sections the maximum longitudinal stress shall satisfy the criterion:

This means:

75

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

■ Linear element: S beam,

■ 6 nodes,

■ 1 linear element.

Work ratio – bending and axial compression

Column subjected to bending and axial compression

Result name Result description Reference value

Bending and axial Work ratio – oblique [%] 87.28 %

compression

12.28.3Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Work ratio - Oblique Work ratio- Oblique 87.2799 % 0.3217 %

76

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.29 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Class section classification and combined biaxial bending

verification of an IPE300 beam (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 6)

Test status: Passed

12.29.1Description

Classification and verification on combined bending of an IPE 300 beam made of S235 steel.

The beam is connected to its ends by a connection with all translation blocked and on the other end by a connection

with translation blocked on the Y and Z axis and rotation blocked along X axis.

The beam is subjected to a -10 kN/m uniform linear force applied along the beam gravitational along the Z local axis,

and a 10kN/m uniform linear force applied along the beam on the Y axis.

Both forces are considered as live loads.

The dead load will be neglected.

12.29.2Background

Classification and verification on combined bending of sections for an IPE 300 beam made from S235 steel. The

beam is connected to its ends by a connection with all translation blocked and on the other end by a connection with

translation blocked on the Y and Z axis and rotation blocked along X axis. The beam is subjected to a -10kN/m

uniform linear force applied along the beam gravitational along the Z local axis, and a 10kN/m uniform linear force

applied along the beam on the Y axis. Both forces are considered live loads. The dead load will be neglected.

This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

■ Reference: Guide de validation Eurocode 3 Part1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001;

■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);

■ Element type: linear.

The following load cases and load combination are used:

■ Exploitation loadings (category A): Q1 = -10kN/m, Q2 = 10kN/m,

■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

Units

Metric System

77

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Materials properties

Boundary conditions

The boundary conditions are described below:

■ Outer:

► Support at start point (x = 0) restrained in translation and rotation along X, Y and Z axis,

► Support at end point (x = 5.00) restrained in translation and rotation along Y, Z axis and rotation

blocked along X axis.

■ Inner: None.

According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 5.5.2

In this case, the beam is subjected to linear uniform equal loads, one vertical and one horizontal, therefore the

stresses distribution on the most stressed point (the column base) is like in the picture below:

Table 5.2 sheet 1, from EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 5.5.2 determines the web class.

78

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

According to Table 5.2 and the column section geometrical properties, the next conclusions can be found:

79

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Therefore:

Table 5.2, sheet 2, from EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 5.5.2 determines the flanges class.

According to Table 5.2 and the beam section geometrical properties, the next conclusions can be found:

80

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Therefore:

This means that the beam left top flanges are Class 1.

Overall the beam top flange cross-section class is Class 1.

In the same way will be determined that the beam bottom flange cross-section class is also Class 1

A cross-section is classified by quoting the heist (least favorable) class of its compression elements.

According to the calculation above, the column section have a Class 1 web and Class 1 flanges; therefore the class

section for the entire column section will be considered Class 1.

According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 5.5.2(6)

M Y , Ed M z , Ed

1

M Ny, Rd M Nz , Ed

According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 6.2.9.1(5)

In which α and β are constants, which may conservatively be taken as unity, otherwise as follows:

For I and H sections:

2

max(n;1)

N Ed 0

n 0 therefore 1

N pl , Rd N pl , Rd

Bending around Y:

For cross-sections without bolts holes, the following approximations may be used for standard rolled I or H sections

and for welded I or H sections with equal flanges:

M pl , y , Rd * (1 n)

M Ny, Rd but M Ny, Rd M ply, Rd

1 0.5 * a

According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 6.2.9.1(4)

N Ed 0

n 0

N pl , Rd N pl , Rd

a 0.403 0.5

A 53.81*10 4

M pl , y , Rd M pl , y , Rd

M N , y , Rd

(1 0.5 * 0.403) 0.8

0.8 * M N , y , Rd M pl , y , Rd M N , y , Rd M pl , y , Rd but M Ny, Rd M ply, Rd

Therefore, it will be considered:

81

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Bending around Y:

For cross-sections without bolts holes, the following approximations may be used for standard rolled I or H sections

and for welded I or H sections with equal flanges:

M pl , z , Rd * (1 n)

M Nz, Rd but M Nz, Rd M plz, Rd

1 0.5 * a

According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 6.2.9.1(4)

M N , z , Rd M pl , z , Rd 0.030MNm

M0 1

In conclusion:

M Y , Ed M z , Ed 0.03125

2

0.03125

1

1.1086 1

M Ny, Rd M Nz, Ed 0.148 0.029375

The coresponding work ratio is:

WR = 1.1086 x 100 = 110.86 %

■ Linear element: S beam,

■ 6 nodes,

■ 1 linear element.

Work ratio – oblique bending

Beam subjected to combined bending

Result name Result description Reference value

Combined oblique Combined oblique bending [%] 110.86 %

bending

12.29.3Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Work ratio - Oblique Work ratio-Oblique 110.691 % -0.2784 %

82

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.30 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Class section classification and bending moment

verification of an IPE300 column (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 4)

Test status: Passed

12.30.1Description

Classification and verification of an IPE 300 column made of S235 steel.

The column is connected to the ground by a fixed connection and is free on the top part.

In the middle, the column is subjected to a 50 kN force applied on the web direction, defined as a live load.

The dead load will be neglected.

12.30.2Background

Classification and verification of sections for an IPE 300 column made from S235 steel. The column is connected to

the ground by a fixed connection and is free on the top part. In the middle, the column is subjected to a 50kN force

applied on the web direction, defined as a live load. The dead load will be neglected.

This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

■ Reference: Guide de validation Eurocode 3 Part1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001;

■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);

■ Element type: linear.

The following load cases and load combination are used:

■ Exploitation loadings (category A): Q = 50kN,

■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

Units

Metric System

83

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Materials properties

Boundary conditions

The boundary conditions are described below:

■ Outer:

► Support at start point (x=0) restrained in translation and rotation along X, Y and Z axis,

► Support at end point (z = 5.00) free.

■ Inner: None.

According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 5.5.2

In this case, the column is subjected to a lateral load, therefore the stresses distribution on the most stressed point

(the column base) is like in the picture below.

The Table 5.2 sheet 1, from EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 5.5.2 determines the web class.

84

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

85

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

According to the Table 5.2 and the column section geometrical properties, the next conclusions can be found:

Therefore:

Table 5.2, sheet 2, from EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 5.5.2 determines the flanges class.

86

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Therefore:

A cross-section is classified by quoting the heist (least favorable) class of its compression elements.

According to the calculation above, the column section have a Class 1 web and Class 1 flanges; therefore the class

section for the entire column section will be considered Class 1.

According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 5.5.2(6)

M Ed

1

M c, Rd

According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 6.2.5(1)

wpl * f y

M c, Rd for Class1 cross sections

M0

According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 6.2.5(2)

Where:

w pl 628.40cm 3

fy nominal yielding strength for S235 fy=235MPa

Therefore:

M y ,V , Rd 0.147674MNm

M0 1

M Ed 2.5m * 50kN 125kNm 0.125MNm

M Ed 0.125

84%

M y ,V , Rd 0.148

■ Linear element: S beam,

■ 7 nodes,

■ 1 linear element.

87

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Work ratio - Oblique

Result name Result description Reference value

Combined oblique Work ratio - Oblique 85 %

bending

12.30.3Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Work ratio - Oblique Work ratio - Oblique 84.6459 % -0.4166 %

88

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.31 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the classification and the resistance of a column

subjected to bending and axial load (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 8)

Test status: Passed

12.31.1Description

Verifies the classification and the resistance for an IPE 600 column made of S235 steel subjected to bending and

axial force. The verification is made according to Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-1-1) French Annex.

12.31.2Background

Classification and verification of an IPE 600 column, made of S235 steel, subjected to bending and axial force. The

column is fixed at its base and free on the top. The column is loaded by a compression force (1 000 000 N), applied

at its top, and a uniformly distributed load (50 000 N/ml). The dead load will be neglected.

This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

■ Reference: Guide d’evaluation Advance Design, EN 1993-1-1: 2001;

■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);

■ Element type: linear.

The following load case (Q1) and load combination are used:

■ Exploitation loadings (category A), Q1:

► Fz = -1 000 000 N,

► Fx = 50 000 N/ml,

■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q1

Units

Metric System

Geometry

Below are described the column cross section characteristics:

■ Height: h = 600 mm,

■ Flange width: b = 220 mm,

■ Flange thickness: tf = 19 mm,

■ Column length: L = 5000 mm,

2

■ Section area: A = 15600 mm ,

89

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Materials properties

S235 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:

■ Yield strength fy = 235 MPa,

5

■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 2.1 x 10 MPa.

Boundary conditions

The boundary conditions are described below:

■ Outer:

► Support at start point (x = 0) restrained in translation and rotation along X, Y and Z axis,

► Free at end point (x = 5.00).

■ Inner: None.

Loading

The column is subjected to the following loadings:

■ External:

► Point load at Z = 5.0: N = FZ = -1 000 000 N,

► Uniformly distributed load: q = Fx = 50 000 N/ml

■ Internal: None.

12.31.2.2 Reference results for calculating the column subjected to bending and axial force

In order to verify the steel column subjected to bending and axial force, the design resistance for uniform

compression (Nc,Rd) and also the design plastic moment resistance reduced due to the axial force (M N,Rd) have to be

compared with the design values of the corresponding efforts.

The design resistance for uniform compression is verified considering the relationship (6.9) from chapter 6.2.4 (EN

1993-1-1), while for bi-axial bending, the criterion (6.41) from chapter 6.2.9.1 (EN 1993-1-1) has to be satisfied.

Before starting the above verifications, the cross-section class has to be determined.

Considering that the column is subjected to combined bending and axial compression, and also that its axial effort is

bigger than 835 kN, the following classification is made according to the CTICM journal no. 4 – 2005 (extracted of

journal):

Expression (6.10) from EN 1993-1-1 is used to determine the design compression resistance, Nc,Rd:

90

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

A fy 15600mm 2 235MPa

N c ,Rd 3666000N

M0 1.0

In order to verify the design resistance for uniform compression, the criterion (6.9) from chapter 6.2.4 (EN 1993-1-1)

has to be satisfied:

N Ed N 1000000N

0.273 1.0 27.3% 100%

N c, Rd N c, Rd 3666000N

According to paragraph 6.2.9.1 (4) from EN 1993-1-1, allowance will not be made for the effect of the axial force on

the plastic resistance moment about the y-y axis if relationship (6.33) is fulfilled.

In this case, because the above verification is not fulfilled, the axial force has an impact on the plastic resistance

moment about the y-y axis.

In order to verify the column subjected to bending and axial force, the criterion (6.41) from EN 1993-1-1 has to be

used. Supplementary terms need to be determined: design resistance for bending (M pl,Rd), ratio of design normal

force to design plastic resistance to normal force of the gross cross-section (n), ratio of web area to gross area (a),

design plastic moment resistance reduced due to the axial force (MN,Rd).

■ Design plastic moment resistance:

W pl , y f y 3512000mm 3 235MPa

► M pl , y , Rd 825320000Nmm

M0 1.0

■ Ratio of design normal force to design plastic resistance to normal force of the gross cross-section:

N 1000000N

► n 0.273

N pl ,Rd 3666000N

■ Ratio of web area to gross area:

A 2bt f 15600mm 2 2 220mm 19mm

► a 0.464

A 15600mm 2

■ Design plastic moment resistance reduced due to the axial force is determined according to expression (6.36)

from EN 1993-1-1:

1 n

► M N , y , Rd M pl , y , Rd but M N , y , Rd M pl , y , Rd

1 0.5 a

1 0.273

► M N , y , Rd 825320000Nmm 781259948Nmm 825320000Nmm

1 0.5 0.464

■ The column subjected to bending and axial force is verified with criterion (6.41) from EN 1993-1-1:

M y , Ed M z , Ed

► 1.0

M M

N , y , Rd N , z , Rd

► Because the column doesn’t have bending moment about z axis, the second term from criterion (6.41)

M y , Ed q L2 / 2

is neglected. The verification becomes: 1.0

M M

N , y , Rd N , y , Rd

q L2 / 2 50N / mm 5000mm 2 / 2

► 0.799 1.0 79.9% 100%

M

N , y , Rd 781259948 Nmm

Finite elements modeling

■ Linear element: S beam,

91

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

■ 6 nodes,

■ 1 linear element.

Work ratio - Fx

Work ratio - Oblique

92

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Result name Result description Reference value

Work ratio - Fx Work ratio of the design resistance for uniform compression [%] 27.3 %

Work ratio - Oblique Work ratio of the design resistance for oblique bending [%] 79.9 %

12.31.3Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Work ratio - Fx Work ratio of the design resistance for uniform 27.2777 % -0.0084 %

compression

Work ratio - Oblique Work ratio of the design resistance for oblique 79.9691 % -0.0386 %

bending

93

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.32 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the classification and the compression

resistance of a welded built-up column (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 9)

Test status: Passed

12.32.1Description

Verifies the cross-section classification and the compression resistance of a welded built-up column made of S355

steel. The verification is made according to Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-1-1) French Annex.

12.32.2Background

Classification and verification of a welded built-up column made of S355 steel. The column is fixed at its base and

free on the top. It is loaded by a compression force (100 000 N), applied at its top. The dead load will be neglected.

This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

■ Reference: Guide d’evaluation Advance Design, EN 1993-1-1: 2001;

■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);

■ Element type: linear.

The following load case and load combination are used:

■ Exploitation loadings (category A), Q:

► Fz = -100 000 N,

■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

Units

Metric System

Geometry

Below are described the column cross section characteristics:

■ Height: h = 630 mm,

■ Flange width: b = 500 mm,

■ Flange thickness: tf = 18 mm,

■ Web thickness: tw = 8 mm,

94

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

2

■ Section area: A = 22752 mm ,

■ Partial factor for resistance of cross sections: M 0 1. 0 .

Materials properties

S355 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:

■ Yield strength fy = 355 MPa,

5

■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 2.1 x 10 MPa.

Boundary conditions

The boundary conditions are described below:

■ Outer:

► Support at start point (z = 0) restrained in translation and rotation along X, Y and Z axis,

► Free at end point (z = 5.00).

■ Inner: None.

Loading

The column is subjected to the following loadings:

■ External:

► Point load at Z = 5.0: N = FZ = -100 000 N,

■ Internal: None.

Before calculating the compression resistance, the cross-section class has to be determined.

The following results are determined according to Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures - Part 1-1: General rules

and rules for buildings (EN 1993-1-1: 2001), Chapter 5.5.2.

In this case, the column is subjected to a punctual compression load, therefore the stresses distribution is like in the

picture below:

Table 5.2 - sheet 2, from Chapter 5.5.2 (EN 1993-1-1: 2001), establish the rules to determine the flanges class. The

picture below shows an extract from this table.

95

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

The top flange class can be determined by considering the cross-section geometrical properties and the conditions

described in Table 5.2 - sheet 2:

c (500mm 8mm) / 2

13.67

t 18mm

235

0.81

fy

Therefore:

c

13.67 14 11.34

t

This means that the top column flange is Class 4. Having the same dimensions, the bottom column flange is also

Class 4.

Table 5.2 - sheet 1, from Chapter 5.5.2 (EN 1993-1-1: 2001), establish the rules to determine the web class. The

picture below shows an extract from this table.

The web class can be determined by considering the cross-section geometrical properties and the conditions

described in Table 5.2 - sheet 1:

c 630mm 18mm 2

74.25

t 8mm

235

0.81

fy

96

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Therefore:

c

74.25 42 34.02

t

This means that the column web is Class 4.

A cross-section is classified according to the least favorable classification of its compression elements (chapter

5.5.2(6) from EN 1993-1-1: 2001).

According to the calculation above, the column section have Class 4 web and Class 4 flanges; therefore the class

section for the entire column section will be considered Class 4.

12.32.2.3 Reference results for calculating the compression resistance of the cross-section

The compression resistance for Class 4 cross-section is determined with the formula (6.11) from EN 1993-1-1:2001.

In order to verify the compression resistance for Class 4 cross-section, it is necessary to determine the effective area

of the cross-section.

The effective area of the cross section takes into account the reduction factor, , which is applying to both parts in

compression (flanges and web).

The following parameters have to be determined, for each part in compression, in order to calculate the reduction

factor: the buckling factor, the stress ratio and the plate modified slenderness.

The buckling factor (k) and the stress ratio( ) - for flanges

Table 4.2 from EN 1993-1-5 offers detailed information about determining the buckling factor and the stress ratio for

flanges. The below picture presents an extract from this table.

Taking into account that the stress distribution on flanges is linear, the stress ratio becomes:

2

1.0 k 0.43

1

The buckling factor (k) and the stress ratio( ) - for web

Table 4.1 from EN 1993-1-5 offers detailed information about determining the buckling factor and the stress ratio for

web. The below picture presents an extract from this table.

Taking into account that the stress distribution on web is linear, the stress ratio becomes:

2

1.0 k 4.0

1

The formula used to determine the plate modified slenderness for flanges is:

97

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

p

c/t

500mm 8mm / 2 / 18mm 0.906

28.4 k 28.4 0.81 0.43

The formula used to determine the plate modified slenderness for web is:

p

b/t

630mm 2 18mm / 8mm 1.614

28.4 k 28.4 0.81 4.0

The reduction factor for flanges is determined with relationship (4.3) from EN 1993-1-5. Because p > 0.748, the

reduction factor has the following formula:

p 0.188

1.0

2p

The effective width of the flange part can now be calculated:

beff , f c 0.875

500mm 8mm 215.25mm

2

The reduction factor () – for web

The reduction factor for web is determined with relationship (4.2) from EN 1993-1-5. Because p > 0.673, the

reduction factor has the following formula:

p 0.055 3

1 .0

2p

The effective width of the web can now be calculated:

Effective area

The effective area is determined considering the following:

For Class 4 cross-section, EN 1993-1-1: 2001 provides (6.11) formula in order to calculate the compression

resistance of the cross-section:

N c , Rd 6506582N

y

M0 1.0

Work ratio

N 100000N

Work ratio = 100 100 1.54%

N c ,Rd 6506582N

■ Linear element: S beam,

■ 6 nodes,

■ 1 linear element.

98

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Work ratio - Fx

Result name Result description Reference value

Work ratio - Fx Compression resistance work ratio [%] 1.53 %

12.32.3Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Work ratio - Fx Compression resistance work ratio 1.56233 % 2.1131 %

99

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.33 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the classification and the bending resistance of

a welded built-up beam (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 10)

Test status: Passed

12.33.1Description

Verifies the classification and the bending resistance of a welded built-up beam made of S355 steel. The verification

is made according to Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-1-1) French Annex.

12.33.2Background

Classification and bending resistance verification of a welded built-up beam made of S355 steel. The beam is simply

supported and it is loaded by a uniformly distributed load (15 000 N/ml). The dead load will be neglected.

This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

■ Reference: Guide d’evaluation Advance Design, EN 1993-1-1: 2001;

■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);

■ Element type: linear.

The following load case and load combination are used:

■ Exploitation loadings (category A), Q:

► Fz = -15 000 N/ml,

■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

Units

Metric System

Geometry

Below are described the beam cross section characteristics:

■ Height: h = 630 mm,

■ Flange width: b = 500 mm,

■ Flange thickness: tf = 18 mm,

■ Web thickness: tw = 8 mm,

■ Beam length: L = 5000 mm,

2

■ Section area: A = 22752 mm ,

■ Partial factor for resistance of cross sections: M 0 1. 0 .

100

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Materials properties

S355 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:

■ Yield strength fy = 355 MPa,

5

■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 2.1 x 10 MPa.

Boundary conditions

The boundary conditions are described below:

■ Outer:

► Support at start point (x = 0) restrained in translation along X, Y and Z axis,

► Support at end point (x = 5.00) restrained in translation along Y, Z axis and restrained in rotation along

X axis.

■ Inner: None.

Loading

The column is subjected to the following loadings:

■ External:

► Uniformly distributed load: q = Fz = -15 000 N/ml,

■ Internal: None.

Before calculating the design resistance for bending, the cross-section class has to be determined.

The following results are determined according to Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures - Part 1-1: General rules

and rules for buildings (EN 1993-1-1: 2001), Chapter 5.5.2.

In this case, the beam is subjected to a uniformly distributed load; therefore the stresses distribution is like in the

picture below:

Table 5.2 - sheet 2, from Chapter 5.5.2 (EN 1993-1-1: 2001), establish the rules to determine the class of the

compressed flange (top flange). The picture below shows an extract from this table.

101

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

The top flange class can be determined by considering the cross-section geometrical properties and the conditions

described in Table 5.2 - sheet 2 (above extract):

c (500mm 8mm) / 2

13.67

t 18mm

235

0.8136

fy

Therefore:

c

13.67 14 11.39

t

This means that the top flange is Class 4. Because the bottom flange is tensioned, it will be classified as Class 1.

Table 5.2 - sheet 1, from Chapter 5.5.2 (EN 1993-1-1: 2001), establish the rules to determine the web class. The

picture below shows an extract from this table. The web part is subjected to bending stresses.

The web class can be determined by considering the cross-section geometrical properties and the conditions

described in Table 5.2 - sheet 1 (above extract):

c 630mm 18mm 2

74.25

t 8mm

235

0.8136

fy

102

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Therefore:

c

74.25 124 100.89

t

This means that the beam web is Class 3.

A cross-section is classified according to the least favorable classification of its compression elements (chapter

5.5.2(6) from EN 1993-1-1: 2001).

According to the calculation above, the beam section have Class 4 for top flange, Class 3 for web and Class 1 for

bottom flange; therefore the class section for the entire beam section will be considered Class 4.

12.33.2.3 Reference results for calculating the design resistance for bending

The design resistance for bending for Class 4 cross-section is determined with the formula (6.15) from EN 1993-1-

1:2001.

Before verifying this formula, it is necessary to determine the effective section modulus of the cross-section.

The effective section modulus of the cross section takes into account the reduction factor, , which is applying only to

parts in compression (top flange in this case).

The following parameters have to be determined in order to calculate the reduction factor: the buckling factor, the

stress ratio and the plate modified slenderness.

The buckling factor (k) and the stress ratio( ) - for flanges

Table 4.2 from EN 1993-1-5 offers detailed information about determining the buckling factor and the stress ratio for

flange. The below picture presents an extract from this table.

Taking into account that the stress distribution on the top flange is linear, the stress ratio becomes:

2

1.0 k 0.43

1

The formula used to determine the plate modified slenderness for top flange is:

p

c/t

500mm 8mm / 2 /18mm 0.902

28.4 k 28.4 0.8136 0.43

The reduction factor for top flange is determined with relationship (4.3) from EN 1993-1-5. Because p > 0.748, the

reduction factor has the following formula:

p 0.188

1.0

2p

The effective width of the flange part can now be calculated:

beff , f c 0.8776

500mm 8mm 215.89mm

2

103

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

The effective section modulus is determined considering the following cross-section:

► Top flange width: beff,t = beff,f + tw + beff,f = 439.78 mm;

► Top flange thickness: tf = 18 mm;

► Web and bottom flange have the same dimensions as the original section.

Weff , y ,sup 5204392.91mm 3

For Class 4 cross-section, EN 1993-1-1: 2001 provides (6.15) formula in order to calculate the design resistance for

bending:

M c ,Rd 1847559483Nmm

y

M0 1.0

Work ratio

q L2 / 8 15N / mm 5000mm / 8

2

M

Work ratio = 100 100 100 2.54%

M c , Rd M c , Rd 1847559483Nmm

■ Linear element: S beam,

■ 6 nodes,

■ 1 linear element.

Work ratio - Oblique

Result name Result description Reference value

Work ratio - Oblique Design resistance for bending work ratio [%] 2.54 %

12.33.3Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Work ratio - Oblique Design resistance for bending work ratio 2.56711 % 1.0673 %

104

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.34 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Class section classification, shear and bending moment

verification of an IPE300 column (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 3)

Test status: Passed

12.34.1Description

Classification and verification of an IPE 300 column made of S235 steel.

The column is connected to the ground by a fixed connection and is free on the top part.

In the middle, the column is subjected to a 200 kN force applied on the web direction, defined as a live load.

The dead load will be neglected.

12.34.2Background

Classification and verification of sections for an IPE 300 column made from S235 steel. The column is connected to

the ground by a fixed connection and is free on the top part. In the middle, the column is subjected to a 200kN force

applied on the web direction, defined as a live load. The dead load will be neglected.

This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

■ Reference: Guide de validation Eurocode 3 Part1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001;

■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);

■ Element type: linear.

The following load cases and load combination are used:

■ Exploitation loadings (category A): Q = -200kN,

■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

Units

Metric System

105

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Materials properties

Boundary conditions

The boundary conditions are described below:

■ Outer:

► Support at start point (x = 0) restrained in translation and rotation along X, Y and Z axis,

► Support at end point (z = 5.00) free.

■ Inner: None.

According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 5.5.2

In case the column is subjected to a lateral load, the stresses distribution on the most stressed point (the column

base) is like in the picture below:

To determine the web class, we will use Table 5.2 sheet 1, from EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 5.5.2.

106

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

According to the Table 5.2 and the column section geometrical properties, the next conclusions can be found:

107

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Therefore:

To determine the flanges class it will be used the Table 5.2, sheet 2, from EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter

5.5.2.

108

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Therefore:

A cross-section is classified by quoting the heist (least favorable) class of its compression elements.

According to the calculation above, the column section have a Class 1 web and Class 1 flanges; therefore the class

section for the entire column section will be considered Class 1.

According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 5.5.2(6).

The design resistance of the cross-section Vpl,Rd , is determined as follows:

fy

Av *

V pl , Rd 3

M0

According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 6.2.6(2)

Where:

Av section shear area for rolled profiles Av A 2 * b * t f (t w 2 * r ) * t f

2

A cross-section area A=53.81cm

b overall breadth b=150mm

h overall depth h=300mm

hw depth of the web hw=248.6mm

r root radius r=15mm

tf flange thickness tf=10.7mm

tw web thickness tw=7.1mm

fy nominal yielding strength for S235 fy=235MPa

Therefore:

fy 235

Av * 25.68 *104 *

V pl , Rd 3 3 0.3484MN 348.42kN

M0 1

VEd 200

57.4% 50%

Vpl , Rd 348.42

109

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

The shear force is greater than half of the plastic shear resistance. Its effect on the moment resistance must be taken

into account.

According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 6.2.8(1)(2)

Where:

2

2V 2 * 0.200 2

Ed 1 1 0.0223

V pl , Rd 0.348

According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 6.2.8(3)

Av A 2 * b * t f (t w 2 * r ) * t f

2

A cross-section area A=53.81cm

b overall breadth b=150mm

h overall depth h=300mm

hw depth of the web hw=248.6mm

r root radius r=15mm

tf flange thickness tf=10.7mm

tw web thickness tw=7.1mm

fy nominal yielding strength for S235 fy=235MPa

Therefore:

w pl * f y 628.40 * 10 6 * 235

M y ,V , Rd 4t w

4 * 0.0071 0.146MNm

M0 1

M Ed 0.500

342%

M y ,V ,Rd 0.146

■ Linear element: S beam,

■ 7 nodes,

■ 1 linear element.

110

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Shear z direction work ratio

Work ratio - Fz

Work ratio - Oblique

111

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Result name Result description Reference value

Shear z direction work ratio Work ratio - Fz 57 %

12.34.3Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Work ratio - Fz Work ratio Fz 57.4021 % 0.7054 %

Work ratio - Oblique Work ratio - Oblique 341.348 % 0.1021 %

112

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.35 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Class section classification and compression resistance

for an IPE600 column (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 7)

Test status: Passed

12.35.1Description

Verifies the classification and the compression resistance for an IPE 600 column made of S235 steel. The verification

is made according to Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-1-1) French Annex.

12.35.2Background

Classification and verification under compression efforts for an IPE 600 column made of S235 steel. The column is

fixed at its base and free on the top. The column is subjected to a compression force (100 000 N) applied at its top.

The dead load will be neglected.

This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

■ Reference: Guide d’evaluation Advance Design, EN 1993-1-1: 2001;

■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);

■ Element type: linear.

The following load case and load combination are used:

■ Exploitation loadings (category A), Q:

► Fz = -100 000 N,

■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

Units

Metric System

Materials properties

S235 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:

■ Yield strength fy = 235 MPa,

5

■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 2.1 x 10 MPa.

Boundary conditions

The boundary conditions are described below:

■ Outer:

► Support at start point (x = 0) restrained in translation and rotation along X, Y and Z axis,

► Free at end point (x = 5.00).

113

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

■ Inner: None.

Loading

The column is subjected to the following loadings:

■ External: Point load at Z = 5.0: N = Fz = -100 000 N,

■ Internal: None.

The following results are determined according to Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures - Part 1-1: General rules

and rules for buildings (EN 1993-1-1: 2001), Chapter 5.5.2.

In this case, the column is subjected to a punctual compression load, therefore the stresses distribution is like in the

picture below:

Table 5.2 - sheet 1, from Chapter 5.5.2 (EN 1993-1-1: 2001), establish the rules to determine the web class.

114

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

The web class can be determined by considering the geometrical properties and the conditions described in Table

5.2 - sheet 1:

42.83

t 12mm

235

1. 0

fy

115

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Therefore:

c

42.83 42 42

t

This means that the column web is Class 4.

Table 5.2 - sheet 2, from Chapter 5.5.2 (EN 1993-1-1: 2001), establish the rules to determine the flanges class.

The top flange class can be determined by considering the geometrical properties and the conditions described in

Table 5.2 - sheet 2:

4.21

t 19mm

235

1. 0

fy

Therefore:

c

4.21 9 9

t

This means that the top column flange is Class 1. Having the same dimensions, the bottom column flange is also

Class 1.

A cross-section is classified according to the least favorable classification of its compression elements (chapter

5.5.2(6) from EN 1993-1-1: 2001).

According to the calculation above, the column section have Class 4 web and Class 1 flanges; therefore the class

section for the entire column section will be considered Class 4.

12.35.2.3 Reference results for calculating the compression resistance of the cross-section

The compression resistance for Class 4 cross-section is determined with the formula (6.11) from EN 1993-1-1:2001.

In order to verify the compression resistance for Class 4 cross-section, it is necessary to determine the effective area

of the cross-section.

116

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

The effective area of the cross section takes into account the reduction factor, , which is applying in this case only

for the web of the IPE 600 cross-section.

The following parameters have to be determined in order to calculate the reduction factor: the buckling factor and the

stress ratio, and the plate modified slenderness. They will be calculated considering only the cross-section web.

Taking into account that the stress distribution on web is linear, the stress ratio becomes:

2

1.0

1

k 4.0

The formula used to determine the plate modified slenderness is:

p

b/t

600mm 2 19mm 2 24mm /12mm 0.754

28.4 k 28.4 1.0 4.0

Because p > 0.673, the reduction factor has the following formula:

p 0.055 3

1.0

2p

Effective area

The effective area is determined considering the following:

For Class 4 cross-section, EN 1993-1-1: 2011 provides the following formula in order to calculate the compression

resistance of the cross-section:

N c ,Rd 3577581N

y

M0 1.0

Work ratio

N 100000N

Work ratio = 100 100 2.79518%

N c, Rd 3577581N

■ Linear element: S beam,

■ 6 nodes,

■ 1 linear element.

117

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Work ratio - Fx

Result name Result description Reference value

Work ratio - Fx Compression resistance work ratio [%] 2.79518 %

12.35.3Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Work ratio - Fx Compression resistance work ratio 2.89583 % 3.6008 %

118

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

column (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 21)

Test status: Passed

12.36.1Description

The test verifies the buckling resistance of a CHS219.1x6.3H made of S355.

The tests are made according to Eurocode 3 French Annex.

12.36.2Background

Buckling verification under compression efforts for an CHS219.1x6.3H column made of S355 steel. The column is

fixed at its base and free on the top. The column is subjected to a compression force (100 000 N) applied at its top.

The dead load will be neglected.

This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

■ Reference: Guide d’evaluation Advance Design, EN 1993-1-1: 2005;

■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);

■ Element type: linear.

The following load case and load combination are used:

■ Exploitation loadings (category A): Q1 = -100 000 N,

■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

Units

Metric System

Geometrical properties

■ Tube wall thickness: t=6.3mm

■ Tube diameter: d=219.1mm

2

■ Cross section area: A=4210mm

■ Radius of gyration about the relevant axis: i=75.283mm

4 4

■ Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: Iy=2366x10 mm

4 4

■ Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: Iz=2366x10 mm

119

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Materials properties

S235 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:

■ Yield strength fy = 355 MPa,

5

■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 2.1 x 10 MPa.

Boundary conditions

The boundary conditions are described below:

■ Outer:

► Support at start point (x = 0) restrained in translation and rotation along X, Y and Z axis,

► Free at end point (z = 3.00).

■ Inner: None.

■ Buckling lengths Lfy and Lfz are both imposed with 6m value

Loading

The column is subjected to the following loadings:

■ External: Point load at Z = 3.0: FZ = N = -100 000 N,

■ Internal: None.

The calculations are made in order to obtain the work ratio of the analyzed element. The work ratio of the element is

calculated using the percentage of the design buckling resistance of the compressed element (N b,Rd) from the

compression force applied to the element (NEd). The design buckling resistance of the compressed member, N b,Rd, is

calculated according to Eurocode 3 1993-1-1-2005, Chapter 6.3.1.1.

N Ed

100 100% (6.46)

Nb, Rd

Cross-class classification is made according to Table 5.2

d 219.1mm

34.778

t 6.3mm

235 235

0.814

fy 355

d

34.778 80 2 50 0.814 46.381 therefore the section is considered to be Class 2

t

It will be used the following buckling curve corresponding to Table 6.2:

120

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

The imperfection factor corresponding to the appropriate buckling curve will be 0.21:

The design buckling resistance of the compressed element is calculated using the next formula:

A fy

Nb, Rd (6.47)

M1

Where:

coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness will be determined from the relevant buckling curve

according to:

1

y 1 (6.49)

y y y

2 2

A* fy Lcr

y (6.50)

N cr i 1

E 210000

1 76.41

fy 355

Iy 23860000mm 4

i 75.283mm

A 4210mm 2

Lcr 6000mm

y 1.043

i 1 75.283mm 76.41

1

y 0.636 1

1.132 1.132² 1.043²

2

A is the cross section area; A=4210mm ; fy is the yielding strength of the material; fy=355N/mm and

2

M1 is a safety

coefficient, M1 1

121

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

N b,Rd 950533.8 N

M1 1

N Ed 100000N

N Ed 100000N

100 100 10.520%

N b,Rd 950533.8N

■ Linear element: S beam,

■ 4 nodes,

■ 1 linear element.

The appropriate non-dimensional slenderness

LT

122

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Ratio of the design normal force to design buckling resistance in the strong inertia of the profile

Adimensional - SNy

Result name Result description Reference value

y y coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness y 0.636

SN y Ratio of the design normal force to design buckling resistance in the 0.1052

strong inertia of the profile

12.36.3Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Xy coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.635463 0.0000 %

slenderness adim

SNy Ratio of the design normal force to design buckling 0.105293 0.0000 %

resistance in the strong inertia of the profile adim

123

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.37 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the lateral torsional buckling of a IPE300 beam

(evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 22)

Test status: Passed

12.37.1Description

The test verifies the lateral torsional buckling of a IPE300 beam made of S235 steel.

The calculations are made according to Eurocode 3, French Annex.

12.37.2Background

Lateral torsional buckling verification for an unrestrained IPE300 beam subjected to axis bending efforts, made of

S235 steel. The beam is simply supported. The beam is subjected to a uniform vertical load (10 000 N) applied

constantly on the entire length. The dead load will be neglected.

This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

■ Reference: Guide d’evaluation Advance Design, EN 1993-1-1: 2005;

■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);

■ Element type: linear.

The following load case and load combination are used:

■ Exploitation loadings (category A): Q1 = -10 000 N,

■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

Units

Metric System

Geometrical properties

■ Beam length: 5m

2

■ Cross section area: A=5310mm

4 4

■ Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: Iy=8356.00x10 mm

4 4

■ Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: Iz=603.80x10 mm

124

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Materials properties

S235 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:

■ Yield strength fy = 235 MPa,

5

■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 2.1 x 10 MPa.

Boundary conditions

The boundary conditions are described below:

■ Outer:

► Support at start point (x = 0) restrained in translation along X, Y and Z axis,

► Support at the end point (z = 3.00) restrained in translation along Y and Z axis and restrained rotation

along X axis.

■ Inner: None.

Loading

The column is subjected to the following loadings:

■ External: Linear load From X=0.00m to X=5.00m: FZ = N = -10 000 N,

■ Internal: None.

The calculations are made in order to obtain the work ratio of the analyzed element. The work ratio of the element is

calculated using the percentage of the design buckling moment resistance of the bended element (Mb,Rd) from the

designed value moment (MEd) produced by the linear force applied to the element (N Ed). The design buckling

resistance of the compressed member, Nb,Rd, is calculated according to Eurocode 3 1993-1-1-2005, Chapter 6.3.1.1.

M Ed

100 100% (6.46)

M b, Rd

Cross-class classification is made according to Table 5.2

■ for beam web:

c 248.6mm

35.014 c

t 7.1mm 35.014 72 72 therefore the beam web is considered to be

t

1

Class 1

■ for beam flange:

c 56.45mm

5.276 c

t 10.7mm 5.276 9 9 therefore the haunch is considered to be Class1

t

1

125

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

The buckling curve will be determined corresponding to Table 6.2:

h 300mm

2 2 the buckling curve about Y-Y will be considered “a”

b 150mm

The design buckling resistance moment against lateral-torsional buckling is calculated according the next formula:

LT W y f y

M b, Rd (6.55)

M1

Where:

1

LT 1 (6.56)

LT LT LT

2 2

Where:

LT 0.5 1 LT (LT 0.2) LT

2

LT represents the imperfection factor; LT 0.21

126

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Wy f y

LT

M cr

Mcr is the elastic critical moment for lateral-torsional buckling, is based on gross cross sectional properties and takes

into account the loading conditions, the real moment distribution and the lateral restraints.

2 E I z k z I w k z L 2 G I t C z 2 C z

M cr C1

k w I z

(1)

k z L 2

2

E IZ

2 g 2 g

according to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; AN.3 Chapter 2

Where:

2

E is the Young’s module: E=210000N/mm

2

G is the share modulus: G=80770N/mm

4 4

Iz is the inertia of bending about the minor axis Z: Iz=603.8 x10 mm

4 4

It is the torsional inertia: It=20.12x10 mm

10 6

IW is the warping inertia (deformation inertia moment): Iw=12.59x10 mm

L is the beam length: L=5000mm

kz and kw are buckling coefficients

zg is the distance between the point of load application and the share center (which coincide with the center of

gravity)

C1 and C2 are coefficients depending on the load variation over the beam length

If the bending moment is linear along the bar, if there are no transversal loads or if the transverse load is applied to

the center, then C2xxg=0 and the Mcr formula become:

² E Iz I w L² G I t

M cr C1

L² Iz ² E Iz

The C1 coefficient is chosen from the Table2 of the EN 1993-1-1-AN France; AN.3 Chapter 3.3:

127

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

M cr 1.13

(5000mm)²

12.59 1010 mm 6 (5000mm)² 80770N / mm 2 20.12 104 mm 4

603.80 104 mm 4 ² 210000N / mm 2 603.80 104 mm 4

1.13 500578.44 N 230.80mm 130609424.8 Nmm 130.61kNm

therefore:

LT 1.063

M cr 130609424.8 Nmm

LT 0.5 1 LT (LT 0.2) LT 0.5 1 0.21 (1.063 0.2) 1.0632 1.156

2

1 1

LT 0.621 1

LT LT ² LT ² 1.156 1.156² 1.063²

■ Linear element: S beam,

■ 6 nodes,

■ 1 linear element.

The steel calculation results can be found in the Shape Sheet window. The “Class” tab shows the classification of the

cross section and the effective characteristics (not applicable in this case, as the cross section is class 1).

Lateral torsional buckling coefficient

128

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Mcr

Result name Result description Reference value

12.37.3Calculated results

Result Result description Value Error

name

XLT Lateral-torsional buckling coefficient 0.621588 adim 0.0947 %

Mcr Elastic critical moment for lateral-torsional buckling 130.699 kN*m 0.0681 %

129

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.38 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the design plastic shear resistance of a

rectangular hollow section beam (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 12)

Test status: Passed

12.38.1Description

Verifies the design plastic shear resistance of a rectangular hollow section beam made of S275 steel.

The verification is made according to Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-1-1) French Annex.

12.38.2Background

Verifies the adequacy of a rectangular hollow section beam made of S275 steel to resist shear. Verification of the

shear resistance at ultimate limit state is realised. The name of the cross-section is RC3020100 and can be found in

the Advance Design OTUA library. The beam is simply supported and it is subjected to an uniformly distributed load

(50 000 N/ml) applied at its top. The dead load will be neglected.

This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

■ Reference: Guide d’evaluation Advance Design, EN 1993-1-1: 2001;

■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);

■ Element type: linear.

The following load case and load combination are used:

■ Exploitation loadings (category A), Q:

► Fz = -50 000 N/ml,

■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

Units

Metric System

Geometry

Below are described the beam cross section characteristics:

■ Height: h = 300 mm,

■ Width: b = 200 mm,

■ Thickness: t = 10 mm,

■ Outer radius: r = 15 mm,

■ Beam length: L = 5000 mm,

2

■ Section area: A = 9490 mm ,

■ Partial factor for resistance of cross sections: M 0 1. 0 .

130

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Materials properties

S275 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:

■ Yield strength fy = 275 MPa,

5

■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 2.1 x 10 MPa.

Boundary conditions

The boundary conditions are described below:

■ Outer:

► Support at start point (x = 0) restrained in translation along X, Y and Z axis,

► Support at end point (x = 5.00) restrained in translation along Y, Z axis and restrained in rotation along

X axis.

■ Inner: None.

Loading

The beam is subjected to the following loadings:

■ External:

► Uniformly distributed load: q = Fz = -50 000 N/ml,

■ Internal: None.

12.38.2.2 Reference results for calculating the design plastic shear resistance of the cross-section

The design plastic shear resistance of the cross-section is determined with formula (6.18) from EN 1993-1-1:2001.

Before using it, the shear area (Av) has to be determined.

For a rectangular hollow section of uniform thickness the shear area is determined according to chapter 6.2.6 (3) from

EN 1993-1-1. As the load is parallel to depth, the shear area is:

A h 9490mm 2 300mm

Av 5694mm 2

bh 300mm 200mm

Design plastic shear resistance of the cross section

EN 1993-1-1: 2011 provides the following formula to calculate the design plastic shear resistance of the cross-

section:

f 275MPa

Av 5694mm 2

y

V pl , Rd 3 3 904044N

M0 1.0

Work ratio

The verification of the design plastic shear resistance is done with relationship (6.17) from EN 1993-1-1. The

corresponding work ratio is:

q L 50 N / mm 5000mm

VEd 125000N

Work ratio = 100 2 100 2 100 100 13.83%

V pl , Rd V pl , Rd 904044N 904044N

■ Linear element: S beam,

■ 6 nodes,

■ 1 linear element.

131

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Work ratio - Fz

Result name Result description Reference value

Work ratio - Fz Work ratio of the design shear resistance [%] 13.83 %

12.38.3Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Work ratio - Fz Shear resistance work ratio 13.8219 % 0.1587 %

132

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.39 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the resistance of a rectangular hollow section

column subjected to bending and shear efforts (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 13)

Test status: Passed

12.39.1Description

Verifies the resistance of a rectangular hollow section column (made of S235 steel) subjected to bending and shear

efforts.

The verification is made according to Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-1-1) French Annex.

12.39.2Background

Verifies the adequacy of a rectangular hollow section column made of S235 steel to resist shear and bending efforts.

Verification of the shear resistance at ultimate limit state, as well as the design resistance for bending, is realised.

The name of the cross-section is RC3020100 and can be found in the Advance Design OTUA library. The column is

fixed at its base and it is subjected to a punctual horizontal load applied to the middle height (200 000 N). The dead

load will be neglected.

This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

■ Reference: Guide d’evaluation Advance Design, EN 1993-1-1: 2001;

■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);

■ Element type: linear.

The following load case and load combination are used:

■ Exploitation loadings (category A), Q:

► Fx = 200 000 N,

■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

Units

Metric System

133

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Geometry

Below are described the column cross section characteristics:

■ Height: h = 300 mm,

■ Width: b = 200 mm,

■ Thickness: t = 10 mm,

■ Outer radius: r = 15 mm,

■ Column height: L = 5000 mm,

2

■ Section area: A = 9490 mm ,

3

■ Plastic section modulus about y-y axis: W pl,y = 956000 mm ,

■ Partial factor for resistance of cross sections: M 0 1. 0 .

S235 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:

■ Yield strength fy = 235 MPa,

5

■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 2.1 x 10 MPa.

Boundary conditions

The boundary conditions are described below:

■ Outer:

► Support at start point (z = 0) restrained in translation and rotation along X, Y and Z axis,

► Free at end point (z = 5.00).

■ Inner: None.

Loading

The column is subjected to the following loadings:

■ External:

► Point load at z = 2.5: V= Fx = 200 000 N,

■ Internal: None.

12.39.2.2 Reference results for calculating the design plastic shear resistance of the cross-section

The design plastic shear resistance of the cross-section is determined with formula (6.18) from EN 1993-1-1:2001.

Before using it, the shear area (Av) has to be determined.

For a rectangular hollow section of uniform thickness the shear area is determined according to chapter 6.2.6 (3) from

EN 1993-1-1. As the load is parallel to depth, the shear area is:

A h 9490mm 2 300mm

Av 5694mm 2

bh 300mm 200mm

Design plastic shear resistance of the cross section

EN 1993-1-1: 2011 provides the following formula to calculate the design plastic shear resistance of the cross-

section:

f 235MPa

Av 5694mm 2

y

V pl , Rd 3 3 772546.6 N

M0 1.0

Work ratio

The verification of the design plastic shear resistance is done with relationship (6.17) from EN 1993-1-1. The

corresponding work ratio is:

134

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

V 200000

Work ratio = 100 100 25.89%

V pl , Rd 772546.6

12.39.2.3 Reference results for calculating the design resistance for bending

Before calculating the design resistance for bending, the cross section class has to be determined.

The following results are determined according to Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures - Part 1-1: General rules

and rules for buildings (EN 1993-1-1: 2001), Chapter 5.5.2.

In this case, the column is subjected to bending efforts, therefore the stresses distribution is like in the picture below:

Table 5.2 - sheet 1, from Chapter 5.5.2 (EN 1993-1-1: 2001), establish the rules to determine the class for

compressed parts. The picture below shows an extract from this table.

135

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Taking into account that the top wing part is subjected to compression stresses, its class can be determined by

considering the geometrical properties and the conditions described in Table 5.2 - sheet 1 (the above highlighted

extract – part subject to compression).

15

t t 10mm

235

1. 0

fy

Therefore:

c

15 33 33

t

This means that the top wing is Class 1. Because the bottom wing is tensioned, it will be classified as Class 1.

The left/right web is subjected to bending stresses. Their class can be determined by considering the geometrical

properties and the conditions described in Table 5.2 - sheet 1 (the above highlighted extract – part subject to

bending):

25

t t 10mm

235

1. 0

fy

Therefore:

c

25 72 72

t

This means that the left/right web is Class 1.

Because a cross-section is classified according to the least favorable classification of its compression elements

(chapter 5.5.2(6) from EN 1993-1-1: 2001), this means that the cross-section is Class 1.

The design resistance for bending, for Class 1 cross-section, is determined with formula (6.13) from EN 1993-1-

1:2001.

136

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

W pl , y f 956000mm 3 235MPa

M c , Rd 224660000Nmm

y

M0 1.0

Work ratio

The verification of the design resistance for bending is done with relationship (6.12) from EN 1993-1-1. The

corresponding work ratio is:

L 5000mm

V 200000N

M Ed 2 100 2

Work ratio = 100 100 222.56%

M c , Rd M c , Rd 224660000Nmm

■ Linear element: S beam,

■ 6 nodes,

■ 1 linear element.

Work ratio - Fz

137

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Work ratio – Oblique

Result name Result description Reference value

Work ratio - Fz Work ratio of the design plastic shear resistance [%] 25.89 %

Work ratio - Oblique Work ratio of the design resistance for bending [%] 222.56 %

12.39.3Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Work ratio - Fz Work ratio of the design plastic shear resistance 25.8793 % -0.0413 %

Work ratio - Work ratio of the design resistance for bending 222.559 % -0.0004 %

Oblique

138

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.40 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the buckling resistance of a RC3020100 column

(evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 20)

Test status: Passed

12.40.1Description

The test verifies the buckling of a RC3020100 column made of S355 steel.

The verifications are made according to Eurocode3 French Annex.

12.40.2Background

Verification of buckling under compression efforts for a rectangular hollow, RC3020100 column made of S235 steel.

The column is fixed at its base and free on the top. The column is subjected to a compression force (200 000 N)

applied at its top. The dead load will be neglected.

This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

■ Reference: Guide d’evaluation Advance Design, EN 1993-1-1: 2005;

■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);

■ Element type: linear.

The following load case and load combination are used:

■ Exploitation loadings (category A): Q1 = -200 000 N,

■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

Units

Metric System

Geometrical properties

2

■ Cross section area: A=9490mm

4 4

■ Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: Iy=11819x10 mm

4 4

■ Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: Iz=6278x10 mm

Materials properties

S235 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:

■ Yield strength fy = 235 MPa,

139

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

5

■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 2.1 x 10 MPa.

Boundary conditions

The boundary conditions are described below:

■ Outer:

► Support at start point (x = 0) restrained in translation and rotation along X, Y and Z axis,

► Free at end point (x = 5.00).

■ Inner: None.

■ Buckling lengths Lfy and Lfz are both imposed (10m)

Loading

The column is subjected to the following loadings:

■ External: Point load at Z = 5.0: FZ = N = -200 000 N,

■ Internal: None.

The calculations are made in order to obtain the work ratio of the analyzed element. The work ratio of the element is

calculated using the percentage of the design buckling resistance of the compressed element (N b,Rd) from the

compression force applied to the element (NEd). The design buckling resistance of the compressed member, N b,Rd, is

calculated according to Eurocode 3 1993-1-1-2005, Chapter 6.3.1.1.

N Ed

100 100% (6.46)

Nb, Rd

The design buckling resistance of the compressed element is calculated using the next formula:

A fy

Nb, Rd (6.47)

M1

Where:

Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness after the Y-Y axis

coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness will be determined from the relevant buckling curve

according to:

1

2

1 (6.49)

2

A* f y

N cr

2 2

Where: A is the cross section area; A=5380mm ; fy is the yielding strength of the material; fy=235N/mm and Ncr is the

elastic critical force for the relevant buckling mode based on the gross cross sectional properties:

N cr 2449625.943N

L fy ² 10000mm 2

A fy 9490mm 2 235N / mm 2

0.954

N cr 2449625.943N

0.5 1 ( 0.2) ²

140

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

The imperfection factor corresponding to the appropriate buckling curve will be 0.21:

0.5 1 ( 0.2) ² 0.5 1 0.21 0.954 0.2 0.9542 1.034

Therefore:

1 1

0.698 1

2 2

1.034 1.0342 0.9542

M1 is a safety coefficient, M1 1

0.698 9490mm2 235N / mm2

Nb, Rd 1556644.7 N

1

N Ed 200000N

N Ed 200000N

100 100 12.848%

Nb, Rd 1556644.7 N

The calculations are made in order to obtain the work ratio of the analyzed element. The work ratio of the element is

calculated using the percentage of the design buckling resistance of the compressed element (N b,Rd) from the

compression force applied to the element (NEd). The design buckling resistance of the compressed member, N b,Rd, is

calculated according to Eurocode 3 1993-1-1-2005, Chapter 6.3.1.1.

N Ed

100 100% (6.46)

Nb, Rd

The design buckling resistance of the compressed element is calculated using the next formula:

A fy

Nb, Rd (6.47)

M1

Where:

Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness after the Z-Z axis

coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness will be determined from the relevant buckling curve

according to:

1

2

1 (6.49)

2

141

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

A* f y

N cr

2 2

Where: A is the cross section area; A=5380mm ; fy is the yielding strength of the material; fy=235N/mm and Ncr is the

elastic critical force for the relevant buckling mode based on the gross cross sectional properties:

N cr 1301188.905N

L fy ² 10000mm 2

A fy 9490mm 2 235N / mm 2

1.309

N cr 1301188.905N

0.5 1 ( 0.2) ²

It will be used the following buckling curve:

The imperfection factor corresponding to the appropriate buckling curve will be 0.21:

0.5 1 ( 0.2) ² 0.5 1 0.21 1.309 0.2 1.3092 1.473

Therefore:

1 1

0.465 1

2 2

1.473 1.4732 1.3092

M1 is a safety coefficient, M1 1

0.465 9490mm2 235N / mm2

Nb, Rd 1037019.75N

1

N Ed 200000N

N Ed 200000N

100 100 19.286%

Nb, Rd 1037019.75N

■ Linear element: S beam,

■ 6 nodes,

■ 1 linear element.

142

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Non-dimensional slenderness after Y-Y axis

143

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Non-dimensional slenderness after Z-Z axis

Ratio of the design normal force to design buckling resistance (strong inertia)

Work ratio (y-y)

144

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Ratio of the design normal force to design buckling resistance (weak inertia)

Work ratio (z-z)

Result name Result description Reference value

Work ratio (y-y) Ratio of the design normal force to design buckling resistance (strong 12.85%

inertia) [%]

Work ratio (z-z) Ratio of the design normal force to design buckling resistance (weak 19.29%

inertia) [%]

12.40.3Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Xy coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.697433 adim 0.0000 %

slenderness after Y-Y axis

Xz coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.465226 adim 0.0000 %

slenderness after Z-Z axis

SNy Ratio of the design normal force to design buckling 0.128586 adim 0.0000 %

resistance in the strong inertia of the profile

SNz Ratio of the design normal force to design buckling 0.192767 adim 0.0000 %

resistance in the weak inertia of the profile

145

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.41 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Cross section classification and compression resistance

verification of a rectangular hollow section column (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test

11)

Test status: Passed

12.41.1Description

Verifies the cross section classification and the compression resistance of a rectangular hollow section column.

The verification is made according to Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-1-1) French Annex.

12.41.2Background

Classification and verification under compression efforts of a hot rolled rectangular hollow section column made of

S235 steel. The name of the cross-section is RC3020100 and can be found in the Advance Design OTUA library.

The column is fixed at its base and free on the top. It is subjected to a compression force (100 000 N) applied at its

top. The dead load will be neglected.

This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

■ Reference: Guide d’evaluation Advance Design, EN 1993-1-1: 2001;

■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);

■ Element type: linear.

The following load case and load combination are used:

■ Exploitation loadings (category A), Q:

► Fz = -100 000 N,

■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

Units

Metric System

Geometry

Below are described the column cross section characteristics:

■ Height: h = 300 mm,

■ Width: b = 200 mm,

146

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

■ Thickness: t = 10 mm,

■ Outer radius: r = 15 mm,

■ Column length: L = 5000 mm,

■ Section area: A = 9490 mm2 ,

S235 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:

■ Yield strength fy = 235 MPa,

5

■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 2.1 x 10 MPa.

Boundary conditions

The boundary conditions are described below:

■ Outer:

► Support at start point (z = 0) restrained in translation and rotation along X, Y and Z axis,

► Free at end point (z = 5.00).

■ Inner: None.

Loading

The column is subjected to the following loadings:

■ External: Point load at Z = 5.0:

► N = Fz = -100 000 N,

■ Internal: None.

The following results are determined according to Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures - Part 1-1: General rules

and rules for buildings (EN 1993-1-1: 2001), Chapter 5.5.2.

In this case, the column is subjected to a punctual compression load, therefore the stresses distribution is like in the

picture below:

147

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Table 5.2 - sheet 1, from Chapter 5.5.2 (EN 1993-1-1: 2001), establish the rules to determine the class for

compressed parts. The picture below shows an extract from this table. The entire cross-section is subjected to

compression stresses.

The cross-section class can be determined by considering the geometrical properties and the conditions described in

Table 5.2 - sheet 1, and it is calculated for the most defavourable compressed part:

25

t t 10mm

235

1. 0

fy

Therefore:

c

25 33 33

t

Because a cross-section is classified according to the least favorable classification of its compression elements

(chapter 5.5.2(6) from EN 1993-1-1: 2001), this means that the cross-section is Class 1.

12.41.2.3 Reference results for calculating the compression resistance of the cross-section

The compression resistance for Class 1 cross-section is determined with formula (6.10) from EN 1993-1-1:2001.

For Class 1 cross-section, EN 1993-1-1: 2011 provides the following formula in order to calculate the compression

resistance of the cross-section:

A f 9490mm 2 235MPa

N c , Rd 2230150N

y

M0 1.0

Work ratio

N 100000N

Work ratio = 100 100 4.48%

N c, Rd 2230150N

■ Linear element: S beam,

148

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

■ 6 nodes,

■ 1 linear element.

Work ratio - Fx

Result name Result description Reference value

Work ratio - Fx Compression resistance work ratio [%] 4.48 %

12.41.3Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Work ratio - Fx Compression resistance work ratio 4.484 % 0.0893 %

149

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.42 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying an user defined I section class 4 column fixed on

the bottom and with a displacement restraint at 2.81m from the bottom (evaluated by

SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 25)

Test status: Passed

12.42.1Description

The test verifies a user defined cross section column.

The cross section has an “I symmetric” shape with: 880mm height; 220mm width; 5mm center thickness; 15mm

flange thickness; 0mm fillet radius and 0mm rounding radius.

The column is subjected to a -328kN axial compression force; 1274 kNm bending moment after the Y axis and 127.4

kNm bending moment after the Z axis. All the efforts are applied on the top of the column. The column height is

5.62m and has a restraint of displacement at 2.81m from the bottom over the weak axis.

The calculations are made according to Eurocode 3 French Annex.

12.42.2Background

An I880*5+220*15 shaped column subjected to compression and bending, made from S275 steel. The column has a

880x5mm web and 220x15mm flanges. The column is hinged at its base and at his top the end is translation is

permitted only on vertical direction and the rotation is blocked for the long axis of the column. The column is

subjected to an axial compression load -328000 N, a 127400Nm bending moment after the X axis and a1274000Nm

bending moment after the Y axis.

The column has lateral restraints against torsional buckling placed in at 2.81m from the column end (in the middle).

This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

150

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

■ Reference: Guide d’evaluation Advance Design, EN 1993-1-1: 2005;

■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);

■ Element type: linear.

The following load case and load combination are used:

■ Exploitation loadings (category A): Fz=-328000N N, Mx= 127400Nm; My=1274000Nm

■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

■ Cross section dimensions are in millimeters (mm).

Units

Metric System

Geometrical properties

■ Column length: L=5620mm

■ Cross section area: A 10850mm2

■ Overall breadth: b 220mm

■ Flange thickness: t f 15mm

■ Web thickness: t w 5mm

■ Elastic modulus after the Y axis, Wel , y 3387.66 103 mm 3

■ Plastic modulus after the Y axis, W y 3757.62 103 mm 3

■ Elastic modulus after the Z axis, Wel , z 242.08 103 mm 3

■ Plastic modulus after the Z axis, W pl , z 368.31 103 mm 3

4 4

■ Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: Iy=149058.04x10 mm

4 4

■ Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: Iz=2662.89x10 mm

4 4

■ Torsional moment of inertia: It=51.46x10 mm

6 6

■ Working inertial moment: Iw=4979437.37x10 mm

Materials properties

S275 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:

■ Yield strength fy = 275 MPa,

151

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

■ Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800MPa

Boundary conditions

The boundary conditions are described below:

■ Outer:

► Support at start point (x = 0) restrained in translation along X, Y and Z axis,

► Support at the end point (z = 5.62) restrained in translation along Y and Z axis and restrained rotation

along X axis.

■ Inner:

► Lateral buckling restraint in the middle of the column (z=2.81).

Loading

The column is subjected to the following loadings:

■ External: Point load From X=0.00m and z=5.62m: FZ =--328000N; Mx=127400Nm and My=1274000Nm

According to Advance Design calculations:

Cross-class classification is made according to Table 5.2

152

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

The web dimensions are 850x5mm.

N Ed 0.328

2 1 2 1 0.78 1

A fy 0.0109 275

1 N Ed 1 0.328

1 1 0.64 0.5

2 f y t d 2 275 0.85 0.005

153

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

235 235

0.924

fy 275

c 880mm 2 15mm

170 c 42 42 0.924

t 5mm 170 94.06

t 0.67 0.33 0.67 0.33 (0.78)

924

therefore the beam web is considered to be Class 4

- for beam flange:

c 107.5

7.61 c

t 15 7.61 9 0.924 8.316 therefore the haunch is considered to

t

924

be Class1.

In conclusion, the section is considered to be Class 4.

- the section is composed from Class 4 web and Class 1 flanges, therefore will start the web

calculation:

- in order to simplify the calculations the web will be considered compressed only

c 880mm 2 15mm

170 :

t 5mm

1 k 4

According to EC3 Part 1,5 – EN 1993-1-5-2004; Table 4.1

bw

p t

28.4 k

t is the web thickness; t=5mm

235 235

0.9244

fy 275

850mm

p 5mm 3.261

28.4 0.9244 4

According to EC3 Part 1,5 – EN 1993-1-5-2004; Chapter4.4

-the web is considered to be an internal compression element, therefore:

0.286

3 4 0

2

p 3.2612

154

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

be1 0.5 beff be1 0.5 243.1mm 121.55mm

be 2 0.5 beff be 2 0.5 243.1mm 121.55mm

- In order to simplify the calculation the section will be considered in pure bending

inf 850mm

1 bc bt 425mm

sup 2

1 k 23.9

According to EC3 Part 1,5 – EN 1993-1-5-2004; Table 4.1

c 880mm 2 15mm

170

t 5mm

bw

p t

28.4 k

t is the web thickness; t=5mm

235 235

0.9244

fy 275

850mm

p 5mm 1.325

28.4 0.9244 23.9

According to EC3 Part 1,5 – EN 1993-1-5-2004; Chapter4.4

0.692

3 2 0

2

p 1.3252

bw 850mm

beff bc beff 0.692 294.1mm

1 1 1

be1 0.4 beff be1 0.4 294.1mm 117.64mm

b 0.6 294.1mm 176.46mm

be 2 0.6 beff e2

155

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

yG

22015 432.5 117.64 5 366.18 22015 432.5 601.46 5124.27

22015 117.64 5 601.46 5 22015

158330.095

15.53mm

10195.5

-the inertial moment along the strong axis is:

Iy 220 15 448.032 117.64 5 381.712

12 12

601.463 5 153 220

601.46 5 107.742 220 15 416.97 2

12 12

748854356.6 699380072.5 1448234429mm 4

2203 15 53 117.64

Iz 220 15 0 2 117.64 5 0 2

12 12

5 601.46

3

2203 15

601.46 5 0

2

220 15 0 2 26627490.63mm 4

12 12

Iy 1448234429mm 4

Wel , y 3179229.533mm 3

z max 455.53mm

Iz 26627490.63mm 4

Wel , z 242068.10mm 3

y max 110mm

a) over the strong axis of the section, y-y:

- the imperfection factor α will be selected according to Tables 6.1 and 6.2:

156

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

0.34

Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness after Y-Y axis:

y coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness y will be determined from the relevant buckling

curve according to:

1

y 2

1 (6.49)

y y y

2

Aeff * f y

y

N cr , y

Where: A is the effective cross section area; Aeff 7815.2mm 2 ; fy is the yielding strength of the material;

2

fy=275N/mm and Ncr is the elastic critical force for the relevant buckling mode based on the gross cross sectional

properties:

N cr , y 95035371.44 N 95035.37kN

l fy ² 5620mm ²

157

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

y 0.15

N cr , y 95035371.44N

y 0.5 1 ( y 0.2) y ² 0.5 1 0.34 0.15 0.2 0.152 0.503

1 1

y 1.017

y y y

2 2

0.503 0.503 0.15

2 2

y 1

y 1

b) over the weak axis of the section, z-z:

- the imperfection factor α will be selected according to Tables 6.1 and 6.2:

0.49

Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness after Z-Z axis:

z coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness z will be determined from the relevant buckling curve

according to:

1

z 1 (6.49)

z z z

2 2

158

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Aeff * f y

z

N cr , z

Where: A is the effective cross section area; Aeff 7815.2mm 2 ; fy is the yielding strength of the material;

2

fy=275N/mm and Ncr is the elastic critical force for the relevant buckling mode based on the gross cross sectional

properties:

l fz 2.81m because of the torsional buckling restraint from the middle of the column

² E Iz ² 210000N / mm 2 26627490.63mm 4

N cr , z 6989347.62 N 6989.35kN

l fz ² 2810mm ²

Aeff f y 7815.2mm 2 275N / mm 2

z 0.555

N cr , z 6989347.62N

z 0.5 1 ( z 0.2) z ² 0.5 1 0.49 0.555 0.2 0.5552 0.741

1 1

z 0.812

z z z 0.741 0.741 0.555 z 0.812

2 2 2 2

z 1

a) for the top part of the column:

The elastic moment for lateral-torsional buckling calculation, Mcr:

- the transversal load is applied to the shear center, therefore C 2zg=0 and the moment formula will be:

² E Iz I w L² G I t

M cr C1

L² Iz ² E Iz

According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 2; …(3)

- where:

C1 is a coefficient that depends of several parameters as: section properties; support conditions; moment diagram

allure

1

C1

0.325 0.423 0.252 ²

According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 3; …(6)

637kNm

is the fraction of the bending moment from the column extremities: 0.50

1274kNm

159

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

637kNm

0.5 C1 1.31

1274kNm

According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 3.2; Table 1

2

Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 210000 N/mm .

4

Torsional moment of inertia: It=514614.75mm

Warping inertial moment:

IW is the warping inertia (deformation inertia moment):

I z h t f

2

Iw

4

h cross section height; h=880mm

2

Iw 49.808 1011 mm 6

4

According to EN1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 2 (…4)

Length of the column part: L=2810mm

2

Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800N/mm

160

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

² E Iz I w L² G I t 2 210000N / mm 2 26627490.63mm 4

M cr C1 1.31

L² Iz ² E Iz 2810mm 2

49.8081011 mm 6 2810mm 80800N / mm 2 514614mm 4

2

1.31 6989347.626N 439.32mm

26627490.63mm 4 2 210000N / mm 2 26627490.63mm 4

4022433856Nmm 4022.43kNm

Iy 1448234429mm 4

The elastic modulus : Wel , y 3179229.533mm 3

z max 455.53mm

LT 0.466

M cr 4022433856Nmm

Calculation of the LT for appropriate non-dimensional slenderness LT will be determined with formula:

1

LT 1 (6.56)

LT LT ² LT ²

LT 0.5 1 LT LT 0.2 LT ²

The cross section buckling curve will be chosen according to Table 6.4:

h 880mm

42

b 220mm

0.76

LT 0.5 1 LT LT 0.2 LT ² 0.51 0.76 0.466 0.2 0.466² 0.710

1 1

LT 0.803 1

LT LT ² LT ² 0.710 0.710² 0.466²

b) for the bottom part of the column:

The elastic moment for lateral-torsional buckling calculation, Mcr:

- the transversal load is applied to the shear center, therefore C 2zg=0 and the moment formula will be:

161

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

² E Iz I w L² G I t

M cr C1

L² Iz ² E Iz

According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 2; …(3)

- where:

C1 is a coefficient that depends on several parameters, such as: section properties; support conditions; moment

diagram allure

1

C1

0.325 0.423 0.252 ²

According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 3; …(6)

0

is the fraction of the bending moment from the column extremities: 0

637kNm

0 C1 1.77

According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 3.2; Table 1

2

Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 210000 N/mm .

4

Torsional moment of inertia: It=514614.75mm

Warping inertial moment:

IW is the warping inertia (deformation inertia moment):

I z h t f

2

Iw

4

h cross section height; h=880mm

162

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

2

Iw 49.808 1011 mm 6

4

According to EN1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 2 (…4)

2

Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800N/mm

² E Iz I w L² G I t 2 210000N / mm 2 26627490.63mm 4

M cr C1 1.77

L² Iz ² E Iz 2810mm 2

49.8081011 mm 6 2810mm 80800N / mm 2 514614mm 4

2

1.77 6989347.626N 439.32mm

26627490.63mm 4 2 210000N / mm 2 26627490.63mm 4

5434891269Nmm 5434.89kNm

Iy 1448234429mm 4

The elastic modulus : Wel , y 3179229.533mm 3

z max 455.53mm

LT 0.401

M cr 5434891269Nmm

Calculation of the LT for appropriate non-dimensional slenderness LT will be determined with the formula:

1

LT 1 (6.56)

LT LT ² LT ²

LT 0.5 1 LT LT 0.2 LT ²

The cross section buckling curve will be chose according to Table 6.4:

h 880mm

42

b 220mm

0.76

163

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

LT 0.5 1 LT LT 0.2 LT ² 0.51 0.76 0.401 0.2 0.401² 0.657

1 1

LT 0.849 1

LT LT ² LT ² 0.657 0.657² 0.401²

The internal factor k yy corresponding to a Class 4 section will be calculated according to Annex A, Table a.1, and will be

calculated separately for the two column parts separate by the middle torsional lateral restraint:

a) for the top part of the column:

y

k yy C my C mLT

N Ed

1

N cr , y

N Ed

1

N cr , y

y

N

1 y Ed

N cr , y

y 1 (previously calculated)

N Ed 328kN

² E Iy

N cr , y 95035371.44 N 95035.37kN (previously calculated)

l fy ²

N Ed

1 1

328000N

N cr , y 95035371.44 N 1

y

N Ed 328000N

1 y 1 1

N cr , y 95035371.44 N

164

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Weff , y f y

0

M cr 0

According to Eurocode 3 EN 1993-1-1-2005; Chapter 6.3.2.2

4

Iy 1448234429mm

Wel , y 3179229.533mm 3

z max 455.53mm

The calculation the M cr 0 will be calculated using C1 1 and C2 0 , therefore:

² E Iz I w L² G I t 2 210000N / mm 2 26627490.63mm 4

M cr 0 C1 1

L² Iz ² E Iz 2810mm 2

49.8081011 mm 6 2810mm 80800N / mm 2 514614mm 4

2

1 6989347.626N 439.32mm

26627490.63mm 4 2 210000N / mm 2 26627490.63mm 4

3070560199Nmm 3070.56kNm

Weff , y f y 3179229.533mm 3 275N / mm 2

0 0.534

M cr 0 3070560199Nmm

165

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

N N

Calculation of the 0.20 C1 4 1 Ed 1 Ed term:

N cr , z N cr ,TF

Where:

- for a symmetrical section for the both axis, N cr ,TF N cr ,T

A 2 E I w

Ncr ,T G It

I0 Lcr ,T ²

The mass moment of inertia I 0

I 0 I y I z A z g2

Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: I y 1490580416.67mm 4

Distance between the section neutral axis and the section geometrical center: z g 0

Lcr ,T 2.81m

Torsional moment of inertia: I t 514614.75mm 4

Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800MPa

N cr ,T 80800N / mm 2

514614.75mm 4

1517209270mm 4 2810mm ²

9646886.24N

N Ed 328000N

N cr ,TF N cr ,T 9646886.24N

² E Iz

N cr , z 6989347.62N 6989.35kN (previously calculated)

l fz ²

C1=1.31 for the top part of the column

C1=1.77 for the bottom part of the column

For the top part of the column:

N 328000N 328000N

0.20 C1 4 1 Ed 1 N Ed 0.20 1.31 4 1 1

N cr , z N cr ,TF 6989347.62 N 9646886.24N

0.224

166

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Therefore:

For the top part of the column:

y a LT

0 0.534 C my C my , 0 1 C my , 0

1 y a LT

N

0.20 C1 4 1 Ed 1 N Ed 0.224 C mz C mz , 0

N

N cr , z cr ,TF a LT

C mLT C my 2

1

N N

0 0.534 0.20 C1 4 1 Ed 1 Ed 0.224 N

1 Ed 1 Ed N

N N N N

cr , z cr ,TF

cr , z cr ,T

The Cmy coefficient takes into account the column behavior in the buckling plane: the buckling and bending moment distribution.

The coefficient must be calculated considering the column over the entire height.

y a LT

Cmy Cmy , 0 1 Cmy , 0

1 y a LT

M y , Ed Aeff

y

N Ed Weff , y

y 9.55

N Ed Weff , y 328000N 3179229.533mm 3

It 514614.75mm 4

a LT 1 1 0.9996 1

Iy 1448234429mm 4

N Ed

Ncr , y

167

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Where:

² E Iy

N cr , y 95035371.44 N 95035.37kN (previously calculated)

l fy ²

328000N

0.79

95035371.44N

y a LT 9.55 1

C my C my , 0 1 C my ,0 0.79 1 0.79 0.949

1 y a LT 1 9.55 1

- C mLT must be calculated separately for each column part, separated by the lateral buckling restraint

aLT

CmLT Cmy

2

1

1 N Ed 1 N Ed

N N

cr , z cr ,T

-the C my term used for C mLT calculation, must be recalculated for the corresponding column part (in this case the top column part)

y a LT

C my C my , 0 1 C my , 0

1 y a LT

Cmy ,0 0.79 0.21 0.36 0.33 0.79 0.21 0.5 0.36 0.5 0.33

N Ed 328000N

0.895

N cr , y 95035371.44N

M y , Ed Aeff 1274 106 Nmm 7815.2mm 2

y 9.55 (previously calculated)

N Ed Weff , y 328000N 3179229.533mm 3

y a LT 9.55 1

Cmy Cmy , 0 1 Cmy , 0 0.895 1 0.895 0.974

1 y a LT 1 9.55 1

a LT 1

C mLT C my

2

0.9742 0.989

0.328 0.328

1 N Ed 1 N Ed 1 1 C mLT 1

N N 6.9897 9.644

cr , z cr ,T

C mLT 1

Therefore the k yy term corresponding to the top part of the column will be:

y 1

k yy C my C mLT 0.949 1 0.952

N Ed 328000N

1 1

N cr , y 95035371.44N

168

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

y

k yy C my C mLT

N Ed

1

N cr , y

0 0.534

M cr 0 3070560199Nmm

For the bottom part of the column:

N

0.20 C1 4 1 Ed 1 N Ed 0.20 1.77 4 1 328000N 1 328000N

N 6989347.62N 9646886.24 N

N cr , z cr ,TF

0.260

169

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Therefore:

For the bottom part of the column:

y a LT

0 0.534 C my C my , 0 1 C my , 0

1 y a LT

N

0.20 C1 4 1 Ed 1 N Ed 0.260 C mz C mz , 0

N

N cr , z cr ,TF a LT

C mLT C my 2

1

N N

0 0.534 0.20 C1 4 1 Ed 1 Ed 0.260 1 N Ed 1 N Ed

N N N N

cr , z cr ,TF

cr , z cr ,T

The Cmy coefficient takes into account the column behavior in the buckling plane: the buckling and bending moment distribution.

The coefficient must be calculated considering the column over the entire height.

y a LT

Cmy Cmy , 0 1 Cmy , 0

1 y a LT

M y , Ed Aeff

y

N Ed Weff , y

y 9.55

N Ed Weff , y 328000N 3179229.533mm 3

It 514614.75mm 4

a LT 1 1 0.9996 1

Iy 1448234429mm 4

M Ed ,inf 0

The bending moment is null at the end of the column, therefore: 0

M Ed ,sup 1274kNm

170

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

N Ed

Ncr , y

Where:

² E Iy

N cr , y 95035371.44 N 95035.37kN (previously calculated)

l fy ²

328000N

0.79

95035371.44N

y a LT 9.55 1

C my C my , 0 1 C my ,0 0.79 1 0.79 0.949

1 y a LT 1 9.55 1

- C mLT must be calculated separately for each column part, separated by the lateral buckling restraint

aLT

CmLT Cmy

2

1

1 N Ed 1 N Ed

N N

cr , z cr ,T

-the C my term used for C mLT calculation, must be recalculated for the corresponding column part (in this case the top column part)

y a LT

C my C my , 0 1 C my , 0

1 y a LT

Cmy ,0 0.79 0.21 0.36 0.33 0.79 0.21 0.5 0.36 0.5 0.33

N Ed 328000N

0.895

N cr , y 95035371.44N

M y , Ed Aeff 637 106 Nmm 7815.2mm 2

y 4.77

N Ed Weff , y 328000N 3179229.533mm 3

y a LT 4.77 1

C my C my , 0 1 C my , 0 0.895 1 0.895 0.967

1 y a LT 1 4.77 1

a LT 1

C mLT C my

2

0.9672 0.974

328000N 328000N

1 N Ed 1 N Ed 1 1 C mLT 1

N N 6989347.62 N 9646886.24 N

cr , z cr ,T

C mLT 1

y 1

k yy C my C mLT 0.949 1 0.952

N Ed 328000N

1 1

N cr , y 95035371.44N

171

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Note: The software does not give the results of the lower section because it is not the most solicited segment.

y

k yz C mz

N Ed

1

N cr , z

M 0

The Cmz term must be calculated for the hole column length Ed ,inf 0

M Ed ,sup 1274kNm

N Ed 328000N

0.784

N cr , z 6989347.62N

y 1

k yz C mz 0.784 0.823

N Ed 328000N

1 1

N cr , z 6989347.62N

y 1

k yz C mz 0.784 0.823

N Ed 328000N

1 1

N cr , z 6989347.62N

Note:

The software does not give the results of the lower section because it is not the most solicited segment.

z

k zy C my C mLT

N Ed

1

N cr , y

N Ed

1 1

328000N

N cr , z 6989347.62N

z 0.991

N Ed 328000N

1 z 1 0.812

N cr , z 6989347.62N

z 0.991

k zy C my C mLT 0.949 1 0.944

N Ed 328000N

1 1

N cr , y 95035371.44 N

172

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

z 0.991

k zy C my C mLT 0.949 1 0.944

N 328000N

1 Ed 1

N cr , y 95035371.44 N

Note:

The software does not give the results of the lower section because it is not the most solicited segment.

a) for the top part of the column:

z 0.991

k zz C mz 0.784 0.815

N Ed 328000N

1 1

N cr , z 6989347.62 N

z 0.991

k zz C mz 0.784 0.815

N 328000N

1 Ed 1

N cr , z 6989347.62 N

Note:

The software does not give the results of the lower section because it is not the most solicited segment.

N Ed M y , Ed M y , Rd M M z , Rd

k yy k yz z , Ed

N M M z , Rk

y Rk LT y ,Rk

M1 M1 M1

N Ed M y , Ed M y , Rd M M z , Rd

k zy k zz z , Ed

N Rk M M z , Rk

z LT y ,Rk

M1 M1 M1

N Rk f y Ai

173

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

0.952

7815.2mm 2 275N / mm 2 3179229.533mm 3 275N / mm 2

1 0.803

1 1

127.4 10 Nmm

6

0.823 0.15 1.73 1.58 3.46

242068.10mm 3 275N / mm 2

1

328000N 1274 106 Nmm

0.944

7815.2mm 2 275N / mm 2 3179229.533mm 3 275N / mm 2

0.812 0.803

1 1

127.4 10 Nmm

6

0.815 0.19 1.71 1.56 3.56

242068.10mm 3 275N / mm 2

1

0.952

7815.2mm 2 275N / mm 2 3179229.533mm 3 275N / mm 2

0.812 0.803

1 1

127.4 10 Nmm

6

0.823 0.19 1.73 1.58 3.46

242068.10mm 3 275N / mm 2

1

328000N 1274 106 Nmm

0.944

7815.2mm 2 275N / mm 2 3179229.533mm 3 275N / mm 2

0.812 0.803

1 1

127.4 10 Nmm

6

0.815 0.19 1.71 1.56 3.56

242068.10mm 3 275N / mm 2

1

Note:

The software does not give the results of the lower section because it is not the most solicited segment.

■ Linear element: S beam,

■ 6 nodes,

■ 1 linear element.

174

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

y

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

z

175

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Internal factor, k yy

k yy

Internal factor, k yz

k yz

176

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Internal factor, k zy

k zy

Internal factor, k zz

k zz

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the compression effort over the Y axis: SNy

177

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the compression effort

over the Y axis

SNy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y bending moment over the Y axis: SMyy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y bending moment

over the Y axis

SMyy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z bending moment over the Y axis: SMyz

178

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z bending moment

over the Y axis

SMyz

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the compression effort over the Z axis: SNz

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the compression effort

over the Z axis

SNz

179

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y bending moment over the Z axis: SMzy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y bending moment

over the Z axis

SMzy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z bending moment over the Z axis: SMzz

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z bending moment

over the Z axis

SMzz

180

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.42.2.12Reference results

Result name Result description Reference value

0.95

k yy Internal factor, k yy

SNy Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the 0.15

compression effort over the Y axis

SMyy Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y 1.72

bending moment over the Y axis

SMyz Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z 1.58

bending moment over the Y axis

SNz Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the 0.19

compression effort over the z axis

SMzy Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y 1.71

bending moment over the Z axis

SMzz Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z 1.56

bending moment over the Z axis

12.42.3Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Xy Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 1 adim 0.0000 %

slenderness

Xz Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.771957 adim 0.2542 %

slenderness

Kyy Internal factor, kyy 0.954682 adim 0.4928 %

Kyz Internal factor, kyz 0.823048 adim 0.3717 %

Kzy Internal factor, kzy 0.944081 adim 0.4341 %

Kzz Internal factor, kzz 0.813909 adim -0.7428 %

SNy Bending and axial compression verification term 0.12109 adim 0.9083 %

depending of the compression effort over the Y axis

SMyy Bending and axial compression verification term 1.77289 adim 0.1633 %

depending of the Y bending moment over the Y axis

SMyz Bending and axial compression verification term 1.57519 adim 0.3306 %

depending of the Z bending moment over the Y axis

SNz Bending and axial compression verification term 0.156861 adim -1.9619 %

depending of the compression effort over the z axis

SMzy Bending and axial compression verification term 1.7532 adim 2.5263 %

depending of the Y bending moment over the Z axis

SMzy Bending and axial compression verification term 1.7532 adim 2.5263 %

depending of the Z bending moment over the Z axis

181

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.43 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying an user defined I section class 3 column fixed on

the bottom (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 26)

Test status: Passed

12.43.1Description

The test verifies a user defined cross section column.

The cross section has an “I symmetric” shape with: 408mm height; 190mm width; 9.4mm center thickness; 14.6mm

flange thickness; 0mm fillet radius and 0mm rounding radius.

The column is subjected to 1000kN axial compression force and a 200kNm bending moment after the Y axis. All the

efforts are applied on the top of the column.

The calculations are made according to Eurocode 3 French Annex.

12.43.2Background

An I40.8*0.94+19*1.46 shaped column subjected to compression and bending, made from S275 steel. The column

has a 40.8x9.4mm web and 190x14.6mm flanges. The column is fixed at it’s base The column is subjected to an axial

compression load -1000000 N, a 200000Nm bending moment after the Y axis and a 5000N lateral force after the Y

axis.

This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

■ Reference: Guide d’evaluation Advance Design, EN 1993-1-1: 2005;

■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);

■ Element type: linear.

The following load case and load combination are used:

■ Exploitation loadings (category A): Fz=-1000000N N; My=200000Nm

182

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

■ Cross section dimensions are in millimeters (mm).

Units

Metric System

Geometrical properties

■ Column length: L=2000mm

■ Cross section area: A 9108.72mm2

■ Overall breadth: b 190mm

■ Flange thickness: t f 14.6mm

■ Web thickness: t w 9.4mm

■ Elastic modulus after the Y axis, Wel , y 1261435.06mm 3

■ Plastic modulus after the Y axis, W y 1428491.78mm 3

■ Elastic modulus after the Z axis, Wel , z 175962.65mm 3

■ Plastic modulus after the Z axis, W pl , z 271897.69

4

■ Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: Iy=257332751mm

4

■ Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: Iz=16716452.10 mm

4

■ Torsional moment of inertia: It=492581.13 mm

6

■ Working inertial moment: Iw=645759981974.33mm

Materials properties

S275 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:

■ Yield strength fy = 275 MPa,

■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 210000 MPa.

■ Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800MPa

Boundary conditions

The boundary conditions are described below:

■ Outer:

► Support at start point (x = 0) restrained in translation and rotation along X, Y and Z axis,

183

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Loading

The column is subjected to the following loadings:

■ External: Point load From X=0.00m and z=2.00m: FZ =-1000000N; Mx=200000Nm and Fy=5000N

According to Advance Design calculations:

Cross-class classification is made according to Table 5.2

The web dimensions are 378.8x9.4mm.

N Ed 1.000

2 1 2 1 0.20 1

A f y 0.0091 275

1 N Ed 1 1

1 1 1.01 0.5

2 f y t d 2 275 0.3788 0.0094

184

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

235 235

0.924

fy 275

c 408mm 2 14.6mm

40.30 c 42 42 0.924

t 9.4mm 170 64.25

t 0.67 0.33 0.67 0.33 ( 0.20)

0.924

therefore the beam web is considered to be Class 3.

- for beam flange:

c 90.30

6.18 c

t 14.6 6.18 9 0.924 8.316 therefore the haunch is considered to be Class1

t

0.924

In conclusion, the section is considered to be Class 3.

a) over the strong axis of the section, y-y:

- the imperfection factor α will be selected according to Tables 6.1 and 6.2:

185

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

0.34

Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness after Y-Y axis:

y coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness y will be determined from the relevant buckling

curve according to:

1

y 2

1 (6.49)

y y y

2

A * fy

y

N cr , y

4

Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: Iy=257332751mm

N cr , y 133338053.7 N 133338.05kN

l fy ² 2000mm ²

186

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

A f y 9108.72mm 2 275N / mm 2

y 0.137

N cr , y 133338053.7 N

y 0.5 1 ( y 0.2) y ² 0.5 1 0.34 0.137 0.2 0.1372 0.499

1 1

y 1.022

y y y

2 2

0.499 0.499 0.137

2 2

y 1

y 1

b) over the weak axis of the section, z-z:

- the imperfection factor α will be selected according to Tables 6.1 and 6.2:

0.49

Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness after Z-Z axis:

z coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness z will be determined from the relevant buckling curve

according to:

1

z 1 (6.49)

z z z

2 2

187

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

A* f y

z

N cr , z

l fz 2.00m

4

Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: Iz=16716452.10 mm

² E Iz ² 210000N / mm 2 16716452.10mm 4

N cr , z 8661700.38N 8661.70kN

l fz ² 2000mm ²

A fy 9108.72mm 2 275N / mm 2

z 0.538

N cr , z 8661700.38N

z 0.5 1 ( z 0.2) z ² 0.5 1 0.49 0.538 0.2 0.5382 0.728

1 1

z 0.821

z z z 0.728 0.728 0.538 z 0.821

2 2 2 2

z 1

The elastic moment for lateral-torsional buckling calculation, Mcr:

- the transversal load is applied to the shear center, therefore C2zg=0 and the moment formula will be:

² E Iz I w L² G I t

M cr C1

L² Iz ² E Iz

According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 2; …(3)

-where:

C1 is a coefficient that depends of several parameters as: section properties; support conditions; moment diagram

allure

1

C1

0.325 0.423 0.252 ²

According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 3; …(6)

188

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

4

Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: Iy=257332751mm

4

Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: Iz=16716452.10 mm

2

Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 210000 N/mm .

4

Torsional moment of inertia: It=492581.13 mm

Warping inertial moment:

I z h t f

2

Iw

4

h cross section height; h=408mm

2

Iw 6.46774 1011 mm 6

4

According to EN1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 2 (…4)

Length of the column: L=2000mm

2

Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800N/mm

² E Iz I w L² G I t 2 210000N / mm 2 16716452.10mm 4

M cr C1 1

L² Iz ² E Iz 2000mm 2

6.467741011 mm 6 2000mm 80800N / mm 2 492581.13mm 4

2

1 8661700.384N 208.052mm

16716452.10mm 4 2 210000N / mm 2 16716452.10mm 4

1802088994Nmm 1802.089kNm

Iy 257332751mm 4

The elastic modulus : Wel , y 1261434.172mm 3

z max 204mm

189

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

LT 0.439

M cr 1802088994Nmm

Calculation of the LT for appropriate non-dimensional slenderness LT will be determined with formula:

1

LT 1 (6.56)

LT LT ² LT ²

LT 0.5 1 LT LT 0.2 LT ²

The cross section buckling curve will be chose according to Table 6.4:

h 408mm

2.147 2

b 190mm

0.76

LT 0.5 1 LT LT 0.2 LT ² 0.5 1 0.76 0.439 0.2 0.439² 0.687

1 1

LT 0.813 1

LT LT ² LT ² 0.687 0.687² 0.439²

190

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

The internal factor k yy corresponding to a Class 4 section will be calculated according to Annex A, Table a.1, and will be

calculated separately for the two column parts separate by the middle torsional lateral restraint:

y

k yy C my C mLT

N Ed

1

N cr , y

N Ed

1

N cr , y

y

N

1 y Ed

N cr , y

N Ed 1000kN

² E Iy

N cr , y 133338053.7 N 133338.05kN (previously calculated)

l fy ²

N Ed

1 1

1000000N

N cr , y 133338053.7 N 1

y

N Ed 1000000N

1 y 1 1

N cr , y 133338053.7 N

191

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Weff , y f y

0

M cr 0

According to Eurocode 3 EN 1993-1-1-2005; Chapter 6.3.2.2

Iy 257332751mm 4

Wel , y 1261434.172mm 3

z max 204mm

The calculation the M cr 0 will be calculated using C1 1 and C 2 0 , therefore:

² E Iz I w L² G I t 2 210000N / mm 2 16716452.10mm 4

M cr C1 1

L² Iz ² E Iz 2000mm 2

6.467741011 mm 6 2000mm 80800N / mm 2 492581.13mm 4

2

1 8661700.384N 208.052mm

16716452.10mm 4 2 210000N / mm 2 16716452.10mm 4

1802088994Nmm 1802.089kNm

Weff , y f y 1261434.172mm 3 275N / mm 2

0 0.439

M cr 1802088994Nmm

192

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

N N

Calculation of the 0.20 C1 4 1 Ed 1 Ed term:

N cr , z N cr ,TF

Where:

1 2 E I w

N cr ,T G I

i0 Lcr ,T ²

2 t

2 2 2

4

Torsional moment of inertia: It=492581.13 mm

6

Working inertial moment: Iw=645759981974.33mm

Lcr ,T 2.00m

N cr ,T 80800N / mm 2 492581.13mm 4

0.0301mm 4 2000mm ²

1.244 1013 N

N Ed 1000000N

N cr ,TF N cr ,T 1.2441013 N

² E Iz ² 210000N / mm 2 16716452.10mm 4

N cr , z 8661700.38N

2000mm ²

(previously calculated)

l fz ²

C1=1 for the top part of the column

N 1000000N 1000000N

0.20 C1 4 1 Ed 1 N Ed 0.20 1 4 1 1

N 8661700.38N 1.244 10 N

13

N cr , z cr ,TF

0.172

193

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Therefore:

For the top part of the column:

y a LT

0 0.469 C my C my , 0 1 C my , 0

1 y a LT

N

0.20 C1 4 1 Ed 1 N Ed 0.172 C mz C mz , 0

N

N cr , z cr ,TF a LT

C mLT C my 2

1

N N

0 0.469 0.20 C1 4 1 Ed 1 Ed 0.172 N

1 Ed 1 Ed N

N N N N

cr , z cr ,TF

cr , z cr ,T

The Cmy coefficient takes into account the column behavior in the buckling plane: the buckling and bending moment distribution.

The coefficient must be calculated considering the column over the entire height.

y a LT

Cmy Cmy , 0 1 Cmy , 0

1 y a LT

M y , Ed Aeff

y

N Ed Weff , y

y 1.444

N Ed Weff , y 1000000N 1261435.06mm 3

It 492581.13mm 4

a LT 1 1 0.998 1

Iy 257332751mm 4

The bending moment has the same value on both ends of the column: 1

N Ed

Ncr , y

194

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Where:

N cr , y 133338053.7 N

2000mm ²

(previously calculated)

l fy ²

N Ed 1000000N

1000000N

1.002

133338053.7 N

y a LT 1.444 1

C my C my , 0 1 C my ,0 1.002 1 1.002 1.001

1 y a LT 1 1.444 1

a LT 1

C mLT C my

2

1.0012 1.065

1000000N 1000000N

1 N Ed 1 N Ed 1 1 C mLT 1.06

N N 8661700.38N 1.244 10 N

13

cr , z cr ,T

C mLT 1

Therefore the k yy term corresponding to the top part of the column will be:

y 1

k yy C my C mLT 1.001 1.065 1.074

N 1000000N

1 Ed 1

N cr , y 133338053.7 N

y

k yz C mz

N Ed

1

N cr , z

M

Cmz term must be calculated for the whole column length Ed ,inf 200kNm 1

M Ed ,sup 200kNm

² E Iz ² 210000N / mm 2 16716452.10mm 4

N cr , z 8661700.38N 8661.70kN

l fz ² 2000mm ²

N Ed

Cmz Cmz ,0 0.79 0.36 0.33 0.79 0.36 0.33

1000000N

0.776

N cr , z 8661700.38N

y 1

k yz C mz 0.776 0.878

N 1000000N

1 Ed 1

N cr , z 8661700.38N

z

k zy C my C mLT

N Ed

1

N cr , y

195

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

N Ed

1 1

1000000N

N cr , z 8661700.38N

z 0.799

N Ed 1000000N

1 z 1 0.821

N cr , z 8661700.38N

z 0.977

k zy C my C mLT 1.001 1.065 1.050

N Ed 1000000N

1 1

N cr , y 133338053.7 N

z 0.977

k zz C mz 0.776 0.857

N Ed 1000000N

1 1

N cr , z 8661700.38N

N Ed M y , Ed M y , Rd M M z , Rd

k yy k yz z , Ed

N M M z , Rk

y Rk LT y ,Rk

M1 M1 M1

N Ed M y , Ed M y , Rd M M z , Rd

k zy k zz z , Ed

N Rk M M z , Rk

z LT y ,Rk

M1 M1 M1

N Rk f y Ai

196

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

1.074

9108.72mm 2 275N / mm 2 1261435.06mm 3 275N / mm 2

1 0.813

1 1

10 10 Nmm

6

0.878 0.40 0.76 0.18 1.34

175962.5mm 3 275N / mm 2

1

1000000N 200 106 Nmm

1.050

9108.72mm 2 mm 2 275N / mm 2 1261435.06mm 3 275N / mm 2

0.821 0.813

1 1

10 10 Nmm

6

0.857 0.49 0.74 0.18 1.41

175962.5mm 3 275N / mm 2

1

Finite elements modeling

■ Linear element: S beam,

■ 5 nodes,

■ 1 linear element.

y

197

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

z

Internal factor, k yy

k yy

198

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Internal factor, k yz

k yz

Internal factor, k zy

k zy

199

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Internal factor, k zz

k zz

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the compression effort over the Y axis: SNy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the compression effort

over the Y axis

SNy

200

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y bending moment over the Y axis: SMyy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y bending moment

over the Y axis

SMyy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z bending moment over the Y axis: SMyz

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z bending moment

over the Y axis

SMyz

201

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the compression effort over the Z axis: SNz

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the compression effort

over the Z axis

SNz

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y bending moment over the Z axis: SMzy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y bending moment

over the Z axis

SMzy

202

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z bending moment over the Z axis: SMzz

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z bending moment

over the Z axis

SMzz

12.43.2.10Reference results

Result name Result description Reference value

SNy Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the 0.40

compression effort over the Y axis

SMyy Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y 0.76

bending moment over the Y axis

SMyz Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z 0.18

bending moment over the Y axis

SNz Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the 0.49

compression effort over the z axis

SMzy Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y 0.74

bending moment over the Z axis

SMzz Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z 0.18

bending moment over the Z axis

203

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.43.3Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Xy coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 1 adim 0.0000 %

slenderness

Xz coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.821634 adim 0.0772 %

slenderness

Kyy Internal factor kyy 1.11758 adim 4.0577 %

Kyz Internal factor kyz 0.877605 adim -0.0450 %

Kzy Internal factor kzy 1.09216 adim 4.0152 %

Kzz Internal factor kzz 0.857639 adim 0.0746 %

#SNy Bending and axial compression verification term 0.399218 adim -0.1955 %

depending of the compression effort over the Y axis

SMyy Bending and axial compression verification term 0.783246 adim 3.0587 %

depending of the Y bending moment over the Y axis

SMyz Bending and axial compression verification term 0.181362 adim 0.7567 %

depending of the Z bending moment over the Y axis

SNz Bending and axial compression verification term 0.485883 adim -0.8402 %

depending of the compression effort over the z axis

SMzy Bending and axial compression verification term 0.765426 adim 3.4359 %

depending of the Y bending moment over the Z axis

SMzz Bending and axial compression verification term 0.177236 adim -1.5356 %

depending of the Z bending moment over the Z axis

204

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.44 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying an user defined I section class 3 beam simply

supported with a displacement restraint (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 27)

Test status: Passed

12.44.1Description

The test verifies a user defined cross section beam. The beam is hinged at one end and the translations over the Y

and Z axis and rotation after the X axis are blocked.

The cross section has an “I symmetric” shape with: 530mm height; 190mm width; 12mm center thickness; 19mm

flange thickness; 0mm fillet radius and 0mm rounding radius.

The beam is subjected to 10 kN/m linear force applied vertically, 5 kN/m linear force applied horizontally and 3700 kN

punctual force applied on the end of the beam.

The calculations are made according to Eurocode 3 French Annex.

12.44.2Background

An I53*1.2+22*1.9 beam column subjected to axial compression, uniform distributed vertical force and uniform

distributed horizontal force, made from S235 steel. The beam has a 53x12mm web and 220x19mm flanges. The

beam is simply supported. The beam is subjected to an axial compression load 3700000 N, 10000 N/m uniform

distributed load over the Z axis and 5000 N/m horizontal uniform distributed force after the Y axis.

This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

■ Reference: Guide d’evaluation Advance Design, EN 1993-1-1: 2005;

■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);

■ Element type: linear.

The following load case and load combination are used:

■ Exploitation loadings (category A): Fx=-3700000N; Fy=-5000N/m; Fz=-10000N/m

■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

■ Cross section dimensions are in millimeters (mm).

Units

Metric System

205

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Geometrical properties

■ Column length: L=5000mm

■ Cross section area: A 14264mm2

■ Overall breadth: b 220mm

■ Flange thickness: t f 19mm

■ Web thickness: t w 12mm

■ Elastic modulus after the Y axis, Wel , y 2509773.11mm 3

■ Plastic modulus after the Y axis, W y 2862172.00mm 3

■ Elastic modulus after the Z axis, W el , z 307177.41mm 3

■ Plastic modulus after the Z axis, W pl , z 477512.00mm 3

■ Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: I y 665089874.67mm 4

■

Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: I z 33789514.67mm 4

■

Torsional moment of inertia: I t 1269555.73mm 4

■

Working inertial moment: I w 2201162989666.67mm 6

Materials properties

S235 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:

■ Yield strength fy = 235 MPa,

■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 210000 MPa.

■ Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800MPa

Boundary conditions

The boundary conditions are described below:

■ Outer:

► Support at start point (x = 0) restrained in translation along X, Y and Z axis,

► Support at the end point (x = 5) restrained in translation along Y and Z axis and restrained rotation

along X axis.

206

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

■ Inner:

► Lateral buckling restraint in the middle of the column (x=2.50).

Loading

The beam is subjected to the following loadings:

■ External: Point load from X=f.00m and z=.00m: Fx =-3700000N;

■ External: vertical uniform distributed linear load from X=0.00 to X=5.00: Fz=-10000N/m

■ External: horizontal uniform distributed linear load from X=0.00 to X=5.00: Fy=-5000N/m

207

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

According to Advance Design calculations:

Cross-class classification is made according to Table 5.2

The web dimensions are 850x5mm.

inf 246.94Mpa

1

sup 246.94Mpa

208

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

235 235

1

fy 235

209

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

c 530mm 2 19mm

41 c

t 12mm 38 38 41 42 42 therefore the beam web is

t

1

considered to be Class 3

-for beam flange:

220 12

c

5.47 4.57 9 1 9

c 2

therefore the haunch is considered to be Class1

t 19 t

1

In conclusion, the section is considered to be Class 3.

a) over the strong axis of the section, y-y:

-the imperfection factor α will be selected according to the Table 6.1 and 6.2:

0.34

210

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

y coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness y will be determined from the relevant buckling

curve according to:

1

y 2

1 (6.49)

y y y

2

A * fy

y

N cr , y

Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: I y 665089874.67mm 4

N cr , y 55139061.21N 55139.06kN

l fy ² 5000mm ²

A f y 14264mm 2 235N / mm 2

y 0.247

N cr , y 55139061.21N

y 0.5 1 ( y 0.2) y ² 0.5 1 0.34 0.247 0.2 0.2472 0.538

1 1

y 0.984

y y y

2 2

0.538 0.5382 0.2472 y 0.984

y 1

211

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

-the imperfection factor α will be selected according to the Table 6.1 and 6.2:

0.49

Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness after Z-Z axis:

z coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness z will be determined from the relevant buckling curve

according to:

1

z 1 (6.49)

z z z

2 2

A* f y

z

N cr , z

l fz 2.50m

212

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

N cr , z 11205235.19 N 11205.235kN

l fz ² 2500mm ²

A f y 14264mm 2 235N / mm 2

z 0.547

N cr , z 11205235.19N

z 0.5 1 ( z 0.2) z ² 0.5 1 0.49 0.547 0.2 0.5472 0.735

1 1

z 0.819

z z z 0.735 0.735 0.547 z 0.816

2 2 2 2

z 1

The elastic moment for lateral-torsional buckling calculation, Mcr:

-it must be studied separately for each beam segment

-however, the two sections are symmetrical, the same result will be obtained

is the isotactic moment report (for simply supported bar) due to Q load ant the maxim moment value

q L² 10000N / m 2500mm ²

0.25

8 M 8 31.25 103 Nm

-the transversal load is applied to the shear center, therefore C2zg=0 and the moment formula will be:

² E Iz I w L² G I t

M cr C1

L² Iz ² E Iz

According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 2; …(3)

-where:

C1 is a coefficient that depends of several parameters as: section properties; support conditions; moment diagram allure

213

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

0 therefore:

C1 1.31

Torsional moment of inertia: I t 1269555.73mm 4

Buckling length of the beam L 2500mm

Elastic modulus after the Y axis, Wel , y 2509773.11mm 3

214

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

² E Iz I w L² G I t 2 210000N / mm 2 33789514.67mm 4

M cr C1 1.31

L² Iz ² E Iz 2500mm 2

22.01163 1011 mm 6 2500mm 80800N / mm 2 1269555.73mm 4

2

1.31 11205235.19N 272.58mm

33789514.67mm 4 2 210000N / mm 2 33789514.67mm 4

4001163141Nmm

LT 0.384

M cr 4001163141Nmm

Calculation of the LT for appropriate non-dimensional slenderness LT will be determined below:

Note:

7.81103

M cr 4001163141

LT 0.384 0.20

M Ed 2

M Ed 3 LT , 0

7.81 10 0.04 M cr M Ed 2

M cr 0.00781 LT , 0 0.0156

M cr

0.125 LT ,0 0.0156

b 220

LT ,0 0.3 0.3

2

h 530

According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; AN.3; Chapter 6.3.2.2(4)

M Ed 2

For slendernesses LT , 0 (see 6.3.2.3) lateral torsional buckling effects may be ignored and only cross sectional checks

M cr

apply.

-therefore:

LT 1

According to EN 1993-1-1-AN (2005); Chapter 6.3.2.2(4)

The internal factor k yy corresponding to a Class 4 section will be calculated according to Annex A, Table a.1, and will be calculated

separately for the two column parts separate by the middle torsional lateral restraint:

215

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

y

k yy C my C mLT

N Ed

1

N cr , y

N Ed

1

N cr , y

y

N

1 y Ed

N cr , y

N Ed 3700kN

N cr , y 55139061.21N

5000mm ²

(previously

l fy ²

calculated)

N Ed

1 1

3700000N

N cr , y 55130961.21N

y 0.999

N Ed 3700000N

1 y 1 0.984

N cr , y 55130961.21N

- Cmy coefficient takes into account the behavior in the plane of bending (buckling in the plan and distribution of the

bending moment).

- Must be calculated considering the beam along its length.

216

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Weff , y f y

0

M cr 0

-according to Eurocode 3 EN 1993-1-1-2005; Chapter 6.3.2.2

4

Iy 665089874.67mm

Wel , y 2509773.11mm 3

z max 265mm

217

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

² E Iz I w L² G I t 2 210000N / mm 2 33789514.67mm 4

M cr , 0 C1 1

L² Iz ² E Iz 2500mm 2

22.01163 1011 mm 6 2500mm 80800N / mm 2 1269555.73mm 4

2

1 11205235.19 N 272.58mm

33789514.67mm 4 2 210000N / mm 2 33789514.67mm 4

3054323008Nmm

Weff , y f y 2509773.11mm 3 235N / mm 2

0 0.439

M cr ,0 3054323008Nmm

N N

Calculation of the 0.20 C1 4 1 Ed 1 Ed term:

N cr , z N cr ,TF

Where:

1 2 E I w

N cr ,T G I

i0 Lcr ,T ²

2 t

2 2 2

- the buckling length, Lcr ,T ,

Lcr ,T 2.50m

N cr ,T 80800N / mm 2

1269555.73mm 4

0.0491mm 4 2500mm ²

1.696 10 N

13

N Ed 3700000N

N cr ,TF N cr ,T 1.696 1013 N

² E Iz ² 210000N / mm 2 33789514.67mm 4

N cr , z 11205235.19 N

2500mm ²

(previously calculated)

l fz ²

C1=1

0.20 1 4 1 3700000N 1 3700000N

N N

0.20 C1 4 1 Ed 1 Ed

N 11205235.19N 1.696 10 N

13

N cr , z cr ,TF

0.181

218

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Therefore:

y a LT

0 0.439 C my C my , 0 1 C my , 0

1 y a LT

N N

0.20 C1 4 1 Ed 1 Ed

N

0.181

C mz C mz , 0

N cr , z cr ,TF a LT

C mLT C my 2

1

N N

0 0.439 0.20 C1 4 1 Ed 1 Ed 0.181 N

1 Ed 1 Ed

N

N N N N

cr , z cr ,TF

cr , z cr ,T

The Cmy coefficient takes into account the column behavior in the buckling plane: the buckling and bending moment distribution.

The coefficient must be calculated considering the column over the entire height.

y a LT

Cmy Cmy , 0 1 Cmy , 0

1 y a LT

M y , Ed Aeff

y

N Ed Weff , y

Elastic modulus after the Y axis, Wel , y Weff , y 2509773.11mm 3

y 0.048

N Ed Weff , y 3700000N 2509773.11mm 3

It 1269555.73mm 4

a LT 1 1 0.998

Iy 665089874.67mm 4

N Ed

Cmy ,0 1 0.03

N cr , y

219

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Where:

N cr , y 55139061.21N

5000mm ²

(previously calculated)

l fy ²

N Ed 3700000N

3700000N

C my ,0 1 0.03 1.002

55139061.21N

y a LT 0.048 1

C my C my , 0 1 C my , 0 1.002 1 1.002 1.002

1 y a LT 1 0048 1

- It must be calculated for each of the two sections.

aLT

CmLT Cmy

2

1 N Ed 1 N Ed

N N

cr , z cr ,T

It must again calculate the coefficient Cmy, but only for the left section.

220

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

z 0.0001396m

2 E Iy N

Cmy ,0 1 1 Ed

L2 M y ,Ed N cr , y

2 210000N / mm 2 665089874.67mm 4 0.0001396 3700000N

1 1 0.999

2500mm 31.25 10 Nmm

2 6

55139061.21N

y a LT 0.219 0.998

C my C my , 0 1 C my , 0 0.999 1 0.999 0.999

1 y a LT 1 0.219 0.998

a LT 0.998

C mLT C my

2

0.999² 1.377

N N 3700000N 3700000N

1 Ed 1 Ed 1 1

N cr , z N cr ,T 11205235.19N 1.696 10 N

13

Therefore the k yy term corresponding to the top part of the column will be:

y 1

k yy C my C mLT 1.002 1.377 1.476

N 3700000N

1 Ed 1

N cr , y 55130961.21N

y

k yz C mz

N Ed

1

N cr , z

Cmz coefficient must be calculated considering the beam along its length.

221

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

N Ed 3700000N

C mz C mz ,0 1 0.03 1 0.03 1.010

N cr , z 11205235.19N

y 1

k yz C mz 0.776 1.506

N Ed 3700000N

1 1

N cr , z 11205235.19 N

z

k zy C my C mLT

N Ed

1

N cr , y

N Ed

1 1

3700000N

N cr , z 11205235.19N

z 0.917

N Ed 3700000N

1 z 1 0.816

N cr , z 11205235.19N

z 0.917

k zy C my C mLT 1.002 1.377 1.355

N Ed 3700000N

1 1

N cr , y 55130961.21N

z 0.917

k zz C mz 0.776 1.383

N Ed 3700000N

1 1

N cr , z 11205235.19N

222

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

N Ed M y , Ed M y , Rd M M z , Rd

k yy k yz z , Ed

N M M z , Rk

y Rk LT y ,Rk

M1 M1 M1

N Ed M y , Ed M y , Rd M M z , Rd

k zy k zz z , Ed

N Rk M M z , Rk

z LT y ,Rk

M1 M1 M1

N Rk f y Ai

1. 476

14264mm 2 235N / mm 2 2509773.11mm 3 235N / mm 2

0.984 1

1 1

15.62 10 Nmm

6

1.506 0.12 0.08 0.33 0.53

307177.41mm 3 235N / mm 2

1

3700000N 31.25 106 Nmm

1. 355

14264mm 2 235N / mm 2 2509773.11mm 3 235N / mm 2

0.816 1

1 1

15.62 10 Nmm

6

1.383 1.35 0.07 0.30 1.72

307177.41mm 3 235N / mm 2

1

Finite elements modeling

■ Linear element: S beam,

■ 7 nodes,

■ 1 linear element.

223

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

y

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

z

Internal factor, k yy

k yy

224

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Internal factor, k yz

k yz

Internal factor, k zy

k zy

Internal factor, k zz

k zz

225

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the compression effort over the Y axis: SNy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the compression effort over

the Y axis

SNy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y bending moment over the Y axis: SMyy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y bending moment over

the Y axis

SMyy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z bending moment over the Y axis: SMyz

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z bending moment over

the Y axis

SMyz

226

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the compression effort over the Z axis: SNz

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the compression effort

over the Z axis

SNz

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y bending moment over the Z axis: SMzy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y bending moment

over the Z axis

SMzy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z bending moment over the Z axis: SMzz

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z bending moment over

the Z axis

SMzz

227

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.44.2.10Reference results

Result name Result description Reference value

SNy Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the 1.12

compression effort over the Y axis

SMyy Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y 0.08

bending moment over the Y axis

SMyz Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z 0.33

bending moment over the Y axis

SNz Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the 1.35

compression effort over the z axis

SMzy Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y 0.07

bending moment over the Z axis

SMzz Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z 0.30

bending moment over the Z axis

12.44.3Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Xy coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.983441 adim 0.3511 %

slenderness

Xz coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.816369 adim -0.4428 %

slenderness

Kyy Internal factor, kyy 1.47276 adim 0.1878 %

Kyz Internal factor, kyz 1.50599 adim -0.2656 %

Kzy Internal factor, kzy 1.35211 adim 0.1563 %

Kzz Internal factor, kzz 1.38261 adim 0.1891 %

SNy Bending and axial compression verification term 1.12239 adim 0.2134 %

depending of the compression effort over the Y

SMyy Bending and axial compression verification term 0.078033 adim -2.4587 %

depending of the Y bending moment over the Y

axis

SMyz Bending and axial compression verification term 0.325974 adim -1.2200 %

depending of the Z bending moment over the Y

axis

SNz Bending and axial compression verification term 1.35209 adim 0.1548 %

depending of the compression effort over the z

axis

SMzy Bending and axial compression verification term 0.0716405 adim 2.3436 %

depending of the Y bending moment over the Z

axis

SMzz Bending and axial compression verification term 0.29927 adim -0.2433 %

depending of the Z bending moment over the Z

axis

228

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.45 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the buckling resistance for a IPE300 column

(evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 19)

Test status: Passed

12.45.1Description

The test verifies the buckling resistance for a IPE300 column made of S235 steel.

The verifications are made according to Eurocode3 French Annex.

12.45.2Background

Classification and verification under compression efforts for an IPE 300 column made of S235 steel. The column is

fixed at its base and free on the top. The column is subjected to a compression force (200 000 N) applied at its top.

The dead load will be neglected.

This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

■ Reference: Guide d’evaluation Advance Design, EN 1993-1-1: 2005;

■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);

■ Element type: linear.

The following load case and load combination are used:

■ Exploitation loadings (category A): Q1 = -200 000 N,

■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

Units

Metric System

Geometrical properties

2

■ Cross section area: A=5380mm

4 4

■ Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: Iy=603.80x10 mm

4 4

■ Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: Iz=8356x10 mm

S235 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:

■ Yield strength fy = 235 MPa,

5

■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 2.1 x 10 MPa.

Boundary conditions

The boundary conditions are described below:

229

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

■ Outer:

► Support at start point (x = 0) restrained in translation and rotation along X, Y and Z axis,

► Free at end point (x = 5.00).

■ Inner: None.

■ Buckling lengths Lfy and Lfz are doth imposed with 10m value

Loading

The column is subjected to the following loadings:

■ External: Point load at Z = 5.0: FZ = N = -200 000 N,

■ Internal: None.

The calculations are made in order to obtain the buckling resistance work ratio of the analyzed element. The work

ratio of the element is calculated using the percentage of the design buckling resistance of the compressed element

(Nb,Rd) from the compression force applied to the element (N Ed). The design buckling resistance of the compressed

member, Nb,Rd, is calculated according to Eurocode 3 1993-1-1-2005, Chapter 6.3.1.1.

N Ed

100 100% (6.46)

Nb, Rd

The design buckling resistance of the compressed element is calculated using the next formula:

A fy

Nb, Rd (6.47)

M1

Where:

according to:

1

2

1 (6.49)

2

A* f y

N cr

2 2

Where: A is the cross section area; A=5380mm ; fy is the yielding strength of the material; fy=235N/mm and Ncr is the

elastic critical force for the relevant buckling mode based on the gross cross sectional properties:

N cr 1731878.70 N

L fy ² 10000mm 2

A fy 5380mm 2 235N / mm 2

0.854

N cr 1731878.70 N

0.5 1 ( 0.2) ²

230

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

The imperfection factor corresponding to the appropriate buckling curve will be 0.21:

0.5 1 ( 0.2) ² 0.5 1 0.21 0.854 0.2 0.8542 0.933

Therefore:

1 1

0.764 1

2 2

0.933 0.9332 0.8542

M1 is a safety coefficient, M1 1

0.764 5380mm2 235N / mm2

Nb, Rd 966051.089N

1

N Ed 200000N

N Ed 200000N

100 100 20.703%

Nb, Rd 966051.089N

The calculations are made in order to obtain the work ratio of the analyzed element. The work ratio of the element is

calculated using the percentage of the design buckling resistance of the compressed element (N b,Rd) from the

compression force applied to the element (NEd). The design buckling resistance of the compressed member, N b,Rd, is

calculated according to Eurocode 3 1993-1-1-2005, Chapter 6.3.1.1.

100 100% (6.46)

Nb, Rd

The design buckling resistance of the compressed element is calculated using the next formula:

A fy

Nb, Rd (6.47)

M1

231

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Where:

according to:

1

2

1 (6.49)

2

A* f y

N cr

2 2

Where: A is the cross section area; A=5380mm ; fy is the yielding strength of the material; fy=235N/mm and Ncr is the

elastic critical force for the relevant buckling mode based on the gross cross sectional properties:

N cr 125144.610N

L fy ² 10000mm 2

A fy 5380mm 2 235N / mm 2

3.178

N cr 125144.610N

0.5 1 ( 0.2) ²

It will be used the following buckling curve:

The imperfection factor corresponding to the appropriate buckling curve will be 0.34:

0.5 1 ( 0.2) ² 0.5 1 0.34 3.178 0.2 3.1782 6.056

Therefore:

1 1

0.089 1

2

2

6.056 6.0562 3.1782

M1 is a safety coefficient, M1 1

232

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Nb, Rd 112771.78N

1

N Ed 200000N

N Ed 200000N

100 100 177.349%

Nb, Rd 112771.78N

■ Linear element: S beam,

■ 6 nodes,

■ 1 linear element.

Non-dimensional slenderness after Y-Y axis

233

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Ratio of the design normal force to design buckling resistance (strong inertia)

Work ratio (y-y)

Result name Result description Reference value

axis

axis

Work ratio (y-y) Ratio of the design normal force to design buckling resistance 0.21 %

(strong inertia) [%]

Work ratio (z-z) Ratio of the design normal force to design buckling resistance (weak 1.77 %

inertia) [%]

12.45.3Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Xy coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.763129 adim -0.1140 %

slenderness after Y-Y axis

Xz coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.0891543 adim 0.1734 %

slenderness after Z-Z axis

SNy Ratio of the design normal force to design buckling 0.207253 adim -1.3081 %

resistance in the strong inertia of the profile

SNz Ratio of the design normal force to design buckling 1.77401 adim 0.2266 %

resistance in the weak inertia of the profile

234

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.46 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a IPE400 column for compression, shear,

bending moment, buckling, lateral torsional buckling and bending and axial compression

(evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 23)

Test status: Passed

12.46.1Description

The test verfies a IPE400 column, made of S275 steel, subjected to compression, shear, bending moment, buckling,

lateral torsional buckling and bending and axial compression

A lateral restraint is placed at 3m from the base.

The verifications are made according to Eurocode 3 French Annex.

12.46.2Background

Unrestrained IPE400 column subjected to compression and bending, made from S275 steel. The column is fixed at

its base and free on the top end. A lateral restraint is placed at 3m from the base. The column is subjected to an axial

compression load (-125000 N) applied and to a lateral load after the X global axis (28330N). Both loads are applied

on the top end of the column. The dead load will be neglected. The results will be compared with the ones obtained

by the CTIM n4-2006.

This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

■ Reference: Guide d’evaluation Advance Design, EN 1993-1-1: 2005;

■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);

■ Element type: linear.

The following load case and load combination are used:

■ Exploitation loadings (category A): Q1x= 28330 N, Q1z= -125000 N

■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

235

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Units

Metric System

Geometrical properties

■ Column length: L=9000mm

■ Cross section area: A 8446mm2

■ Overall breadth: b 180mm

■ Flange thickness: t f 13.5mm

■ Web thickness: t w 8.6mm

■ Elastic modulus after the Y axis, Wel , y 1156 103 mm 3

■ Plastic modulus after the Y axis, Wy 1307 103 mm3

■ Elastic modulus after the Z axis, Wel , z 146.40 103 mm 3

■ Plastic modulus after the Z axis, W pl , z 229 103 mm3

4 4

■ Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: Iy=23130.00x10 mm

4 4

■ Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: Iz=1318.00x10 mm

4 4

■ Torsional moment of inertia: It=51.08x10 mm

6 6

■ Working inertial moment: Iw=490000x10 mm

Materials properties

S235 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:

■ Yield strength fy = 275 MPa,

■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 210000 MPa.

■ Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800MPa

Boundary conditions

The boundary conditions are described below:

■ Outer:

► Support at start point (x = 0) restrained in translation along X, Y and Z axis,

► Support at the end point (z = 9.00) restrained in translation along Y and Z axis and restrained rotation

along X axis.

■ Inner: lateral (xoz) restraint at z=3m

Loading

The column is subjected to the following loadings:

■ External: Point load From X=0.00m and Y=9.00m: FZ =-125000N and Fx=28330N

■ Internal: None.

236

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

CTICM model

The model is presented in the CTICM 2006-4-Resistance barre comprimee selon

237

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

According to Advance Design calculations:

Cross-class classification is made according to Table 5.2

-for beam web:

c 331mm

38.49 c

t 8.6mm 38.49 72 72 therefore the beam web is considered to be Class 1

t

1

238

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

c 67.47mm

4.50 c

t 13.5mm 4.50 9 9 therefore the haunch is considered to be Class1

t

1

According to CTICM document:

The cross section is considered to be Class 1. The column strength will be determined considering the plastic

characteristics of the cross-section. Below can be seen the CTICM conclusion, extracted from CTICM 2006-4:

According to Advance Design calculations:

The calculations are made in order to obtain the work ratio of the analyzed element. The work ratio of the element is

calculated using the percentage of the design axial compression resistance of the element (Nc,Rd) from the

compression force applied to the element (NEd). The compressed resistance of the member, Nc,Rd, is calculated

according to Eurocode 3 1993-1-1-2005, Chapter 6.2.4.

N Ed

100 100% (6.9)

N c ,Rd

The design resistance of the cross-section for uniform compression Nc,Rd is determined using the formula below:

239

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

A f y

N c , Rd (6.10)

M0

-where:

f y is the yielding strength: f y 275N / mm

2

A f y 8446mm 2 275N / mm 2

N c , Rd 2322650N 2322.65kN

M0 1

N Ed 125000N

N Ed 125000N

100 5.38% 100%

N c,Rd 2322650N

The compression resistance of the column is Nc, Rd 2324kN as it can be seen from conclusion extracted from

CTCIM 2006-4:

According to Advance Design calculations:

The calculations are made in order to obtain the work ratio of the analyzed element. The work ratio of the element is

calculated using the percentage of the design shear resistance of the element (V c,Rd) from the shear force applied to

the element (VEd). The shear resistance of the member, Vc,Rd, is calculated according to Eurocode 3 1993-1-1-2005,

Chapter 6.2.6.

V Ed

100 100% (6.17)

Vc , Rd

The design shear resistance of the element, Vc,Rd is determined using the formula below:

f

AV y

Vc , Rd 3 (6.18)

M0

-where:

AV is the shear area:

AV A 2 b t f tw 2 r t f hw tw

-where:

b is the overall breadth: b 180mm

240

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

tw is the web thickness: t w 8.6mm

1

AV A 2 b t f tw 2 r t f

8446mm 2 2 180mm 13.5mm 8.6mm 2 21mm 13.5mm 4269.1mm 2

hw tw 1 8.6mm 400mm 3440mm2

AV 4269.1mm2 3440mm2

2

f 275N / mm 2

AV y 4269.1mm 2

Vc , Rd 3

3 677810.66 N

M0 1

VEd 28330N

V Ed 28330N

100 100 0.04179 100 4.180% 100%

Vc, Rd 677810.66N

The shear resistance of the column is Vpl , z , Rd 677.8kN as it can be seen from conclusion extracted from CTCIM

2006-4:

According to Advance Design calculations:

The calculations are made in order to obtain the work ratio of the analyzed element. The work ratio of the element is

calculated using the percentage of the design bending moment resistance of the element (M pl,Rd) from the bending

moment effor applied to the element (MEd). The Bending moment resistance of the member, Mpl,Rd, is calculated

according to Eurocode 3 1993-1-1-2005, Chapter 6.2.5.

M Ed

100 100% (6.12)

M pl , Rd

-the shear force does not exceed 50% of the shear plastic resistance, therefore there is no influence of the shear on

the composed bending;

241

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

-the axial compression force does not exceed 25% of the plastic resistance, therefore there is no influence of the

compression on the composed bending

The design bending moment resistance of the element, Mpl,Rd is determined using the formula below:

wpl f y

M pl , Rd (6.13)

M0

-where:

2

wpl f y 1307000mm3 275N / mm 2

M pl , Rd 359425000Nmm

M0 1

M Ed 254970000Nmm

M Ed 254970000Nmm

100 100 0.70938100 70.938% 100%

M pl , Rd 359425000Nmm

According to CTICM document:

The bending moment resistance of the column is M pl , y , Rd 359.7kNm as it can be seen from the conclusion

extracted from CTCIM 2006-4:

According to Advance Design calculations:

a) over the strong axis of the section, y-y:

The cross section buckling curve will be chosen according to Table 6.2:

0.21

242

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

curve according to:

1

y 2

1 (6.49)

y y y

2

A* fy

y

N cr , y

2 2

Where: A is the cross section area; A=8446mm ; fy is the yielding strength of the material; f y=275N/mm and Ncr is

the elastic critical force for the relevant buckling mode based on the gross cross sectional properties:

N cr , y 5918472.77 N

L fz ² 9000mm 2

A fy 8446mm2 275N / mm2

y 0.62645

Ncr , y 5918472.77 N

y 0.5 1 (y 0.2) y ² 0.5 1 0.21 0.62645 0.2 0.626452 0.740997

1 1

y 0.87968 1

y y y

2 2

0.740997 0.7409972 0.626452

243

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

The determined value for the coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness for the strong section, y-y

axis, y is: y 0.8796 as it can be observed from the conclusion extracted from CTCIM 2006-4:

The cross section buckling curve will be chosen according to Table 6.2:

0.34

z coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness z will be determined from the relevant buckling curve

according to:

1

z 1 (6.49)

z z z

2 2

244

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

A* fy

z

Ncr , z

2 2

Where: A is the cross section area; A=8446mm ; fy is the yielding strength of the material; f y=275N/mm and Ncr is

the elastic critical force for the relevant buckling mode based on the gross cross sectional properties:

Outside the frame, the calculation can be made with more than the safety of taking in account a buckling length equal

to the grater length of the two beam sections, 6m. A more accurate calculation is to perform a modal analysis of the

column buckling outside the frame. The first eigenmode of instability corresponds to an amplification factor equal to

critical cr 9.15 . The normal critical force can be directly calculated:

N cr , z 1142396.153N

l fy ² 4890mm ²

A fy 8446mm2 275N / mm2

z 1.42588

Ncr , z 1142396.153

z 0.5 1 ( z 0.2) z ² 0.5 1 0.34 1.42588 0.2 1.425882 1.72497

1 1

z 0.37096 1

z z z

2 2

1.72497 1.724972 1.425882

According to CTICM document:

The determined value for the coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness for the strong section, z-z

axis, z is: z 0.3711 as it can be observed from the conclusion extracted from CTCIM 2006-4:

According to Advance Design calculations:

a) for the 3m part of the column:

The elastic moment for lateral-torsional buckling calculation, Mcr:

-the transversal load is applied to the shear center, therefore C2zg=0 and the moment formula will be:

245

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

² E Iz I w L² G I t

M cr C1

L² Iz ² E Iz

According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 2; …(3)

-where:

C1 is a coefficient that depends of several parameters as: section properties; support conditions; moment diagram allure

1

C1

0.325 0.423 0.252 ²

According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 3; …(6)

169.98kNm

is the fraction of the bending moment from the column extremities: 0.66667

254.97kNm

1 1

C1 1.17932

0.325 0.423 0.252 ² 0.325 0.423 0.66667 0.252 0.66667²

4 4

■ Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: Iy=23130.00x10 mm

4 4

■ Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: Iz=1318.00x10 mm

5

■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 2.1 x 10 MPa.

4 4

■ Torsional moment of inertia: It=51.08x10 mm

6 6

■ Working inertial moment: Iw=490000x10 mm

■ Length of the column part: L=3000mm

■ Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800MPa

M cr C1 1.17932

L² Iz ² E Iz 3000mm 2

49 1010 mm 6 3000mm 80800N / mm 2 51.08 104 mm 4

2

1.17932 3035232.34 N 225.33396mm

1318 104 mm 4 ² 210000N / mm 2 1318 104 mm 4

806585210.2 Nmm

Wy f y

LT

M cr

Plastic modulus, Wy 1307 103 mm3

LT 0.66754

M cr 806585210.2 Nmm

Calculation of the LT for appropriate non-dimensional slenderness LT will be determined with formula:

1

LT 1 (6.56)

LT LT ² LT ²

246

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

LT 0.5 1 LT LT 0.2 LT ²

The cross section buckling curve will be chosen according to Table 6.4:

0.34

1 1

LT 0.80173 1

LT LT ² LT ² 0.80228 0.80228² 0.66754²

The determined value for the coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness, LT is: LT 0.7877 as

it can be observed from the conclusion extracted from CTCIM 2006-4:

The elastic moment for lateral-torsional buckling calculation, Mcr:

-the transversal load is applied to the shear center, therefore C2zg=0 and the moment formula will be:

247

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

² E Iz I w L² G I t

M cr C1

L² Iz ² E Iz

According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 2; …(3)

-where:

C1 is a coefficient that depends of several parameters as: section properties; support conditions; moment diagram allure

1

C1

0.325 0.423 0.252 ²

According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 3; …(6)

C1 1.77

4 4

■ Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: Iy=23130.00x10 mm

4 4

■ Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: Iz=1318.00x10 mm

5

■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 2.1 x 10 MPa.

4 4

■ Torsional moment of inertia: It=51.08x10 mm

6 6

■ Working inertial moment: Iw=490000x10 mm

■ Length of the column part: L=6000mm

■ Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800MPa

M cr C1 1.77

L² Iz ² E Iz 6000² mm 2

49 1010 mm 6 6000² mm 2 80800N / mm 2 51.08 104 mm 4

1.77 758808.085N 302.604mm

1318 104 mm 4 ² 210000N / mm 2 1318 104 mm 4

406423987Nmm

Calculation of the non-dimensional slenderness factor, LT :

Wy f y

LT

M cr

Plastic modulus, Wy 1307 103 mm3

LT 0.94040

M cr 406423987Nmm

Calculation of the LT for appropriate non-dimensional slenderness LT will be determined with formula:

1

LT 1 (6.56)

LT LT ² LT ²

248

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

LT 0.5 1 LT LT 0.2 LT ²

The cross section buckling curve will be chosen according to Table 6.4:

0.34

1 1

LT 0.63518 1

LT LT ² LT ² 1.06804 1.06804² 0.94040²

According to CTICM document:

The determined value for the coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness, LT is: LT 0.694 as it

can be observed from the conclusion extracted from CTCIM 2006-4:

According to Advance Design calculations:

N Ed M M y , Rd M M z , Ed

k yy y , Ed k yz z , Ed 1 (6.61)

N Rk M y , Rd M z , Rk

y LT

M1 M1 M1

N Ed M M y , Rd M M z , Ed

k zy y , Ed k zz z , Ed 1 (6.62)

N M y , Rd M z , Rk

z Rk LT

M1 M1 M1

249

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Therefore the formulae are:

M y , Ed

N Ed

N Rk

k yy

M y , Rk

1.00 6.61

y LT

M1 M1

M y , Ed

N Ed

N Rk

k zy

M y , Rk

1.00 6.62

z LT

M1 M1

The internal factor k yy corresponding to a Class 1 section will be calculated according to Annex A, Table a.1:

y 1

k yy Cmy CmLT

N C yy

1 Ed

N cr , y

Auxiliary terms:

N Ed

1

N cr , y

y

N

1 y Ed

N cr , y

Where:

y 0.87968 (previously calculated)

² E Iy ² 210000N / mm 2 23130 104 mm 4

N cr , y 5918472.773N

l fy ² 9000mm ²

250

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

125000N

1

y 5918472.773N 0.99741

125000N

1 0.87968

5918472.773

0 C1 LT

-where:

C1 is a coefficient that depends of several parameters as: section properties; support conditions; moment diagram allure

1

C1

0.325 0.423 0.252 ²

According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 3; …(6)

is the fraction of the bending moment from the column extremities: 0

251

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

C1 1.77

LT 0.66754

M cr 806585210.2 Nmm

0 C1 LT C1 LT 1.77 0.66754 0.88811

N N

Calculation of the 0.20 C1 4 1 Ed 1 Ed term:

N cr , z N cr ,TF

Where:

-for a symmetrical section for the both axis, N cr ,TF N cr ,T

A 2 E I w

Ncr ,T G It

I0 Lcr ,T ²

The mass moment of inertia I 0

I 0 I y I z A z g2

4 4

Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: Iy=23130.00x10 mm

4 4

Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: Iz=1318.00x10 mm

Distance between the section neutral axis and the section geometrical center: z g 0

-for simplification, it will be considered the same buckling length, Lcr ,T , for all the column parts:

Lcr ,T 6m

4 4

Torsional moment of inertia: It=51.08x10 mm

6 6

Working inertial moment: Iw=490000x10 mm

Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 210000 MPa

Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800MPa

N cr ,T

80800N / mm 51.08 10 mm

2 4 4

24448 104 mm 4 6000mm ²

2400423.788N

252

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

N cr , TF N cr , T 2400423.788N

Ncr , z 1142396.153N (previously calculated)

N N 125000N 125000N

0.20 C1 4 1 Ed 1 Ed 0.20 1.77 4 1 1

N N 1142396.153N 2400423.788N

cr , z cr ,TF

0.25505

Therefore:

C C 1 C y aLT

my my , 0 my , 0

1 y aLT

N N

0 0.88811 0.20 C1 4 1 Ed 1 Ed 0.25505 Cmz Cmz ,0

N cr , z N cr ,TF aLT

CmLT Cmy

2

1

N N

1 Ed 1 Ed

N N

cr , z cr ,T

The coefficient must be calculated considering the column over the entire height.

y a LT

Cmy Cmy , 0 1 Cmy , 0

1 y a LT

M y , Ed A

y

N Ed Wel , y

Elastic modulus after the Y axis, Wel , y 1156 103 mm 3

M y , Ed A 254.94 106 Nmm 8446mm 2

y 14.90119

N Ed Wel , y 125000N 1156 103 mm3

It 51.08 104 mm 4

a LT 1 1 0.99779

Iy 23130104 mm 4

The C m 0 coefficient is defined according to the Table A.2:

N Ed

Ncr , y

Where:

Ncr , y 5918472.773N (previously calculated)

253

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

125000N

0.78749

5918472.773N

y aLT 14.90119 0.99779

Cmy Cmy , 0 1 Cmy , 0 0.78749 1 0.78749 0.95619

1 y aLT 1 14.90119 0.99779

According to CTICM document:

The CmLT coefficient takes into account the laterally restrained parts of the column. The CmLT coefficient must be calculated

individually for each of the column parts.

a LT

CmLT Cmy

2

1

1 N Ed 1 N Ed

N N

cr , z cr ,T

a) for the 3m part of the column:

y a LT

C my .3m C my , 0 1 C my , 0

1 y a LT

y 14.90119(previously calculated)

aLT 0.99779 (previously calculated)

The C m 0 coefficient is defined according to the Table A.2:

254

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

169.98kNm

is the fraction of the bending moment from the column part extremities: 0.66667

254.97kNm

N Ed

Ncr , y

Where:

125000N

0.93256

5918472.773N

y a LT 14.90119 0.99779

C my ,3m C my , 0 1 C my , 0 0.93256 1 0.93256 0.98609

1 y a LT 1 14.90119 0.99779

aLT 0.99779 (previously calculated)

aLT

CmLT ,3m Cmy

2

,3m

N N

1

N 1 N

Ed Ed

cr , z cr ,T

0.99779

0.98609² 1.05596 CmLT ,3m 1.05596

125000N 125000N

1 1

1142396.153N 2400423.788N

CmLT ,3m 1

a) for the 6m part of the column:

y a LT

C my .6 m C my , 0 1 C my , 0

1 y a LT

M y , Ed A

y

N Ed Wel , y

Elastic modulus after the Y axis, Wel , y 1156 103 mm 3

y 9.9353

N Ed Wel , y 125000N 1156 103 mm 3

It 51.08 104 mm 4

a LT 1 1 0.99779

Iy 23130104 mm 4

255

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

is the fraction of the bending moment from the column part extremities: 0

N Ed

Ncr , y

Where:

125000N

0.78749

5918472.773N

y a LT 9.9353 0.99779

C my , 6 m C my , 0 1 C my , 0 0.78749 1 0.78749 0.94873

1 y a LT 1 9.9353 0.99779

a LT

C mLT , 6 m C my

2

,6 m

N N

1

N 1 N

Ed Ed

cr , z cr ,T

0.99779

0.94873² 0.97746 C mLT , 6 m 1

125000N 125000N

1 1

1142396.153N 2400423.788N

C mLT , 6 m 1

In conclusion:

CmLT ,3m 1.05596

CmLT

CmLT ,6 m 1

256

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

The C yy coefficient is defined according to the Table A.1 on the “Auxiliary terms:” part:

C yy 1 ( w y 1) 2 C my

2

max C my

2

2max n pl bLT

wy wy W pl , y

Where:

M y , Ed M z , Ed M y , Ed

■ bLT 0.5 aLT 20 0.5 aLT 20 0 0

LT M pl , y , Rd M pl , Rd LT M pl , y , Rd

Wpl , y

■ wy 1.5

Wel , y

■ Elastic modulus after the Y axis, Wel , y 1156 103 mm 3

■ Plastic modulus after the Y axis, W pl , y 1307 103 mm 3

W pl , y 1307 103 mm3

■ wy 1.13062 1.5

Wel , y 1156 103 mm3

N Ed

■ n pl

N Rk

M1

A fy 8446mm 2 275N / mm 2

■ N Rk N c , Rd 2322650N

M0 1

N Ed 125000N

■ n pl 0.05382

N Rk 2322650N

M1 1

257

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

■

max max y ; z

■ y 0.62645 (previously calculated)

■ z 1.42504(previously calculated)

■

max max y ; z max 0.62645;1.42504 1.42504

■ C my 0.95619 (previously calculated)

1.6 1.6

C yy 1 (1.13062 1) 2 0.95619² 1.42504 0.95619² 1.42504² 0.05382 0

1.13062 1.13062

0.98511

C yy 0.98511 0.88447

W pl , y 1307 103 mm 3

In conclusion:

y 1 0.99741 1

k yy `,3m C my CmLT ,3m

N Ed C yy

0.956191.05569

125000N

1.04409

0. 98511

1 1

N cr , y 5918472.773N

k yy

k y 1 0.99741 1

yy , 6 m C my C mLT , 6 m 0.956191 0.98902

N Ed C yy 125000N 0.98511

1 1

N cr , y 5918472.773N

258

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

The internal factor k zy corresponding to a Class 1 section will be calculated according to Annex A, Table a.1:

z 1 wy

k zy Cmy CmLT 0.6

N Ed C zy wz

1

N cr , y

Auxiliary terms:

N Ed

1

N cr , z

z

N

1 z Ed

N cr , z

Where:

z 0.37096 (previously calculated)

N cr , z 1142396.153N

l fy ² 4890mm ²

125000N

1

z 1142396.1533N 0.92826

125000N

1 0.37096

1142396.153N

259

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

C C 1 C y aLT

my my , 0 my , 0

1 y aLT

N N

0 0.88811 0.20 C1 4 1 Ed 1 Ed 0.208 Cmz Cmz ,0

N cr , z N cr ,TF aLT

CmLT Cmy

2

1

N N

1 Ed 1 Ed

N N

cr , z cr ,T

(previously calculated)

M y , Ed A 254.94 10 Nmm

6

8446mm 2

y 14.90119 (previously calculated)

N Ed Wel , y 125000N 1156 103 mm3

It 51.08 104 mm 4

aLT 1 1 0.99779(previously calculated)

Iy 23130 104 mm 4

The C m 0 coefficient is defined according to the Table A.2:

260

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

N Ed

0.78749

Ncr , y

(previously calculated)

y a LT

C my Cmy , 0 1 C my , 0 0.95619

1 y a LT

(previously calculated)

CmLT Cmy

2

CmLT ,6 m 1

1 N Ed 1 N Ed

N N

cr , z cr ,T

(previously calculated)

The Czy coefficient is defined according to the Table A.1 on the “Auxiliary terms:” part:

C 2 2 wy Wel , y

Czy 1 ( wy 1) 2 14 my 5 max n pl d LT 0.6

wy

wz W pl , y

Where:

0 M y , Ed M z , Ed 0 M y , Ed

d LT 2 aLT 2 aLT 0 0

0.1

4

z

Cmy LT M pl , y , Rd Cmz M pl , z , Rd 0.1 4

z Cmy LT M pl , y , Rd

261

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

W pl , y 1307 103 mm 3

wy 1.13062 1.5 (previously calculated)

Wel , y 1156 103 mm 3

W pl , z

wz 1.5

Wel , z

Elastic modulus after the Z axis, Wel , z 146.40 103 mm 3

wz 1.564

Wel , z 146.40 10 mm

3 3

wz 1.5

wz 1.5

N Ed

n pl

N Rk

M1

N Ed 125000N

n pl 0.05382 (previously calculated)

N Rk 2322650N

M1 1

max max y ; z max 0.62645;1.42504 1.42504(previously calculated)

0.986092 1.425042

Czy 1 (1.13062 1) 2 14 5

0.05382 0 0.90887

1.13062

wy Wel , y 1.13062 1156 103 mm3

0.6 0.6 0.46073

wz W pl , y 1.5 1307 103 mm3

C 2 2 wy Wel , y

C zy 1 ( wy 1) 2 14 my 5 max n pl d LT 0.90887 0.6 0.46073

wy

wz W pl , y

In conclusion:

z 1 wy 0.923830 1 1.13062

k zy C my C mLT 0.6 0.986091.05569 0.6

N Ed C zy wz 125000N 0.90887 1.5

1 1

N cr , y 5918472.773N

0.56307

262

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

y 1 wy

k zy `,3m C my C mLT ,3m 0.6

N C zy wz

1 Ed

N cr , z

0.99741 1 1.13062

0.956191.05569 125000N

0.90887

0.6

1.5

0.52306

1

5918472.773N

k zy

y 1 wy

k zy , 6 m C my C mLT , 6 m N

C zy

0.6

wz

1 Ed

N cr , z

0.956191 0.99741

1

0.6

1.13062

0.50752

125000N 0.98511 1.5

1

5918472.773N

-for the 3m column part:

N Ed M y ,Ed

k yy

N M y ,Rk

y Rk LT

M1 M1

125000N 254970000Nmm

1.04409

2322650N 359425000Nmm

0.87968 0.80173

1 1

0.06119 0.92383 0.98501 1

N Ed M y ,Ed

k zy

N Rk M y ,Rk

z LT

M1 M1

125000N 254970000Nmm

0.52306

2322650N 359425000Nmm

0.37096 0.80173

1 1

0.14508 0.46281 0.60789 1

263

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

N Ed M y ,Ed

k yy

N M y ,Rk

y Rk LT

M1 M1

125000N 168980000Nmm

0.98902

2322650N 359425000Nmm

0.87968 0.63518

1 1

0.06118 0.73204 0.79322 1

N Ed M y ,Ed

k zy

N Rk M y ,Rk

z LT

M1 M1

125000N 168980000Nmm

0.50752

2322650N 359425000Nmm

0.37096 0.63518

1 1

0.14508 0.37565 0.52073 1

■ Linear element: S beam,

■ 6 nodes,

■ 1 linear element.

264

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

Work ratio - Fx

Work ratio - Fz

265

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Work ratio - oblique

y

266

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

z

Internal factor, k yy

k yy

267

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Internal factor, k yz

k yz

12.46.2.11Reference results

Result name Result description Reference value

Work ratio - Fx Ratio of the design normal force to design compression resistance 5.38

Work ratio - Fz Ratio of the design share force to design share resistance 4.18

Work ratio - Oblique Ratio of the design moment resistance to design bending resistance 70.94

one the principal axis

12.46.3Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Work ratio - Fx Ratio of the design normal force to design 5.38178 % 0.0331 %

compression resistance

Work ratio - Fz Ratio of the design share force to design share 4.17973 % -0.0065 %

resistance

Work ratio - Ratio of the design moment resistance to design 70.9383 % -0.0024 %

Oblique bending resistance one the principal axis

268

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

slenderness

Xz Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.370957 adim 0.2586 %

slenderness

Kyy Internal factor,kyy for the 3m segment 1.03159 adim -0.8087 %

Kyy Internal factor,kyy for the 6m segment 0.983324 adim -0.6743 %

Kzy Internal factor,kzy for the 3m segment 0.537037 adim 3.2763 %

Kzy Internal factor,kzy for the 6m segment 0.511305 adim 0.2559 %

269

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.47 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying an user defined I section class 4 column fixed on

the bottom and without any other restraint (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 24)

Test status: Passed

12.47.1Description

The test verifies an user defined cross section column.

The cross section has an “I symmetric” shape with: 880mm height; 220mm width; 5mm center thickness; 15mm

flange thickness; 0mm fillet radius and 0mm rounding radius.

The column is subjected to 328 kN axial compression force; 1274 kNm bending moment after the Y axis and 127.4

kNm bending moment after the Z axis. All the efforts are applied on the top of the column. The column height is

5.62m and has no restraints over its length.

The calculations are made according to Eurocode 3 French Annex.

12.47.2Background

An I880*5+220*15 shaped column subjected to compression and bending, made from S275 steel. The column has a

880x5mm web and 220x15mm flanges. The column is hinged at its base and, at his top end, translation is permitted

only on vertical direction and the rotation is blocked for the long axis of the column. The column is subjected to an

axial compression load 328000 N, 127400Nm bending moment after the X axis and 1274000Nm bending moment

after the Y axis.

This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

■ Reference: Guide d’evaluation Advance Design, EN 1993-1-1: 2005;

■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);

270

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

The following load case and load combination are used:

■ Exploitation loadings (category A): Fz=-328000N N, Mx= 127400Nm; My=1274000Nm

■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

■ Cross section dimensions are in millimeters (mm).

Units

Metric System

Geometrical properties

■ Column length: L=5620mm

■ Cross section area: A 10850mm2

■ Overall breadth: b 220mm

■ Flange thickness: t f 15mm

■ Web thickness: t w 5mm

■ Elastic modulus after the Y axis, Wel , y 3387.66 103 mm 3

■ Plastic modulus after the Y axis, W y 3757.62 103 mm 3

■ Elastic modulus after the Z axis, Wel , z 242.08 103 mm 3

■ Plastic modulus after the Z axis, W pl , z 368.31 103 mm 3

4 4

■ Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: Iy=149058.04x10 mm

4 4

■ Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: Iz=2662.89x10 mm

4 4

■ Torsional moment of inertia: It=51.46x10 mm

6 6

■ Working inertial moment: Iw=4979437.37x10 mm

Materials properties

S275 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:

■ Yield strength fy = 275 MPa,

■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 210000 MPa.

■ Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800MPa

271

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Boundary conditions

The boundary conditions are described below:

■ Outer:

► Support at start point (x = 0) restrained in translation along X, Y and Z axis,

► Support at the end point (z = 5.62) restrained in translation along Y and Z axis and restrained rotation

along X axis.

Loading

The column is subjected to the following loadings:

■ External: Point load From X=0.00m and z=5.62m: FZ =--328000N; Mx=127400Nm and My=1274000Nm

According to Advance Design calculations:

Cross-class classification is made according to Table 5.2

272

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

The web dimensions are 850x5mm.

N Ed 0.328

2 1 2 1 0.78 1

A fy 0.0109 275

1 N Ed 1 0.328

1 1 0.64 0.5

2 f y t d 2 275 0.850 0.005

235 235

0.924

fy 275

c 880mm 2 15mm

170 c 42 42 0.924

t 5mm 170 94.057

t 0.67 0.33 0.67 0.33 (0.78)

1

therefore the beam web is considered to be Class 4

-for beam flange:

c 107.5

7.61 c

t 15 7.61 9 9 therefore the haunch is considered to be Class1

t

1

In conclusion, the section is considered to be Class 4

273

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

-the section is composed from Class 4 web and Class 1 flanges, therefore will start the web

calculation:

-in order to simplify the calculations the web will be considered compressed only

c 880mm 2 15mm

170 :

t 5mm

1 k 4

-according EC3 Part 1,5 – EN 1993-1-5-2004; Table 4.1

bw

p t

28.4 k

t is the web thickness; t=5mm

235 235

0.9244

fy 275

850mm

p 5mm 3.261

28.4 0.9244 4

-according EC3 Part 1,5 – EN 1993-1-5-2004; Chapter4.4

-the web is considered to be an internal compression element, therefore:

0.286

3 4 0

2

p 3.2612

be1 0.5 beff be1 0.5 243.1mm 121.55mm

be 2 0.5 beff be 2 0.5 243.1mm 121.55mm

274

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

-In order to simplify the calculation the section will be considered in pure bending

inf 850mm

1 bc bt 425mm

sup 2

1 k 23.9

-according EC3 Part 1,5 – EN 1993-1-5-2004; Table 4.1

c 880mm 2 15mm

170

t 5mm

bw

p t

28.4 k

t is the web thickness; t=5mm

235 235

0.9244

fy 275

850mm

p 5mm 1.325

28.4 0.9244 23.9

-according EC3 Part 1,5 – EN 1993-1-5-2004; Chapter4.4

0.692

3 2 0

2

p 1.3252

bw 850mm

beff bc beff 0.692 294.1mm

1 1 1

be1 0.4 beff be1 0.4 294.1mm 117.64mm

b 0.6 294.1mm 176.46mm

be 2 0.6 beff e2

275

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

yG

22015 432.5 117.64 5 366.18 22015 432.5 601.46 5124.27

22015 117.64 5 601.46 5 22015

158330.095

15.53mm

10195.5

-the inertial moment along the strong axis is:

Iy 220 15 448.032 117.64 5 381.712

12 12

601.463 5 153 220

601.46 5 107.742 220 15 416.97 2

12 12

748854356.6 699380072.5 1448234429mm 4

2203 15 53 117.64

Iz 220 15 0 2 117.64 5 0 2

12 12

5 601.46

3

2203 15

601.46 5 0

2

220 15 0 2 26627490.63mm 4

12 12

Iy 1448234429mm 4

Wel , y 3179229.533mm 3

z max 455.53mm

Iz 26627490.63mm 4

Wel , z 242068.10mm 3

y max 110mm

276

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

a) over the strong axis of the section, y-y:

-the imperfection factor α will be selected according to the Table 6.1 and 6.2:

0.34

Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness after Y-Y axis:

curve according to:

1

y 2

1 (6.49)

y y y

2

Aeff * f y

y

N cr , y

277

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Where: A is the effective cross section area; Aeff 7815.2mm 2 ; fy is the yielding strength of the material;

2

fy=275N/mm and Ncr is the elastic critical force for the relevant buckling mode based on the gross cross sectional

properties:

N cr , y 95035371.44 N 95035.37kN

l fy ² 5620mm ²

Aeff f y 7815.2mm 2 275N / mm 2

y 0.15

N cr , y 95035371.44N

y 0.5 1 ( y 0.2) y ² 0.5 1 0.34 0.15 0.2 0.152 0.503

1 1

y 1.017

y y y

2 2

0.503 0.5032 0.152 y 1

y 1

b) over the weak axis of the section, z-z:

-the imperfection factor α will be selected according to the Table 6.1 and 6.2:

0.49

278

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

z coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness z will be determined from the relevant buckling curve

according to:

1

z 1 (6.49)

z z z

2 2

Aeff * f y

z

N cr , z

2

fy=275N/mm and Ncr is the elastic critical force for the relevant buckling mode based on the gross cross sectional

properties:

² E Iz ² 210000N / mm 2 26627490.63mm 4

N cr , z 1747336.905N 1747.34kN

l fz ² 5620mm ²

Aeff f y 7815.2mm 2 275N / mm 2

z 1.109

N cr , z 1747336.905N

z 0.5 1 ( z 0.2) z ² 0.5 1 0.49 1.109 0.2 1.1092 1.338

1 1

z 0.479

z z z 1.338 1.338 1.109 z 0.479

2 2 2 2

z 1

-the transversal load is applied to the shear center, therefore C2zg=0 and the moment formula will be:

M cr C1

L² Iz ² E Iz

According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 2; …(3)

-where:

C1 is a coefficient that depends of several parameters as: section properties; support conditions; moment diagram

allure

1

C1

0.325 0.423 0.252 ²

According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 3; …(6)

0kNm

is the fraction of the bending moment from the column extremities: 0

1274kNm

279

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

0kNm

0 C1 1.77

1274kNm

According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 3.2; Table 1

Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: I y 1448234429mm 4

2

Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 210000 N/mm .

4

Torsional moment of inertia: It=514614.75mm

Warping inertial moment:

I z h t f

2

Iw

4

h cross section height; h=880mm

2

Iw 49.808 1011 mm 6

4

-according to EN1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 2 (…4)

Length of the column part: L=5620mm

2

Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800N/mm

² E Iz I w L² G I t 2 210000N / mm 2 26627490.63mm 4

M cr C1 1.77

L² Iz ² E Iz 5620mm 2

49.8081011 mm 6 5620mm 80800N / mm 2 514614mm 4

2

1.77 1747336.905N 459.185mm

26627490.63mm 4 2 210000N / mm 2 26627490.63mm 4

1420163158Nmm 1420.163kNm

Iy 1448234429mm 4

The elastic modulus : Wel , y 3179229.533mm 3

z max 455.53mm

Weff , y f y 3179229.533mm 3 275N / mm 2

LT 0.785

M cr 1420163158Nmm

Calculation of the LT for appropriate non-dimensional slenderness LT will be determined with formula:

1

LT 1 (6.56)

LT LT ² LT ²

LT 0.5 1 LT LT 0.2 LT ²

The cross section buckling curve will be chose according to Table 6.4:

h 880mm

42

b 220mm

280

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

0.76

LT 0.5 1 LT LT 0.2 LT ² 0.51 0.76 0.785 0.2 0.785² 1.030

1 1

LT 0.589 1

LT LT ² LT ² 1.030 1.030² 0.785²

The internal factor k yy corresponding to a Class 1 section will be calculated according to Annex A, Table a.1:

y

k yy C my C mLT

N Ed

1

N cr , y

281

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

N Ed

1

N cr , y

y

N

1 y Ed

N cr , y

y 1 (previously calculated)

N Ed 328kN

² E Iy

N cr , y 95035371.44 N 95035.37kN (previously calculated)

l fy ²

N Ed

1 1

328000N

N cr , y 95035371.44 N 1

y

N Ed 328000N

1 y 1 1

N cr , y 95035371.44 N

282

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Weff , y f y

0

M cr 0

-according to Eurocode 3 EN 1993-1-1-2005; Chapter 6.3.2.2

Wel , y 3387.66 10 mm 3 3

Weff , y f y 3387660mm 3 275N / mm 2

0 0.810

M cr 0 1420163158Nmm

N N

Calculation of the 0.20 C1 4 1 Ed 1 Ed term:

N cr , z N cr ,TF

Where:

A 2 E I w

Ncr ,T G It

I0 Lcr ,T ²

I 0 I y I z A z g2

Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: I y 1490580416.67mm 4

Distance between the section neutral axis and the section geometrical center: z g 0

Lcr ,T 5.62m

Torsional moment of inertia: I t 514614.75mm 4

Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800MPa

N cr ,T 80800N / mm 2

514614.75mm 4

1517209270mm 4 5620mm²

2634739.14N

N Ed 328000N

N cr ,TF N cr ,T 2634739.14N

283

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

² E Iz

N cr , z 1747336.905N (previously calculated)

l fz ²

0.20 1.77 4 1 328000N 1 328000N

N N

0.20 C1 4 1 Ed 1 Ed

N

N cr , z cr ,TF 1747336.905N 2634739.14 N

0.244

Therefore:

y a LT

0 0.810 Cmy Cmy ,0 1 Cmy , 0

1 y a LT

N

1 N Ed

0.20 C1 4 1 Ed

0.244

Cmz Cmz , 0

N cr , z N cr ,TF

CmLT Cmy a LT

2

1

N N

0 0.810 0.20 C1 4 1 Ed 1 Ed 0.244 N

1 Ed 1 Ed N

N N N cr , z N cr ,T

cr , z cr ,TF

The Cmy coefficient takes into account the column behavior in the buckling plane: the buckling and bending moment distribution.

The coefficient must be calculated considering the column over the entire height.

y a LT

Cmy Cmy , 0 1 Cmy , 0

1 y a LT

M y , Ed Aeff

y

N Ed Weff , y

Elastic modulus after the Y axis, Wel , y Weff , y 3179229.533mm 3

M y , Ed Aeff 1274 106 Nmm 7815.2mm 2

y 9.55

N Ed Weff , y 328000N 3179229.533mm 3

It 514614.75mm 4

a LT 1 1 0.9996 1

Iy 1448234429mm 4

284

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

N Ed

Ncr , y

Where:

² E Iy

N cr , y 95035371.44 N 95035.37kN (previously calculated)

l fy ²

328000N

0.79

95035371.44N

y a LT 9.55 1

C my C my , 0 1 C my ,0 0.79 1 0.79 0.949

1 y a LT 1 9.55 1

aLT

CmLT Cmy

2

1

1 N Ed 1 N Ed

N N

cr , z cr ,T

1

CmLT 0.9492 1.068

328000N 328000N

1 1

1747336.905N 2634739.14N

y 1

k yy Cmy CmLT 0.9491.068 1.0161

N Ed 328000N

1 1

N cr , y 95035371.44N

y

k yz C mz

N Ed

1

N cr , z

N Ed 328000N

0.7677

N cr , z 1747336.905N

285

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

y 1

k yz C mz 0.7677 0.945

N Ed 328000N

1 1

N cr , z 1747336.905N

z

k zy C my C mLT

N Ed

1

N cr , y

N Ed

1 1

328000N

N cr , z 1747336.905N

z 0.893

N Ed 328000N

1 z 1 0.479

N cr , z 1747336.905N

z 0.893

k zy Cmy CmLT 0.9491.068 0.908

N Ed 328000N

1 1

N cr , y 95035371.44N

z 0.893

k zz C mz 0.7677 0.844

N 328000N

1 Ed 1

N cr , z 1747336.905N

N Ed M y , Ed M y , Rd M M z , Rd

k yy k yz z , Ed

N M M z , Rk

y Rk LT y ,Rk

M1 M1 M1

N Ed M y , Ed M y , Rd M M z , Rd

k zy k zz z , Ed

N Rk M M z , Rk

z LT y ,Rk

M1 M1 M1

N Rk f y Ai

286

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

1. 0161

7815.2mm 2 275N / mm 2 3179229.533mm 3 275N / mm 2

1 0.589

1 1

127.4 10 Nmm

6

0.945 0.15 2.51 1.808 4.47

242068.10mm 3 275N / mm 2

1

328000N 1274 106 Nmm

0.908

7815.2mm 2 275N / mm 2 3179229.533mm 3 275N / mm 2

0.479 0.589

1 1

127.4 10 Nmm

6

0.844 0.32 2.24 1.61 4.14

242068.10mm 3 275N / mm 2

1

Finite elements modeling

■ Linear element: S beam,

■ 6 nodes,

■ 1 linear element.

y

287

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

z

Internal factor, k yy

k yy

288

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Internal factor, k yz

k yz

Internal factor, k zy

k zy

289

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Internal factor, k zz

k zz

over the Y axis

SNy

290

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

over the Y axis

SMyy

over the Y axis

SMyz

291

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

over the Z axis

SNz

over the Z axis

SMzy

292

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

over the Z axis

SMzz

12.47.2.12Reference results

Result name Result description Reference value

SNy Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the 0.15

compression effort over the Y axis

SMyy Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y 2.50

bending moment over the Y axis

SMyz Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z 1.81

bending moment over the Y axis

SMzy Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y 2.23

bending moment over the Z axis

SMzz Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z 1.61

bending moment over the Z axis

12.47.3Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Xy Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 1 adim 0.0000 %

slenderness

293

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

slenderness

Kyy Internal factor kyy 1.02452 adim 0.4431 %

Kyz Internal factor kyz 0.9451 adim -0.5158 %

Kzy Internal factor kzy 0.90212 adim 0.2356 %

Kzz Internal factor kzz 0.832189 adim 0.2637 %

#SNy Bending and axial compression verification term 0.12109 adim 0.9083 %

depending of the compression effort over the Y axis

#SMyy Bending and axial compression verification term 2.58158 adim 0.0612 %

depending of the Y bending moment over the Y axis

#SMyz Bending and axial compression verification term 1.80878 adim -0.0674 %

depending of the Z bending moment over the Y axis

#SMzy Bending and axial compression verification term 2.27316 adim 0.1392 %

depending of the Y bending moment over the Z axis

#SMzz Bending and axial compression verification term 1.59269 adim 0.1692 %

depending of the Z bending moment over the Z axis

294

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.48 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying an user defined I section class 1, column hinged

on base and restrained on top for the X, Y translation and Z rotation (evaluated by SOCOTEC

France - ref. Test 29)

Test status: Passed

12.48.1Description

The test verifies a user defined cross section column.

The column is an “I symmetric” shape with: 260mm height; 150mm width; 7.1mm web thickness; 10.7mm flange

thickness; 0mm fillet radius and 0mm rounding radius. The column is made of S275 steel.

The column is subjected to 328 kN axial compression force and 50kNm bending moment after the Y axis and 10kNm

bending moment after the Z axis. All the efforts are applied to the top of the column.

The calculations are made according to Eurocode 3 French Annex.

12.48.2Background

An I260*7.1+150*10.7 shaped column subjected to compression and bending, made from S275 steel. The column

has a 260x7.1mm web and 150x10.7mm flanges. The column is fixed for all translations and free for all rotations, at

its base, and on the top end, the translations over the X and Y axes and the rotation over the Z axis are not

permitted. In the middle of the column there is a restraint over the Y axis, therefore the bucking length for the XY

plane is equal to half of the column length. The column is subjected to an axial compression load -328000 N, a

10000Nm bending moment after the X axis and a 50000Nm bending moment after the Y axis

This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

■ Reference: Guide d’evaluation Advance Design, EN 1993-1-1: 2005;

■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);

■ Element type: linear.

The following load case and load combination are used:

■ Exploitation loadings (category A): Fz=-328000N N; My=50000Nm; Mx=10000Nm;

■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

295

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Units

Metric System

Geometrical properties

■ Column length: L=5620mm

■ Cross section area: A 4904.06mm2

■ Overall breadth: b 150mm

■ Flange thickness: t f 10.70mm

■ Web thickness: t w 7.10mm

■ Elastic modulus after the Y axis, Wel , y 445717.63mm 3

■ Plastic modulus after the Y axis, Wy 501177.18mm 3

■ Elastic modulus after the Z axis, Wel , z 80344.89mm 3

■ Plastic modulus after the Z axis, W pl , z 123381.96mm3

■ Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: I y 57943291.64mm 4

■ Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: I z 6025866.46mm 4

■ Torsional moment of inertia: I t 149294.97mm4

■ Working inertial moment: I w 93517065421.88mm6

Materials properties

S275 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:

■ Yield strength fy = 275 MPa,

■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 210000 MPa.

■ Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800MPa

296

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Boundary conditions

The boundary conditions are described below:

■ Outer:

► Support at start point (x = 0) restrained in translation along X, Y and Z axis,

► Restraint of translation over the Y axis at half (z=2.81)

► Support at start point (z = 5.62) restrained in translation along X and Y axis, and restrained in rotation

along Z axis,

Loading

The column is subjected to the following loadings:

■ External: Point load From X=0.00m and z=5.62m: FZ =-328000N; Mx=10000Nm and My=50000Nm

According to Advance Design calculations:

Cross-class classification is made according to Table 5.2

297

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

The web dimensions are 238.6x7.1mm.

N Ed 0.328

2 1 2 1 0.78 1

A fy 0.0109 275

1 N Ed 1 0.328

1 1 0.85 0.5

2 f y t d 2 275 0.2386 0.0071

298

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

235 235

0.924

fy 275

c 260mm 2 10.7mm

33.61 c 396 396 0.924

t 7.1mm 33.6 36.41 therefore the beam

t 13 1 13 0.85 1

0.924

web is considered to be Class 1

-for beam flange:

150 7.1

c

6.68 6.68 9 0.924 8.316

c 2

therefore the haunch is considered to be Class1

t 10.7 t

0.924

In conclusion, the section is considered to be Class 1.

a) over the strong axis of the section, y-y:

- the imperfection factor α will be selected according to Tables 6.1 and 6.2:

0.34

299

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

curve according to:

1

y 2

1 (6.49)

y y y

2

A * fy

y

N cr , y

Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: I y 57943291.64mm 4

N cr , y 3802327.95N 3802.33kN

l fy ² 5620mm ²

A f y 4904.06mm 2 275N / mm 2

y 0.5956

N cr , y 3802327.95N

y 0.5 1 ( y 0.2) y ² 0.5 1 0.34 0.5956 0.2 0.59562 0.7446

1 1

y 0.839

y y y

2 2

0.7446 0.74462 0.59562 y 0.839

y 1

b) over the weak axis of the section, z-z:

- the imperfection factor α will be selected according to Tables 6.1 and 6.2:

300

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

0.49

Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness after Z-Z axis:

z coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness z will be determined from the relevant buckling curve

according to:

1

z 1 (6.49)

z z z

2 2

A* f y

z

N cr , z

² E Iz ² 210000N / mm 2 6025866.46mm 4

N cr , z 1581706.51N 31581.71kN

l fz ² 2810mm ²

A fy 4904.06mm 2 275N / mm 2

z 0.923

Ncr , z 1581706.51N

z 0.5 1 ( z 0.2) z ² 0.5 1 0.49 0.923 0.2 0.9232 1.103

301

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

1 1

z 0.586

z z z 1.103 1.103 0.923 z 0.586

2 2 2 2

z 1

a) for the top part of the column:

The elastic moment for lateral-torsional buckling calculation, Mcr:

- the transversal load is applied to the shear center, therefore C 2zg=0 and the moment formula will be:

² E Iz I w L² G I t

M cr C1

L² Iz ² E Iz

According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 2; …(3)

- where:

C1 is a coefficient that depends of several parameters as: section properties; support conditions; moment diagram

allure

1

C1

0.325 0.423 0.252 ²

According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 3; …(6)

M y ,botom 25kN

0.5 C1 1.31

M y ,top 25kN

Yield strength fy = 275 MPa,

Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 210000 MPa.

Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800MPa

302

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

I z h t f

2

Iw

4

h cross section height; h 260mm

2

Iw 93627638290mm 6

4

According to EN1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 2 (…4)

Length of the column: L=2810mm

² E Iz I w L² G It 2 210000N / mm 2 6025866.46mm 4

M cr C1 1.31

L² Iz ² E Iz 2810mm 2

93627638290mm 6 2810mm 80800N / mm 2 149294.97mm 4

2

1.31 1581706.51N 152.20mm

6025866.46mm 4 2 210000N / mm 2 6025866.46mm 4

315363380.74 Nmm 315.36kNm

W pl , y f y 501177.18mm 3 275N / mm 2

LT 0.661

M cr 315363380.74Nmm

Calculation of the LT for appropriate non-dimensional slenderness LT will be determined with formula:

1

LT 1 (6.56)

LT LT ² LT ²

LT 0.5 1 LT LT 0.2 LT ²

The cross section buckling curve will be chose according to Table 6.4:

h 260mm

1.733 2

b 150mm

LT 0.49

303

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

LT 0.5 1 LT LT 0.2 LT ² 0.5 1 0.49 0.661 0.2 0.661² 0.831

1 1

LT 0.749 1

LT LT ² LT ² 0.831 0.831² 0.661²

The elastic moment for lateral-torsional buckling calculation, Mcr:

- the transversal load is applied to the shear center, therefore C 2zg=0 and the moment formula will be:

² E Iz I w L² G I t

M cr C1

L² Iz ² E Iz

According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 2; …(3)

- where:

C1 is a coefficient that depends of several parameters, such as: section properties; support conditions; moment diagram allure

1

C1

0.325 0.423 0.252 ²

According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 3; …(6)

0

is the fraction of the bending moment from the column extremities: 0

637kNm

0 C1 1.77

According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 3.2; Table 1

Yield strength fy = 275 MPa,

Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 210000 MPa.

304

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Warping inertial moment (recalculated):

IW is the warping inertia (deformation inertia moment):

I z h t f

2

Iw

4

h cross section height; h 260mm

2

Iw 93627638290mm 6

4

According to EN1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 2 (…4)

Length of the column: L=2810mm

² E Iz I w L² G It 2 210000N / mm 2 6025866.46mm 4

M cr C1 1.77

L² Iz ² E Iz 2810mm 2

93627638290mm 6 2810mm 80800N / mm 2 149294.97mm 4

2

1.77 1581706.51N 152.20mm

6025866.46mm 4 2 210000N / mm 2 6025866.46mm 4

426102243.6 Nmm 426.10kNm

W pl , y f y 501177.18mm3 275N / mm 2

LT 0.569

M cr 426102243.6 Nmm

Calculation of the LT for appropriate non-dimensional slenderness LT will be determined with formula:

1

LT 1 (6.56)

LT LT ² LT ²

LT 0.5 1 LT LT 0.2 LT ²

The cross section buckling curve will be chose according to Table 6.4:

h 260mm

1.733 2

b 150mm

305

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

LT 0.49

LT 0.5 1 LT LT 0.2 LT ² 0.5 1 0.49 0.569 0.2 0.569² 0.752

1 1

LT 0.804 1

LT LT ² LT ² 0.752 0.752² 0.569²

The internal factor k yy corresponding to a Class 1 section will be calculated according to Annex A, Table a.1, and will

be calculated separately for the two column parts separate by the middle torsional lateral restraint:

a) for the top part of the column:

y `1

k yy Cmy CmLT

N C yy

1 Ed

N cr , y

N Ed

1

N cr , y

y

N

1 y Ed

N cr , y

N Ed 328kN

² E Iy

N cr , y 3802327.95N 3802.33kN (previously calculated)

l fy ²

306

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

N Ed

1 1

328000N

N cr , y 3802327.95N

y 0.985

N Ed 328000N

1 y 1 0.839

N cr , y 3802327.95N

W pl , y f y

0

M cr 0

According to Eurocode 3 EN 1993-1-1-2005; Chapter 6.3.2.2

Wy 501177.18mm 3

² E Iz I w L² G It 2 210000N / mm 2 6025866.46mm 4

M cr C1 1

L² Iz ² E Iz 2810mm 2

93517065421.88mm 6 2810mm 80800N / mm 2 149294.97mm 4

2

1 1581706.51N 152.20mm

6025866.46mm 4 2 210000N / mm 2 6025866.46mm 4

240735730.8 Nmm 240.73kNm

307

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

W pl , y f y 501177.18mm3 275N / mm 2

0 0.757

M cr 240735730.8 Nmm

Calculation of the 0.20 C1 4 1 Ed 1 Ed term:

N cr , z N cr ,TF

Where:

1 2 E I w

N cr ,T G It

I0 Lcr ,T ²

Lcr ,T 2.81m

N cr ,T

80800N / mm 149294.97mm

2 4

63969158.1mm 4

2810 mm ²

2806625.68N 2806.63kN

N Ed 328000N

² E Iz

N cr , z 1581706.51N 31581.71kN (previously calculated)

l fz ²

C1=1 for the top part of the column

For the top part of the column:

N N 328000N 328000N

0.20 C1 4 1 Ed 1 Ed 0.20 1 4 1 1

N cr , z N cr , TF 1581706.51N 2806625.68 N

0.183

308

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Therefore:

For the top part of the column:

y aLT

0 0.757 Cmy Cmy ,0 1 Cmy , 0

1 y aLT

N N

0.20 C1 4 1 Ed 1 Ed 0.183

Cmz Cmz , 0

N cr , z N cr ,TF aLT

CmLT Cmy 2

1

N

0 0.757 0.20 C1 4 1 Ed 1 N Ed 0.183 1 N Ed 1 N Ed

N cr , z N cr ,TF

N N

cr , z cr ,T

The coefficient must be calculated considering the column over the entire height.

y a LT

Cmy Cmy , 0 1 Cmy , 0

1 y a LT

M y , Ed Aeff

y

N Ed Weff , y

y 1.677

N Ed Weff , y 328000N 445717.63mm 3

It 149294.97mm 4

aLT 1 1 0.997 1

Iy 57943291.64mm 4

N Ed N

0.79 0.36 0.33 Ed

Ncr , y Ncr , y

309

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Where:

² E Iy

N cr , y 3802327.95N 3802.33kN (previously calculated)

l fy ²

N Ed 328000N

328000N

Cmy ,0 0.79 0.36 0.33 0.780

3802327.95N

y aLT 1.677 1

Cmy Cmy , 0 1 Cmy , 0 0.780 1 0.780 0.904

1 y aLT 1 1.677 1

Equivalent uniform moment factor, C mLT , calculation

- C mLT must be calculated separately for each column part, separated by the lateral buckling restraint

aLT

CmLT Cmy

2

1

1 N Ed 1 N Ed

N N

cr , z cr ,T

- the C my term used for C mLT calculation, must be recalculated for the corresponding column part (in this case the top column

part)

y a LT

C my C my , 0 1 C my , 0

1 y a LT

Cmy ,0 0.79 0.21 0.36 0.33 0.79 0.21 0.5 0.36 0.5 0.33

N Ed 238000N

0.900

Ncr , y 3802327.95N

M y ,Ed Aeff 50 106 Nmm 4904.06mm 2

y 1.677 (previously calculated)

N Ed Weff , y 328000N 445717.63mm 3

y aLT 1.677 1

Cmy Cmy , 0 1 Cmy , 0 0.900 1 0.900 0.956

1 y aLT 1 1.677 1

aLT

CmLT Cmy

2

N N

1

N 1 N

Ed Ed

cr , z cr ,T

0. 997

0.9562 1.089 CmLT 1.089

328000N 328000N

1 1

1581706.51N 2806625.68N

CmLT 1

310

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

1.6

1.6 2 W

C yy 1 ( wy 1) 2 Cmy max

2

Cmy max n pl bLT el , y

2

wy wy W pl , y

2 M y , Ed M z , Ed

bLT 0.5 aLT 0

LT M pl , y , Rd M pl , z , Rd

- bLT must be calculated separately for each of the two column parts, depending on 0 and LT :

0 C1 LT 1.31 0.661 0.757 (for the top part of the column)

2 M y , Ed M z , Ed 2 M y , Ed M z , Ed

bLT 0.5 aLT 0 0.5 aLT 0

LT M pl , y , Rd M pl , z , Rd LT W pl , y f y W pl , z f y

50000000Nmm 10000000Nmm

0.5 0.997 0.7572

0.749 501177.18mm 275N / mm 123381.96mm 3 275N / mm 2

3 2

0.041

W pl , y 501177.18mm 3

wy 1.124 1.5

Wel , y 445717.63mm 3

N Ed 328000N

n pl 0.243

N Rk 4904.06mm 2 275N / mm 2

M1 1

311

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

1.6 1.6

C yy 1 (1.124 1) 2 0.904² 0.923 0.904² 0.923² 0.243 0.041 0.993

1.124 1.124

C yy 0.993

Wel , y 445717.63mm 3

3

0. 889 C yy 0.993

W pl , y 501177.18mm

Wel , y

C yy

W pl , y

² E Iy

N cr , y 3802327.95N 3802.33kN (previously calculated)

l fy ²

Therefore, the k yy term corresponding to the top part of the column will be:

y `1 0.985 1

k yy Cmy CmLT 0.904 1.089 1.069

N Ed C yy 328000N 0.993

1 1

N cr , y 3802327.95N

b) for the bottom part of the column:

y `1

k yy Cmy CmLT

N Ed C yy

1

N cr , y

aLT

CmLT Cmy

2

1

1 N Ed 1 N Ed

N cr , z N cr ,T

- the Cmy term must be calculated corresponding to the bottom part of the column (with 0) :

312

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

N Ed 238000N

0.780

Ncr , y 3802327.95N

y 0.839

N Ed Weff , y 328000N 445717.63mm 3

y aLT 0.839 1

Cmy Cmy , 0 1 Cmy ,0 0.780 1 0.780 0.885

1 y aLT 1 0.839 1

aLT

CmLT Cmy

2

N N

1

N 1 N

Ed Ed

cr , z cr ,T

0. 997

0.8852 0.933 CmLT 1

328000N 328000N

1 1

1581706.51N 2806625.68N

CmLT 1

1.6

1.6 2 W

C yy 1 ( wy 1) 2 Cmy

2

max Cmy

2

max n pl bLT el , y

wy wy W pl , y

2 M y , Ed M z , Ed

bLT 0.5 aLT 0

LT M pl , y , Rd M pl , z , Rd

-the bLT must be calculated separately for each of the two column parts, depending of 0 and LT :

W pl , y f y 501177.18mm3 275N / mm 2

0 0.757 (for the bottom part of the column)

M cr 240735730.8 Nmm

1 1

LT 0.804 1 (for the bottom part of the column)

LT LT ² LT ² 0.752 0.752² 0.569²

2 M y , Ed M z , Ed 2 M y , Ed M z , Ed

bLT 0.5 aLT 0 0.5 aLT 0

LT M pl , y , Rd M pl , z , Rd LT W pl , y f y W pl , z f y

25000000Nmm 5000000Nmm

0.5 0.997 0.7572

0.804 501177.18mm 275N / mm 123381.96mm 3 275N / mm 2

3 2

0.0095

W pl , y 501177.18mm 3

wy 1.124 1.5

Wel , y 445717.63mm 3

N Ed 328000N

n pl 0.243

N Rk 4904.06mm 2 275N / mm 2

M1 1

313

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

1.6 1.6

C yy 1 (1.124 1) 2 0.904² 0.923 0.904² 0.923² 0.243 0.0095 0.997

1.124 1.124

C yy 0.997

Wel , y 445717.63mm 3

3

0. 889 C yy 0.997

W pl , y 501177.18mm

Wel , y

C yy

W pl , y

² E Iy

N cr , y 3802327.95N 3802.33kN (previously calculated)

l fy ²

Therefore the k yy term corresponding to the bottom part of the column will be:

y `1 0.985 1

k yy Cmy CmLT 0.904 1 0.977

N C yy 328000N 0.997

1 Ed 1

N cr , y 3802327.95N

Note: The software does not give the results of the lower section because it is not the most requested segment.

y 1 wz

k yz Cmz 0.6

N Ed C yz wy

1

N cr , z

-the Cmz ter will be considered for the entire column length (with 0) :

N Ed 328000N

0.765

Ncr , z 1581706.51N

N Ed

1 1

328000N

N cr , y 3802327.95N

y 0.985

N Ed 328000N

1 y 1 0.839

N cr , y 3802327.95N

(previously calculated)

² E Iz

Ncr , z 1581706.51N (previously calculated)

l fz ²

2

Cmz max

2

C yz 1 ( wz 1) 2 14 5 n pl cLT

wz

314

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

2

0 M y , Ed

cLT 10 aLT

4 Cmy lt M pl , y , Rd

5 z

It 149294.97mm 4

aLT 1 1 0.997 (previously calculated)

Iy 57943291.64mm 4

W pl , y f y 501177.18mm3 275N / mm 2

0 0.757 (previously calculated)

M cr 240735730.8 Nmm

A fy 4904.06mm 2 275N / mm 2

z 0.923 (previously calculated)

Ncr , z 1581706.51N

M y , Ed 50000Nm

W pl , z 123381.96mm 3

wz 1.536 1.5

w z 1.5

3

Wel , z 80344.89mm

w z 1.5

W pl , y 501177.18mm 3

wy 1.124 1.5

Wel , y 445717.63mm 3

- the Cmy term will be considered separately for each column part:

y aLT 1.677 1

Cmy Cmy , 0 1 Cmy , 0 0.900 1 0.900 0.956 (previously calculated)

1 y aLT 1 1.677 1

1 1

LT 0.749 1 (previously calculated)

LT LT ² LT ² 0.831 0.831² 0.661²

2

0 M y , Ed

cLT 10 aLT

4 Cmy lt M pl , y , Rd

5 z

0.757² 50000000Nmm

10 0.997 0.506

5 0.923 0.956 0.749 137823724.5 Nmm

4

² E Iz

Ncr , z 1581706.51N (previously calculated

l fz ²

N Ed 328000N

0.765

Ncr , z 1581706.51N

315

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

N Ed

n pl 0.243 (previously calculated)

N Rk

M1

- Therefore:

2

Cmz max

2

C yz 1 ( wz 1) 2 14 5 n pl cLT

wz

0.7652 0.9232

1 1.5 1 2 14

0.243 0.506 0.878

1.55

y 1 wz 0.985 1 1.5

k yz Cmz 0.6 0.765 0.6 0.750

N C yz wy 328000N 0.878 1.124

1 Ed 1

N cr , z 1581706.51N

b) for the bottom part of the column:

y aLT 0.839 1

Cmy Cmy , 0 1 Cmy , 0 0.780 1 0.780 0.885 (previously calculated)

1 y aLT 1 0.839 1

1 1

LT 0.804 1 (previously calculated)

LT LT ² LT ² 0.752 0.752² 0.569²

2

0 M y , Ed

cLT 10 aLT

4 Cmy lt M pl , y , Rd

5 z

0.757² 25000000Nmm

10 0.997 0.254

5 0.923 0.885 0.804 137823724.5 Nmm

4

² E Iz

Ncr , z 1581706.51N (previously calculated

l fz ²

N Ed 328000N

0.765

Ncr , z 1581706.51N

N Ed

n pl 0.243 (previously calculated)

N Rk

M1

316

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

-Therefore:

2

C 2

max

C yz 1 ( wz 1) 2 14 mz

5 n pl cLT

wz

0.7652 0.9232

1 1.5 1 2 14 5

0.243 0.254 1.0043

1.5

y 1 wz 0.985 1 1.5

k yz Cmz 0.6 0.765 0.6 0.656

N C yz wy 328000N 1.0043 1.124

1 Ed 1

N cr , z 1581706.51N

Note: The software does not give the results of the lower section because it is not the most requested segment.

z 1 wz

k zy Cmy CmLT 0.6

N Ed C zy wy

1

N cr , y

N Ed

1 1

328000N

N cr , z 1581706.51N

z 0.902

N Ed 328000N

1 z 1 0.586

N cr , z 1581706.51N

2

max

2

Cmy wy Wel , y

C zy 1 ( wy 1) 2 14 5 n pl d LT 0.6

wy wz W pl , y

M pl , y , Rd Wy f y 501177.18mm3 275N / mm 2 137823724.5 Nmm

-in order to calculate the d LT term, the terms Cmy and Cmz must be recalculated for each column part;

-the term Cmz must be recalculated for the top column part only, using 0.5 :

N Ed

N cr , z

328000N

0.908

1581706.51N

317

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

0 M y ,Ed M z ,Ed

d LT 2 aLT

Cmy LT M pl , y ,Rd

4 Cmz M pl , z ,Rd

0.1 z

0.757 50000000Nmm 10000000Nmm

2 0.997

0.1 0.923 0.956 0.749 137823724.5 Nmm 0.908 33930039Nmm

4

0.301

2

Cmy max

2

C zy 1 ( wy 1) 2 14 5 n pl d LT

wy

0.904 1.847

2 2

1 (1.124 1) 2 14

0. 243 0. 301 0. 859

C zy 0.859

5

1.124

wy Wel , y 1.5 445717.63mm 3

0.6 0.6 0.616

wz W pl , y 1.124 501177.18mm 3

wy Wel , y

C zy 0.6

wz W pl , y

- for the calculation of the Czy term, Cmy will be used for the entire column and d LT will be used for the top column part:

z 1 wy 0.902 1 1.124

k zy Cmy CmLT 0.6 0.904 1.089 0.6 0.588

N Ed C zy wz 328000N 0.859 1.5

1 1

N cr , y 3802327.95N

b) for the bottom part of the column:

z 1 wz

k zy Cmy CmLT 0.6

N C zy wy

1 Ed

N cr , y

N Ed

1 1

328000N

N cr , z 1581706 .51N

z 0.902

N Ed 328000N

1 z 1 0.586

N cr , z 1581706.51N

2

Cmy max

2

wy Wel , y

C zy 1 ( wy 1) 2 14 5 n pl d LT 0.6

wy

wz W pl , y

M pl , y , Rd Wy f y 501177.18mm3 275N / mm 2 137823724.5 Nmm

- in order to calculate the d LT term, the terms Cmy and Cmz must be recalculated for each column part;

- the term Cmz must be recalculated for the top column part only, using 0 :

318

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

N Ed 328000N

0.765

N cr , z 1581706.51N

0 M y ,Ed M z ,Ed

d LT 2 aLT

4 Cmy LT M pl , y ,Rd Cmz M pl , z ,Rd

0.1 z

0.757 25000000Nmm 5000000Nmm

2 0.997

0.1 0.923 0.885 0.804 137823724.5 Nmm 0.765 33930039Nmm

4

0.090

2

max

2

Cmy

C zy 1 ( wy 1) 2 14 5 n pl d LT

wy

0.885 0.923

2 2

1 (1.124 1) 2 14

0 .243 0. 090 0.892

1.1245 C zy 0.892

wy Wel , y 1.124 445717.63mm 3

0.6 0.6 0.462

wz W pl , y 1.5 501177.18mm 3

wy Wel , y

C zy 0.6

wz W pl , y

- for the calculation of the Czy term, Cmy will be used for the entire column and d LT will be used for the top column part:

z 1 wy 0.902 1 1.124

k zy Cmy CmLT 0.6 0.904 1.089 0.6 0.566

N Ed C zy wz 328000N 0.892 1.5

1 1

N cr , y 3802327.95N

Note: The software does not give the results of the lower section because it is not the most requested segment.

a) for the top part of the column:

z 1

k zz Cmz

N C zz

1 Ed

N cr , z

1.6 1.6 W

C zz 1 ( wz 1) 2 Cmz

2

max Cmz

2

max n pl eLT el , z

wz wz W pl , z

M pl , y , Rd Wy f y 501177.18mm3 275N / mm 2 137823724.5 Nmm

- in calculating the eLT , the Cmy term must be used accordingly with the corresponding column part:

319

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

0 M y ,Ed

eLT 1.7 a LT

4 Cmy lt M pl , y ,Rd

0.1 z

0.757 50000000Nmm

1.7 0.997 0.787

0.1 0.923 0.956 0.749 501177.18mm 3 275N / mm 2

4

- for the calculation of the Czz term, C mz will be used for the entire column and eLT will be used for the top column part:

1.6 1.6 2

C zz 1 ( wz 1) 2 Cmz

2

max Cmz

2

max eLT n pl

wz wz

1.6 1.6 2

1 (1.5 1) 2 0.765 1.847

2

0.765 1.847 0.787 0.243 1.013

2

1.5 1 .5

C zz 1.013

Wel , z

80344.89mm 3

0.651

W pl , z 123381.96mm 3

Wel , z

C zz

W pl , z

z 1 0.902 1

k zz Cmz 0.765 0.860

N Ed Czz 328000N 1.013

1 1

N cr , z 1581706.51N

b) for the bottom part of the column:

z 1

k zz Cmz

N Ed C zz

1

N cr , z

1.6 1.6 W

C zz 1 ( wz 1) 2 Cmz

2

max Cmz

2

max n pl eLT el , z

wz wz W pl , z

M pl , y , Rd Wy f y 501177.18mm3 275N / mm 2 137823724.5 Nmm

- in calculating the eLT , the Cmy term must be used according to the corresponding column part

0 M y , Ed

eLT 1.7 aLT

4 Cmy lt M pl , y , Rd

0.1 z

0.757 25000000Nmm

1.7 0.997 0.396

0.1 0.923 0.885 0.804 501177.18mm 3 275N / mm 2

4

- for the calculation of the C zz term, C mz will be used for the entire column and eLT will be used for the top column part:

320

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

1.6 1.6 2

C zz 1 ( wz 1) 2 Cmz

2

max Cmz

2

max eLT n pl

wz wz

1.6 1.6 2

1 (1.5 1) 2 0.765 0.923

2

0.765 0.923 0.396 0.243 1.060

2

1 .5 1.5

C zz 1.060

Wel , z

80344.89mm 3

0.651

W pl , z 123381.96mm 3

Wel , z

C zz

W pl , z

z 1 0.902 1

k zz Cmz 0.765 0.821

N Ed C zz 328000N 1.060

1 1

N cr , z 1581706.51N

Note: The software does not give the results of the lower section because it is not the most requested segment.

k yy k yz z , Ed

N M M z , Rk

y Rk LT y ,Rk

M1 M1 M1

N Ed M y , Ed M y , Rd M M z , Rd

k zy k zz z , Ed

N Rk M M z , Rk

z LT y ,Rk

M1 M1 M1

N Rk f y Ai

321

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

1 . 069

4904.06mm 2 275N / mm 2 501177.18mm 3 275N / mm 2

0.839 0.749

1 1

10 10 Nmm

6

0.750 0.29 0.52 0.21 1.02

123381.96mm 3 275N / mm 2

1

328000N 50 106 Nmm

0.588

4904.06mm 2 275N / mm 2 501177.18mm 3 275N / mm 2

0.586 0.804

1 1

10 10 Nmm

6

0.860 0.41 0.27 0.25 0.93

123381.96mm 3 275N / mm 2

1

b) for the bottom part of the column:

0 . 977

4904.06mm 2 275N / mm 2 501177.18mm 3 275N / mm 2

0.839 0.804

1 1

5 10 Nmm

6

0.656 0.29 0.22 0.97 1.30

123381.96mm 3 275N / mm 2

1

328000N 25 106 Nmm

0 . 566

4904.06mm 2 275N / mm 2 501177.18mm 3 275N / mm 2

0.586 0.804

1 1

5 10 Nmm

6

0.821 0.42 0.13 0.12 0.67

123381.96mm 3 275N / mm 2

1

Finite elements modeling

■ Linear element: S beam,

■ 7 nodes,

■ 1 linear element.

322

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

y

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

z

323

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Internal factor, k yy

k yy

Internal factor, k yz

k yz

324

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Internal factor, k zy

k zy

Internal factor, k zz

k zz

325

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

over the Y axis

SNy

over the Y axis

SMyy

326

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

over the Y axis

SMyz

over the Z axis

SNz

327

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

over the Z axis

SMzy

over the Z axis

SMzz

328

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Coefficient that depends of several parameters as: section properties; support conditions; moment diagram allure

conditions; moment diagram allure

C1

Mcr

329

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

LT

12.48.2.10Reference results

a) for the top part of the column:

value

SNy Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the compression 0.29

effort over the Y axis

SMyy Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y bending 0.52

moment over the Y axis

SMyz Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z bending 0.21

moment over the Y axis

SNz Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the compression 0.41

effort over the z axis

SMzy Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y bending 0.27

moment over the Z axis

330

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

SMzz Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z bending 0.25

moment over the Z axis

C1 Coefficient that depends of several parameters as: section properties; support 1.77

conditions; moment diagram allure

Mcr The elastic moment for lateral-torsional buckling calculation 315.36

SNy Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the 0.29

compression effort over the Y axis

SMyy Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y 0.22

bending moment over the Y axis

SMyz Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z 0.97

bending moment over the Y axis

SNz Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the 0.42

compression effort over the z axis

SMzy Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y 0.13

bending moment over the Z axis

SMzz Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z 0.12

bending moment over the Z axis

C1 Coefficient that depends of several parameters as: section properties; 1.77

support conditions; moment diagram allure

Mcr The elastic moment for lateral-torsional buckling calculation 426.10

Note: The software does not give the results of the lower section because it is not the most requested segment.

12.48.3Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Xy Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.839285 adim 0.0340 %

slenderness by Y axis

Xz Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.585533 adim -0.0797 %

slenderness by the Z axis

Kyy Internal coefficient kyy 1.07027 adim 0.1188 %

Kyy Internal coefficient kyy (bottom) 0.954475 adim -2.3055 %

Kyz Internal coefficient kyz 0.750217 adim 0.0289 %

Kyz Internal coefficient kyz (bottom) 0.656481 adim 0.0733 %

Kzy Internal coefficient kzy 0.593445 adim 0.9260 %

331

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Kzz Internal coefficient kzz 0.860237 adim 0.0276 %

Kzz Internal coefficient kzz (bottom) 0.821717 adim 0.0873 %

332

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.49 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a rectangular hollow section column subjected

to bending and axial efforts (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 15)

Test status: Passed

12.49.1Description

Verifies a rectangular hollow section column made of S235 steel subjected to bending and axial efforts.

The verification is made according to Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-1-1) French Annex.

12.49.2Background

Verifies the adequacy of a rectangular hollow section column made of S235 steel to resist bending and axial efforts.

The name of the cross-section is RC3020100 and it can be found in the Advance Design OTUA library. The column is

fixed at its base and it is subjected to a uniformly distributed load over its height and a punctual axial load applied on

the top. The dead load will be neglected.

This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

■ Reference: Guide d’evaluation Advance Design, EN 1993-1-1: 2001;

■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);

■ Element type: linear.

The following load case and load combination are used:

■ Exploitation loadings (category A), Q:

► Fz = - 500 000 N,

► Fx = 5 000 N/ml,

■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

Units

Metric System

333

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Geometry

Below are described the column cross section characteristics:

■ Height: h = 300 mm,

■ Width: b = 200 mm,

■ Thickness: t = 10 mm,

■ Outer radius: r = 15 mm,

■ Column height: L = 5000 mm,

2

■ Section area:A = 9490 mm ,

3

■ Plastic section modulus about y-y axis: W pl,y = 956000 mm ,

■ Partial factor for resistance of cross sections: M 0 1. 0 .

S235 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:

■ Yield strength fy = 235 MPa,

5

■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 2.1 x 10 MPa.

The boundary conditions are described below:

■ Outer:

► Support at start point (z = 0) restrained in translation and rotation along X, Y and Z axis,

► Free at end point (z = 5.00).

■ Inner: None.

Loading

The column is subjected to the following loadings:

■ External:

► Point load at z = 5.0: Fz = - 500 000 N,

► Uniformly distributed load: q = Fx = 5 000 N/ml

■ Internal: None.

12.49.2.2 Reference results for calculating the column subjected to bending and axial force

In order to verify the steel column subjected to bending and axial force, the design resistance for uniform

compression (Nc,Rd) and also the design plastic moment resistance (Mpl,Rd) have to be compared with the design

values of the corresponding efforts.

The design resistance for uniform compression is verified considering the relationship (6.9) from chapter 6.2.4 (EN

1993-1-1), while the design plastic moment resistance is verified considering the criterion (6.12) from chapter 6.2.5

(EN 1993-1-1).

Before starting the above verifications, the cross-section class has to be determined.

The following results are determined according to Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures - Part 1-1: General rules

and rules for buildings (EN 1993-1-1: 2001), Chapter 5.5.2.

In this case, the stresses distribution is like in the picture below:

334

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Table 5.2 - sheet 1, from Chapter 5.5.2 (EN 1993-1-1: 2001), establish the rules to determine the class for

compressed parts. The picture below shows an extract from this table.

Taking into account that the top wing part is subjected to compression stresses, its class can be determined by

considering the geometrical properties and the conditions described in Table 5.2 - sheet 1 (the above highlighted

extract – part subject to compression).

15

t t 10mm

235

1. 0

fy

335

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Therefore:

c

15 33 33

t

This means that the top wing is Class 1. Because the bottom wing is tensioned, it will be classified as Class 1.

The left/right web is subjected to bending stresses. Their class can be determined by considering the geometrical

properties and the conditions described in Table 5.2 - sheet 1 (the above highlighted extract – part subject to bending

and compression). It is also necessary to determine which portion of the web is compressed (). is determined

considering the stresses distribution on the web.

132MPa

0.832 0.5

1 26.63MPa

c h 2 r 2 t 300mm 2 15mm 2 10mm

25

t t 10mm

235

1. 0

fy

Therefore:

c 396

25 40.34

t 13 1

This means that the left/right web is Class 1.

Because a cross-section is classified according to the least favorable classification of its compression elements

(chapter 5.5.2(6) from EN 1993-1-1: 2001), this means that the cross-section is Class 1.

The design resistance for uniform compression, for Class 1 cross-section, is determined with formula (6.10) from EN

1993-1-1:2001.

A f 9490mm 2 235MPa

N c ,Rd 2230150N

y

M0 1.0

The verification of the design resistance for uniform compression is done with relationship (6.9) from EN 1993-1-1.

The corresponding work ratio is:

N Ed F 500000N

Work ratio = 100 z 100 100 22.42%

N c , Rd N c , Rd 2230150N

The design plastic moment resistance, for Class 1 cross-section, is determined with formula (6.13) from EN 1993-1-

1:2001.

W pl , y f 956000mm 3 235MPa

M c ,Rd M pl ,Rd 224660000Nmm

y

M0 1.0

The verification of the design resistance for bending is done with relationship (6.12) from EN 1993-1-1. The

corresponding work ratio is:

L 5000mm

q L 5 N / mm 5000mm

M Ed 2 100 2

Work ratio = 100 100 27.82%

M c , Rd M c , Rd 224660000Nmm

■ Linear element: S beam,

336

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

■ 6 nodes,

■ 1 linear element.

Work ratio – Fx

Work ratio – Oblique

Result name Result description Reference value

Work ratio – Fx Compression resistance work ratio [%] 22.42 %

Work ratio – Oblique Work ratio of the design resistance for bending 27.82 %

337

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.49.3Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Work ratio - Fx Compression resistance work ratio 22.42 % 0.0000 %

Work ratio - Work ratio of the design resistance for bending 27.8198 % -0.0007 %

Oblique

338

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.50 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Determining lateral torsional buckling parameters for a I-

shaped welded built-up beam considering the load applied on the upper flange (evaluated by

SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 44)

Test status: Passed

12.50.1Description

Determines the lateral torsional buckling parameters for a I-shaped welded built-up beam made of S235 steel,

considering the load applied on the upper flange. The loadings applied on the beam are: a uniformly distributed load

and 2 punctual bending moments, acting opposite to each other, applied at beam extremities.

The determination is made considering the provisions from Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-1-1) French Annex.

12.50.2Background

Determines the elastic critical moment (Mcr) and factors (C1, C2, LT) involved in the torsional buckling verification for

a simply supported steel beam. The beam is made of S235 steel and it is subjected to a uniformly distributed load (50

000 N/ml) applied over its length and concentrated bending moments applied at its extremities (loads are applied to

the upper fibre). The dead load will be neglected.

This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

■ Reference: Guide d’evaluation Advance Design, EN 1993-1-1: 2001;

■ Analysis type: static linear;

■ Element type: linear.

The following load case and load combination are used:

■ Exploitation loadings (category A), Q:

► Fz = - 50 000 N/ml,

6

► My,1 = 142 x 10 Nmm,

6

► My,2 = - 113.6 x 10 Nmm,

■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

339

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Units

Metric System

Geometry

Below are described the beam cross section characteristics:

■ Height: h = 260 mm,

■ Flange width: b = 150 mm,

■ Flange thickness: tf = 10.7 mm,

■ Web thickness: tw = 7.1 mm,

■ Beam length: L = 5000 mm,

2

■ Section area: A = 5188 mm ,

4

■ Flexion inertia moment about the z axis: Iz = 6025866.46 mm ,

4

■ Torsional moment of inertia: It = 149294.97 mm ,

6

■ Warping constant: Iw = 93517065421.88 mm ,

3

■ Plastic modulus about the y axis: W y = 501177.18 mm

■ Partial factor for resistance of cross sections: M 0 1. 0 .

Materials properties

S235 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:

■ Yield strength fy = 235 MPa,

5

■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 2.1 x 10 MPa;

■ Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800MPa.

Boundary conditions

The boundary conditions are described below:

■ Outer:

► Support at start point (x = 0) restrained in translation along X, Y and Z axis,

► Support at end point (x = 5.00) restrained in translation along Y and Z axis and restrained rotation

along X axis.

■ Inner: None.

Loading

The beam is subjected to the following loadings:

■ External:

► Uniformly distributed load over its length: q = Fz = -50 000 N/ml

6

► Bending moment at x=0: My,1 = 142 x 10 Nmm

6

► Bending moment at x=5: My,2 = - 113.6 x 10 Nmm,

■ Internal: None.

12.50.2.2 Reference results for calculating the elastic critical moment of the cross section

In order to determine the elastic critical moment of the cross section (Mcr), factors C1 and C2 have to be calculated.

They are determined considering the method provided at chapter 3.5 from French Annex of EN 1993-1-1. C1 and C2

coefficients are depending on the bending moment diagram along the member segment between lateral restraints.

The simply supported beam has the following bending moment diagram (the values are in “Newton x meter”):

340

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

For a beam subjected to uniformly distributed load and concentrated bending moments applied at its extremities, the

moments distribution is defined considering two parameters:

■ Ratio between the moments at extremities:

113600Nm

0.8

142000Nm

■ Ratio between the moment given by uniformly distributed load and the biggest bending moment from

extremity:

q L2 50N / mm 5000mm

2

1.1

8 M 8 142 106 Nmm

Its value is positive as both loadings are deforming the beam about the same fibre (chapter 3.4 from French

Annex of EN 1993-1-1).

In order to determine C1 and C2 parameters, factors , , a, b, c, A, B, d1, e1, r1, , m, C10, d2, e2, r2 need to be

calculated considering the analytical relationships provided in chapter 3.5 from French Annex of EN 1993-1-1:

■ 2 8 4.2 2 8 1.1 8.84

■ a 0.5 1 0.1413364 0.6960364 0.9126223 2 1.738

■ b 0.5 1 0.1603341 0.9240091 1.4281556 2 1.4765

■ c 0.1801266 0.0900633 0.5940757 0.9352904 2 0.0602

■ A a b c 2 2.5625

b

■ B 2 a 4.2143

2

■ d1 0.52 1 2.036

■ e1 0.3

■ As d1 > e1, the factor r1 is equal to 1.0

1

■ 0.5 0.4773 1.0

8

■ m 1 1 4 1 2.002 1.0

B B2 4 A

■ C10 r1 0.5363

2 A

■ d 2 0.425 0.675 2.065

■ e2 0.65 0.35 0.37

■ As d2 > e2, the factor r2 is equal to 1.0

Having the above factors, C1 and C2 coefficients become:

■ C1 m C10 1.074

■ C 2 0.398 r2 C10 0.235

The load being applied at the top fibre it tends to accentuate the lateral torsional buckling, so it will reduce the value

of elastic critical moment. In this case, the distance from the shear centre to the point of load application (z g) will be

positive:

■ z g 130mm

341

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

The French Annex of EN 1993-1-1 provides the analytical relationship used to determine the value of the elastic

critical moment:

2 E I z I w L2 G I t

M cr C1 2 C 2 z g C 2 z g 91.71772 106 Nmm

2

■

L2 I z E I z

12.50.2.3 Reference results for calculating the reduction factor for lateral torsional buckling

The calculation of the reduction factor for lateral torsional buckling (LT) is done using the formula (6.56) from chapter

6.3.2.2 (EN 1993-1-1).

Before determining the reduction factor for lateral torsional buckling (LT), the following terms should be determined:

LT , imperfection factor LT, LT.

■ Non dimensional slenderness for lateral torsional buckling, LT :

W pl , y f y 501177.18mm 3 235N / mm 2

LT 1.133

M cr 91.71772 106 Nmm

■ In order to determine the imperfection factor LT, the buckling curve must be chosen. According to table 6.4

from EN 1993-1-1, for welded I-sections which have the ratio h / b 2, the recommended lateral torsional

buckling curve is “c”. In this case, table 6.3 from EN 1993-1-1 recommends the value for imperfection factor

LT:

LT 0.49

■ The value used to determine the reduction factor LT, LT, becomes:

LT 0.5 1 LT LT 0.2 LT 2 0.5 1 0.49 1.133 0.2 1.1332 1.370

■ The reduction factor for lateral torsional buckling is calculated using the formula (6.56) from EN 1993-1-1:

1 1

LT 0.467 1.0

LT LT LT 2 2

1.37 1.37 2 1.1332

■ Linear element: S beam,

■ 6 nodes,

■ 1 linear element.

C1 parameter

C1

342

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

C2 parameter

C2

Mcr

XLT

Result name Result description Reference value

C1 C1 parameter [adim.] 1.074

12.50.3Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

C1 C1 parameter 1.07375 adim -0.0233 %

C2 C2 parameter 0.234812 adim -0.0800 %

Mcr Elastic critical moment 91.72 kN*m 0.0000 %

XLT Reduction factor for lateral torsional buckling 0.466895 adim -0.0225 %

343

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.51 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the bending resistance of a rectangular hollow

section column made of S235 steel (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 14)

Test status: Passed

12.51.1Description

Verifies the design resistance for bending of a rectangular hollow section column made of S235 steel.

The verification is made according to Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-1-1) French annex.

12.51.2Background

Verifies the adequacy of a rectangular hollow section column made of S235 steel to resist bending efforts.

Verification of the design resistance for bending at ultimate limit state is realised. The name of the cross-section is

RC3020100 and can be found in the Advance Design OTUA library. The column is fixed at its base and it is

subjected to a punctual horizontal load applied to the middle height (50 000 N). The dead load will be neglected.

This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

■ Reference: Guide d’evaluation Advance Design, EN 1993-1-1: 2001;

■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);

■ Element type: linear.

The following load case and load combination are used:

■ Exploitation loadings (category A), Q:

Fx = 50 000 N,

■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

Units

Metric System

344

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Geometry

Below are described the column cross section characteristics:

■ Height: h = 300 mm,

■ Width: b = 200 mm,

■ Thickness: t = 10 mm,

■ Outer radius: r = 15 mm,

■ Column height: L = 5000 mm,

3

■ Plastic section modulus about y-y axis: W pl,y = 956000 mm ,

■ Partial factor for resistance of cross sections: M 0 1. 0 .

S235 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:

■ Yield strength fy = 235 MPa,

5

■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 2.1 x 10 MPa.

The boundary conditions are described below:

■ Outer:

► Support at start point (z = 0) restrained in translation and rotation along X, Y and Z axis,

► Free at end point (z = 5.00).

■ Inner: None.

Loading

The column is subjected to the following loadings:

■ External:

► Point load at z = 2.5: V= Fx = 50 000 N,

■ Internal: None.

12.51.2.2 Reference results for calculating the design resistance for bending

Before calculating the design resistance for bending, the cross section class has to be determined.

The following results are determined according to Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures - Part 1-1: General rules

and rules for buildings (EN 1993-1-1: 2001), Chapter 5.5.2.

In this case, the column is subjected to bending efforts, therefore the stresses distribution is like in the picture below:

345

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Table 5.2 - sheet 1, from Chapter 5.5.2 (EN 1993-1-1: 2001), establish the rules to determine the class for

compressed parts. The picture below shows an extract from this table.

346

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Taking into account that the top wing part is subjected to compression stresses, its class can be determined by

considering the geometrical properties and the conditions described in Table 5.2 - sheet 1 (the above highlighted

extract – part subject to compression).

15

t t 10mm

235

1. 0

fy

Therefore:

c

15 33 33

t

This means that the top wing is Class 1. Because the bottom wing is tensioned, it will be classified as Class 1.

The left/right web is subjected to bending stresses. Their class can be determined by considering the geometrical

properties and the conditions described in Table 5.2 - sheet 1 (the above highlighted extract – part subject to

bending):

25

t t 10mm

235

1. 0

fy

Therefore:

c

25 72 72

t

This means that the left/right web is Class 1.

Because a cross-section is classified according to the least favorable classification of its compression elements

(chapter 5.5.2(6) from EN 1993-1-1: 2001), this means that the cross-section is Class 1.

The design resistance for bending, for Class 1 cross-section, is determined with formula (6.13) from EN 1993-1-

1:2001.

W pl , y f 956000mm 3 235MPa

M c , Rd 224660000Nmm

y

M0 1.0

Work ratio

The verification of the design resistance for bending is done with relationship (6.12) from EN 1993-1-1. The

corresponding work ratio is:

L 5000mm

V 50000N

M Ed 2 100 2

Work ratio = 100 100 55.64%

M c , Rd M c , Rd 224660000Nmm

■ Linear element: S beam,

■ 6 nodes,

■ 1 linear element.

347

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Work ratio – Oblique

Result name Result description Reference value

Work ratio - Oblique Work ratio of the design resistance for bending [%] 55.64 %

12.51.3Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Work ratio - Work ratio of the design resistance for bending 55.6396 % -0.0007 %

Oblique

348

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.52 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Comparing the shear resistance of a welded built-up beam

made from different steel materials (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 45)

Test status: Passed

12.52.1Description

The shear resistance of a welded built-up beam made of S275 steel is compared with the shear resistance of the

same built-up beam made of a user-defined steel material.

The verification is made according to Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-1-1) French Annex.

12.52.2Background

Verifies the shear resistance of a welded built-up beam made of 500 MPa yield strength user-defined steel. The

beam is simply supported and it is subjected to a uniformly distributed load (20 000 N/ml) applied over its length. The

dead load will be neglected.

Also verifies the shear resistance of the same welded built-up beam made of S275 steel. The loading and support

conditions are the same.

This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

■ Reference: Guide d’evaluation Advance Design, EN 1993-1-1: 2001;

■ Analysis type: static linear;

■ Element type: linear.

The following load case and load combination are used:

■ Exploitation loadings (category A), Q:

► Fz = - 20 000 N/ml,

■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

Units

Metric System

Geometry

Below are described the beam cross section characteristics:

■ Height: h = 300 mm,

■ Flange width: b = 150 mm,

349

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

■ Web thickness: tw = 7.1 mm,

■ Beam length: L = 5000 mm,

2

■ Section area: A = 5188 mm ,

■ Partial factor for resistance of cross sections: M 0 1. 0 .

Materials properties

500 MPa yield strength user-defined material and S275 steel are used. The following characteristics are used:

■ Yield strength fy = 500 MPa,

■ Yield strength (for S275 steel) fy = 275 MPa.

Boundary conditions

The boundary conditions are described below:

■ Outer:

► Support at start point (z = 0) restrained in translation along X, Y and Z axis,

► Support at end point (z = 5.00) restrained in translation along X, Y and Z axis.

► Inner: None.

Loading

The beam is subjected to the following loadings:

■ External:

► Uniformly distributed load: q = Fz = -20 000 N/ml

■ Internal: None.

12.52.2.2 Reference results for calculating the design plastic shear resistance of the cross section

In order to verify the steel beam subjected to shear, the criterion (6.18) from chapter 6.2.6 (EN 1993-1-1) has to be

used:

VEd

1.0

V pl , Rd

■ VEd represents the design value of the shear force:

q L 20000N / ml 5000mm

VEd 50000N

2 2

■ Vpl,Rd represents the design plastic shear resistance. The design plastic shear resistance of the cross-section

is determined with formula (6.18) from EN 1993-1-1:2001. Before using it, the shear area (A v) has to be

determined.

Shear area of the cross section made of 500 MPa yield strength user-defined material

According to chapter 5.1 from EN 1993-1-5, because the steel grade used for beam is higher than S460, the factor

for shear area () may be conservatively taken equal 1.0.

For a welded I sections, the shear area is determined according to chapter 6.2.6 (3) from EN 1993-1-1. As the load is

parallel to web, the shear area is:

According to chapter 5.1 from EN 1993-1-5, because the steel grade used for beam is up to S460, the factor for

shear area () is 1.2.

As the load is parallel to web, the shear area becomes:

350

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Design plastic shear resistance of the cross section made of 500 MPa yield strength user-defined material

EN 1993-1-1 provides the following formula to calculate the design plastic shear resistance of the cross-section:

f 500MPa

Av 1978.06mm 2

y

V pl , Rd 3 3 571016.7 N

M0 1.0

The verification of the design plastic shear resistance of the cross section is done with criterion (6.18) from EN 1993-

1-1:

VEd 50000N

0.0876 1.0

V pl , Rd 571016.7 N

The corresponding work ratio is:

VEd 50000N

Work ratio = 100 100 8.76%

V pl , Rd 571016.7 N

Design plastic shear resistance of the cross section made of S275 steel

EN 1993-1-1 provides the following formula to calculate the design plastic shear resistance of the cross-section:

f 275MPa

Av 2373.67mm 2

y

V pl , Rd 3 3 376870.7 N

M0 1.0

The verification of the design plastic shear resistance of the cross section is done with criterion (6.18) from EN 1993-

1-1:

VEd 50000N

0.133 1.0

V pl , Rd 376870.7 N

The corresponding work ratio is:

VEd 50000N

Work ratio = 100 100 13.27%

V pl , Rd 376870.7 N

■ Linear element: S beam,

■ 7 nodes,

■ 1 linear element.

Work ratio of the design shear resistance (beam made of 500 MPa yield strength user-defined material)

Work ratio – Fz

351

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Work ratio of the design shear resistance (beam made of S275 steel)

Work ratio – Fz

Result name Result description Reference value

Work ratio - Fz Work ratio of the design plastic shear resistance (fy = 275 MPa) 13.27 %

Work ratio - Fz Work ratio of the design plastic shear resistance (fy = 500 MPa) 8.76 %

12.52.3Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Work ratio - Fz Work ratio of the design plastic shear resistance (fy = 275 MPa) 13.2671 % -0.0219 %

Work ratio - Fz Work ratio of the design plastic shear resistance (fy = 500 MPa) 8.75631 % -0.0421 %

352

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.53 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-2 - France: Verifying the bending resistance of a purlin for a 15min

duration

Test status: Passed

12.53.1Description

Verifies bending resistance of a purlin for 15min duration according to Eurocode 3 - part 2 - French standards (EN

1993-1-2).

12.53.2Background

Simple Bending Design for in fire condition

Verifies the adequacy of an IPE220 purlin made from S235 to resist simple bending for a 15min duration.

■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);

■ Element type: linear.

The following load cases and load combination are used:

■ Loadings from the structure: G = 0.875 kN/m

■ Snow loads : S = 1.1kN/m,

■ Frequent combination of actions: CCQ = 1.0 x G + 0.2 x Q

■ Fire duration : 15mins

■ Exposed faces : 4 faces

Units

Metric System

Geometrical properties

■ Beam length: L=10000mm

■ Cross section area: A 3337mm2

■ Overall breadth: b 110mm

■ Flange thickness: t f 9.20mm

■ Depth of the web: hw 201.6mm

■ Elastic modulus after the Y axis, Wel , y 252 103 mm 3

■ Plastic modulus after the Y axis, W y 285.4 103 mm 3

353

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

■ Plastic modulus after the Z axis, W pl , z 58.11 103 mm 3

4 4

■ Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: Iy=2772x10 mm

4 4

■ Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: Iz=2049x10 mm

Materials properties

S235 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:

■ Yield strength fy = 235 MPa,

■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 210000 MPa.

■ Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800MPa

Boundary conditions

The boundary conditions are described below:

■ Plane workplane

► Support at start point (x = 0) : hinged support

► Support at the end point (x = 10) : hinged support

Loading

The beam is subjected to the following load combinations:

Load combinations:

■ SLS Frequent combination of actions:

N ser , fr G 0.2Q 135 150 1.095 kN / ml

12.53.2.3 k y , coefficient

354

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

k y , 0.2276

M0

M fi , , Rd k y , M Rd

M , fi

M 0 w pl f y

M fi , , Rd k y ,

M , fi M0

1 285.4 106 235

M fi , , Rd 0.2276

1 1

M fi , , Rd 15.26kN .m

ql ² 1.095 10²

M y , fi,Ed 13.69kN.m

8 8

12.53.2.6 Work ratio

M y , fi , Ed 13.69

89.71%

M fi , , Rd 15.26

■ Linear element: S beam,

■ 11 nodes,

■ 1 linear element.

355

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Result name Result description Reference value

Work ratio - My Work ratio for bending moment My in fire conditions 0.8970

12.53.3Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

356

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.54 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying an user defined I section class 1, column fixed

on base and without any other restraint (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 28)

Test status: Passed

12.54.1Description

The test verifies a user defined cross section column.

The cross section has an “I symmetric” shape with: 260mm height; 150mm width; 7.1mm center thickness; 10.7mm

flange thickness; 0mm fillet radius and 0mm rounding radius. The column is made of S275 steel.

The column is subjected to 328 kN compression axial force, 10 kNm bending moment over the X axis and 50 kNm

bending moment over the Y axis. All the efforts are applied on the top of the column.

The calculations are made according to Eurocode 3 French Annex.

12.54.2Background

An I260*7.1+150*10.7 shaped column subjected to compression and bending, made from S275 steel. The column

has a 260x7.1mm web and 150x10.7mm flanges. The column is fixed at its base. The column is subjected to an axial

compression load -328000 N, a 10000Nm bending moment after the X axis and a 50000Nm bending moment after

the Y axis.

This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

■ Reference: Guide d’evaluation Advance Design, EN 1993-1-1: 2005;

■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);

■ Element type: linear.

The following load case and load combination are used:

■ Exploitation loadings (category A): Fz=--328000N N; My=50000Nm; Mx=10000Nm;

■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

■ Cross section dimensions are in millimeters (mm).

Units

Metric System

Geometrical properties

■ Column length: L=5620mm

357

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

■ Overall breadth: b 150mm

■ Flange thickness: t f 10.70mm

■ Elastic modulus after the Y axis, Wel , y 445717.63mm 3

■ Plastic modulus after the Y axis, Wy 501177.18mm 3

■ Elastic modulus after the Z axis, Wel , z 80344.89mm 3

■ Plastic modulus after the Z axis, W pl , z 123381.96mm3

■ Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: I y 57943291.64mm 4

■ Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: I z 6025866.46mm 4

■ Torsional moment of inertia: I t 149294.97mm4

■ Working inertial moment: I w 93517065421.88mm6

S275 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:

■ Yield strength fy = 275 MPa,

■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 210000 MPa.

■ Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800MPa

Boundary conditions

The boundary conditions are described below:

■ Outer:

► Support at start point (x = 0) restrained in translation along X, Y and Z axis,

► Support at start point (x = 0) restrained in translation along X and Y axis, and restrained inrotation

along Z axis,

358

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Loading

The column is subjected to the following loadings:

■ External: Point load From X=0.00m and z=5.62m: FZ =-328000N; Mx=10000Nm and My=50000Nm

According to Advance Design calculations:

Cross-class classification is made according to Table 5.2

The web dimensions are 850x5mm.

inf 45.30Mpa

0.253 1

sup 179.06Mpa

359

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

238.6 45.3

x 48.175

x y x y 238.6 224.36

45.30 179.06 45.30 179.06 224.36 238.6 179.06

y 190.73

224.36

x 190.73

0.80 0.5

238.6 238.6

360

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

235 235

0.924

fy 275

c 260mm 2 10.7mm

33.61 c 396 396 0.924

t 7.1mm 33.6 38.93 therefore the beam

t 13 1 13 0.8 1

0.924

web is considered to be Class 1

-for beam flange:

150 7.1

c

6.68 6.68 9 0.924 8.316

c 2

t 10.7 t

0.924

therefore the haunch is considered to be Class1

In conclusion, the section is considered to be Class 1.

a) over the strong axis of the section, y-y:

-the imperfection factor α will be selected according to the Table 6.1 and 6.2:

361

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

0.34

Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness after Y-Y axis:

curve according to:

1

y 2

1 (6.49)

y y y

2

A * fy

y

N cr , y

Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: I y 57943291.64mm 4

N cr , y 3802327.95N 3802.33kN

l fy ² 5620mm ²

A f y 4904.06mm 2 275N / mm 2

y 0.5956

N cr , y 3802327.95N

y 0.5 1 ( y 0.2) y ² 0.5 1 0.34 0.5956 0.2 0.59562 0.7446

1 1

y 0.839

y y y

2 2

0.7446 0.7446 0.5956

2 2

y 0.839

y 1

362

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

-the imperfection factor α will be selected according to the Table 6.1 and 6.2:

0.49

Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness after Z-Z axis:

according to:

1

z 1 (6.49)

z z z

2 2

A* f y

z

N cr , z

363

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

² E Iz ² 210000N / mm 2 6025866.46mm 4

N cr , z 395426.63N 395.43kN

l fz ² 5620mm ²

A f y 4904.06mm 2 275N / mm 2

z 1.847

N cr , z 395426.63N

z 0.5 1 ( z 0.2) z ² 0.5 1 0.49 1.847 0.2 1.8472 2.609

1 1

z 0.225

z z z 2.609 2.609 1.847 z 0.225

2 2 2 2

z 1

The elastic moment for lateral-torsional buckling calculation, Mcr:

-the transversal load is applied to the shear center, therefore C2zg=0 and the moment formula will be:

M cr C1

L² Iz ² E Iz

According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 2; …(3)

-where:

C1 is a coefficient that depends of several parameters as: section properties; support conditions; moment diagram allure

1

C1

0.325 0.423 0.252 ²

According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 3; …(6)

M y ,botom 0

0 C1 1.77

M y ,top 50

364

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Yield strength fy = 275 MPa,

Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 210000 MPa.

Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800MPa

Warping inertial moment (recalculated):

I z h t f

2

Iw

4

h cross section height; h 260mm

2

Iw 93627638290mm 6

4

-according to EN1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 2 (…4)

² E Iz I w L² G I t 2 210000N / mm 2 6025866.46mm 4

M cr C1 1.77

L² Iz ² E Iz 5620mm 2

93627638290mm 6 5620mm 80800N / mm 2 149294.97mm 4

2

1.77 395426.63N 214.58mm

6025866.46mm 4 2 210000N / mm 2 6025866.46mm 4

150184702.1Nmm 15018kNm

W pl , y f y 501177.18mm 3 275N / mm 2

LT 0.958

M cr 150184702.1Nmm

Calculation of the LT for appropriate non-dimensional slenderness LT will be determined with formula:

1

LT 1 (6.56)

LT LT ² LT ²

LT 0.5 1 LT LT 0.2 LT ²

The cross section buckling curve will be chose according to Table 6.4:

h 260mm

1.733 2

b 150mm

365

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

0.49

LT 0.5 1 LT LT 0.2 LT ² 0.5 1 0.49 0.958 0.2 0.958² 1.145

1 1

LT 0.564 1

LT LT ² LT ² 1.145 1.145² 0.958²

The internal factor k yy corresponding to a Class 4 section will be calculated according to Annex A, Table a.1, and will be

calculated separately for the two column parts separate by the middle torsional lateral restraint:

y `1

k yy Cmy CmLT

N C yy

1 Ed

N cr , y

N Ed

1

N cr , y

y

N

1 y Ed

N cr , y

N Ed 328kN

366

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

² E Iy

N cr , y 3802327.95N 3802.33kN (previously calculated)

l fy ²

N Ed

1 1

328000N

N cr , y 3802327 .95N

y 0.985

N Ed 328000N

1 y 1 0.839

N cr , y 3802327.95N

W pl , y f y

0

M cr 0

-according to Eurocode 3 EN 1993-1-1-2005; Chapter 6.3.2.2

Wy 501177.18mm 3

367

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

² E Iz I w L² G I t 2 210000N / mm 2 6025866.46mm 4

M cr C1 1

L² Iz ² E Iz 5620mm 2

93517065421.88mm 6 5620mm 80800N / mm 2 149294.97mm 4

2

1 395426.63N 214.58mm

6025866.46mm 4 2 210000N / mm 2 6025866.46mm 4

84850646.27 Nmm 84.85kNm

W pl , y f y 501177.18mm 3 275N / mm 2

0 1.274

M cr 84850646.27 Nmm

Calculation of the 0.20 C1 4 1 Ed 1 Ed term:

N cr , z N cr ,TF

Where:

1 2 E I w

N cr ,T G It

I0 Lcr ,T ²

- the buckling length, Lcr ,T ,

Lcr ,T 5.62m

N cr ,T 80800N / mm 2 149294.97mm 4

63969158.1mm 4 5620mm²

1395246.607N

N Ed 328000N

² E Iz ² 210000N / mm 2 6025866.46mm 4

N cr , z 395426.63N 395.43kN

5620mm ²

(previously calculated)

l fz ²

C1=1 for the top part of the column

N

0.20 C1 4 1 Ed 1 N Ed 0.20 1 4 1 328000N 1 328000N

N 395426.63N 1395246.607N

N cr , z cr ,TF

0.120

368

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Therefore:

For the top part of the column:

y aLT

0 1.274 Cmy Cmy ,0 1 Cmy , 0

1 y aLT

N

0.20 C1 4 1 Ed 1 N Ed 0.120 Cmz Cmz , 0

N

N cr , z cr ,TF aLT

CmLT Cmy 2

1

N

0 1.274 0.20 C1 4 1 Ed 1 N Ed 0.120 N

1 Ed 1 Ed N

N N N

N cr , z cr , z cr ,T

cr ,TF

The coefficient must be calculated considering the column over the entire height.

y a LT

Cmy Cmy , 0 1 Cmy , 0

1 y a LT

M y , Ed Aeff

y

N Ed Weff , y

Elastic modulus after the Y axis, Wel , y Weff , y 445717.63mm 3

y 1.677

N Ed Weff , y 328000N 445717.63mm 3

It 149294.97mm 4

aLT 1 1 0.997 1

Iy 57943291.64mm 4

369

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

N Ed N

0.79 0.36 0.33 Ed

Ncr , y Ncr , y

Where:

² E Iy

N cr , y 3802327.95N 3802.33kN (previously calculated)

l fy ²

N Ed 328000N

328000N

Cmy ,0 0.79 0.36 0.33 0.780

3802327.95N

y aLT 1.677 1

Cmy Cmy , 0 1 Cmy , 0 0.780 1 0.780 0.904

1 y aLT 1 1.677 1

Equivalent uniform moment factor, C mLT , calculation

aLT

CmLT Cmy

2

N N

1

N 1 N

Ed Ed

cr , z cr ,T

0 .997

0.9042 2.256 CmLT 2.256

328000N 328000N

1 1

395426.63N 1395246.607N

CmLT 1

The C yy coefficient is defined according to the Table A.1, Auxiliary terms:

370

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

1.6

1.6 2 W

C yy 1 ( wy 1) 2 Cmy

2

max Cmy

2

max n pl bLT el , y

wy wy W pl , y

2 M y ,Ed M z ,Ed 2 M y ,Ed M z ,Ed

bLT 0.5 a LT 0 0.5 aLT 0

LT M pl , y ,Rd M pl , z ,Rd LT W pl , y f y W pl , z f y

50000000Nmm 10000000Nmm

0.5 0.997 1.2742

0.564 501177.18mm 275N / mm 123381.96mm 3 275N / mm 2

3 2

0.1534

W pl , y 501177.18mm 3

wy 1.124 1.5

Wel , y 445717.63mm 3

N Ed 328000N

n pl 0.243

N Rk 4904.06mm 2 275N / mm 2

M1 1

1.6 1.6

C yy 1 (1.124 1) 2 0.904² 1.847 0.904² 1.847² 0.243 0.1534 0.857

1.124 1.124

C yy 0.857

Wel , y 445717.63mm 3

3

0 . 889 C yy 0.889

W pl , y 501177.18mm

W

C yy el , y

W pl , y

² E Iy

N cr , y 3802327.95N 3802.33kN (previously calculated)

l fy ²

Therefore the k yy term corresponding to the top part of the column will be:

y `1 0.985 1

k yy Cmy CmLT 0.904 2.256 2.47

N C yy 328000N 0.889

1 Ed 1

N cr , y 3802327.95N

y 1 wz

k yz Cmz 0.6

N C yz wy

1 Ed

N cr , z

N Ed 328000N

0.691

N cr , z 395426.63N

371

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

N Ed

1 1

328000N

N cr , y 3802327.95N

y 0.985

N Ed 328000N

1 y 1 0.839

N cr , y 3802327.95N

(previously calculated)

² E Iz

Ncr , z 395426.63N 395.43kN (previously calculated)

l fz ²

2

Cmz max

2

C yz 1 ( wz 1) 2 14 5 n pl cLT

wz

2

0 M y , Ed

cLT 10 aLT

4 Cmy lt M pl , y , Rd

5 z

It 149294.97mm 4

aLT 1 1 0.997 (previously calculated)

Iy 57943291.64mm 4

W pl , y f y 501177.18mm 3 275N / mm 2

0 1.274 (previously calculated)

M cr 84850646.27 Nmm

A f y 4904.06mm 2 275N / mm 2

z 1.847 (previously calculated)

N cr , z 395426.63N

M y , Ed 50000Nm

y aLT

Cmy Cmy , 0 1 Cmy , 0 0.904 (previously calculated)

1 y aLT

1 1

LT 0.564 1 (previously calculated)

LT LT ² LT ² 1.145 1.145² 0.958²

2

0 M y , Ed

cLT 10 aLT

4 Cmy lt M pl , y , Rd

5 z

1.274² 50000000Nmm

10 0.997 0.664

5 1.847 0.904 0.564 137823724.5 Nmm

4

2

C 2

max

C yz 1 ( wz 1) 2 14 mz

5 n pl cLT

wz

Wpl , z 123381.96mm3

wz 1.536 1.5

wz 1.5

3

Wel , z 80344.89mm

wz 1.5

372

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

² E Iz

Ncr , z 395426.63N 395.43kN (previously calculated)

l fz ²

N Ed 328000N

0.691

Ncr , z 395426.63N

N Ed

n pl 0.243 (previously calculated)

N Rk

M1

2

Cmz max

2

C yz 1 ( wz 1) 2 14 5 n pl cLT

wz

0.6912 1.8472

1 (1.5 1) 2 14 5

0.243 0.691 0.532

1.5

y 1 wz 0.985 1 1.5

k yz Cmz 0.6 0.691 0.6 5.20

N C yz wy 328000 N 0.532 1.124

1 Ed 1

N cr , z 395426.63N

z 1 wz

k zy Cmy CmLT 0.6

N C zy wy

1 Ed

N cr , y

N Ed

1 1

328000N

N cr , z 395426.63N

z 0.210

N Ed 328000N

1 z 1 0.225

N cr , z 395426.63N

2

C 2

max wy Wel , y

C zy 1 ( wy 1) 2 14 my

n pl d LT 0.6

w5y wz W pl , y

M pl , z , Rd Wz f z 123381.96mm3 275N / mm 2 33930039Nmm

0 M y , Ed M z , Ed

d LT 2 aLT

4 Cmy LT M pl , y , Rd Cmz M pl , z , Rd

0.1 z

1.274 50000000Nmm 10000000Nmm

2 0.997

0.1 1.847 0.904 0.564 137823724.5 Nmm 0.691 33930039Nmm

4

0.771

373

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

2

max

2

Cmy

Czy 1 ( wy 1) 2 14 5 n pl d LT

wy

0.9042 1.8472

1 (1.124 1) 2 14 0.243 0.771 0.310

1.1245

wy Wel , y 1.124 445717.63mm3

0.6 0.6 0.462

wz W pl , y 1.5 501177.18mm3

wy Wel , y

C zy 0.6

wz W pl , y

C zy 0.310 C zy 0.462

0.462

wy Wel , y

0. 6

wz W pl , y

CmLT 2.256 (previously calculated)

z 1 wy 0.210 1 1.124

k zy Cmy CmLT 0.6 0.904 2.256 0.6 0.529

N C zy wz 328000N 0.462 1.5

1 Ed 1

N cr , y 3802327.95N

z 1

k zz Cmz

N C zz

1 Ed

N cr , z

1.6 1.6 W

Czz 1 ( wz 1) 2 Cmz

2

max Cmz

2

max n pl eLT el , z

wz wz Wpl , z

0 M y , Ed

eLT 1.7 aLT

4 Cmy lt M pl , y , Rd

0.1 z

1.274 50000000Nmm

1.7 0.997 0.131

0.1 1.847 0.904 0.564 501177.18mm3 275N / mm 2

4

1.6 1.6 2

Czz 1 ( wz 1) 2 Cmz

2

max Cmz

2

max n pl eLT

wz wz

1.6 1.6

1 (1.5 1) 2 0.6912 1.847 0.6912 1.8472 0.243 0.131 0.926

1.5 1.5

z 1 0.210 1

k zz Cmz 0.691 0.919

N C zz 328000N 0.926

1 Ed 1

N cr , z 395426.63N

374

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

k yy k yz z , Ed

N M M z , Rk

y Rk LT y ,Rk

M1 M1 M1

N Ed M y , Ed M y , Rd M M z , Rd

k zy k zz z , Ed

N Rk M M z , Rk

z LT y ,Rk

M1 M1 M1

N Rk f y Ai

2 . 479

4904.06mm 2 275N / mm 2 501177.18mm 3 275N / mm 2

0.839 0.564

1 1

10 10 Nmm

6

5.20 0.29 1.59 1.53 3.41

123381.96mm 3 275N / mm 2

1

328000N 50 106 Nmm

0 . 529

4904.06mm 2 275N / mm 2 501177.18mm 3 275N / mm 2

0.225 0.564

1 1

10 10 Nmm

6

0.919 1.08 0.34 0.27 1.69

123381.96mm 3 275N / mm 2

1

Finite elements modeling

■ Linear element: S beam,

■ 7 nodes,

■ 1 linear element.

375

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

y

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

z

376

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Internal factor, k yy

k yy

Internal factor, k yz

k yz

377

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Internal factor, k zy

k zy

Internal factor, k zz

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

k zz

378

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

over the Y axis

SNy

over the Y axis

SMyy

379

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

over the Y axis

SMyz

over the Z axis

SNz

380

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

over the Z axis

SMzy

over the Z axis

SMzz

381

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Coefficient that depends of several parameters as: section properties; support conditions; moment diagram allure

conditions; moment diagram allure

C1

Mcr

382

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

LT

12.54.2.10Reference results

Result name Result description Reference value

SNy Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the 0.29

compression effort over the Y axis

SMyy Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y 1.59

bending moment over the Y axis

SMyz Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z 1.53

bending moment over the Y axis

SNz Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the 1.08

compression effort over the z axis

SMzy Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y 0.34

bending moment over the Z axis

SMzz Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z 0.27

bending moment over the Z axis

C1 Coefficient that depends of several parameters as: section 1.77

properties; support conditions; moment diagram allure

Mcr The elastic moment for lateral-torsional buckling calculation 150.18

383

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Work ratio Stability work ratio (bending and axial compression verification) [%] 341 %

12.54.3Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Xy Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.839285 adim 0.0340 %

slenderness after Y-Y axis

Xz Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.224656 adim -0.1529 %

slenderness after Z-Z axis

Kyy Internal factor kyy 2.47232 adim 0.0939 %

Kyz Internal factor kyz 5.20929 adim 0.1787 %

Kzy Internal factor kzy 0.525982 adim -0.5705 %

Kzz Internal factor kzz 0.942941 adim 2.6051 %

Work ratio Stability work ratio 341.352 % 0.0000 %

384

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.55 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a simply supported rectangular hollow section

beam subjected to biaxial bending (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 16)

Test status: Passed

12.55.1Description

Verifies a simply supported rectangular hollow section beam made of S235 steel subjected to biaxial bending.

The verification is made according to Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-1-1) French Annex.

12.55.2Background

Verifies the adequacy of a rectangular hollow section beam made of S235 steel to resist bi-axial bending efforts. The

name of the cross-section is RC3020100 and it can be found in the Advance Design OTUA library. The beam is

simply supported and it is subjected to uniformly distributed loads over its length. The dead load will be neglected.

This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

■ Reference: Guide d’evaluation Advance Design, EN 1993-1-1: 2001;

■ Analysis type: static linear;

■ Element type: linear.

The following load case and load combination are used:

■ Exploitation loadings (category A), Q:

► Fz = - 10 000 N/ml,

► Fy = 10 000 N/ml,

■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

Units

Metric System

Geometry

Below are described the beam cross section characteristics:

■ Height: h = 300 mm,

■ Width: b = 200 mm,

■ Thickness: t = 10 mm,

■ Outer radius: r = 15 mm,

■ Beam length: L = 5000 mm,

385

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

2

■ Section area: A = 9490 mm ,

3

■ Plastic section modulus about y-y axis: W pl,y = 956000 mm ,

3

■ Plastic section modulus about z-z axis: W pl,z = 721000 mm ,

■ Partial factor for resistance of cross sections: M 0 1. 0 .

S235 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:

■ Yield strength fy = 235 MPa,

5

■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 2.1 x 10 MPa.

Boundary conditions

The boundary conditions are described below:

■ Outer:

► Support at start point (z = 0) restrained in translation along X, Y and Z axis,

► Support at end point (z = 5.00) restrained in translation along Y and Z axis, and restrained in rotation

about the X axis.

■ Inner: None.

Loading

The beam is subjected to the following loadings:

■ External:

► Uniformly distributed load: q1 = Fz = -10 000 N/ml

► Uniformly distributed load: q2 = Fy = 10 000 N/ml

■ Internal: None.

12.55.2.2 Reference results for calculating the beam subjected to bi-axial bending

In order to verify the steel beam subjected to bi-axial bending, the criterion (6.41) from chapter 6.2.9.1 (EN 1993-1-1)

has to be used.

Before verifying this criterion, the cross-section class has to be determined.

The following results are determined according to Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures - Part 1-1: General rules

and rules for buildings (EN 1993-1-1: 2001), Chapter 5.5.2.

In this case, the stresses distribution is like in the picture below:

386

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

compressed parts. The picture below shows an extract from this table.

387

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Taking into account that the entire cross-section is subjected to bending stresses, its class can be determined by

considering the geometrical properties and the conditions described in Table 5.2 - sheet 1 (the above highlighted

extract – part subject to bending).

25

t t 10mm

235

1. 0

fy

Therefore:

c

25 72 72

t

This means that the left/right web is Class 1. As the dimensions for top/bottom wing are smaller than the left/right

web, they will be also classified as Class 1.

Because a cross-section is classified according to the least favorable classification of its compression elements

(chapter 5.5.2(6) from EN 1993-1-1: 2001), this means that the cross-section is Class 1.

Before verifying for bi-axial bending a rectangular structural hollow section of uniform thickness, the design plastic

moment resistance reduced due to the axial force (MN,Rd) needs to be determined. Its determination has to be made

about 2 axes (according to the bending efforts) and it will be done with formulae (6.39) and (6.40) from EN 1993-1-1.

Other terms involved in calculation have to be determined: aw, af, n.

■ Ratio of design normal force to design plastic resistance to normal forces, n:

N Ed

n as the beam is not subjected to axial efforts n = 0.

N pl ,Rd

■ Determination of aw for hollow section:

A 2bt

aw 0.5 aw 0.5

A

■ Determination of af for hollow section:

A 2 ht

af 0.5 a f 0.3678

A

■ Determination of aw for hollow section:

A 2bt

aw 0.5 aw 0.5

A

■ Determination of design plastic moment resistance (about y-y axis) reduced due to the axial force, MN,y,Rd:

M pl , y , Rd 1 n

M N , y , Rd M pl , y , Rd

1 0.5 aw

In order to fulfill the above relationship MN,y,Rd must be equal to Mpl,y,Rd.

W pl , y f y 956000mm 3 235MPa

M N , y ,Rd M pl , y , Rd 22466104 Nmm

M0 1.0

■ Determination of design plastic moment resistance (about z-z axis) reduced due to the axial force, MN,z,Rd:

M pl , z , Rd 1 n

M N , z , Rd M pl , z , Rd

1 0.5 a f

388

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

W pl , z f y 721000mm 3 235MPa

M N , z ,Rd M pl , z , Rd 16943.5 104 Nmm

M0 1.0

Criterion (6.41) from EN 1993-1-1 has to be fulfilled:

M y ,Ed M z , Ed

1.0

M M

N , y , Rd N , z , Rd

■ Determination of constants and for rectangular hollow section:

1.66

6 1.66

1 1.13 n 2

■ Determination of design bending moments (My,Ed and Mz,Ed) at the middle of the beam:

q1 L2 10N / mm 50002 mm 2

M y , Ed 3125 104 Nmm

8 8

q 2 L2 10 N / mm 50002 mm 2

M z , Ed 3125104 Nmm

8 8

■ Verifying criterion (6.41) from EN 1993-1-1:

1.66 1.66

3125 104 Nmm 3125 104 Nmm

0.0378 0.0604 0.098 1.0

22466 10 Nmm 16943.5 10 Nmm

4 4

0.098

100 9.8%

Work ratio = 1.0

For class 1 cross-section, design resistance for simple bending about y-y axis is verified using the criterion (6.12)

from EN 1993-1-1:

0.139 1.0

M pl , y , Rd 22466 104 Nmm

0.139

100 13.9%

Work ratio = 1.0

For class 1 cross-section, design resistance for simple bending about z-z axis is verified using the criterion (6.12)

from EN 1993-1-1:

M z , Ed 3125104 Nmm

0.1844 1.0

M pl , z , Rd 16943.5 104 Nmm

0.1844

100 18.44%

Work ratio = 1.0

As this work ratio is bigger than the others, we can consider it as reference.

■ Linear element: S beam,

■ 6 nodes,

389

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

■ 1 linear element.

Work ratio – Oblique

Result name Result description Reference value

Work ratio - Oblique Work ratio of the design resistance for biaxial bending 18.44 %

12.55.3Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Work ratio - Work ratio of the design resistance for biaxial 18.4437 % 0.2375 %

Oblique bending

390

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.56 NTC 2008 - Italy: Stability check for steel column hinged base

Test status: Passed

12.56.1Description

Verification of a steel column with a point load applied on the top and a linear load applied along the linear element,

the column is made of S235 material and is hinged on the bottom extremity and restrained in translation on x, y axis

and restrained in rotation on z axis.

12.56.2Background

■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);

■ Element type: linear.

Units

Metric

Geometry

■ Length: L = 5.00 m,

■ Area: A = 31.40 cm²

■ Inertia: I = 1033.00 cm4

391

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Materials properties

■ E = 210000 MPa

■ S235

Boundary conditions

■ Hinged at end x = 0,

■ Restrained in translation X,Y at the top (x = 5.00 m) and restrained in rotation along Z.

Loading

Point load on the top of the column, linear load on the left of the column and self-weight.

Calculation method used to obtain the reference solution

392

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

The result for My is considered in the middle point of the column, so the work ratio will be 0.551 + 0.350 = 0.90 = 90%

Result name Result description Reference value

SNz Work ratio of the Normal force for the stability check 0.551

SMy Work ratio of the bending moment for the stability check calculated 0.350

in the middle

Work ratio Stability work ratio 0.900

393

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.56.3Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

SNz Effect of the normal force 0.549572 adim -0.2592 %

SMzy Effect of My 0.348335 adim 0.0000 %

Work ratio Work ratio 91.1238 % -1.5091 %

394

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Test status: Passed

12.57.1Description

Compares the buckling resistance of a compresed column with the value from a CTICM example.

12.57.2Background

Compares the buckling resistance of a compressed column with the value from a CTICM example.

One windwall (dimensions: 10m x 5m)

Punctual support (fixed)

Snow parameters

■ Section: IPE200

■ Material: S235

■ Buckling lengths: section is prevented from buckling in its secondary plane at x = 3.5m from the bottom

Geometrical properties

■ Column length: L=6m

395

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

■ Overall breadth: b 100mm

■ Flange thickness: t f 8.5mm

■ Web thickness: t w 5.6mm

■ Plastic modulus after the Y axis, W pl , y 220.60cm 6

■ Plastic modulus after the Z axis, W pl , z 44.61cm 6

4

■ Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: Iy=1943 cm

4

■ Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: Iz=142.4 cm

4 4

■ Torsional moment of inertia: It=6.98x10 mm

6 6

■ Working inertial moment: Iw=12990x10 cm

Materials properties

S235 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:

■ Yield strength fy = 235 MPa,

■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 210000 MPa.

■ Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800MPa

Boundary conditions

The boundary conditions are described below:

■ Outer:

► Hinged support at start point (x = 0m) restrained in translation along X, Y and Z axis,

► Support at the end point (z = 6m) restrained in translation along X and Y axis and restrained rotation

around Z axis.

Loading

The column is subjected to the following loadings:

■ External: Point load on column top : FZ =-176kN

Cross-class classification is made according to Table 5.2

396

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

235

1

fy

Compressed flange:

(b t w 2r ) / 2

4.1 9 9

tf

Flange is Class 1.

Web:

(h 2t f 2r ) / 2

28.4 33 33

tw

Web is Class 1.

Section class is Class 1. Plastic characteristics are to be used.

Section is prevented from buckling in its secondary plane at x = 3.5m from the bottom

Lfz (strong inertia): 6m

Lfy (weak inertia): 3.5m

12.57.2.4 Slenderness

Strong axis:

iy 8.26cm

y 72.6

y

y 0.773

93.9

Weak axis:

iz 2.24cm

z 156.25

z z 1.664

93.9

Strong axis: Curve a ( 0.21)

Weak axis: Curve b ( 0.34)

Strong axis: y 0.810

Weak axis: y 0.287

We keep the minimal value: min 0.287

397

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Result name Result description Reference value

Stability Stability work ratio 91.66%

12.57.3Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Work ratio Buckling work ratio 91.456 % 0.0000 %

398

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Test status: Passed

12.58.1Description

Deflection check on simply supported beam made of steel S355, the cross section used is HEA140, the span of the

beam is 6.00 meter, the verification is made according to NTC 2008

12.58.2Background

■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);

■ Element type: linear.

Units

Metric

Geometry

■ Length: L = 6.00 m,

■ Area: A = 31.42 cm²

■ Inertia: I = 1033.00 cm4

Materials properties

■ E = 210000 MPa

■ S355

Boundary conditions

■ Hinge at end x = 0,

■ Hinge at end x = 6.00 m.

Loading

Uniformly distributed force of q = -10.00 kN/m on beam AB.

Calculation method used to obtain the reference solution

399

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

4

f = (5/384) X (10 X 6000 ) / (2100000 X 10330000) = 777.9 mm = L / 75

Result name Result description Reference value

Deflection Maximum deflection calculated in the middle of the steel beam 777.9 mm = L / 75

12.58.3Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Max. deflection Max deflection 74.7801 adim 0.0000 %

400

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.59 AISC 360 2010 - United States of America: Deflection and Strength for a W-Shape

Continuously Braced Flexural Member in Strong-Axis Bending (LRFD)

Test status: Passed

12.59.1Description

Verifies the available flexural strength of a W18x50 in ASTM A992 simple supported beam with a span of 35 ft. The

deflection is limited to a ratio of L/360. The nominal loads are a uniform dead load of 0.45 kip/ft and a uniform live

load of 0.75 kip/ft. The beam is continuously braced. (LRFD)

12.59.2Background

Verifies the deflections, the deflection constraints, the bending moment and it related resistance to a simply

supported W18x50. The primary objective of this test is to validate the resistance of member exposed to uniformly

distributed load which would cause bending moments in the beam. With this the deflection will be verified against a

max deflection criterion.

Reference: AISC Design Example Version 14.1

Example as taken from “Example F.1-1A&C W-Shape Flexural Member Design in Strong-Axis Bending, Continuously

Braced”

Select an ASTM A992 W-shape beam with a simple span of 35 ft. Limit the member to a maximum nominal depth of

18 in. Limit the live load deflection to L/360. The nominal loads are a uniform dead load of 0.45 kip/ft and a uniform

live load of 0.75 kip/ft. Assume the beam is continuously braced. Try a W18x50.

■ Element Type: Linear

The following load cases and load combination are used

■ Dead load: 0.450 kip/ft uniformly distributed load (Self-weight included in this value – Therefore not needed for AD to

calculate)

■ Live Load: 0.750 kip/ft uniformly distributed load

■ Combination used for this example is:

ULS Combination #102 -

■ Unit System: IMPERIAL

401

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

■ Steel Type: ASTM A992

■ Fy = 50 ksi

■ Fu = 65 ksi

12.59.2.2 Calculation

Deflection Calculations:

Required Moment of Inertia for the Live-Load Deflection Criteria of L/360

4

Or for W18x50 where Ix = 800.04 in

Moment Calculations:

The required flexural strength must surpass:

402

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

From the AISC Manual Table 1-1 for a W18x50 Zx=101 in3

Calculating the Nominal Flexural Strength, Mn

Result name Result description Reference value

Max Deflection L/? for Deflection Criteria L / 384.80

Actual Deflection 1.09 in

Mu Required Flexural Strength 266 kips·ft

ΦbMn Available Flexural Strength 379 kips·ft

Work Ratio, My Design Load Ratio due to Strong Axis Bending 70%

12.59.3Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Max. deflection Deflection Criteria 378.242 -1.7043 %

adim

403

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Test status: Passed

12.60.1Description

Class section classification and compression verification of an IPE300 column

12.60.2Background

Classification and verification of sections for an IPE 300 column made from S235 steel. The column is connected to

the ground by a fixed connection and is free on the top part. On top, the column is subjected to a 100kN force applied

gravitationally, defined as a live load. The dead load will be neglected.

■ Reference: Guide de validation Eurocode 3 Part1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001;

■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);

■ Element type: linear.

The following load cases and load combination are used:

■ Exploitation loadings (category A): Q = -100kN,

■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

Units

Metric System

404

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Materials properties

The boundary conditions are described below:

■ Outer:

► Support at start point (x=0) restrained in translation and rotation along X, Y and Z axis,

► Support at end point (z = 5.00) free.

■ Inner: None.

In this case, the column is subjected only to compression, therefore the distribution of stresses along the section is

like in the picture below:

To determine the web class, we use Table 5.2 sheet 1, from CSN EN 1993-1-1 Chapter 5.5.2

405

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

1

Therefore:

To determine the flanges class, we will use Table 5.2, sheet 2, from CSN EN 1993-1-1 Chapter 5.5.2

406

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

c 56.45mm

5.276

t 10.7mm

1

Therefore:

c 56.45mm

5.276 9 * 9 this means that the column flanges are Class 1.

t 10.7mm

A cross-section is classified by quoting the heist (least favorable) class of its compression elements.

According to the calculation above, the column section have a Class 2 web and Class 1 flanges; therefore the class

section for the entire column section will be considered Class 2.

According to: CSN EN 1993-1-1 Chapter 5.5.2(6)

407

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

The design resistance of the cross-section force Nc,Rd shall be determined as follows:

A* fy

For Class 1, 2 or 3 cross-section Nc , Rd

M0

Where:

A section area A=53.81cm2

Fy nominal yielding strength for S235 fy=235MPa

Therefore:

A* fy 53.81*104 * 235

N c , Rd 1.264535MN 1264.54kN

M0 1

According to: CSN EN 1993-1-1 Chapter 6.2.4(2)

■ Linear element: S beam,

■ 6 nodes,

■ 1 linear element.

Compressive resistance work ratio

Work ratio [%]

408

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Result name Result description Reference value

Work ratio Compressive resistance work ratio [%] 8%

12.60.3Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Max Work ratio Max work ratio 7.90805 % -1.1494 %

Work ratio - Fx Work ratio Fx 7.90805 % -1.1494 %

409

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Test status: Passed

12.61.1Description

Verifies the classification and the compression resistance for an UPE240 vertical beam made of steel S235.

12.61.2Background

Verification of compressed steel profile

Verifies the steel centrically compressed vertical beam made of UPE240, steel S235. The beam is supported by

hinges at both extremities and blocked to swerve perpendicularly to local z-axis of the profile at all quarters of its

length.

■ Reference: Manually calculated example

■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);

■ Element type: linear.

Load cases and load combinations:

■ Dead load: g = 500 kN

Units

Metric System

Geometry

Below are described the beam cross section characteristics:

■ Height: h = 240 mm,

■ Width: b = 90 mm,

■ Length: L = 7200 mm,

2

■ Section area: A = 3850 mm ,

6 4

■ Bending moment of inertia around y-axis: Iy = 35.99*10 mm ,

410

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

6 4

■ Bending moment of inertia around z-axis: Iz = 3.109*10 mm ,

■ Web thickness: tw = 7.0 mm,

■ Compressed part of flange: c = 68.0 mm,

■ Flange thickness: tf = 12.5 mm

Materials properties

2

Steel: S235, fy = 235 N/mm

Material coefficient: γM0 = γM1 = 1.15

Boundary conditions

The boundary conditions are described below:

■ Outer:

► Support at start point (Z=0), hinged connection restrained to rotate around Z,

► Support at end point (Z = 7.20) hinged connection,

■ Inner:

► Support at each quarter of beam length (Z = 1.80, 3.60, 5.40), restrained to translate along Y

Loading

The beam is subjected only to axial force:

Load combinations:

■ Ultimate Limit State:

NEd = 1*g = 500.0 kN

Web

Flange

Cross-section belongs to class 1

Buckling lengths

Ly = L = 7200 mm,

Lz = L/4 = 1800 mm

411

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Slenderness

According to: CSN EN1993-1-1 Chapter 6.3.1.2(2), Table 6.2

Buckling coefficient

λ1 = 93.9* = 93.9

For buckling curve "C" and = 0.7934 the corresponding value is κ = 0.67

According to: CSN EN1993-1-1 Chapter 6.3.1.2(3), Picture 6.4

■ Linear element: S beam,

■ 5 nodes,

■ 1 linear element.

412

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Buckling coefficient κ (reference value 0.67) Work ratio in compression (reference value 95%)

Result name Result description Reference value

κy Buckling coefficient corresponding to local y-axis [-] 0.67

Work ratio Work ratio in compression [%] 95 %

12.61.3Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Xy Buckling coefficient 0.666583 adim -0.5100 %

Work ratio Work ratio 95.7491 % 0.7885 %

413

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.62 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying critical moment Mcr on a beam with intermediate

restraints

Test status: Passed

12.62.1Description

The test verifies the critical bending moment Mcr of a IPE220 beam made of S235 steel.

It ensures Advance Design uses the intermediate restraint definition from the upper flange when the beam is subject

to forces acting downwards.

The calculations are made according to Eurocode 3, French Annex.

12.62.2Background

Critical bending moment verification for a restrained IPE220 beam subjected to axis bending efforts, made of S235

steel. The beam is simply supported.

■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);

■ Element type: linear.

The following load case and load combination are used:

■ Exploitation loadings (category A): Q1 = -20 000 N,

■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

Units

Metric System

Geometrical properties

■ Beam length: 5m

2

■ Cross section area: A=3337mm

4 4

■ Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: Iy=2772x10 mm

4 4

■ Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: Iz=2049x10 mm

S235 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:

■ Yield strength fy = 235 MPa,

5

■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 2.1 x 10 MPa.

414

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Boundary conditions

The boundary conditions are described below:

■ Outer:

► Hinged support at start point (x = 0)

► Hinged support at the end point (z = 5.00)

► Elastic support at start point (x = 0) : KRY = 45 kN.m/°.

► Elastic support at end point (x = 5) : KRY = 45 kN.m/°.

■ Inner: None.

Intermediate restraints

The boundary conditions are described below:

■ Top flange: intermediate restraints at x = 1.25m, x = 2.5m, x = 3.75m

■ Bottom flange: intermediate restraint at x = 2. 5m

Loading

The column is subjected to the following loadings:

■ External: Linear load From X=0.00m to X=5.00m: FZ = N = -20 000 N,

■ Internal: None.

Mcr is the elastic critical moment for lateral-torsional buckling, is based on gross cross sectional properties and takes

into account the loading conditions, the real moment distribution and the lateral restraints.

2 E I z k z I w k z L 2 G I t C z 2 C z

M cr C1

k w I z

(1)

k z L 2

E IZ

2 2 g 2 g

Where:

2

E is the Young’s module: E=210000N/mm

2

G is the share modulus: G=80770N/mm

4 4

Iz is the inertia of bending about the minor axis Z: Iz=2049 x10 mm

4

It is the torsional inertia: It=90700mm

10 6

IW is the warping inertia (deformation inertia moment): Iw=2.267x10 mm

L is the distance between intermediate restraints on the compressed flange (in this case : top flange) : L =

1.25m

kz and kw are buckling coefficients

zg is the distance between the point of load application and the share center (which coincide with the center of

gravity)

C1 and C2 are coefficients depending on the load variation over the beam length

C1 = 1.114

If the bending moment is linear along the bar, if there are no transversal loads or if the transverse load is applied to

the center, then C2xxg=0 and the Mcr formula become:

² E Iz I w L² G I t

M cr C1

L² Iz ² E Iz

M cr 1.4815

(1.250)² 204.9 108 ² 210000 204.9 108

M cr 355.06kNm

415

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

■ Linear element: S beam,

■ 21 nodes,

■ 1 linear element.

Mcr

Result name Result description Reference value

Mcr Elastic critical moment for lateral-torsional buckling [kNm] 355.06

12.62.3Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Mcr Mcr 355.838 kN*m 0.0000 %

416

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.63 EC3 / CSN EN1993-1-1 - Czech Republic: Bended beam without stability failure

Test status: Passed

12.63.1Description

Classification and verification on bending of simply supported IPE240 beam made of S235 steel.

Considered loading consists of dead load and snow load. Self weigth is also considered.

Test verifies finite element results for deflections and design forces and steel design results for work ratios in shear

and bending and allowable deflections.

12.63.2Background

Verification of simple supported steel profile

Verifies the simple supported roof beam designed of IPE240 profile without stability failure. During this test is verified

bearing capacity for ultimate limit state and deflections for serviceability limit state.

■ Reference: "Martina Eliášková, Zdeněk Sokol: Ocelové konstrukce - Príklady"; Chapter "1.1 Ohyb nosníku bez

ztráty stability"

■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);

■ Element type: linear.

Load cases and load combinations:

■ Dead load: g = 2.20 kN/m, γG = 1.2

■ Snow load: s = 4.80 kN/m, γS = 1.4

■ ULS combination: CULS = 1.2*G + 1.4*S

■ SLS combination: CSLS = 1.0*G + 1.0*S

Units

Metric System

Geometry

Below are described the beam cross section characteristics:

■ Height: h = 240 mm,

■ Width: b = 120 mm,

■ Length: L = 7200 mm,

2

■ Section area: A = 3912 mm ,

6 4

■ Bending moment of inertia around y-axis: Iy = 38.97*10 mm ,

2

■ Reduced cross-section: Avz = 1914,0 mm ,

IPE 2

■ Weight: g = 30.7 kg/m ,

■ Compressed part of web: d = 194 mm

417

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

■ Compressed part of flange: c = 60.0 mm

■ Glange thickness: tf = 9.8 mm

Materials properties

Steel: S235

Material coefficient: γM0 = 1.15

Boundary conditions

The boundary conditions are described below:

■ Outer:

► Support at start point (x=0) , hinged connection,

► Support at end point (x = 7.20) restrained in translation along Y and Z, in rotation around X.

■ Inner: None.

Loading

The beam is subjected to the following load combinations:

Load combinations:

■ Ultimate Limit State:

IPE

NULS = 1.2*(g + g ) + 1.4*s = 1.2*(2.2 + 0.307) + 1.4*4.80 = 9.73 kN/m

■ Serviceability Limit State:

IPE

NSLS = 1.0*(G + G ) + 1.0*S = 1.0*(2.2 + 0.307) + 1.0*4.80 = 7.31 kN/m

Web

Flange

Cross-section belongs to class 1

Design value of bending moment from loading:

418

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Verification:

According to: CSN EN1993-1-1 Chapter 5.2.5(1), formula (6.12)

Design value of shear force from loading:

Verification:

According to: CSN EN1993-1-1 Chapter 5.2.6(1), formula (6.17)

■ Linear element: S beam,

■ 8 nodes,

■ 1 linear element.

Design value of bending moment My (reference value 63.0 kNm)

419

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Work ratio in bending (reference value 84%)

Deflection from live load (snow):

Total deflection:

■ Deflection from live loads: δ2 ≤ L/250

20.6 mm < 28.8 mm => Work ratio for live load deflections is 72%

■ Total deflection: δmax ≤ L/200

31.3 mm < 36.0 mm => Work ratio for total deflections is 87%

According to: CSN EN1993-1-1 National Annex NA.2.22, Table NA.1

Live load deflection (reference value 20.6 mm)

Live load deflection work ratio (reference value 72%)

420

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Result name Result description Reference value

My Design value of bending moment for ULS load combination [kNm] 63.0 kNm

Fz Design value of shear force for ULS load combination [kN] 35.0 kNm

Work ratio - Oblique Maximal work ratio for bending resistance [%] 84 %

Work ratio - Fx Maximal work ratio for shear resistance [%] 16 %

D Live load deflection for ULS load combination [mm] 20.6 mm

D Total deflection for ULS load combination [mm] 31.3 mm

Deviat.all.defl. Deviation of allowed live load deflections [%] 72 %

Deviat.all.defl. Deviation of allowed total deflections [%] 87 %

12.63.3Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

D Deflection total 31.5644 mm 0.8447 %

D Deflection snow 20.7514 mm 0.7350 %

My Design moment -62.9946 kN*m 0.0086 %

Fz Design shear force 34.997 kN -0.0086 %

Deviat. all. defl. WR Deflection total 87.679 % 0.7805 %

Deviat. all. defl. WR Deflection snow 72.0535 % 0.0743 %

Work ratio - Oblique WR Oblique 84.0893 % 0.1063 %

Work ratio - Fz WR Fz 15.492 % -0.0516 %

421

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.64 AISC 360 2010 - United States of America: Example G.1 W-shape in strong axis shear (LRFD)

Test status: Passed

12.64.1Description

Determines the available shear strength and adequacy of a W24x62 ASTM A992 beam using the AISC Manual with

end shears of 48 kips from dead load and 145 kips from live load. Obtains the available shear strength, which is

determined by the tabulated values of the AISC Manual.

12.64.2Background

Determines the shear applied to the cross-section, its resistance to shear and finally the work ratio due to shear alone.

The objective of this test is to check the calculation of steel resistance due to shearing forces.

■ Reference: AISC Design Example Version 14.1

■ Example as taken from “Example E.1A W-Shape Column Design with Pinned Ends” -

Example G.1A -

Determine the available shear strength and adequacy of a W24x62 ASTM A992 beam using the AISC Manual with

end shears of 48 kips from dead load and 145 kips from live load

Example G.1B -

The available shear strength, which can be easily determined by the tabulated values of the AISC Manual, can be

verified by directly applying the provisions of the AISC Specification. Determine the available shear strength for the

W-shape in Example G.1A by applying the provisions of the AISC Specification.

■ Analysis Type: static

■ Element Type: linear

■ Steel cross-section used is and AISC W24x62

■ Dead load: 48 kips (Self-weight included in this value – Therefore not needed for AD to calculate)

■ Live Load: 145 kips axial force

■ Unit System: IMPERIAL

■ Steel Type: ASTM A992

Fy = 50 ksi

Fu = 65 ksi

12.64.2.2 Results

Combination used for this example is (ULS), Vu:

422

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

“G2.1 Members with Unstiffened or Stiffened webs” is applicable to webs for the shear strength for singly or doubly

symmetric members and channels subject to shear in the plane of the web

The nominal shear strength, Vn, of unstiffened or stiffened webs according to the, limit states of shear yield and

shear buckling, is

Therefore,

And finally

Work Ratio

Result Name Result Description Reference

Vu Required Shear Strength 289.6 kips

ΦvVn Available Shear Strength 306 kips

Work Ratio Design Load Rate 94.65 %

423

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.64.3Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Fz Shear Verify (not forces) -289.993 kip 0.0024 %

424

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.65 NTC 2008 - Italy: Strenght verification of a steel linear hollow section

Test status: Passed

12.65.1Description

Verifies the strengh of a steel linear hollow section with a point load applied on the top and a linear load applied along

the linear element, the element is fixed on the base

12.65.2Background

Verifies the adequacy of a rectangular hollow section column made of S235 steel to resist bending and axial efforts.

The name of the cross-section is RC3020100 and it can be found in the Advance Design European library. The

column is fixed at its base and it is subjected to a uniformly distributed load over its height and a punctual axial load

applied on the top.

■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);

■ Element type: linear.

The following load case and load combination are used:

■ Exploitation loadings (category A), Q:

► Fz = - 500 000 kN,

► Fx = 5 kN/ml,

Units

Metric System

Geometry

Below are described the column cross section characteristics:

■ Height: h = 300 mm,

■ Width: b = 200 mm,

■ Thickness: t = 10 mm,

425

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

■ Column height: L = 5000 mm,

2

■ Section area: A = 9260 mm ,

3

■ Plastic section modulus about y-y axis: W pl,y = 921000 mm ,

S235 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:

■ Yield strength fy = 235 MPa,

5

■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 2.1 x 10 MPa.

The boundary conditions are described below:

■ Outer:

► Support at start point (z = 0) restrained in translation and rotation along X, Y and Z axis,

► Free at end point (z = 5.00).

■ Inner: None.

Loading

The column is subjected to the following loadings:

■ External:

► Point load at z = 5.0: Fz = - 500 kN,

► Uniformly distributed load: q = Fx = 5 kN/ml

■ Internal: None.

12.65.2.2 Reference results for calculating the column subjected to bending and axial force

In order to verify the steel column subjected to bending and axial force, the design resistance for uniform

compression (Nc,Rd) and also the design plastic moment resistance (Mpl,Rd) have to be compared with the design

values of the corresponding efforts.

The design resistance for uniform compression is verified considering the relationship (4.2.4) from chapter 4.2.4.1.1

(NTC 2008), while the design plastic moment resistance is verified considering the criterion (4.2.12) from chapter

4.2.4.1.2 (NTC 2008).

Before starting the above verifications, the cross-section class has to be determined.

The following results are determined according to NTC 2008: “Costruzioni civili ed industriali” – Chapter 4.2.4.

In this case, the stresses distribution is like in the picture below:

426

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Table 4.2.I - from Chapter 4.2.3.1 (NTC 2008), establish the rules to determine the class for compressed parts. The

picture below shows an extract from this table.

Taking into account that the top wing part is subjected to compression stresses, its class can be determined by

considering the geometrical properties and the conditions described in Table 4.2.I

15

t t 10mm

235

1. 0

fy

Therefore:

c

15 33 33

t

This means that the top wing is Class 1. Because the bottom wing is tensioned, it will be classified as Class 1.

The left/right web is subjected to bending stresses. Their class can be determined by considering the geometrical

properties and the conditions described in Table 5.2 - sheet 1 (the above highlighted extract – part subject to bending

427

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

and compression). It is also necessary to determine which portion of the web is compressed (). is determined

considering the stresses distribution on the web.

132MPa

0.832 0.5

1 26.63MPa

c h 2 r 2 t 300mm 2 15mm 2 10mm

25

t t 10mm

235

1. 0

fy

Therefore:

c 396

25 40.34

t 13 1

This means that the left/right web is Class 1.

The design resistance for uniform compression, for Class 1 cross-section, is determined with formula (4.2.11) from

NTC 2008.

The verification of the design resistance for uniform compression is done with relationship (4.2.10) from NTC 2008.

The corresponding work ratio is:

Work ratio =

The design plastic moment resistance, for Class 1 cross-section, is determined with formula (4.2.13) from NTC 2008.

The verification of the design resistance for bending is done with relationship (6.12) from EN 1993-1-1. The

corresponding work ratio is:

■ Linear element: S beam,

■ 6 nodes,

■ 1 linear element.

428

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Work ratio – Fx

429

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Work ratio – Oblique

Result name Result description Reference value

Work ratio – Fx Compression resistance work ratio [%] 24.13 %

Work ratio – Oblique Work ratio of the design resistance for bending 30.32 %

12.65.3Calculated results

Result name Result description Value Error

Work ratio - Fx Strenght work ratio Fx 24.1257 % 0.5237 %

Work ratio - Oblique Strenght work ratio - oblique 30.3209 % 1.0697 %

430

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.66 NTC 2008 - Italy: Lateral torsional buckling verification of a steel column

Test status: Passed

12.66.1Description

Verifies the lateral torsional buckling of a steel column with a point load applied on the top and a bending moment on

y direction and another bending moment on the x direction both applied on the top.

The column is hinged on the base and restrained in traslation on x,y direction and restrained in rotation on x axis.

12.66.2Background

An I260*7.1+150*10.7 shaped column subjected to compression and bending, made from S275 steel. The column

has a 260x7.1mm web and 150x10.7mm flanges. The column is fixed at its base. The column is subjected to an axial

compression load -328000 N, a 10000Nm bending moment after the X axis and a 50000Nm bending moment after

the Y axis.

■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);

■ Element type: linear.

The following load case and load combination are used:

■ Exploitation loadings (category A): Fz=--328000N N; My=50000Nm; Mx=10000Nm;

■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

■ Cross section dimensions are in millimeters (mm).

Units

Metric System

Geometrical properties

■ Column length: L=5620mm

431

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

■ Overall breadth: b 150mm

■ Flange thickness: t f 10.70mm

■ Root radius: r 0mm

■ Web thickness: t w 7.10mm

■ Depth of the web: hw 260mm

■ Elastic modulus after the Y axis, Wel , y 445717.63mm 3

■ Plastic modulus after the Y axis, Wy 501177.18mm 3

■ Elastic modulus after the Z axis, Wel , z 80344.89mm 3

■ Plastic modulus after the Z axis, W pl , z 123381.96mm3

■ Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: I y 57943291.64mm 4

■ Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: I z 6025866.46mm 4

■ Torsional moment of inertia: I t 149294.97mm4

■ Working inertial moment: I w 93517065421.88mm6

S275 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:

■ Yield strength fy = 275 MPa,

■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 210000 MPa.

■ Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800MPa

Boundary conditions

The boundary conditions are described below:

■ Outer:

► Support at start point (x = 0) restrained in translation along X, Y and Z axis,

► Support at start point (x = 5.62) restrained in translation along X and Y axis, and restrained in rotation

along Z axis,

Loading

The column is subjected to the following loadings:

432

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

■ External: Point load From X=0.00m and z=5.62m: FZ =-328 kN; Mx=10 kNm and My=50 kNm

According to Advance Design calculations:

Cross-class classification is made according to Table 4.2 from NTC 2008 standard

The web dimensions are 850x5mm.

433

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

inf 45.30Mpa

0.253 1

sup 179.06Mpa

434

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

238.6 45.3

x 48.175

x y x y 238.6 224.36

45.30 179.06 45.30 179.06 224.36 238.6 179.06

y 190.73

224.36

x 190.73

0.80 0.5

238.6 238.6

235 235

0.924

fy 275

c 260mm 2 10.7mm

33.61 c 396 396 0.924

t 7.1mm 33.6 38.93 therefore the beam

t 13 1 13 0.8 1

0.924

web is considered to be Class 1

-for beam flange:

150 7.1

c

6.68 6.68 9 0.924 8.316

c 2

therefore the haunch is considered to be Class1

t 10.7 t

0.924

In conclusion, the section is considered to be Class 1.

435

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

a) over the strong axis of the section, y-y:

-the imperfection factor α will be selected according to the Table 4.2.VI from NTC 2008 standard:

0.34

Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness after Y-Y axis:

y coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness y will be determined from the relevant buckling

curve according to the formula taken from NTC 2008 standard:

1

y 2

1 (4.2.45)

y y y

2

436

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

A * fy

y

N cr , y

Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: I y 57943291.64mm 4

N cr , y 3802327.95N 3802.33kN

l fy ² 5620mm ²

A f y 4904.06mm 2 275N / mm 2

y 0.5956

N cr , y 3802327.95N

y 0.5 1 ( y 0.2) y ² 0.5 1 0.34 0.5956 0.2 0.59562 0.7446

1 1

y 0.839

y y y

2 2

0.7446 0.7446 0.5956

2 2

y 0.839

y 1

437

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

-the imperfection factor α will be selected according to the Table 4.2.VI from NTC 2008 standard:

0.49

438

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

z coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness z will be determined from the relevant buckling curve

according to the formula from NTC 2008 standard:

1

z 1 (4.2.45)

z z z

2 2

A* f y

z

N cr , z

² E Iz ² 210000N / mm 2 6025866.46mm 4

N cr , z 395426.63N 395.43kN

l fz ² 5620mm ²

A f y 4904.06mm 2 275N / mm 2

z 1.847

N cr , z 395426.63N

z 0.5 1 ( z 0.2) z ² 0.5 1 0.49 1.847 0.2 1.8472 2.609

1 1

z 0.225

z z z 2.609 2.609 1.847 z 0.225

2 2 2 2

z 1

The elastic moment for lateral-torsional buckling calculation, Mcr:

-the transversal load is applied to the shear center, therefore C2zg=0 and the moment formula will be:

² E Iz I w L² G I t

M cr C1

L² Iz ² E Iz

According to EN 1993-1-1; Chapter 2

-where:

C1 is a coefficient that depends of several parameters as: section properties; support conditions; moment diagram

allure

1

C1

0.325 0.423 0.252 ²

According to EN 1993-1-1 ; Chapter 3

439

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

M y ,botom 0

0 C1 1.77

M y ,top 50

Yield strength fy = 275 MPa,

Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 210000 MPa.

Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800MPa

Warping inertial moment (recalculated):

IW is the warping inertia (deformation inertia moment):

I z h t f

2

Iw

4

h cross section height; h 260mm

2

Iw 93627638290mm 6

4

Length of the column: L=5620mm

440

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

NOTE: For the calculation of the elastic moment, I used the formula from the Eurocode 3 and not the formula from the

“Circolare Ministeriale n. 917/2009”, because of the distribution of the moment along the column.

Knowing the Mcr we can calculate the non-dimensional slenderness for lateral – torsional buckling:

W pl , y f y 501177.18mm 3 275N / mm 2

LT 0.958

M cr 150184702.1Nmm

Calculation of the LT for appropriate non-dimensional slenderness LT according NTC 2008 standard will be determined

with this formula:

Where:

The cross section buckling curve will be chose according to Table 4.2.VII from NTC 2008 standard:

h 260mm

1.733 2

b 150mm

0.49

f = 1 -0.5 x (1 – 0.75) x [1 – 2.0 x (0.958 – 0.8)2] = 0.879

441

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

LT 0.5 1 LT LT 0.2 LT ² 0.5 1 0.49 0.958 0.2 0.958² 1.145

1 1

LT 0.564 1

LT LT ² LT ² 1.145 1.145² 0.958²

The result is get without consider the effect of the reduction factor (with reduction factor = 0,639

The stability check for section class 1, 2 or 3 is performed checking:

■ Linear element: S beam,

■ 7 nodes,

■ 1 linear element.

442

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

y

443

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

z

444

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Internal factor, k yy

k yy

445

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Internal factor, k yz

k yz

446

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Internal factor, k zy

k zy

447

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Internal factor, k zz

k zz

448

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

over the Y axis

SNy

449

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

over the Y axis

SMyy

450

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

over the Y axis

SMyz

451

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

over the Z axis

SNz

452

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

over the Z axis

SMzy

453

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

over the Z axis

SMzz

454

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Coefficient that depends of several parameters as: section properties; support conditions; moment diagram

allure

conditions; moment diagram allure

C1

455

ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE