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VALIDATION GUIDE

2019
Advance Design

Validation Guide

Version: 2019
Tests passed on: 24 July 2019
Number of tests: 610
INTRODUCTION

Each year, before its official release, each version of GRAITEC software - Advance
Design included - undergoes a series of validation tests. This complex validation process
is carried out along with and in addition to manual testing and beta testing, in order to
attain the "operational version" status. Its final outcome is the present guide, which
contains a thorough description of the automatic tests, highlighting both the theoretical
background and the results that our validation experts have obtained by using the current
software release.
Such tests are generally made of a reference (independent of the specific software
version tested), a transformation (a calculation or a data-processing scenario), a result
(given by the specific software version tested) and a difference, usually measured in
percentage as a drift from a specific set of reference values. Depending on the cases,
the used reference can be a theoretical calculation performed manually, a sample taken
from the technical literature, or the result of a previous version considered as accurate by
experience.
Starting with version 2012, Graitec Advance has made significant steps ahead in terms of
quality management by extending the scope and automating the testing process. While in
previous versions the tests had always been centered on the calculation results, which
were compared to a reference set, in the 2012 version, tests were extended to user
interface behavior, import/export procedures, etc.
The capacity to pass the tests automatically is another major improvement. The current
tests have obviously been passed on the “operational version”, but they are actually
passed on a daily basis during the development process as well. This ensures the
improvement of the daily quality by solving potential issues immediately after they have
been introduced in the code.
In the field of structural analysis and design, software users must always keep in mind
that the results depend, to a great extent, on the modeling (especially when dealing with
finite elements) and on the settings of the numerous assumptions and options available
in the software. A software package cannot entirely replace engineers’ experience and
analysis. Despite all the efforts we have made in terms of quality management, we
cannot guaranty the correct behavior and the validity of the results issued by Advance
Design in any given situation.
In this validation guide, we are providing a vast set of concrete test cases showing the
behavior of Advance Design in various areas and various conditions. The tests cover a
wide field of expertise: modeling, climatic load generation according to Eurocode 1,
combinations management, meshing, finite element calculation, reinforced concrete
design according to Eurocode 2, steel member design according to Eurocode 3, steel
connection design according to Eurocode 3, timber member design according to
Eurocode 5, seismic analysis according to Eurocode 8, report generation, import / export
procedures and user interface behavior.
We hope that this guide will highly contribute to the knowledge and the confidence you
keep placing in Advance Design.

Ionel DRAGU
Graitec Innovation CTO
ADVANCE VALIDATION GUIDE

Table of Contents

7 IMPORT / EXPORT ............................................................................................................. 15


7.1 Verifying the export of a linear element to GTC (TTAD #10932, TTAD #11952) ..........................................16

7.2 Importing GTC files containing elements with circular hollow sections, from SuperSTRESS (TTAD #12197)16

7.3 System stability when importing AE files with invalid geometry (TTAD #12232) ..........................................16

7.4 Importing GTC files containing elements with haunches from SuperSTRESS (TTAD #12172) ....................16

7.5 Exporting an Advance Design model to DO4 format (DEV2012 #1.10) ........................................................16

7.6 Exporting an analysis model to ADA (through GTC) (DEV2012 #1.3) ..........................................................16

7.7 Exporting an analysis model to ADA (through GTC) (DEV2012 #1.3) ..........................................................17

7.8 Importing GTC files containing elements with circular hollow sections, from SuperSTRESS (TTAD #12197)17

7.9 Verifying the GTC files exchange between Advance Design and SuperSTRESS (DEV2012 #1.9) .............17

7.10 Exporting linear elements to IFC format (TTAD #10561) ............................................................................17

7.11 Importing IFC files containing continuous foundations (TTAD #12410) .......................................................17

7.12 Verifying the load case properties from models imported as GTC files (TTAD #12306) .............................17

7.13 Verifying the releases option of the planar elements edges after the model was exported and imported via
GTC format (TTAD #12137) ...................................................................................................................................18

7.14 Importing GTC files containing "PH.RDC" system (TTAD #12055) .............................................................18

7.15 Exporting a meshed model to GTC (TTAD #12550) ....................................................................................18

8 JOINT DESIGN ................................................................................................................... 19


8.1 Deleting a welded tube connection - 1 gusset bar (TTAD #12630) .............................................................. 20

8.2 Creating connections groups (TTAD #11797) .............................................................................................. 20

9 MESH .................................................................................................................................. 21
9.1 Verifying the mesh for a model with generalized buckling (TTAD #11519) ...................................................22

9.2 Verifying mesh points (TTAD #11748) ..........................................................................................................22

9.3 Creating triangular mesh for planar elements (TTAD #11727) .....................................................................22

9.4 Verifying the mesh of a planar element influenced by peak smoothing. .......................................................22

9.5 Verifying the options to take into account loads in linear and planar elements mesh (TTAD #15251) .........22

10 REPORTS GENERATOR.................................................................................................... 23
10.1 Verifying the modal analysis report (TTAD #12718) ....................................................................................24

10.2 System stability when the column releases interfere with support restraints (TTAD #10557) .....................24

10.3 Modal analysis: eigen modes results for a structure with one level .............................................................24

10.4 Creating the steel materials description report (TTAD #11954)...................................................................24

10.5 Creating the rules table (TTAD #11802) ......................................................................................................24

10.6 Generating the critical magnification factors report (TTAD #11379) ............................................................24

10.7 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements forces result (on all quarters of super element) (TTAD
#12230) ..................................................................................................................................................................25

VII
10.8 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements forces result (on each 1/4 of mesh element) (TTAD
#12230) .................................................................................................................................................................. 25

10.9 Verifying the model geometry report (TTAD #12201) ................................................................................. 25

10.10 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the EC2 calculation assumptions report (TTAD #11838) . 25

10.11 Verifying the shape sheet strings display (TTAD #12622) ........................................................................ 25

10.12 Verifying the Max row on the user table report (TTAD #12512) ................................................................ 26

10.13 Verifying the steel shape sheet display (TTAD #12657) ........................................................................... 26

10.14 Verifying the shape sheet for a steel beam (TTAD #12455) ..................................................................... 26

10.15 Verifying the shape sheet report (TTAD #12353) ...................................................................................... 26

10.16 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements stresses (on end points and middle of super element)
(TTAD #12230)....................................................................................................................................................... 26

10.17 Verifying the Min/Max values from the user reports (TTAD# 12231) ........................................................ 26

10.18 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements forces result (on the end point of super element) (TTAD
#12230, #12261) .................................................................................................................................................... 27

10.19 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements forces result (on the start point of super element) (TTAD
#12230) ................................................................................................................................................................. 27

10.20 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements forces result (on start and end of super element) (TTAD
#12230) 27

10.21 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements displacements (on end points and middle of super
element) (TTAD #12230)........................................................................................................................................ 27

10.22 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements displacements (on start and end of super element)
(TTAD #12230)....................................................................................................................................................... 27

10.23 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements forces result (on end points and middle of super element)
(TTAD #12230)....................................................................................................................................................... 28

10.24 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements displacements (on all quarters of super element) (TTAD
#12230) .................................................................................................................................................................. 28

10.25 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements displacements (on each 1/4 of mesh element) (TTAD
#12230) .................................................................................................................................................................. 28

10.26 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements displacements (on the start point of super element)
(TTAD #12230)....................................................................................................................................................... 28

10.27 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements stresses (on each 1/4 of mesh element) (TTAD #12230)29

10.28 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements stresses (on all quarters of super element) (TTAD
#12230) 29

10.29 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements stresses (on the end point of super element) (TTAD
#12230, TTAD #12261) .......................................................................................................................................... 29

10.30 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements stresses (on the start point of super element) (TTAD
#12230) 29

10.31 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements displacements (on the end point of super element)
(TTAD #12230, TTAD #12261) .............................................................................................................................. 29

10.32 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements stresses (on start and end of super element) (TTAD
#12230) .................................................................................................................................................................. 30

10.33 Reports - Global envelope for efforts in linear elements with Min/Max Values and coresponding absicsa
position .................................................................................................................................................................. 30

10.34 Generating a report with modal analysis results (TTAD #10849) .............................................................. 30

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ADVANCE VALIDATION GUIDE

11 SEISMIC ANALYSIS ........................................................................................................... 31


11.1 EC8 / NF EN 1998-1-1 - France: Verifying torsors on walls with Seismic Loads (TTAD #16522) ...............32

11.2 EC8 / EN 1998-1-1 - General: Verifying the displacements results of a linear element for spectrum with
renewed building option (TTAD #14161) ................................................................................................................32

11.3 EC8 / SR EN 1998-1/NA - Romania: Verifying the spectrum results for EC8 seism (TTAD #12472) ..........32

11.4 EC8 / NF EN 1998-1-1 - France: Verifying torsors on walls ........................................................................32

11.5 EC8 / NF EN 1998-1-1 - France: Verifying the spectrum results for EC8 seism (TTAD #11478) ................32

11.6 EC8 / CSN EN 1998-1 - Czech Republic: Verifying the displacements results of a linear element
(DEV2012 #3.18) ....................................................................................................................................................33

11.7 Verifying signed concomitant linear elements envelopes on Fx report (TTAD #11517) .............................. 33

11.8 EC8 / NF EN 1998-1-1 - France: Verifying torsors on grouped walls from a multi-storey concrete structure33

11.9 PS92 - France: Verifying efforts and torsors on planar elements (TTAD #12974).......................................33

11.10 EC8 / NF EN 1993-1-8/NA - France: Verifying the damping correction influence over the efforts in
supports (TTAD #13011). .......................................................................................................................................33

11.11 EC8 / NF EN 1998-1-1 - France: Verifying seismic results when a design spectrum is used (TTAD
#13778) ..................................................................................................................................................................34

11.12 EC8 / NF EN 1998-1-1 - France: Generating forces results per modes on linear and planar elements
(TTAD #13797) .......................................................................................................................................................34

11.13 RPA99/2003 - Algeria: Verifying the displacements results of a linear element (DEV2013 #3.5) .............34

11.14 EC8 / NF EN 1998-1-1 - France: Verifying the sum of actions on supports and nodes restraints (TTAD
#12706) ..................................................................................................................................................................34

11.15 EC8 / NF EN 1998-1-1 - France: Verifying seismic efforts on planar elements with Q4 and T3-Q4 mesh
type (TTAD #14244) ...............................................................................................................................................34

11.16 EC8 / EN 1998-1-1 - General: Verifying the displacements results of a linear element for an envelope
spectrum (DEV2013 #8.2) ......................................................................................................................................35

11.17 PS92/2010 - France: Verifying the displacements results of a linear element for an envelope spectrum
(DEV2013 #8.2) ......................................................................................................................................................35

11.18 RPS 2011 - Morocco: Verifying the displacements results of a linear element for an envelope spectrum
(DEV2013 #8.2) ......................................................................................................................................................35

11.19 RPS 2011 - Morocco: Verifying the displacements results of a linear element (DEV2013 #3.6) ...............35

11.20 EC8 / SR EN 1998-1-1 - Romania: Verifying the displacements results of a linear element for an
envelope spectrum (DEV2013 #8.2) .......................................................................................................................35

11.21 EC8 / NF EN 1998-1-1 - France: Verifying earthquake description report in analysis with Z axis down
(TTAD #15095) .......................................................................................................................................................36

11.22 EC8 / EN 1998-1-1 - General: Verifying torsors on a 6 storey single concrete core subjected to horizontal
forces and seismic action .......................................................................................................................................36

11.23 EC8 / NF EN 1998-1-1 - France: verifying torsors on walls, elastic linear supports and user-defined
section cuts (TTAD #14460) ...................................................................................................................................36

11.24 EC8 / SR EN 1998-1-1 - Romania: Verifying action results and torsors per modes on point, linear and
planar supports (TTAD #14840) .............................................................................................................................36

12 STEEL DESIGN .................................................................................................................. 37


12.1 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Determining lateral torsional buckling parameters for a I-shaped
laminated beam considering the load applied on the lower flange (ref. Test 41) ....................................................38

12.2 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a simply supported circular hollow section element
subjected to torsional efforts (ref. Test 18) .............................................................................................................38

IX
12.3 EC3 / EN 1993-1-1 - Romania: Verifying lateral-torsional buckling resistance of an I rolled beam laterally
restrained at mid-span............................................................................................................................................ 39

12.4 EC3 / CSN EN 1993-1-1 - Czech Republic: Compressed and bended profile ............................................ 40

12.5 AISC 360 2010 - United States of America: Compressive Force Resistance and Buckling Length (LRFD) 41

12.6 AISC 360-10 - United States of America: Verifying buckling lengths and lateral torsional buckling lengths
values after imposing them before starting the steel verification (TFSAD #14487) ................................................ 42

12.7 EC3 / SR EN 1993-1-1-2006 - Romania: Verifying the buckling resistance of a rectangular hollow section
column (R50*100/1) ............................................................................................................................................... 42

12.8 EC3 / SR EN 1993-1-1-2006 - Romania: Stability check for an IPE300 single span beam, simply supported43

12.9 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-6 - France: Buckling resistance of a class 4 circular hollow section .......................... 44

12.10 EC3 / EN 1993-1-1 - United Kingdom: Verifying the compression checks for an I section column ........... 45

12.11 AISC 360 2010 - United States of America: Example H.1 W-shape subject to combined compression and
bending (LRFD) ...................................................................................................................................................... 46

12.12 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying IPE450 column fixed on base subjected to axial
compression and bending moment, both applied on top (ref. Test 31)................................................................... 47

12.13 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying IPE600 simple supported beam, loaded with centric
compression and uniform linear efforts by Y and Z axis (ref. Test 32) ................................................................... 48

12.14 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying RHS300x150x9H class 1 simply supported beam, loaded
with centric compression, uniform linear horizontal efforts and a vertical punctual load in the middle (ref. Test 36)49

12.15 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying C310x30.8 class 4 cantilever, loaded with centric
compression, uniform linear horizontal efforts by Y and a vertical punctual load applied on the free end (ref. Test
35) .................................................................................................................................................................. 50

12.16 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying IPE300 beam, simply supported, loaded with centric
compression and uniform linear efforts by Y and Z axis (ref. Test 30) .................................................................. 51

12.17 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying CHS323.9x6.3H class 2 beam, loaded with centric
compression, uniform linear horizontal efforts by Y and a vertical punctual load in the middle (ref. Test 39) ......... 52

12.18 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying C310x30.8 class 3beam, loaded with centric compression,
uniform linear horizontal efforts by Y and a vertical punctual load in the middle (ref. Test 34) ............................... 53

12.19 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Determining lateral torsional buckling parameters for a I-shaped
welded built-up beam considering the load applied on the upper flange (ref. Test 42)........................................... 54

12.20 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Determining lateral torsional buckling parameters for a I-shaped
laminated beam considering the load applied on the lower flange (ref. Test 43) .................................................... 54

12.21 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a simply supported rectangular hollow section beam
subjected to torsional efforts (ref. Test 17) ............................................................................................................. 54

12.22 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying RHS350x150x5H class 4 column, loaded with centric
compression, punctual horizontal force by Y and a bending moment, all applied to the top (ref. Test 38) ............. 55

12.23 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying CHS508x8H class 3, simply supported beam, loaded with
centric compression, uniform linear horizontal efforts by Y and a vertical punctual load in the middle (ref. Test 40)56

12.24 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying UPN300 simple supported beam, loaded with centric
compression, uniform linear horizontal efforts by Y and punctual vertical force by Z axis (ref. Test 33) ................ 57

12.25 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying RHS350x150x8.5H class 3 column, loaded with centric
compression, punctual lateral load and bending moment, all applied to the top of the column (ref. Test 37) ......... 58

12.26 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Class section classification and compression verification of an
IPE300 column (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 1) ............................................................................. 59

12.27 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Class section classification and shear verification of an IPE300
beam subjected to linear uniform loading (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 2) ..................................... 65

12.28 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Class section classification and combined axial force with bending
moment verification of an IPE300 column (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 5) .................................... 71

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ADVANCE VALIDATION GUIDE

12.29 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Class section classification and combined biaxial bending
verification of an IPE300 beam (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 6) .....................................................77

12.30 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Class section classification and bending moment verification of an
IPE300 column (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 4)..............................................................................83

12.31 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the classification and the resistance of a column subjected
to bending and axial load (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 8) .............................................................. 89

12.32 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the classification and the compression resistance of a
welded built-up column (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 9) .................................................................94

12.33 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the classification and the bending resistance of a welded
built-up beam (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 10) ............................................................................100

12.34 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Class section classification, shear and bending moment verification
of an IPE300 column (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 3) ...................................................................105

12.35 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Class section classification and compression resistance for an
IPE600 column (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 7)............................................................................113

12.36 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the buckling resistance of a CHS219.1x6.3H column
(evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 21) ...................................................................................................119

12.37 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the lateral torsional buckling of a IPE300 beam (evaluated
by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 22) ....................................................................................................................124

12.38 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the design plastic shear resistance of a rectangular hollow
section beam (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 12) .............................................................................130

12.39 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the resistance of a rectangular hollow section column
subjected to bending and shear efforts (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 13) .....................................133

12.40 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the buckling resistance of a RC3020100 column (evaluated
by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 20) ....................................................................................................................139

12.41 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Cross section classification and compression resistance verification
of a rectangular hollow section column (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 11) .....................................146

12.42 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying an user defined I section class 4 column fixed on the
bottom and with a displacement restraint at 2.81m from the bottom (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test
25) ................................................................................................................................................................ 150

12.43 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying an user defined I section class 3 column fixed on the
bottom (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 26) .......................................................................................182

12.44 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying an user defined I section class 3 beam simply supported
with a displacement restraint (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 27).....................................................205

12.45 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the buckling resistance for a IPE300 column (evaluated by
SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 19) .........................................................................................................................229

12.46 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a IPE400 column for compression, shear, bending
moment, buckling, lateral torsional buckling and bending and axial compression (evaluated by SOCOTEC France
- ref. Test 23) ........................................................................................................................................................235

12.47 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying an user defined I section class 4 column fixed on the
bottom and without any other restraint (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 24) ......................................270

12.48 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying an user defined I section class 1, column hinged on base
and restrained on top for the X, Y translation and Z rotation (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 29) .....295

12.49 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a rectangular hollow section column subjected to bending
and axial efforts (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 15).........................................................................333

12.50 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Determining lateral torsional buckling parameters for a I-shaped
welded built-up beam considering the load applied on the upper flange (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref.
Test 44) ................................................................................................................................................................ 339

12.51 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the bending resistance of a rectangular hollow section
column made of S235 steel (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 14).......................................................344

XI
12.52 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Comparing the shear resistance of a welded built-up beam made
from different steel materials (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 45) .................................................... 349

12.53 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-2 - France: Verifying the bending resistance of a purlin for a 15min duration ....... 353

12.54 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying an user defined I section class 1, column fixed on base
and without any other restraint (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 28) ................................................. 357

12.55 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a simply supported rectangular hollow section beam
subjected to biaxial bending (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 16) ..................................................... 385

12.56 NTC 2008 - Italy: Stability check for steel column hinged base .............................................................. 391

12.57 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1 - France: Buckling resistance of a steel column ................................................. 395

12.58 NTC 2008 - Italy: Deflection check on simply supported beam ............................................................... 399

12.59 AISC 360 2010 - United States of America: Deflection and Strength for a W-Shape Continuously Braced
Flexural Member in Strong-Axis Bending (LRFD) ................................................................................................ 401

12.60 EC3 / CSN EN 1993-1-1 - Czech Republic: Compressed IPE300 .......................................................... 404

12.61 EC3 / CSN EN 1993-1-1 - Czech Republic: Compressed U_profile ....................................................... 410

12.62 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying critical moment Mcr on a beam with intermediate restraints414

12.63 EC3 / CSN EN1993-1-1 - Czech Republic: Bended beam without stability failure .................................. 417

12.64 AISC 360 2010 - United States of America: Example G.1 W-shape in strong axis shear (LRFD) .......... 422

12.65 NTC 2008 - Italy: Strenght verification of a steel linear hollow section .................................................... 425

12.66 NTC 2008 - Italy: Lateral torsional buckling verification of a steel column .............................................. 431

12.67 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA France: Verifying the stability of an asymmetric I-shape subjected to axial
force and bending moment ................................................................................................................................... 459

12.68 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying critical bending moment on a IPE200 beam with complex
loading ................................................................................................................................................................ 472

12.69 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying critical moment Mcr of a beam with intermediate restraints
subject to upwards loading ................................................................................................................................... 480

12.70 EC3 / CSN EN1993-1-1 - Czech Republic: Tensioned diagonal ............................................................. 483

12.71 EC3 / EN 1993-1-1 - United Kingdom: Simply supported laterally restrained (from P364 Open Sections
Example 2) ........................................................................................................................................................... 488

12.72 EC3 / EN 1993-1-1 - United Kingdom: Laterally unrestrained beam (from P374 Hollow Sections Example
4) ................................................................................................................................................................ 490

12.73 NTC 2008 - Italy: Verifying the lateral torsional buckling of a IPE300 beam .......................................... 493

12.74 EC3 / EN 1993-1-1 - United Kingdom: Simply supported laterally restrained (from P374 Hollow Sections
Example 3) ........................................................................................................................................................... 500

12.75 EC3 / EN 1993-1-1 - United Kingdom: Pin-ended column (from P374 Hollow Sections Example 2) ...... 505

12.76 Generating the shape sheet by system (TTAD #11471) ......................................................................... 508

12.77 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the cross section optimization of a steel element (TTAD
#11516) ................................................................................................................................................................ 508

12.78 Verifying the shape sheet results for the elements of a simple vault (TTAD #11522) ............................. 508

12.79 Verifying the calculation results for steel cables (TTAD #11623) ............................................................ 508

12.80 Verifying results on square hollowed beam 275H according to thickness (TTAD #11770) ..................... 509

12.81 Verifying shape sheet on S275 beam (TTAD #11731) ............................................................................ 510

12.82 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the shape sheet results for a fixed horizontal beam (TTAD
#11545) ................................................................................................................................................................ 511

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12.83 Verifying the shape sheet results for a column (TTAD #11550) .............................................................. 511

12.84 CM66 (steel design) - France: Verifying the buckling length for a steel portal frame, using the roA roB
method ................................................................................................................................................................ 511

12.85 EC3 / EN 1993-1-1 - General: Verifying the buckling length for a steel portal frame, using the kA kB
method ................................................................................................................................................................ 511

12.86 CM66 (steel design) - France: Verifying the buckling length for a steel portal frame, using the kA kB
method ................................................................................................................................................................ 511

12.87 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA: Verifying the steel shape optimization when using sections from Advance
Steel Profiles database (TTAD #11873) ...............................................................................................................512

12.88 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the buckling length results (TTAD #11550) ....................512

12.89 Verifying the shape sheet for a steel beam with circular cross-section (TTAD #12533) ..........................512

12.90 Verifying the "Shape sheet" command for elements which were excluded from the specialized calculation
(TTAD #12389) .....................................................................................................................................................512

12.91 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Changing the steel design template for a linear element (TTAD
#12491) ................................................................................................................................................................ 512

12.92 EC3 / SR EN 1993-1-1-2006 - Romania: Fire verification: verifying the work ratios after performing an
optimization for steel profiles (TTAD #11975) .......................................................................................................513

12.93 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the buckling coefficient Xy on a class 2 section .............514

12.94 EC3 / EN 1993-1-1 - Germany: Lateral-torsional buckling for a two field column with HEA 200 .............515

12.95 EC3 / EN 1993-1-1 - United Kingdom: Oblique bending checks for an I section column ........................516

12.96 EC3 / EN 1993-1-1 - United Kingdom: Fz shear checks for an I section column ....................................517

12.97 EC3 / EN 1993-1-1 - United Kingdom: XLT stability value for an I section column..................................518

12.98 EC3 / EN 1993-1-1 - United Kingdom: Work Ratio stability value for an I section column ......................519

12.99 EC3 / EN 1993-1-1 - United Kingdom: X stability values for an I section column ....................................520

12.100 EC3 / EN 1993-1-1 - United Kingdom: C1, C2 & Mcr stability values for an I section column ...............521

12.101 EC3 / EN 1993-1-1 - United Kingdom: Mcr & XLT stability values for welded RHS beams ...................522

12.102 EC3 / EN 1993-1-1 - United Kingdom: Fy shear checks for an I section column ..................................523

12.103 EC3 / EN 1993-1-1 - United Kingdom: k stability values for an I section column ..................................524

12.104 EC3 / EN 1993-1-1 - United Kingdom: Mcr & XLT stability values for laminated RHS beams ..............525

13 TIMBER DESIGN .............................................................................................................. 527


13.1 EC5 / NF EN 1995-1-1 - France: Verifying a timber beam subjected to simple bending ...........................528

13.2 EC5 / NF EN 1995-1-1 - France: Verifying a timber column subjected to compression forces .................532

13.3 EC5 / NF EN 1995-1-1 - France: Verifying a timber beam subjected to combined bending and axial tension536

13.4 EC5 / NF EN 1995-1-1 - France: Verifying lateral torsional stability of a timber beam subjected to
combined bending and axial compression ............................................................................................................542

13.5 EC5 / NF EN 1995-1-1 - France: Verifying a timber column subjected to tensile forces ...........................547

13.6 EC5 / NF EN 1995-1-2 - France: Verifying the residual section of a timber column exposed to fire for 60
minutes .................................................................................................................................................................550

13.7 EC5 / NF EN 1995-1-2 - France: Verifying the fire resistance of a timber purlin subjected to simple bending553

13.8 EC5 / NF EN 1995-1-1 - France: Verifying a timber purlin subjected to biaxial bending and axial
compression .........................................................................................................................................................557

13.9 EC5 / NF EN 1995-1-1 - France: Verifying a timber purlin subjected to oblique bending ..........................562

XIII
13.10 EC5 / NF EN 1995-1-1 - France: Verifying a C24 timber beam subjected to shear force ....................... 566

13.11 EC5 / SR EN-1995-1-1-2004 - Romania: Timber column subjected to compression .............................. 570

13.12 Modifying the "Design experts" properties for timber linear elements (TTAD #12259)............................ 571

13.13 EC5 / NF EN 1995-1-1 - France: Verifying the timber elements shape sheet (TTAD #12337) ............... 571

13.14 EC5 / NF EN 1995-1-1 - France: Verifying the units display in the timber shape sheet (TTAD #12445) 571

13.15 EC5 / NF EN 1995-1-1 - France: Shear verification for a simply supported timber beam ....................... 571

13.16 EC5 / SR EN-1995-1-1-2004 - Romania: Timber column subjected to shear stress and torsion ............ 572

13.17 EC5 / SR EN-1995-1-1-2004 - Romania: Timber beam subjected to simple bending ............................. 573

13.18 EC5 / SR EN 1995-1-1 - Romania: Verifying compression strength for C14 circular column with fixed
base ................................................................................................................................................................ 574

XIV
7 Import / Export
ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

7.1 Verifying the export of a linear element to GTC (TTAD #10932, TTAD #11952)

Test ID: 3628


Test status: Passed

7.1.1 Description
Exports a linear element to GTC.

7.2 Importing GTC files containing elements with circular hollow sections, from SuperSTRESS
(TTAD #12197)

Test ID: 4388


Test status: Passed

7.2.1 Description
Imports a GTC file from SuperSTRESS. The file contains elements with circular hollow section. Verifies if the cross
sections are imported from the attached "UK Steel Sections" database.

7.3 System stability when importing AE files with invalid geometry (TTAD #12232)

Test ID: 4479


Test status: Passed

7.3.1 Description
Imports a complex model containing elements with invalid geometry.

7.4 Importing GTC files containing elements with haunches from SuperSTRESS (TTAD #12172)

Test ID: 4297


Test status: Passed

7.4.1 Description
Imports a GTC file from SuperSTRESS. The file contains steel linear elements with haunch sections.

7.5 Exporting an Advance Design model to DO4 format (DEV2012 #1.10)

Test ID: 4101


Test status: Passed

7.5.1 Description
Launches the "Export > Text file" command and saves the current project as a .do4 archive file.
The model contains all types of structural elements, loads and geometric objects.

7.6 Exporting an analysis model to ADA (through GTC) (DEV2012 #1.3)

Test ID: 4195


Test status: Passed

7.6.1 Description
Exports the analysis model to ADA (through GTC) with:
- Export results: disabled

16
ADVANCE VALIDATION GUIDE

- Export meshed model: enabled

7.7 Exporting an analysis model to ADA (through GTC) (DEV2012 #1.3)

Test ID: 4193


Test status: Passed

7.7.1 Description
Exports the analysis model to ADA (through GTC) with:
- Export results: enabled
- Export meshed model: disabled

7.8 Importing GTC files containing elements with circular hollow sections, from SuperSTRESS
(TTAD #12197)

Test ID: 4389


Test status: Passed

7.8.1 Description
Imports a GTC file from SuperSTRESS when the "UK Steel Sections" database is not attached. The file contains
elements with circular hollow section. Verifies the cross sections definition.

7.9 Verifying the GTC files exchange between Advance Design and SuperSTRESS (DEV2012
#1.9)

Test ID: 4445


Test status: Passed

7.9.1 Description
Verifies the GTC files exchange (import/export) between Advance Design and SuperSTRESS.

7.10 Exporting linear elements to IFC format (TTAD #10561)

Test ID: 4530


Test status: Passed

7.10.1Description
Exports to IFC format a model containing linear elements having sections of type "I symmetric" and "I asymmetric".

7.11 Importing IFC files containing continuous foundations (TTAD #12410)

Test ID: 4531


Test status: Passed

7.11.1Description
Imports an IFC file containing a continuous foundation (linear support) and verifies the element display.

7.12 Verifying the load case properties from models imported as GTC files (TTAD #12306)

Test ID: 4515


Test status: Passed

17
ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

7.12.1Description
Performs the finite elements calculation on a model with dead load cases and exports the model to GTC. Imports the
GTC file to verify the load case properties.

7.13 Verifying the releases option of the planar elements edges after the model was exported and
imported via GTC format (TTAD #12137)

Test ID: 4506


Test status: Passed

7.13.1Description
Exports to GTC a model with planar elements on which the edges releases were defined. Imports the GTC file to
verify the planar elements releases option.

7.14 Importing GTC files containing "PH.RDC" system (TTAD #12055)

Test ID: 4548


Test status: Passed

7.14.1Description
Imports a GTC file exported from Advance Design. The file contains the automatically created system "PH.RDC".

7.15 Exporting a meshed model to GTC (TTAD #12550)

Test ID: 4552


Test status: Passed

7.15.1Description
Exports a meshed model to GTC. The meshed planar element from the model contains a triangular mesh.

18
8 Joint Design
ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

8.1 Deleting a welded tube connection - 1 gusset bar (TTAD #12630)

Test ID: 4561


Test status: Passed

8.1.1 Description
Deletes a welded tube connection - 1 gusset bar after the joint was exported to ADSC.

8.2 Creating connections groups (TTAD #11797)

Test ID: 4250


Test status: Passed

8.2.1 Description
Verifies the connections groups function.

20
9 Mesh
ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

9.1 Verifying the mesh for a model with generalized buckling (TTAD #11519)

Test ID: 3649


Test status: Passed

9.1.1 Description
Performs the finite elements calculation and verifies the mesh for a model with generalized buckling.

9.2 Verifying mesh points (TTAD #11748)

Test ID: 3458


Test status: Passed

9.2.1 Description
Performs the finite elements calculation and verifies the mesh nodes of a concrete structure.
The structure consists of concrete linear elements (R20*20 cross section) and rigid supports; the loads applied on the
structure: dead loads, live loads, wind loads and snow loads, according to Eurocodes.

9.3 Creating triangular mesh for planar elements (TTAD #11727)

Test ID: 3423


Test status: Passed

9.3.1 Description
Creates a triangular mesh on a planar element with rigid supports and self weight.

9.4 Verifying the mesh of a planar element influenced by peak smoothing.

Test ID: 6190


Test status: Passed

9.4.1 Description
The model consists in a c25/30 concrete planar element supported by three concrete columns (2 x R20/30, 1 x D40)
and one steel column (IPE400). Self-weight of elements is taken into account and 2 live loads of -20KN/m2,
respectively -100 KN/m2, are applied on the planar element.

9.5 Verifying the options to take into account loads in linear and planar elements mesh (TTAD
#15251)

Test ID: 6215


Test status: Passed

9.5.1 Description
Verifies the options to take into account loads in linear and planar elements mesh.

22
10 Reports Generator
ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

10.1 Verifying the modal analysis report (TTAD #12718)

Test ID: 4576


Test status: Passed

10.1.1Description
Generates and verifies the modal analysis report.

10.2 System stability when the column releases interfere with support restraints (TTAD #10557)

Test ID: 3717


Test status: Passed

10.2.1Description
Performs the finite elements calculation and generates the systems description report for a structure which has
column releases that interfere with the supports restraints.
The structure consists of steel beams and steel columns (S235 material, HEA550 cross section) with rigid fixed
supports.

10.3 Modal analysis: eigen modes results for a structure with one level

Test ID: 3668


Test status: Passed

10.3.1Description
Performs the finite elements calculation and generates the "Characteristic values of eigen modes" report.
The one-level structure consists of linear and planar concrete elements with rigid supports. A modal analysis is
defined.

10.4 Creating the steel materials description report (TTAD #11954)

Test ID: 4100


Test status: Passed

10.4.1Description
Generates the "Steel materials" report as a .txt file.
The model consists of a steel structure with supports and a base plate connection.

10.5 Creating the rules table (TTAD #11802)

Test ID: 4099


Test status: Passed

10.5.1Description
Generates the "Rules description" report as .rtf and .txt file.
The model consists of a steel structure with supports and a base plate connection. Two rules were defined for the
steel calculation.

10.6 Generating the critical magnification factors report (TTAD #11379)

Test ID: 3647

24
ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Test status: Passed

10.6.1Description
Performs the generalised buckling calculation for a steel structure hall, and generates a critical magnification factors
report.

10.7 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements forces result (on all quarters of super
element) (TTAD #12230)

Test ID: 4487


Test status: Passed

10.7.1Description
Performs the finite elements calculation and verifies the global envelope of linear elements forces results on all
quarters of super element by generating the "Global envelope of linear elements forces result report".
The model consists of a concrete portal frame with rigid fixed supports.

10.8 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements forces result (on each 1/4 of mesh element)
(TTAD #12230)

Test ID: 4486


Test status: Passed

10.8.1Description
Performs the finite elements calculation and verifies the global envelope of linear elements forces results on each 1/4
of mesh element by generating the "Global envelope of linear elements forces result report".
The model consists of a concrete portal frame with rigid fixed supports.

10.9 Verifying the model geometry report (TTAD #12201)

Test ID: 4467


Test status: Passed

10.9.1Description
Generates the "Model geometry" report to verify the model properties: total weight, largest structure dimensions,
center of gravity.

10.10 EC2 / NF EN 1992-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the EC2 calculation assumptions report (TTAD
#11838)

Test ID: 4544


Test status: Passed

10.10.1Description
Verifies the EC2 calculation assumptions report.

10.11 Verifying the shape sheet strings display (TTAD #12622)

Test ID: 4559


Test status: Passed

25
ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

10.11.1Description
Verifies the shape sheet strings display for a steel beam with circular hollow cross-section.

10.12 Verifying the Max row on the user table report (TTAD #12512)

Test ID: 4558


Test status: Passed

10.12.1Description
Verifies the Max row on the user table report.

10.13 Verifying the steel shape sheet display (TTAD #12657)

Test ID: 4562


Test status: Passed

10.13.1Description
Verifies the steel shape sheet display when the fire calculation is disabled.

10.14 Verifying the shape sheet for a steel beam (TTAD #12455)

Test ID: 4535


Test status: Passed

10.14.1Description
Verifies the shape sheet for a steel beam.

10.15 Verifying the shape sheet report (TTAD #12353)

Test ID: 4545


Test status: Passed

10.15.1Description
Generates and verifies the shape sheet report.

10.16 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements stresses (on end points and middle of super
element) (TTAD #12230)

Test ID: 4500


Test status: Passed

10.16.1Description
Performs the finite elements calculation and verifies the global envelope of linear elements stresses on end points
and middle of super element by generating the "Global envelope of linear elements stresses report".
The model consists of a concrete portal frame with rigid fixed supports.

10.17 Verifying the Min/Max values from the user reports (TTAD# 12231)

Test ID: 4505


Test status: Passed

26
ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

10.17.1Description
Performs the finite elements calculation and generates a user report containing the results of Min/Max values.

10.18 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements forces result (on the end point of super
element) (TTAD #12230, #12261)

Test ID: 4491


Test status: Passed

10.18.1Description
Performs the finite elements calculation and verifies the global envelope of linear elements forces results on the end
point of super element by generating the "Global envelope of linear elements forces result report".
The model consists of a concrete portal frame with rigid fixed supports.

10.19 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements forces result (on the start point of super
element) (TTAD #12230)

Test ID: 4490


Test status: Passed

10.19.1Description
Performs the finite elements calculation and verifies the global envelope of linear elements forces results on the start
point of super element by generating the "Global envelope of linear elements forces result report".
The model consists of a concrete portal frame with rigid fixed supports.

10.20 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements forces result (on start and end of super
element) (TTAD #12230)

Test ID: 4489


Test status: Passed

10.20.1Description
Performs the finite elements calculation and verifies the global envelope of linear elements forces results on the start
and end of super element by generating the "Global envelope of linear elements forces result report".
The model consists of a concrete portal frame with rigid fixed supports.

10.21 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements displacements (on end points and middle of
super element) (TTAD #12230)

Test ID: 4494


Test status: Passed

10.21.1Description
Performs the finite elements calculation and verifies the global envelope of linear elements displacements on end
points and middle of super element by generating the "Global envelope of linear elements displacements report".
The model consists of a concrete portal frame with rigid fixed supports.

10.22 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements displacements (on start and end of super
element) (TTAD #12230)

27
ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Test ID: 4495


Test status: Passed

10.22.1Description
Performs the finite elements calculation and verifies the global envelope of linear elements displacements on start
and end of super element by generating the "Global envelope of linear elements displacements report".
The model consists of a concrete portal frame with rigid fixed supports.

10.23 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements forces result (on end points and middle of
super element) (TTAD #12230)

Test ID: 4488


Test status: Passed

10.23.1Description
Performs the finite elements calculation and verifies the global envelope of linear elements forces results on end
points and middle of super element by generating the "Global envelope of linear elements forces result report".
The model consists of a concrete portal frame with rigid fixed supports.

10.24 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements displacements (on all quarters of super
element) (TTAD #12230)

Test ID: 4493


Test status: Passed

10.24.1Description
Performs the finite elements calculation and verifies the global envelope of linear elements displacements on all
quarters of super element by generating the "Global envelope of linear elements displacements report".
The model consists of a concrete portal frame with rigid fixed supports.

10.25 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements displacements (on each 1/4 of mesh
element) (TTAD #12230)

Test ID: 4492


Test status: Passed

10.25.1Description
Performs the finite elements calculation and verifies the global envelope of linear elements displacements on each
1/4 of mesh element by generating the "Global envelope of linear elements displacements report".
The model consists of a concrete portal frame with rigid fixed supports.

10.26 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements displacements (on the start point of super
element) (TTAD #12230)

Test ID: 4496


Test status: Passed

10.26.1Description
Performs the finite elements calculation and verifies the global envelope of linear elements displacements on the start
point of super element by generating the "Global envelope of linear elements displacements report".
The model consists of a concrete portal frame with rigid fixed supports.

28
ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

10.27 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements stresses (on each 1/4 of mesh element)
(TTAD #12230)

Test ID: 4498


Test status: Passed

10.27.1Description
Performs the finite elements calculation and verifies the global envelope of linear elements stresses on each 1/4 of
mesh element by generating the "Global envelope of linear elements stresses report".
The model consists of a concrete portal frame with rigid fixed supports.

10.28 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements stresses (on all quarters of super element)
(TTAD #12230)

Test ID: 4499


Test status: Passed

10.28.1Description
Performs the finite elements calculation and verifies the global envelope of linear elements stresses on all quarters of
super element by generating the "Global envelope of linear elements stresses report".
The model consists of a concrete portal frame with rigid fixed supports.

10.29 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements stresses (on the end point of super element)
(TTAD #12230, TTAD #12261)

Test ID: 4503


Test status: Passed

10.29.1Description
Performs the finite elements calculation and verifies the global envelope of linear elements stresses on the end point
of super element by generating the "Global envelope of linear elements stresses report".
The model consists of a concrete portal frame with rigid fixed supports.

10.30 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements stresses (on the start point of super element)
(TTAD #12230)

Test ID: 4502


Test status: Passed

10.30.1Description
Performs the finite elements calculation and verifies the global envelope of linear elements stresses on the start point
of super element by generating the "Global envelope of linear elements stresses report".
The model consists of a concrete portal frame with rigid fixed supports.

10.31 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements displacements (on the end point of super
element) (TTAD #12230, TTAD #12261)

Test ID: 4497


Test status: Passed

29
ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

10.31.1Description
Performs the finite elements calculation and verifies the global envelope of linear elements displacements on the end
point of super element by generating the "Global envelope of linear elements displacements report".
The model consists of a concrete portal frame with rigid fixed supports.

10.32 Verifying the global envelope of linear elements stresses (on start and end of super element)
(TTAD #12230)

Test ID: 4501


Test status: Passed

10.32.1Description
Performs the finite elements calculation and verifies the global envelope of linear elements stresses on start and end
of super element by generating the "Global envelope of linear elements stresses report".
The model consists of a concrete portal frame with rigid fixed supports.

10.33 Reports - Global envelope for efforts in linear elements with Min/Max Values and
coresponding absicsa position

Test ID: 6363


Test status: Passed

10.33.1Description
The purpose of this test is to check the content of a report which returns a global envelope for efforts on linear
elements, with the Max/Min Valus.
The model consisits in a concrete simple frame, 3 LoadCases and several combinations.
The report returns the Max and Min values of the efforts, per linear element, and the position/abiscisa of these
Max/Min values.

10.34 Generating a report with modal analysis results (TTAD #10849)

Test ID: 3734


Test status: Passed

10.34.1Description
Generates a report with modal results for a model with seismic actions.

30
11 Seismic Analysis
ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

11.1 EC8 / NF EN 1998-1-1 - France: Verifying torsors on walls with Seismic Loads (TTAD #16522)

Test ID: 6382


Test status: Passed

11.1.1Description
Concrete walls subjected to EQ loads with different q factors on the 2 directions X, Y;
Verification is made according to EC8 - FR NA.

11.2 EC8 / EN 1998-1-1 - General: Verifying the displacements results of a linear element for
spectrum with renewed building option (TTAD #14161)

Test ID: 6192


Test status: Passed

11.2.1Description
Verifies the displacements results of a linear element for spectrum with renewed building option, according to
Eurocode EC8 standard. Performs the finite elements calculation and generates the displacements of linear elements
by load case and by element reports.
The concrete element (C20/25) has R20*30 cross section and a rigid point support. The loads applied on the
element: self weight and seismic loads for an envelope spectrum.

11.3 EC8 / SR EN 1998-1/NA - Romania: Verifying the spectrum results for EC8 seism (TTAD
#12472)

Test ID: 4537


Test status: Passed

11.3.1Description
Performs the finite elements calculation and generates the "Displacements of linear elements by load case" report for
a concrete beam with rectangular cross section R20*30 with fixed rigid punctual support. Model loads: self weight
and seismic loads according to Eurocodes 8 Romanian standards (SR EN 1998-1/NA).

11.4 EC8 / NF EN 1998-1-1 - France: Verifying torsors on walls

Test ID: 4803


Test status: Passed

11.4.1Description
Verifies the torsors on walls. Eurocode 8 with French Annex is used.

11.5 EC8 / NF EN 1998-1-1 - France: Verifying the spectrum results for EC8 seism (TTAD #11478)

Test ID: 3703


Test status: Passed

11.5.1Description
Performs the finite elements calculation and generates the "Displacements of linear elements by load case" report for
a concrete beam with rectangular cross section R20*30 with fixed rigid punctual support. Model loads: self weight
and seismic loads according to Eurocodes 8 French standards.

32
ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

11.6 EC8 / CSN EN 1998-1 - Czech Republic: Verifying the displacements results of a linear
element (DEV2012 #3.18)

Test ID: 3626


Test status: Passed

11.6.1Description
Verifies the displacements results of an inclined linear element according to Eurocodes 8 Czech standard. Performs
the finite elements calculation and generates the displacements of linear elements by load case and by element
reports.
The concrete element (C20/25) has R20*30 cross section and a rigid point support. The loads applied on the
element: self weight and seismic loads (CSN EN 1998-1).

11.7 Verifying signed concomitant linear elements envelopes on Fx report (TTAD #11517)

Test ID: 3576


Test status: Passed

11.7.1Description
Performs the finite elements calculation on a concrete structure. Generates the "Signed concomitant linear elements
envelopes on Fx report".
The structure has concrete beams and columns, two concrete walls and a windwall. Loads applied on the structure:
self weight and a planar live load of -40.00 kN.

11.8 EC8 / NF EN 1998-1-1 - France: Verifying torsors on grouped walls from a multi-storey
concrete structure

Test ID: 4810


Test status: Passed

11.8.1Description
Verifies torsors on grouped walls from a multi-storey concrete structure. EC8 with French Annex is used.

11.9 PS92 - France: Verifying efforts and torsors on planar elements (TTAD #12974)

Test ID: 4858


Test status: Passed

11.9.1Description
Verifies efforts and torsors on several planar elements of a concrete structure subjected to horizontal seismic action
(according to PS92 norm).

11.10 EC8 / NF EN 1993-1-8/NA - France: Verifying the damping correction influence over the
efforts in supports (TTAD #13011).

Test ID: 4853


Test status: Passed

11.10.1Description
Verifies the damping correction influence over the efforts in supports. The model has 2 seismic cases. Only one case
uses the damping correction. The seismic spectrum is generated according to the Eurocodes 8 - French standard
(NF EN 1993-1-8/NA).

33
ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

11.11 EC8 / NF EN 1998-1-1 - France: Verifying seismic results when a design spectrum is used
(TTAD #13778)

Test ID: 5425


Test status: Passed

11.11.1Description
Verifies the seismic results according to EC8 French Annex for a single bay single story structure made of concrete.

11.12 EC8 / NF EN 1998-1-1 - France: Generating forces results per modes on linear and planar
elements (TTAD #13797)

Test ID: 5455


Test status: Passed

11.12.1Description
Generates reports with forces results per modes on a selection of elements (linear and planar elements) from a
concrete structure subjected to seismic action (EC8 French Annex).

11.13 RPA99/2003 - Algeria: Verifying the displacements results of a linear element (DEV2013 #3.5)

Test ID: 5559


Test status: Passed

11.13.1Description
Verifies the displacements results of a vertical linear element according to Algerian seismic standard. Performs the
finite elements calculation and generates the displacements of linear elements by load case and by element reports.
The concrete element (C20/25) has R20*30 cross section and a rigid point support. The loads applied on the
element: self weight and seismic loads (RPA 99/2003).

11.14 EC8 / NF EN 1998-1-1 - France: Verifying the sum of actions on supports and nodes restraints
(TTAD #12706)

Test ID: 4859


Test status: Passed

11.14.1Description
Verifies the sum of actions on supports and nodes restraints for a simple structure subjected to seismic action
according to EC8 French annex.

11.15 EC8 / NF EN 1998-1-1 - France: Verifying seismic efforts on planar elements with Q4 and T3-
Q4 mesh type (TTAD #14244)

Test ID: 5492


Test status: Passed

11.15.1Description
Generates seismic results on planar element meshed with T3-Q4 mesh type and only Q4 mesh type.

34
ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

11.16 EC8 / EN 1998-1-1 - General: Verifying the displacements results of a linear element for an
envelope spectrum (DEV2013 #8.2)

Test ID: 5600


Test status: Passed

11.16.1Description
Verifies the displacements results of a vertical linear element according to Eurocode EC8 standard. Performs the
finite elements calculation and generates the displacements of linear elements by load case and by element reports.
The concrete element (C20/25) has R20*30 cross section and a rigid point support. The loads applied on the
element: self weight and seismic loads for an envelope spectrum.

11.17 PS92/2010 - France: Verifying the displacements results of a linear element for an envelope
spectrum (DEV2013 #8.2)

Test ID: 5599


Test status: Passed

11.17.1Description
Verifies the displacements results of a vertical linear element according to French PS92/2010 standard. Performs the
finite elements calculation and generates the displacements of linear elements by load case and by element reports.
The concrete element (C20/25) has R20*30 cross section and a rigid point support. The loads applied on the
element: self weight and seismic loads for an envelope spectrum.

11.18 RPS 2011 - Morocco: Verifying the displacements results of a linear element for an envelope
spectrum (DEV2013 #8.2)

Test ID: 5598


Test status: Passed

11.18.1Description
Verifies the displacements results of a vertical linear element according to Marocco seismic standard. Performs the
finite elements calculation and generates the displacements of linear elements by load case and by element reports.
The concrete element (C20/25) has R20*30 cross section and a rigid point support. The loads applied on the
element: self weight and seismic loads for an envelope spectrum (RPS 2011).

11.19 RPS 2011 - Morocco: Verifying the displacements results of a linear element (DEV2013 #3.6)

Test ID: 5597


Test status: Passed

11.19.1Description
Verifies the displacements results of a vertical linear element according to Marocco seismic standard. Performs the
finite elements calculation and generates the displacements of linear elements by load case and by element reports.
The concrete element (C20/25) has R20*30 cross section and a rigid point support. The loads applied on the
element: self weight and seismic loads (RPS 2011).

11.20 EC8 / SR EN 1998-1-1 - Romania: Verifying the displacements results of a linear element for
an envelope spectrum (DEV2013 #8.2)

Test ID: 5601


Test status: Passed

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11.20.1Description
Verifies the displacements results of a vertical linear element according to Romanian EC8 appendix. Performs the
finite elements calculation and generates the displacements of linear elements by load case and by element reports.
The concrete element (C20/25) has R20*30 cross section and a rigid point support. The loads applied on the
element: self weight and seismic loads for an envelope spectrum.

11.21 EC8 / NF EN 1998-1-1 - France: Verifying earthquake description report in analysis with Z axis
down (TTAD #15095)

Test ID: 6207


Test status: Passed

11.21.1Description
Verifying earthquake description report in analysis with Z axis down, according to the Eurocodes EC8 standard.

11.22 EC8 / EN 1998-1-1 - General: Verifying torsors on a 6 storey single concrete core subjected to
horizontal forces and seismic action

Test ID: 6088


Test status: Passed

11.22.1Description
Verifies torsors on a 6 storey single concrete (C25/30) core subjected to horizontal forces and seismic action. The
calculation spectrum is generated considering Eurocode 8 General Annex rules. The walls describing the core are
grouped at each level.

11.23 EC8 / NF EN 1998-1-1 - France: verifying torsors on walls, elastic linear supports and user-
defined section cuts (TTAD #14460)

Test ID: 5861


Test status: Passed

11.23.1Description
Verifies torsors on walls, elastic linear supports and user-defined section cuts for a concrete structure which is
subjected to seismic action defined according Eurocode 8 norm (French annex).

11.24 EC8 / SR EN 1998-1-1 - Romania: Verifying action results and torsors per modes on point,
linear and planar supports (TTAD #14840)

Test ID: 5860


Test status: Passed

11.24.1Description
Verifies action results and torsors per modes on point, linear and planar supports of a simple concrete structure. The
seismic action is generated according to Eurocode 8 norm (Romanian annex).

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12 Steel Design
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12.1 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Determining lateral torsional buckling parameters for a I-
shaped laminated beam considering the load applied on the lower flange (ref. Test 41)

Test ID: 5753


Test status: Passed

12.1.1Description
Determines the lateral torsional buckling parameters for a I-shaped laminated beam made of S235 steel, considering
the load applied on the lower flange. The loadings applied on the beam are: a uniformly distributed load and 2
punctual bending moments, acting opposite to each other, applied at beam extremities.
The determination is made considering the provisions from Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-1-1) French Annex.

12.2 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a simply supported circular hollow section
element subjected to torsional efforts (ref. Test 18)

Test ID: 5743


Test status: Passed

12.2.1Description
Verifies a simply supported circular hollow section element made of S235 steel subjected to torsional efforts.
The verification is made according to Eurocode3 (EN 1993-1-1) French Annex.

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12.3 EC3 / EN 1993-1-1 - Romania: Verifying lateral-torsional buckling resistance of an I rolled


beam laterally restrained at mid-span

Test ID: 6231


Test status: Passed

12.3.1Description
Verifies lateral torsional-buckling resistance of a simply supported I rolled beam (HEA 400) made of S355 steel. The
beam, laterally restrained on supports and at its middle span, is subjected to bending efforts about its strong axis.
The verification is made according to Romanian Annex of EN 1993-1-1.

12.3.2Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
C1 Modification factor C1 1.77 adim 0.0000 %
C2 Modification factor C2 0 adim 0.0000 %
Mcr Mcr 3531.97 0.0071 %
kN*m
XLT Modified reduction factor for LTB 1 adim 0.0000 %
Work ratio Stability work ratio 75.2463 % 0.0616 %

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12.4 EC3 / CSN EN 1993-1-1 - Czech Republic: Compressed and bended profile

Test ID: 6280


Test status: Passed

12.4.1Description
Class section classification and combined axial force with bending moment verification of an IPE300 column

12.4.2Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Work ratio - Oblique Work ratio - oblique 87.2799 % 0.3217 %

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12.5 AISC 360 2010 - United States of America: Compressive Force Resistance and Buckling
Length (LRFD)

Test ID: 6268


Test status: Passed

12.5.1Description
Member AISC W14x132 ASTM A992 (Fy = 50 ksi) W-shape column to carry an axial dead load of 140 kips and live
load of 420 kips. The column is 30 ft long and is pinned top and
bottom in both axes. (LRFD)

12.5.2Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
FX Axial Force (kips) -0 kip 0.1190 %
Lfy Buckling Length (30Feet) 346.667 " -3.7036 %

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12.6 AISC 360-10 - United States of America: Verifying buckling lengths and lateral torsional
buckling lengths values after imposing them before starting the steel verification (TFSAD
#14487)

Test ID: 6233


Test status: Passed

12.6.1Description
Verifies buckling lengths and lateral torsional buckling lengths values on a W18x60 column made of ASTM A992
steel. Buckling lengths and lateral torsional buckling lengths values were manually imposed before starting AISC
steel verification.

12.7 EC3 / SR EN 1993-1-1-2006 - Romania: Verifying the buckling resistance of a rectangular


hollow section column (R50*100/1)

Test ID: 6241


Test status: Passed

12.7.1Description
Description: The test verifies the buckling resistance for a R50*100/1 column made of S235 steel.
The verifications are made according to Eurocode3 Romanian Annex.

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12.8 EC3 / SR EN 1993-1-1-2006 - Romania: Stability check for an IPE300 single span beam,
simply supported

Test ID: 6284


Test status: Passed

12.8.1Description
Verification of an IPE300 steel beam with a distributed load applied along the linear element; the beam is made of
S335 material and it is simply supported. The beam is subjected to a -30 kN/m uniform linear effort applied vertically.

12.8.2Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
MY My -0 kN*m 0.9393 %
FZ Fz -103.118 kN 3.1392 %
D D 1.02911 cm 1.8921 %
Work ratio - Fz Work ratio Fz 19.592 % -3.1537 %
Work ratio - Oblique Work ratio oblique 46.2245 % 0.4880 %

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12.9 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-6 - France: Buckling resistance of a class 4 circular hollow section

Test ID: 6307


Test status: Passed

12.9.1Description
Calculates the buckling resistance of a class 4 circular hollow section in pure compression and compares the value
with the results from the document from CTICM ("Revue Construction Métallique n°4 - 2011").

12.9.2Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Work ratio Buckling work ratio 84.9289 % 0.1520 %

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12.10 EC3 / EN 1993-1-1 - United Kingdom: Verifying the compression checks for an I section
column

Test ID: 6315


Test status: Passed

12.10.1Description
Verifying the compression steel checks for a vertical UKB356x171x67 S355 column subject to axial force and
bending moment

12.10.2Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Work ratio - Fx Compression 20 % 0.0000 %

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12.11 AISC 360 2010 - United States of America: Example H.1 W-shape subject to combined
compression and bending (LRFD)

Test ID: 6292


Test status: Passed

12.11.1Description
Determines the available compressive and flexural strengths. Checks for the combined effects of an ASTM A992
W14x99 and whether it has sufficient available strength to support the axial forces and moments together, obtained
from a second-order analysis that includes P-delta effects. The unbraced length is 14 ft and the member has pinned
ends. KLx = KLy = Lb= 14.0 ft.

12.11.2Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
FX Axial Load (but not Resistance) -400 kip 0.0000 %
Mz Strong Axis Moments (but not Resistance) 80 kip*ft 0.0000 %
My Weak Axis Moments (but not Resistance) -250 kip*ft 0.0000 %

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12.12 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying IPE450 column fixed on base subjected to axial
compression and bending moment, both applied on top (ref. Test 31)

Test ID: 5731


Test status: Passed

12.12.1Description
The test verifies an IPE450 column made of S275 steel.
The column is subjected to a -1000kN compression effort and a 200kNm bending moment by the Y axis.
The calculations are made according to Eurocode 3 French Annex.

12.12.2Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Xy Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 1 adim 0.0000 %
slenderness be the Y axis
Xz Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.85692 adim 0.0000 %
slenderness by the Z axis
Kyy Internal coefficient kyy 1.11282 adim 0.5003 %
Kyz Internal coefficient kyz 0.877347 adim 0.0000 %
Kzy Internal coefficient kzy 1.09248 adim 0.5004 %
Kzz Internal coefficient kzz 0.86131 adim 0.0000 %

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12.13 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying IPE600 simple supported beam, loaded with
centric compression and uniform linear efforts by Y and Z axis (ref. Test 32)

Test ID: 5732


Test status: Passed

12.13.1Description
The test verifies an IPE600 beam made of S275 steel.
The beam is subjected to a -3700kN compression force, a -10kN/m linear uniform vertical load and a -5kN/m linear
uniform horizontal load.
The calculations are made according to Eurocode 3 French Annex.

12.13.2Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Xy Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 1 adim 0.0000 %
slenderness by the Y axis
Xz Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.840341 adim 0.7001 %
slenderness by the Z axis
Kyy Internal coefficient kyy 1.38898 adim 0.0000 %
Kyz Internal coefficient kyz 1.50598 adim 0.0000 %
Kzy Internal coefficient kzy 1.28797 adim 0.2670 %
Kzz Internal coefficient Kzz 1.39645 adim 0.2657 %

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12.14 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying RHS300x150x9H class 1 simply supported beam,
loaded with centric compression, uniform linear horizontal efforts and a vertical punctual
load in the middle (ref. Test 36)

Test ID: 5738


Test status: Passed

12.14.1Description
The test verifies an RHS300x150x9H beam made of S275 steel.
The beam is subjected to 12 kN axial compression force, 7 kN punctual vertical load applied to the middle of the
beam and 3 kN/m linear uniform horizontal load.
The calculations are made according to Eurocode 3 French Annex.

12.14.2Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Xy Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.914476 adim 0.0000 %
slenderness by the Y axis
Xz Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.723364 adim 0.0000 %
slenderness after the Z axis
Kyy Internal coefficient kyy 1.00121 adim 0.0000 %
Kyz Internal coefficient kyz 0.576504 adim 0.0000 %
Kzy Internal coefficient kzy 0.628911 adim 0.0000 %
Kzz Internal coefficient kzz 1.00056 adim 0.0000 %

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12.15 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying C310x30.8 class 4 cantilever, loaded with centric
compression, uniform linear horizontal efforts by Y and a vertical punctual load applied on
the free end (ref. Test 35)

Test ID: 5737


Test status: Passed

12.15.1Description
The test verifies a C310x30.8 beam made of S355 steel.
The beam is subjected to 3.00 kN compression force, 1.80 kN punctual vertical load applied on the free end of the
beam and 1.2.kN/m linear uniform horizontal load.
The calculations are made according to Eurocode 3 French Annex.

12.15.2Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Work ratio - Fx Compression work ratio 0.229928 % 0.0000 %
Work ratio - Fy Share on Y axis work ratio 1.22815 % 0.0000 %
Work ratio - Fz Share on Z axis work ratio 0.411955 % 0.0000 %
Work ratio - Oblique Work ratio oblique 104.819 % -0.1724 %
Xy Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.619234 adim 0.0000 %
slenderness after the Y axis
Xz Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.0355441 0.0000 %
slenderness after the Z axis adim

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12.16 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying IPE300 beam, simply supported, loaded with
centric compression and uniform linear efforts by Y and Z axis (ref. Test 30)

Test ID: 5730


Test status: Passed

12.16.1Description
The test verifies an IPE 300 beam made of
The beam is subjected to a 20kN compression effort, a -10kN/m uniform linear effort applied vertically and a -5kN/m
linear uniform load applied horizontal.
The calculations are made according to Eurocode 3 French Annex.

12.16.2Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Xy Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.94547 adim 0.0000 %
slenderness after the Y axis
Xz Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.311324 adim 0.0000 %
slenderness after the Z axis
Kyy Internal coefficient kyy 1.05105 adim 0.0000 %
Kyz Internal coefficient kyz 0.91507 adim 0.0000 %
Kzy Internal coefficient kzy 0.543213 adim 0.0000 %
Kzz Internal coefficient kzz 1.03427 adim 0.0000 %

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12.17 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying CHS323.9x6.3H class 2 beam, loaded with
centric compression, uniform linear horizontal efforts by Y and a vertical punctual load in the
middle (ref. Test 39)

Test ID: 5741


Test status: Passed

12.17.1Description
The test verifies a CHS323.9x6.3H beam made of S275 steel.
The beam is subjected to 20 kN axial compression force, 50 kN punctual vertical load applied to the middle of the
beam and 4 kN/m linear uniform horizontal load.
The calculations are made according to Eurocode 3 French Annex.

12.17.2Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Xy Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.950034 adim 0.0000 %
slenderness by the Y axis
Work ratio - Fx Work ratio of compression 1.15624 % 0.0000 %
Work ratio - Fy Work ratio of share after Y 1.25831 % -0.1341 %
Work ratio - Work ratio oblique 14.2939 % 0.0000 %
Oblique
Kyy Internal coefficient kyy 0.997081 adim 0.0000 %
Kyz Internal coefficient kyz 0.598344 adim 0.0000 %
Kzy Internal coefficient kzy 0.598098 adim 0.0000 %
Kzz Internal coefficient kzz 0.997491 adim 0.0000 %

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12.18 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying C310x30.8 class 3beam, loaded with centric
compression, uniform linear horizontal efforts by Y and a vertical punctual load in the middle
(ref. Test 34)

Test ID: 5734


Test status: Passed

12.18.1Description
The test verifies an C310x30.8 beam made of S235 steel.
The beam is subjected to a 12 kN compression force, 8 kN PUNCTUAL vertical load applied to the middle of the
beam and 1.5 kN/m linear uniform horizontal load.
The calculations are made according to Eurocode 3 French Annex.

12.18.2Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Work ratio - Fx Work ratio of compression 1.30265 % 0.0000 %
Work ratio - Fy Work ratio of share by Y axis 2.31911 % 0.8309 %
Work ratio - Fz Work ratio of share by Z axis 1.38292 % 0.0000 %
Work ratio - Oblique Work ratio oblique 131.321 % -1.9993 %
Xy Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.833792 adim 0.0000 %
slenderness by the Y axis
Xz Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.0944245 adim 0.0000 %
slenderness by the Z axis

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12.19 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Determining lateral torsional buckling parameters for a I-
shaped welded built-up beam considering the load applied on the upper flange (ref. Test 42)

Test ID: 5752


Test status: Passed

12.19.1Description
Determines the lateral torsional buckling parameters for a I-shaped welded built-up beam made of S235 steel,
considering the load applied on the upper flange. The loadings applied on the beam are: a uniformly distributed load
and 2 punctual negative bending moments applied at beam extremities.
The determination is made considering the provisions from Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-1-1) French Annex.

12.20 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Determining lateral torsional buckling parameters for a I-
shaped laminated beam considering the load applied on the lower flange (ref. Test 43)

Test ID: 5750


Test status: Passed

12.20.1Description
Determines the lateral torsional buckling parameters for a I-shaped laminated beam made of S235 steel, considering
the load applied on the lower flange.
The determination is made considering the provisions from Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-1-1) French Annex.

12.21 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a simply supported rectangular hollow section
beam subjected to torsional efforts (ref. Test 17)

Test ID: 5742


Test status: Passed

12.21.1Description
Verifies a simply supported rectangular hollow section beam made of S235 steel subjected to torsional efforts.
The verification is made according to Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-1-1) French Annex

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12.22 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying RHS350x150x5H class 4 column, loaded with
centric compression, punctual horizontal force by Y and a bending moment, all applied to the
top (ref. Test 38)

Test ID: 5740


Test status: Passed

12.22.1Description
The test verifies a RHS350x150x5H column made of S355 steel.
The column is subjected to 680 kN compression force, 5 kN punctual horizontal load and 200 kNm bending moment,
all applied to the top.
The calculations are made according to Eurocode 3 French Annex.

12.22.2Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Xy Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.964215 adim 0.0000 %
slenderness by the Y axis
Xz Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.854244 adim 0.0000 %
slenderness by the Z axis
Kyy Internal coefficient kyy 1.08796 adim 0.0000 %
Kyz Internal coefficient kyz 1.0179 adim 0.0000 %
Kzy Internal coefficient kzy 1.03881 adim 0.0000 %
Kzz Internal coefficient kzz 0.971914 adim 0.0000 %

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12.23 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying CHS508x8H class 3, simply supported beam,
loaded with centric compression, uniform linear horizontal efforts by Y and a vertical
punctual load in the middle (ref. Test 40)

Test ID: 5744


Test status: Passed

12.23.1Description
The test verifies a CHS508x8H beam made of S235 steel.
The beam is subjected to 20 kN axial compression force, 30 kN punctual vertical load applied to the middle of the
beam and 7 kN/m linear uniform horizontal load.
The calculations are made according to Eurocode 3 French Annex.

12.23.2Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Xy Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.971293 adim 0.0000 %
slenderness by the Y axis
Work ratio - Fx Work ratio of compression 0.577201 % 0.0000 %
Work ratio - Fy Work ratio of share by the Y axis 2.74818 % 1.7844 %
Kyy Inrenal coefficient kyy 1.00029 adim 0.0000 %
Kyz Internal coefficient kyz 1.00021 adim 0.0000 %
Kzy Internal coefficient kzy 1.00029 adim 0.0000 %
Kzz Internal coefficient kzz 1.00021 adim 0.0000 %

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12.24 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying UPN300 simple supported beam, loaded with
centric compression, uniform linear horizontal efforts by Y and punctual vertical force by Z
axis (ref. Test 33)

Test ID: 5733


Test status: Passed

12.24.1Description
The test verifies an upn300 beam made of S235 steel.
The beam is subjected to 20 kN compression force, 50 kN PUNCTUAL vertical load applied to the middle of the
beam and 5kN/m linear uniform horizontal load.
The calculations are made according to Eurocode 3 French Annex.

12.24.2Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Work ratio - Fx Work ratio of compression 1.44739 % 0.0000 %
Work ratio - Fy Work ratio of share by the Y axis 0.523468 % 0.0000 %
Work ratio - Fz Work ratio of share by the Z axis 5.95157 % -0.8072 %
Work ratio - Oblique Work ratio oblique 93.2275 % 0.0000 %
Xy Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.867496 adim 0.0000 %
slenderness by the Y axis
Xz Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.227084 adim 0.0000 %
slenderness by the Z axis

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12.25 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying RHS350x150x8.5H class 3 column, loaded with
centric compression, punctual lateral load and bending moment, all applied to the top of the
column (ref. Test 37)

Test ID: 5739


Test status: Passed

12.25.1Description
The test verifies a RHS350x150x8.5H column made of S275 steel.
The column is subjected to 680 kN compression force, 5 kN horizontal load applied on Y axis direction and 200 kNm
bending moment after the Y axis. All loads are applied on the top of the column.
The calculations are made according to Eurocode 3 French Annex.

12.25.2Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Xy Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.959822 adim 0.0000 %
slenderness by the Y axis
Xz Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.834835 adim 0.0000 %
slenderness by the Z axis
Kyy Internal coefficient Kyy 1.0529 adim 0.0314 %
Kyz Internal coefficient kyz 0.916822 adim 0.0000 %
Kzy Internal coefficient Kzz 1.02245 adim 0.0313 %
Kzz Internal coefficient kzz 0.890307 adim 0.0000 %

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12.26 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Class section classification and compression verification
of an IPE300 column (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 1)

Test ID: 5383


Test status: Passed

12.26.1Description
Classification and verification of an IPE 300 column made of S235 steel.
The column is connected to the ground by a fixed connection and is free on the top part.
On top, the column is subjected to a 100 kN force applied gravitationally, defined as a live load.
The dead load will be neglected.

12.26.2Background
Classification and verification of sections for an IPE 300 column made from S235 steel. The column is connected to
the ground by a fixed connection and is free on the top part. On top, the column is subjected to a 100kN force applied
gravitationally, defined as a live load. The dead load will be neglected.
This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

12.26.2.1 Model description


■ Reference: Guide de validation Eurocode 3 Part1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001;
■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);
■ Element type: linear.
The following load cases and load combination are used:
■ Exploitation loadings (category A): Q = -100kN,
■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

Units
Metric System

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Materials properties

Boundary conditions
The boundary conditions are described below:
■ Outer:
► Support at start point (x=0) restrained in translation and rotation along X, Y and Z axis,
► Support at end point (z = 5.00) free.
■ Inner: None.

12.26.2.2 Reference results for calculating the cross section class


In this case, the column is subjected only to compression, therefore the distribution of stresses along the section is
like in the picture below:

To determine the web class, we use Table 5.2 sheet 1, from EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 5.5.2

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The section geometrical properties are described in the picture below:

According to Table 5.2 and the column section geometrical properties, the next conclusions can be found:

 1
Therefore:

This means that the column web is Class 2.


To determine the flanges class, we will use Table 5.2, sheet 2, from EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 5.5.2

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The section geometrical properties are described in the picture below:

According to the Table 5.2 and the column section geometrical properties, the next conclusions can be found:

c 56.45mm
  5.276
t 10.7mm
 1
Therefore:

c 56.45mm
  5.276  9 *   9 this means that the column flanges are Class 1.
t 10.7mm
A cross-section is classified by quoting the heist (least favorable) class of its compression elements.
According to the calculation above, the column section have a Class 2 web and Class 1 flanges; therefore the class
section for the entire column section will be considered Class 2.
According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 5.5.2(6)

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12.26.2.3 Reference results in calculating the compressive resistance N c,Rd


The design resistance of the cross-section force Nc,Rd shall be determined as follows:

A* fy
For Class 1, 2 or 3 cross-section Nc , Rd 
M0
Where:
A section area A=53.81cm2
Fy nominal yielding strength for S235 fy=235MPa

 M 0 partial safety coefficient  M 0  1

Therefore:

A* fy 53.81*104 * 235
N c , Rd    1.264535MN  1264.54kN
M0 1
According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 6.2.4(2)

Finite elements modeling


■ Linear element: S beam,
■ 6 nodes,
■ 1 linear element.

Finite elements results


Compressive resistance work ratio

Column subjected to compressive load


Work ratio [%]

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12.26.2.4 Reference results


Result name Result description Reference value
Work ratio Compressive resistance work ratio [%] 8%

12.26.3Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Work ratio - Fx Work ratio Fx 7.90805 % -1.1494 %

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12.27 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Class section classification and shear verification of an
IPE300 beam subjected to linear uniform loading (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test
2)

Test ID: 5410


Test status: Passed

12.27.1Description
Classification and verification of an IPE 300 beam made of S235 steel.
The beam is subjected to a 50 kN/m linear uniform load applied gravitationally.
The force is considered to be a live load and the dead load is neglected.

12.27.2Background
Classification and verification of sections for an IPE 300 beam made from S235 steel. The beam is subjected to a
50 kN/m linear uniform load applied gravitationally. The force is considered to be a live load and the dead load is
neglected.
This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

12.27.2.1 Model description


■ Reference: Guide de validation Eurocode 3 Part1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001;
■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);
■ Element type: linear.
The following load cases and load combination are used:
■ Exploitation loadings (category A): Q = -50kN/m,
■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

Units
Metric System

Materials properties

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Boundary conditions
The boundary conditions are described below:
■ Outer:
► Support at start point (x=0) restrained in translation along X, Y and Z axis,
► Support at end point (x = 5.00) restrained in translation along Y and Z axis and rotation restrained on X
axis
■ Inner: None.

12.27.2.2 Reference results for calculating the cross section class


According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 5.5.2
In this case the stresses distribution along the section is like in the picture below:
■ compression for the top flange
■ compression and tension for the web
■ tension for the bottom flange

To determine the web class it will be used the Table 5.2 sheet 1, from EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 5.5.2.

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The section geometrical properties are described in the picture below:

According to the Table 5.2 and the beam section geometrical properties, the next conclusions can be found:

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Therefore:

This means that the column web is Class 1.


To determine the flanges class it will be used the Table 5.2, sheet 2, from EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter
5.5.2

The section geometrical properties are described in the picture below:

According to the Table 5.2 and the beam section geometrical properties, the next conclusions can be found:

c 56.45mm
  5.276
t 10.7mm
  0.92

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Therefore:

c 56.45mm
  5.276  9 *   9 * 0.92  8.28 this means that the column flanges are Class 1.
t 10.7mm
A cross-section is classified by quoting the heist (least favorable) class of its compression elements.
According to the calculation above, the beam section have a Class 1 web and Class 1 flanges; therefore the class
section for the entire beam section will be considered Class 1.
According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 5.5.2(6)

12.27.2.3 Reference results in calculating the shear resistance Vpl,Rd


The design resistance of the cross-section Vpl,Rd shall be determined as follows:

fy
Av *
V pl , Rd  3
M0
According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 6.2.6(2)
Where:
Av: section shear area for rolled profiles Av  A  2 * b * t f  (t w  2 * r ) * t f
2
A: cross-section area A=53.81cm
b: overall breadth b=150mm
h: overall depth h=300mm
hw: depth of the web hw=248.6mm
r: root radius r=15mm
tf: flange thickness tf=10.7mm
tw: web thickness tw=7.1mm

Av  A  2 * b * t f  (t w  2 * r ) * t f  53.81  2 * 15 * 17  (0.71  2 * 1.5) * 1.07  25.68cm 2

According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 6.2.6(3)


fy: nominal yielding strength for S275 fy=275MPa

 M 0 : partial safety coefficient  M 0  1

Therefore:

fy 275
Av * 25.68 *104 *
V pl , Rd  3  3  0.4077MN  407.7kN
M0 1
For more:
Verification of the shear buckling resistance for webs without stiffeners:

hw 
 72 *
tw 
According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 6.2.6(7)

 M1 1
  1.20 *  1.20 *  1.20
M0 1

235 235
   0.92
fy 275

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hw 248.6  1.20
  35.01  72 *  72 *  93.91
tw 7.1  0.92
There is no need for shear buckling resistance verification
According to: EC3 Part 1,5 EN 1993-1-5-2004 Chapter 5.1(2)

Finite elements modeling


■ Linear element: S beam,
■ 6 nodes,
■ 1 linear element.

Finite elements results

Shear resistance work ratio


Work ratio - Fz

12.27.2.4 Reference results


Result name Result description Reference value
Fz Shear force 125 kN
Work ratio Work ratio - Fz 31 %

12.27.3Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Fz Fz -125 kN 0.0000 %
Work ratio - Fz Work ratio Fz 30.6579 % -1.1035 %

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12.28 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Class section classification and combined axial force with
bending moment verification of an IPE300 column (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test
5)

Test ID: 5421


Test status: Passed

12.28.1Description
Classification and verification of an IPE 300 column made of S235 steel.
The column is connected to the ground by a fixed connection and is free on the top part.
The column is subjected to a 500 kN compressive force applied on top and a 5 kN/m uniform linear load applied on
all the length of the column, on the web direction, both defined as live loads.
The dead load will be neglected.

12.28.2Background
Classification and verification of sections for an IPE 300 column made from S235 steel. The column is connected to
the ground by a fixed connection and is free on the top part. The column is subjected to a 500kN compressive force
applied on top and a 5kN/m uniform linear load applied for all the length of the column, on the web direction, both
defined as live loads. The dead load will be neglected.
This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

12.28.2.1 Model description


■ Reference: Guide de validation Eurocode 3 Part1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001;
■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);
■ Element type: linear.
The following load cases and load combination are used:
■ Exploitation loadings (category A): Q1 = 500kN, Q2 = 5kN/m,
■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

Units
Metric System

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Materials properties

Boundary conditions
The boundary conditions are described below:
■ Outer:
► Support at start point (x=0) restrained in translation and rotation along X, Y and Z axis,
► Support at end point (z = 5.00) free.
■ Inner: None.

12.28.2.2 Reference results for calculating the cross section class


According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 5.5.2
In this case the column is subjected to compression and lateral load, therefore the stresses distribution on the most
stressed point (the column base) is like in the picture below.

Table 5.2 sheet 1, from EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 5.5.2 determines the web class.

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The section geometrical properties are described in the picture below:

According to Table 5.2 and the column section geometrical properties, the next conclusions can be found:
N Ed 0.500
  2 1  2   1  0.21  1
A f y 0.005381 235

1  N  1  0.5 
   1  Ed    1    1.10  0.5
2  f y  t  d  2  235 0.2486 0.0071

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Therefore:

42 42 * 1
  69.92
0.67  0.33 0.67  0.33 * (0.21)
Therefore:

c 42
 35.014   69.92
t 0.67  0.33
This means that the column web is Class 3.
Table 5.2, sheet 2, from EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 5.5.2 determines the flanges class.

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The section geometrical properties are described in the picture below:

According to Table 5.2 and the column section geometrical properties, the next conclusions can be found:

Therefore:

This means that the column flanges are Class 1.


A cross-section is classified by quoting the heist (least favorable) class of its compression elements.
According to the calculation above, the column section have a Class 3 web and Class 1 flanges; therefore the class
section for the entire column section will be considered Class 3.
According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 5.5.2(6)
Cross sections for class 3, the maximum longitudinal stress should check:

According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 5.5.4(3)


In this case:

In absence of shear force, for Class 3 cross-sections the maximum longitudinal stress shall satisfy the criterion:

According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 6.2.9.2(1)


This means:

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The corresponding work ratio is: WR = 0.8728 x 100 = 87.28 %

Finite elements modeling


■ Linear element: S beam,
■ 6 nodes,
■ 1 linear element.

Finite elements results


Work ratio – bending and axial compression
Column subjected to bending and axial compression

Work ratio – Oblique [%]

12.28.2.3 Reference results


Result name Result description Reference value
Bending and axial Work ratio – oblique [%] 87.28 %
compression

12.28.3Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Work ratio - Oblique Work ratio- Oblique 87.2799 % 0.3217 %

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12.29 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Class section classification and combined biaxial bending
verification of an IPE300 beam (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 6)

Test ID: 5424


Test status: Passed

12.29.1Description
Classification and verification on combined bending of an IPE 300 beam made of S235 steel.
The beam is connected to its ends by a connection with all translation blocked and on the other end by a connection
with translation blocked on the Y and Z axis and rotation blocked along X axis.
The beam is subjected to a -10 kN/m uniform linear force applied along the beam gravitational along the Z local axis,
and a 10kN/m uniform linear force applied along the beam on the Y axis.
Both forces are considered as live loads.
The dead load will be neglected.

12.29.2Background
Classification and verification on combined bending of sections for an IPE 300 beam made from S235 steel. The
beam is connected to its ends by a connection with all translation blocked and on the other end by a connection with
translation blocked on the Y and Z axis and rotation blocked along X axis. The beam is subjected to a -10kN/m
uniform linear force applied along the beam gravitational along the Z local axis, and a 10kN/m uniform linear force
applied along the beam on the Y axis. Both forces are considered live loads. The dead load will be neglected.
This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

12.29.2.1 Model description


■ Reference: Guide de validation Eurocode 3 Part1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001;
■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);
■ Element type: linear.
The following load cases and load combination are used:
■ Exploitation loadings (category A): Q1 = -10kN/m, Q2 = 10kN/m,
■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

Units
Metric System

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Materials properties

Boundary conditions
The boundary conditions are described below:
■ Outer:
► Support at start point (x = 0) restrained in translation and rotation along X, Y and Z axis,
► Support at end point (x = 5.00) restrained in translation and rotation along Y, Z axis and rotation
blocked along X axis.
■ Inner: None.

12.29.2.2 Reference results for calculating the cross section class


According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 5.5.2
In this case, the beam is subjected to linear uniform equal loads, one vertical and one horizontal, therefore the
stresses distribution on the most stressed point (the column base) is like in the picture below:

Table 5.2 sheet 1, from EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 5.5.2 determines the web class.

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The section geometrical properties are described in the picture below:

According to Table 5.2 and the column section geometrical properties, the next conclusions can be found:

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Therefore:

This means that the beam web is Class 1.


Table 5.2, sheet 2, from EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 5.5.2 determines the flanges class.

The section geometrical properties are described in the picture below:

According to Table 5.2 and the beam section geometrical properties, the next conclusions can be found:

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Therefore:

This means that the beam left top flanges are Class 1.
Overall the beam top flange cross-section class is Class 1.
In the same way will be determined that the beam bottom flange cross-section class is also Class 1
A cross-section is classified by quoting the heist (least favorable) class of its compression elements.
According to the calculation above, the column section have a Class 1 web and Class 1 flanges; therefore the class
section for the entire column section will be considered Class 1.
According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 5.5.2(6)

12.29.2.3 Reference results for calculating the combined biaxial bending


 
 M Y , Ed   M z , Ed 
    1
 M Ny, Rd   M Nz , Ed 
According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 6.2.9.1(5)
In which α and β are constants, which may conservatively be taken as unity, otherwise as follows:
For I and H sections:

 2
  max(n;1)
N Ed 0
n   0 therefore   1
N pl , Rd N pl , Rd

Bending around Y:
For cross-sections without bolts holes, the following approximations may be used for standard rolled I or H sections
and for welded I or H sections with equal flanges:

M pl , y , Rd * (1  n)
M Ny, Rd  but M Ny, Rd  M ply, Rd
1  0.5 * a
According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 6.2.9.1(4)

N Ed 0
n  0
N pl , Rd N pl , Rd

(A  2*b *tf ) (53.81*104  2 * 0.15 * 0.0107)


a   0.403  0.5
A 53.81*10 4
M pl , y , Rd M pl , y , Rd
M N , y , Rd  
(1  0.5 * 0.403) 0.8
0.8 * M N , y , Rd  M pl , y , Rd  M N , y , Rd  M pl , y , Rd but M Ny, Rd  M ply, Rd
Therefore, it will be considered:

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Bending around Y:
For cross-sections without bolts holes, the following approximations may be used for standard rolled I or H sections
and for welded I or H sections with equal flanges:

M pl , z , Rd * (1  n)
M Nz, Rd  but M Nz, Rd  M plz, Rd
1  0.5 * a
According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 6.2.9.1(4)

0.8 * M N , z , Rd  M pl , z , Rd  M N , z , Rd  M pl , z , Rd but M Nz, Rd  M plz, Rd therefore it will be considered:

wpl , z * f y 125.20 *106 * 235


M N , z , Rd  M pl , z , Rd    0.030MNm
M0 1
In conclusion:
 
 M Y , Ed   M z , Ed   0.03125
2
 0.03125 
1

       1.1086  1
 M Ny, Rd   M Nz, Ed   0.148   0.029375
The coresponding work ratio is:
WR = 1.1086 x 100 = 110.86 %

Finite elements modeling


■ Linear element: S beam,
■ 6 nodes,
■ 1 linear element.

Finite elements results


Work ratio – oblique bending
Beam subjected to combined bending

Work ratio – Oblique [%]

12.29.2.4 Reference results


Result name Result description Reference value
Combined oblique Combined oblique bending [%] 110.86 %
bending

12.29.3Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Work ratio - Oblique Work ratio-Oblique 110.691 % -0.2784 %

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12.30 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Class section classification and bending moment
verification of an IPE300 column (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 4)

Test ID: 5412


Test status: Passed

12.30.1Description
Classification and verification of an IPE 300 column made of S235 steel.
The column is connected to the ground by a fixed connection and is free on the top part.
In the middle, the column is subjected to a 50 kN force applied on the web direction, defined as a live load.
The dead load will be neglected.

12.30.2Background
Classification and verification of sections for an IPE 300 column made from S235 steel. The column is connected to
the ground by a fixed connection and is free on the top part. In the middle, the column is subjected to a 50kN force
applied on the web direction, defined as a live load. The dead load will be neglected.
This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

12.30.2.1 Model description


■ Reference: Guide de validation Eurocode 3 Part1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001;
■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);
■ Element type: linear.
The following load cases and load combination are used:
■ Exploitation loadings (category A): Q = 50kN,
■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

Units
Metric System

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Materials properties

Boundary conditions
The boundary conditions are described below:
■ Outer:
► Support at start point (x=0) restrained in translation and rotation along X, Y and Z axis,
► Support at end point (z = 5.00) free.
■ Inner: None.

12.30.2.2 Reference results for calculating the cross section class


According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 5.5.2
In this case, the column is subjected to a lateral load, therefore the stresses distribution on the most stressed point
(the column base) is like in the picture below.

The Table 5.2 sheet 1, from EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 5.5.2 determines the web class.

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The section geometrical properties are described in the picture below:

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According to the Table 5.2 and the column section geometrical properties, the next conclusions can be found:

Therefore:

This means that the column web is Class 1.


Table 5.2, sheet 2, from EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 5.5.2 determines the flanges class.

The section geometrical properties are described in the picture below:

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According to Table 5.2 and the column section geometrical properties, the next conclusions can be found:

Therefore:

This means that the column flanges are Class 1.


A cross-section is classified by quoting the heist (least favorable) class of its compression elements.
According to the calculation above, the column section have a Class 1 web and Class 1 flanges; therefore the class
section for the entire column section will be considered Class 1.
According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 5.5.2(6)

12.30.2.3 Reference results in calculating the bending moment resistance


M Ed
1
M c, Rd
According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 6.2.5(1)

wpl * f y
M c, Rd  for Class1 cross sections
M0
According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 6.2.5(2)
Where:

w pl  628.40cm 3
fy nominal yielding strength for S235 fy=235MPa

 M 0 partial safety coefficient  M 0  1

Therefore:

wpl * f y 628.40 *106 * 235


M y ,V , Rd    0.147674MNm
M0 1
M Ed  2.5m * 50kN  125kNm  0.125MNm

M Ed 0.125
  84%
M y ,V , Rd 0.148

Finite elements modeling


■ Linear element: S beam,
■ 7 nodes,
■ 1 linear element.

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Finite elements results

Combined oblique bending

Combined oblique bending


Work ratio - Oblique

12.30.2.4 Reference results


Result name Result description Reference value
Combined oblique Work ratio - Oblique 85 %
bending

12.30.3Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Work ratio - Oblique Work ratio - Oblique 84.6459 % -0.4166 %

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12.31 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the classification and the resistance of a column
subjected to bending and axial load (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 8)

Test ID: 5632


Test status: Passed

12.31.1Description
Verifies the classification and the resistance for an IPE 600 column made of S235 steel subjected to bending and
axial force. The verification is made according to Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-1-1) French Annex.

12.31.2Background
Classification and verification of an IPE 600 column, made of S235 steel, subjected to bending and axial force. The
column is fixed at its base and free on the top. The column is loaded by a compression force (1 000 000 N), applied
at its top, and a uniformly distributed load (50 000 N/ml). The dead load will be neglected.
This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

12.31.2.1 Model description


■ Reference: Guide d’evaluation Advance Design, EN 1993-1-1: 2001;
■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);
■ Element type: linear.
The following load case (Q1) and load combination are used:
■ Exploitation loadings (category A), Q1:
► Fz = -1 000 000 N,
► Fx = 50 000 N/ml,
■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q1

■ Cross section dimensions are in milimeters (mm).

Units
Metric System

Geometry
Below are described the column cross section characteristics:
■ Height: h = 600 mm,
■ Flange width: b = 220 mm,
■ Flange thickness: tf = 19 mm,
■ Column length: L = 5000 mm,
2
■ Section area: A = 15600 mm ,

■ Plastic section modulus about the strong y-y axis: W pl , y  3512000mm 3 ,

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■ Partial factor for resistance of cross sections:  M 0  1. 0 .

Materials properties
S235 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:
■ Yield strength fy = 235 MPa,
5
■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 2.1 x 10 MPa.

Boundary conditions
The boundary conditions are described below:
■ Outer:
► Support at start point (x = 0) restrained in translation and rotation along X, Y and Z axis,
► Free at end point (x = 5.00).
■ Inner: None.

Loading
The column is subjected to the following loadings:
■ External:
► Point load at Z = 5.0: N = FZ = -1 000 000 N,
► Uniformly distributed load: q = Fx = 50 000 N/ml
■ Internal: None.

12.31.2.2 Reference results for calculating the column subjected to bending and axial force
In order to verify the steel column subjected to bending and axial force, the design resistance for uniform
compression (Nc,Rd) and also the design plastic moment resistance reduced due to the axial force (M N,Rd) have to be
compared with the design values of the corresponding efforts.
The design resistance for uniform compression is verified considering the relationship (6.9) from chapter 6.2.4 (EN
1993-1-1), while for bi-axial bending, the criterion (6.41) from chapter 6.2.9.1 (EN 1993-1-1) has to be satisfied.
Before starting the above verifications, the cross-section class has to be determined.

Cross section class


Considering that the column is subjected to combined bending and axial compression, and also that its axial effort is
bigger than 835 kN, the following classification is made according to the CTICM journal no. 4 – 2005 (extracted of
journal):

So, according to this table, the column cross-section is Class 2.

Verifying the design resistance for uniform compression


Expression (6.10) from EN 1993-1-1 is used to determine the design compression resistance, Nc,Rd:

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A fy 15600mm 2  235MPa
N c ,Rd    3666000N
M0 1.0
In order to verify the design resistance for uniform compression, the criterion (6.9) from chapter 6.2.4 (EN 1993-1-1)
has to be satisfied:

N Ed N 1000000N
   0.273  1.0  27.3%  100%
N c, Rd N c, Rd 3666000N

Verifying the column subjected to bending and axial force


According to paragraph 6.2.9.1 (4) from EN 1993-1-1, allowance will not be made for the effect of the axial force on
the plastic resistance moment about the y-y axis if relationship (6.33) is fulfilled.

N Ed  0.25 N pl ,Rd  1000000N  0.25  3666000N  916500N


In this case, because the above verification is not fulfilled, the axial force has an impact on the plastic resistance
moment about the y-y axis.
In order to verify the column subjected to bending and axial force, the criterion (6.41) from EN 1993-1-1 has to be
used. Supplementary terms need to be determined: design resistance for bending (M pl,Rd), ratio of design normal
force to design plastic resistance to normal force of the gross cross-section (n), ratio of web area to gross area (a),
design plastic moment resistance reduced due to the axial force (MN,Rd).
■ Design plastic moment resistance:
W pl , y  f y 3512000mm 3  235MPa
► M pl , y , Rd    825320000Nmm
 M0 1.0
■ Ratio of design normal force to design plastic resistance to normal force of the gross cross-section:
N 1000000N
► n   0.273
N pl ,Rd 3666000N
■ Ratio of web area to gross area:
A  2bt f 15600mm 2  2  220mm 19mm
► a   0.464
A 15600mm 2
■ Design plastic moment resistance reduced due to the axial force is determined according to expression (6.36)
from EN 1993-1-1:
1 n
► M N , y , Rd  M pl , y , Rd  but M N , y , Rd  M pl , y , Rd
1  0.5  a
1  0.273
► M N , y , Rd  825320000Nmm   781259948Nmm  825320000Nmm
1  0.5  0.464
■ The column subjected to bending and axial force is verified with criterion (6.41) from EN 1993-1-1:
 
 M y , Ed   M z , Ed 
►      1.0
M  M 
 N , y , Rd   N , z , Rd 
► Because the column doesn’t have bending moment about z axis, the second term from criterion (6.41)
 M y , Ed   q  L2 / 2 
is neglected. The verification becomes:     1.0
M  M 
 N , y , Rd   N , y , Rd 
 q  L2 / 2   50N / mm  5000mm 2 / 2 
►     0.799  1.0  79.9%  100%
M   
 N , y , Rd   781259948 Nmm 
Finite elements modeling
■ Linear element: S beam,

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■ 6 nodes,
■ 1 linear element.

Work ratio of the design resistance for uniform compression

Column subjected to bending and axial force


Work ratio - Fx

Work ratio of the design resistance for oblique bending

Column subjected to bending and axial force


Work ratio - Oblique

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.31.2.3 Reference results


Result name Result description Reference value
Work ratio - Fx Work ratio of the design resistance for uniform compression [%] 27.3 %
Work ratio - Oblique Work ratio of the design resistance for oblique bending [%] 79.9 %

12.31.3Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Work ratio - Fx Work ratio of the design resistance for uniform 27.2777 % -0.0084 %
compression
Work ratio - Oblique Work ratio of the design resistance for oblique 79.9691 % -0.0386 %
bending

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12.32 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the classification and the compression
resistance of a welded built-up column (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 9)

Test ID: 5674


Test status: Passed

12.32.1Description
Verifies the cross-section classification and the compression resistance of a welded built-up column made of S355
steel. The verification is made according to Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-1-1) French Annex.

12.32.2Background
Classification and verification of a welded built-up column made of S355 steel. The column is fixed at its base and
free on the top. It is loaded by a compression force (100 000 N), applied at its top. The dead load will be neglected.
This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

12.32.2.1 Model description


■ Reference: Guide d’evaluation Advance Design, EN 1993-1-1: 2001;
■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);
■ Element type: linear.
The following load case and load combination are used:
■ Exploitation loadings (category A), Q:
► Fz = -100 000 N,
■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

■ Cross section dimensions are in milimeters (mm).

Units
Metric System

Geometry
Below are described the column cross section characteristics:
■ Height: h = 630 mm,
■ Flange width: b = 500 mm,
■ Flange thickness: tf = 18 mm,
■ Web thickness: tw = 8 mm,

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

■ Column length: L = 5000 mm,


2
■ Section area: A = 22752 mm ,
■ Partial factor for resistance of cross sections:  M 0  1. 0 .

Materials properties
S355 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:
■ Yield strength fy = 355 MPa,
5
■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 2.1 x 10 MPa.

Boundary conditions
The boundary conditions are described below:
■ Outer:
► Support at start point (z = 0) restrained in translation and rotation along X, Y and Z axis,
► Free at end point (z = 5.00).
■ Inner: None.

Loading
The column is subjected to the following loadings:
■ External:
► Point load at Z = 5.0: N = FZ = -100 000 N,
■ Internal: None.

12.32.2.2 Cross-section classification


Before calculating the compression resistance, the cross-section class has to be determined.
The following results are determined according to Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures - Part 1-1: General rules
and rules for buildings (EN 1993-1-1: 2001), Chapter 5.5.2.
In this case, the column is subjected to a punctual compression load, therefore the stresses distribution is like in the
picture below:

Table 5.2 - sheet 2, from Chapter 5.5.2 (EN 1993-1-1: 2001), establish the rules to determine the flanges class. The
picture below shows an extract from this table.

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The top flange class can be determined by considering the cross-section geometrical properties and the conditions
described in Table 5.2 - sheet 2:

c (500mm  8mm) / 2
  13.67
t 18mm
235
  0.81
fy
Therefore:

c
 13.67  14  11.34
t
This means that the top column flange is Class 4. Having the same dimensions, the bottom column flange is also
Class 4.
Table 5.2 - sheet 1, from Chapter 5.5.2 (EN 1993-1-1: 2001), establish the rules to determine the web class. The
picture below shows an extract from this table.

The web class can be determined by considering the cross-section geometrical properties and the conditions
described in Table 5.2 - sheet 1:

c 630mm  18mm  2
  74.25
t 8mm
235
  0.81
fy

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Therefore:

c
 74.25  42  34.02
t
This means that the column web is Class 4.
A cross-section is classified according to the least favorable classification of its compression elements (chapter
5.5.2(6) from EN 1993-1-1: 2001).
According to the calculation above, the column section have Class 4 web and Class 4 flanges; therefore the class
section for the entire column section will be considered Class 4.

12.32.2.3 Reference results for calculating the compression resistance of the cross-section
The compression resistance for Class 4 cross-section is determined with the formula (6.11) from EN 1993-1-1:2001.
In order to verify the compression resistance for Class 4 cross-section, it is necessary to determine the effective area
of the cross-section.
The effective area of the cross section takes into account the reduction factor, , which is applying to both parts in
compression (flanges and web).
The following parameters have to be determined, for each part in compression, in order to calculate the reduction
factor: the buckling factor, the stress ratio and the plate modified slenderness.

The buckling factor (k) and the stress ratio( ) - for flanges
Table 4.2 from EN 1993-1-5 offers detailed information about determining the buckling factor and the stress ratio for
flanges. The below picture presents an extract from this table.

Taking into account that the stress distribution on flanges is linear, the stress ratio becomes:

2
  1.0  k  0.43
1

The buckling factor (k) and the stress ratio( ) - for web
Table 4.1 from EN 1993-1-5 offers detailed information about determining the buckling factor and the stress ratio for
web. The below picture presents an extract from this table.

Taking into account that the stress distribution on web is linear, the stress ratio becomes:

2
  1.0  k  4.0
1

The plate modified slenderness (p) – for flanges


The formula used to determine the plate modified slenderness for flanges is:

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

p 
c/t

500mm  8mm  / 2 / 18mm  0.906
28.4 k 28.4  0.81 0.43

The plate modified slenderness (p) – for web


The formula used to determine the plate modified slenderness for web is:

p 
b/t

630mm  2 18mm  / 8mm  1.614
28.4 k 28.4  0.81 4.0

The reduction factor () – for flanges


The reduction factor for flanges is determined with relationship (4.3) from EN 1993-1-5. Because p > 0.748, the
reduction factor has the following formula:

 p  0.188
  1.0
2p
The effective width of the flange part can now be calculated:

beff , f    c  0.875
500mm  8mm  215.25mm
2
The reduction factor () – for web
The reduction factor for web is determined with relationship (4.2) from EN 1993-1-5. Because p > 0.673, the
reduction factor has the following formula:

 p  0.055  3   
  1 .0
2p
The effective width of the web can now be calculated:

beff ,w    b  0.535 630mm  2 18mm  317.8mm

Effective area
The effective area is determined considering the following:

Aeff  2  t f  (beff , f  beff , f  t w )  t w  beff ,w

Compression resistance of the cross section


For Class 4 cross-section, EN 1993-1-1: 2001 provides (6.11) formula in order to calculate the compression
resistance of the cross-section:

Aeff  f 18328.4mm 2  355MPa


N c , Rd    6506582N
y

 M0 1.0

Work ratio

N 100000N
Work ratio =  100   100  1.54%
N c ,Rd 6506582N

Finite elements modeling


■ Linear element: S beam,
■ 6 nodes,
■ 1 linear element.

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Work ratio of the design resistance for uniform compression

Column subjected to compression axial force


Work ratio - Fx

12.32.2.4 Reference results


Result name Result description Reference value
Work ratio - Fx Compression resistance work ratio [%] 1.53 %

12.32.3Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Work ratio - Fx Compression resistance work ratio 1.56233 % 2.1131 %

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12.33 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the classification and the bending resistance of
a welded built-up beam (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 10)

Test ID: 5692


Test status: Passed

12.33.1Description
Verifies the classification and the bending resistance of a welded built-up beam made of S355 steel. The verification
is made according to Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-1-1) French Annex.

12.33.2Background
Classification and bending resistance verification of a welded built-up beam made of S355 steel. The beam is simply
supported and it is loaded by a uniformly distributed load (15 000 N/ml). The dead load will be neglected.
This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

12.33.2.1 Model description


■ Reference: Guide d’evaluation Advance Design, EN 1993-1-1: 2001;
■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);
■ Element type: linear.
The following load case and load combination are used:
■ Exploitation loadings (category A), Q:
► Fz = -15 000 N/ml,
■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

■ Cross section dimensions are in milimeters (mm).

Units
Metric System

Geometry
Below are described the beam cross section characteristics:
■ Height: h = 630 mm,
■ Flange width: b = 500 mm,
■ Flange thickness: tf = 18 mm,
■ Web thickness: tw = 8 mm,
■ Beam length: L = 5000 mm,
2
■ Section area: A = 22752 mm ,
■ Partial factor for resistance of cross sections:  M 0  1. 0 .

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Materials properties
S355 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:
■ Yield strength fy = 355 MPa,
5
■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 2.1 x 10 MPa.

Boundary conditions
The boundary conditions are described below:
■ Outer:
► Support at start point (x = 0) restrained in translation along X, Y and Z axis,
► Support at end point (x = 5.00) restrained in translation along Y, Z axis and restrained in rotation along
X axis.
■ Inner: None.

Loading
The column is subjected to the following loadings:
■ External:
► Uniformly distributed load: q = Fz = -15 000 N/ml,
■ Internal: None.

12.33.2.2 Cross-section classification


Before calculating the design resistance for bending, the cross-section class has to be determined.
The following results are determined according to Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures - Part 1-1: General rules
and rules for buildings (EN 1993-1-1: 2001), Chapter 5.5.2.
In this case, the beam is subjected to a uniformly distributed load; therefore the stresses distribution is like in the
picture below:

Table 5.2 - sheet 2, from Chapter 5.5.2 (EN 1993-1-1: 2001), establish the rules to determine the class of the
compressed flange (top flange). The picture below shows an extract from this table.

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

The top flange class can be determined by considering the cross-section geometrical properties and the conditions
described in Table 5.2 - sheet 2 (above extract):

c (500mm  8mm) / 2
  13.67
t 18mm
235
  0.8136
fy
Therefore:

c
 13.67  14  11.39
t
This means that the top flange is Class 4. Because the bottom flange is tensioned, it will be classified as Class 1.
Table 5.2 - sheet 1, from Chapter 5.5.2 (EN 1993-1-1: 2001), establish the rules to determine the web class. The
picture below shows an extract from this table. The web part is subjected to bending stresses.

The web class can be determined by considering the cross-section geometrical properties and the conditions
described in Table 5.2 - sheet 1 (above extract):

c 630mm  18mm  2
  74.25
t 8mm
235
  0.8136
fy

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Therefore:

c
 74.25  124  100.89
t
This means that the beam web is Class 3.
A cross-section is classified according to the least favorable classification of its compression elements (chapter
5.5.2(6) from EN 1993-1-1: 2001).
According to the calculation above, the beam section have Class 4 for top flange, Class 3 for web and Class 1 for
bottom flange; therefore the class section for the entire beam section will be considered Class 4.

12.33.2.3 Reference results for calculating the design resistance for bending
The design resistance for bending for Class 4 cross-section is determined with the formula (6.15) from EN 1993-1-
1:2001.
Before verifying this formula, it is necessary to determine the effective section modulus of the cross-section.
The effective section modulus of the cross section takes into account the reduction factor, , which is applying only to
parts in compression (top flange in this case).
The following parameters have to be determined in order to calculate the reduction factor: the buckling factor, the
stress ratio and the plate modified slenderness.

The buckling factor (k) and the stress ratio( ) - for flanges
Table 4.2 from EN 1993-1-5 offers detailed information about determining the buckling factor and the stress ratio for
flange. The below picture presents an extract from this table.

Taking into account that the stress distribution on the top flange is linear, the stress ratio becomes:

2
  1.0  k  0.43
1

The plate modified slenderness (p)


The formula used to determine the plate modified slenderness for top flange is:

p 
c/t

500mm  8mm  / 2 /18mm  0.902
28.4 k 28.4  0.8136 0.43

The reduction factor ()


The reduction factor for top flange is determined with relationship (4.3) from EN 1993-1-5. Because p > 0.748, the
reduction factor has the following formula:

 p  0.188
  1.0
2p
The effective width of the flange part can now be calculated:

beff , f    c  0.8776 
500mm  8mm  215.89mm
2

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Effective section modulus


The effective section modulus is determined considering the following cross-section:
► Top flange width: beff,t = beff,f + tw + beff,f = 439.78 mm;
► Top flange thickness: tf = 18 mm;
► Web and bottom flange have the same dimensions as the original section.
Weff , y ,sup  5204392.91mm 3

Weff , y ,inf  5736064.4mm 3

Weff , y ,min  min Weff , y ,sup ,Weff , y ,inf   5204392.91mm 3

Design resistance for bending


For Class 4 cross-section, EN 1993-1-1: 2001 provides (6.15) formula in order to calculate the design resistance for
bending:

Weff ,min  f 5204392.91mm 3  355MPa


M c ,Rd    1847559483Nmm
y

M0 1.0

Work ratio

q  L2 / 8 15N / mm  5000mm  / 8
2
M
Work ratio = 100  100  100  2.54%
M c , Rd M c , Rd 1847559483Nmm

Finite elements modeling


■ Linear element: S beam,
■ 6 nodes,
■ 1 linear element.

Work ratio of the design resistance for bending

Beam subjected to uniformly distributed load


Work ratio - Oblique

12.33.2.4 Reference results


Result name Result description Reference value
Work ratio - Oblique Design resistance for bending work ratio [%] 2.54 %

12.33.3Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Work ratio - Oblique Design resistance for bending work ratio 2.56711 % 1.0673 %

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12.34 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Class section classification, shear and bending moment
verification of an IPE300 column (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 3)

Test ID: 5411


Test status: Passed

12.34.1Description
Classification and verification of an IPE 300 column made of S235 steel.
The column is connected to the ground by a fixed connection and is free on the top part.
In the middle, the column is subjected to a 200 kN force applied on the web direction, defined as a live load.
The dead load will be neglected.

12.34.2Background
Classification and verification of sections for an IPE 300 column made from S235 steel. The column is connected to
the ground by a fixed connection and is free on the top part. In the middle, the column is subjected to a 200kN force
applied on the web direction, defined as a live load. The dead load will be neglected.
This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

12.34.2.1 Model description


■ Reference: Guide de validation Eurocode 3 Part1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001;
■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);
■ Element type: linear.
The following load cases and load combination are used:
■ Exploitation loadings (category A): Q = -200kN,
■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

Units
Metric System

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Materials properties

Boundary conditions
The boundary conditions are described below:
■ Outer:
► Support at start point (x = 0) restrained in translation and rotation along X, Y and Z axis,
► Support at end point (z = 5.00) free.
■ Inner: None.

12.34.2.2 Reference results for calculating the cross section class


According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 5.5.2
In case the column is subjected to a lateral load, the stresses distribution on the most stressed point (the column
base) is like in the picture below:

To determine the web class, we will use Table 5.2 sheet 1, from EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 5.5.2.

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The section geometrical properties are described in the picture below:

According to the Table 5.2 and the column section geometrical properties, the next conclusions can be found:

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Therefore:

This means that the column web is Class 1.


To determine the flanges class it will be used the Table 5.2, sheet 2, from EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter
5.5.2.

The section geometrical properties are described in the picture below:

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According to the Table 5.2 and the column section geometrical properties, the next conclusions can be found:

Therefore:

This means that the column flanges are Class 1.


A cross-section is classified by quoting the heist (least favorable) class of its compression elements.
According to the calculation above, the column section have a Class 1 web and Class 1 flanges; therefore the class
section for the entire column section will be considered Class 1.
According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 5.5.2(6).

12.34.2.3 Reference results in calculating the shear resistance V pl,Rd


The design resistance of the cross-section Vpl,Rd , is determined as follows:

fy
Av *
V pl , Rd  3
M0
According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 6.2.6(2)
Where:
Av section shear area for rolled profiles Av  A  2 * b * t f  (t w  2 * r ) * t f
2
A cross-section area A=53.81cm
b overall breadth b=150mm
h overall depth h=300mm
hw depth of the web hw=248.6mm
r root radius r=15mm
tf flange thickness tf=10.7mm
tw web thickness tw=7.1mm

Av  A  2 * b * t f  (t w  2 * r ) * t f  53.81  2 * 15 * 17  (0.71  2 * 1.5) * 1.07  25.68cm 2

According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 6.2.6(3)


fy nominal yielding strength for S235 fy=235MPa

 M 0 partial safety coefficient  M 0  1

Therefore:

fy 235
Av * 25.68 *104 *
V pl , Rd  3  3  0.3484MN  348.42kN
M0 1

12.34.2.4 Reference results in calculating the bending moment resistance


VEd 200
  57.4%  50%
Vpl , Rd 348.42

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The shear force is greater than half of the plastic shear resistance. Its effect on the moment resistance must be taken
into account.
According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 6.2.8(1)(2)

Where:

2
 2V   2 * 0.200 2
   Ed  1    1  0.0223
 V pl , Rd   0.348 
According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 6.2.8(3)
Av  A  2 * b * t f  (t w  2 * r ) * t f

Av section shear area for rolled profiles


2
A cross-section area A=53.81cm
b overall breadth b=150mm
h overall depth h=300mm
hw depth of the web hw=248.6mm
r root radius r=15mm
tf flange thickness tf=10.7mm
tw web thickness tw=7.1mm

Av  A  2 * b * t f  (t w  2 * r ) * t f  53.81  2 * 15 * 17  (0.71  2 * 1.5) * 1.07  25.68cm 2

According to: EC3 Part 1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001 Chapter 6.2.6(3)


fy nominal yielding strength for S235 fy=235MPa

 M 0 partial safety coefficient  M 0  1

Therefore:

  * Av ²   0.0223* (25.68 * 104 )² 


 w pl   * f y  628.40 * 10 6   * 235
M y ,V , Rd   4t w 
  4 * 0.0071   0.146MNm
M0 1

M Ed  2.5m * 200kN  500kNm  0.5MNm

M Ed 0.500
  342%
M y ,V ,Rd 0.146

Finite elements modeling


■ Linear element: S beam,
■ 7 nodes,
■ 1 linear element.

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Finite elements results


Shear z direction work ratio

Shear z direction work ratio


Work ratio - Fz

Combined oblique bending

Combined oblique bending


Work ratio - Oblique

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12.34.2.5 Reference results


Result name Result description Reference value
Shear z direction work ratio Work ratio - Fz 57 %

Combined oblique bending Work ratio - Oblique 341 %

12.34.3Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Work ratio - Fz Work ratio Fz 57.4021 % 0.7054 %
Work ratio - Oblique Work ratio - Oblique 341.348 % 0.1021 %

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12.35 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Class section classification and compression resistance
for an IPE600 column (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 7)

Test ID: 5620


Test status: Passed

12.35.1Description
Verifies the classification and the compression resistance for an IPE 600 column made of S235 steel. The verification
is made according to Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-1-1) French Annex.

12.35.2Background
Classification and verification under compression efforts for an IPE 600 column made of S235 steel. The column is
fixed at its base and free on the top. The column is subjected to a compression force (100 000 N) applied at its top.
The dead load will be neglected.
This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

12.35.2.1 Model description


■ Reference: Guide d’evaluation Advance Design, EN 1993-1-1: 2001;
■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);
■ Element type: linear.
The following load case and load combination are used:
■ Exploitation loadings (category A), Q:
► Fz = -100 000 N,
■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

■ Cross section dimensions are in milimeters (mm).

Units
Metric System

Materials properties
S235 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:
■ Yield strength fy = 235 MPa,
5
■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 2.1 x 10 MPa.

Boundary conditions
The boundary conditions are described below:
■ Outer:
► Support at start point (x = 0) restrained in translation and rotation along X, Y and Z axis,
► Free at end point (x = 5.00).

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■ Inner: None.

Loading
The column is subjected to the following loadings:
■ External: Point load at Z = 5.0: N = Fz = -100 000 N,
■ Internal: None.

12.35.2.2 Reference results for calculating the cross section class


The following results are determined according to Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures - Part 1-1: General rules
and rules for buildings (EN 1993-1-1: 2001), Chapter 5.5.2.
In this case, the column is subjected to a punctual compression load, therefore the stresses distribution is like in the
picture below:

Table 5.2 - sheet 1, from Chapter 5.5.2 (EN 1993-1-1: 2001), establish the rules to determine the web class.

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The section geometrical properties are described in the picture below:

The web class can be determined by considering the geometrical properties and the conditions described in Table
5.2 - sheet 1:

c 600mm  19mm  2  24mm  2


  42.83
t 12mm
235
  1. 0
fy

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Therefore:

c
 42.83  42  42
t
This means that the column web is Class 4.
Table 5.2 - sheet 2, from Chapter 5.5.2 (EN 1993-1-1: 2001), establish the rules to determine the flanges class.

The top flange class can be determined by considering the geometrical properties and the conditions described in
Table 5.2 - sheet 2:

c (220mm  12mm  24mm  2) / 2


  4.21
t 19mm
235
  1. 0
fy
Therefore:

c
 4.21  9  9
t
This means that the top column flange is Class 1. Having the same dimensions, the bottom column flange is also
Class 1.
A cross-section is classified according to the least favorable classification of its compression elements (chapter
5.5.2(6) from EN 1993-1-1: 2001).
According to the calculation above, the column section have Class 4 web and Class 1 flanges; therefore the class
section for the entire column section will be considered Class 4.

12.35.2.3 Reference results for calculating the compression resistance of the cross-section
The compression resistance for Class 4 cross-section is determined with the formula (6.11) from EN 1993-1-1:2001.
In order to verify the compression resistance for Class 4 cross-section, it is necessary to determine the effective area
of the cross-section.

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The effective area of the cross section takes into account the reduction factor, , which is applying in this case only
for the web of the IPE 600 cross-section.
The following parameters have to be determined in order to calculate the reduction factor: the buckling factor and the
stress ratio, and the plate modified slenderness. They will be calculated considering only the cross-section web.

The buckling factor (k) and the stress ratio( )


Taking into account that the stress distribution on web is linear, the stress ratio becomes:

2
  1.0
1
k  4.0

The plate modified slenderness (p)


The formula used to determine the plate modified slenderness is:

p 
b/t

600mm  2 19mm  2  24mm  /12mm  0.754
28.4 k 28.4 1.0  4.0

The reduction factor ()


Because p > 0.673, the reduction factor has the following formula:

 p  0.055 3  
  1.0
2p

Effective area
The effective area is determined considering the following:

Aeff  A  1    b  t w  15600  1  0.939 600  2 19  2  2412  15223.75mm 2

Compression resistance of the cross section


For Class 4 cross-section, EN 1993-1-1: 2011 provides the following formula in order to calculate the compression
resistance of the cross-section:

Aeff  f 15223.75mm 2  235MPa


N c ,Rd    3577581N
y

M0 1.0

Work ratio

N 100000N
Work ratio =  100   100  2.79518%
N c, Rd 3577581N

Finite elements modeling


■ Linear element: S beam,
■ 6 nodes,
■ 1 linear element.

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Finite elements results

Work ratio of the design resistance for uniform compression

Column subjected to bending and axial force


Work ratio - Fx

12.35.2.4 Reference results


Result name Result description Reference value
Work ratio - Fx Compression resistance work ratio [%] 2.79518 %

12.35.3Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Work ratio - Fx Compression resistance work ratio 2.89583 % 3.6008 %

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12.36 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the buckling resistance of a CHS219.1x6.3H


column (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 21)

Test ID: 5701


Test status: Passed

12.36.1Description
The test verifies the buckling resistance of a CHS219.1x6.3H made of S355.
The tests are made according to Eurocode 3 French Annex.

12.36.2Background
Buckling verification under compression efforts for an CHS219.1x6.3H column made of S355 steel. The column is
fixed at its base and free on the top. The column is subjected to a compression force (100 000 N) applied at its top.
The dead load will be neglected.
This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

12.36.2.1 Model description


■ Reference: Guide d’evaluation Advance Design, EN 1993-1-1: 2005;
■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);
■ Element type: linear.
The following load case and load combination are used:
■ Exploitation loadings (category A): Q1 = -100 000 N,
■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

■ Cross section dimensions are in millimeters (mm).

Units
Metric System

Geometrical properties
■ Tube wall thickness: t=6.3mm
■ Tube diameter: d=219.1mm
2
■ Cross section area: A=4210mm
■ Radius of gyration about the relevant axis: i=75.283mm
4 4
■ Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: Iy=2366x10 mm
4 4
■ Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: Iz=2366x10 mm

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Materials properties
S235 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:
■ Yield strength fy = 355 MPa,
5
■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 2.1 x 10 MPa.

Boundary conditions
The boundary conditions are described below:
■ Outer:
► Support at start point (x = 0) restrained in translation and rotation along X, Y and Z axis,
► Free at end point (z = 3.00).
■ Inner: None.
■ Buckling lengths Lfy and Lfz are both imposed with 6m value

Loading
The column is subjected to the following loadings:
■ External: Point load at Z = 3.0: FZ = N = -100 000 N,
■ Internal: None.

12.36.2.2 Buckling in the strong inertia of the profile (along Y-Y)


The calculations are made in order to obtain the work ratio of the analyzed element. The work ratio of the element is
calculated using the percentage of the design buckling resistance of the compressed element (N b,Rd) from the
compression force applied to the element (NEd). The design buckling resistance of the compressed member, N b,Rd, is
calculated according to Eurocode 3 1993-1-1-2005, Chapter 6.3.1.1.

N Ed
 100  100% (6.46)
Nb, Rd
Cross-class classification is made according to Table 5.2

d 219.1mm
  34.778
t 6.3mm
235 235
   0.814
fy 355

d
 34.778  80   2  50  0.814  46.381 therefore the section is considered to be Class 2
t
It will be used the following buckling curve corresponding to Table 6.2:

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

The imperfection factor  corresponding to the appropriate buckling curve will be 0.21:

The design buckling resistance of the compressed element is calculated using the next formula:

  A fy
Nb, Rd  (6.47)
 M1
Where:

Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness after the Y-Y axis

 coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness  will be determined from the relevant buckling curve
according to:

1
y  1 (6.49)
 y   y  y
2 2

 the non-dimensional slenderness corresponding to Class 1, 2 and 3 cross-sections:


A* fy Lcr
y   (6.50)
N cr i  1

E 210000
1     76.41
fy 355

Iy 23860000mm 4
i   75.283mm
A 4210mm 2
Lcr 6000mm
y    1.043
i  1 75.283mm  76.41

 y  0.5  1   ( y  0.2)  2y   0.5  1  0.21 (1.043  0.2)  1.043²   1.132


1
y   0.636  1
1.132  1.132²  1.043²
2
A is the cross section area; A=4210mm ; fy is the yielding strength of the material; fy=355N/mm and
2
 M1 is a safety
coefficient,  M1  1

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The design buckling resistance of the compression member will be:

 y  A  f y 0.636 4210mm 2  355N / mm 2


N b,Rd    950533.8 N
 M1 1
N Ed  100000N

N Ed 100000N
 100   100  10.520%
N b,Rd 950533.8N

Finite elements modeling


■ Linear element: S beam,
■ 4 nodes,
■ 1 linear element.

Finite elements results


The appropriate non-dimensional slenderness

The appropriate non-dimensional slenderness

 LT

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Ratio of the design normal force to design buckling resistance in the strong inertia of the profile

Column subjected to axial force


Adimensional - SNy

12.36.2.3 Reference results


Result name Result description Reference value
y  y coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness  y 0.636

SN y Ratio of the design normal force to design buckling resistance in the 0.1052
strong inertia of the profile

12.36.3Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Xy coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.635463 0.0000 %
slenderness adim
SNy Ratio of the design normal force to design buckling 0.105293 0.0000 %
resistance in the strong inertia of the profile adim

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.37 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the lateral torsional buckling of a IPE300 beam
(evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 22)

Test ID: 5702


Test status: Passed

12.37.1Description
The test verifies the lateral torsional buckling of a IPE300 beam made of S235 steel.
The calculations are made according to Eurocode 3, French Annex.

12.37.2Background
Lateral torsional buckling verification for an unrestrained IPE300 beam subjected to axis bending efforts, made of
S235 steel. The beam is simply supported. The beam is subjected to a uniform vertical load (10 000 N) applied
constantly on the entire length. The dead load will be neglected.
This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

12.37.2.1 Model description


■ Reference: Guide d’evaluation Advance Design, EN 1993-1-1: 2005;
■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);
■ Element type: linear.
The following load case and load combination are used:
■ Exploitation loadings (category A): Q1 = -10 000 N,
■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

■ Cross section dimensions are in millimeters (mm).

Units
Metric System

Geometrical properties
■ Beam length: 5m
2
■ Cross section area: A=5310mm
4 4
■ Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: Iy=8356.00x10 mm
4 4
■ Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: Iz=603.80x10 mm

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Materials properties
S235 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:
■ Yield strength fy = 235 MPa,
5
■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 2.1 x 10 MPa.

Boundary conditions
The boundary conditions are described below:
■ Outer:
► Support at start point (x = 0) restrained in translation along X, Y and Z axis,
► Support at the end point (z = 3.00) restrained in translation along Y and Z axis and restrained rotation
along X axis.
■ Inner: None.

Loading
The column is subjected to the following loadings:
■ External: Linear load From X=0.00m to X=5.00m: FZ = N = -10 000 N,
■ Internal: None.

12.37.2.2 Buckling in the strong inertia of the profile (along Y-Y)


The calculations are made in order to obtain the work ratio of the analyzed element. The work ratio of the element is
calculated using the percentage of the design buckling moment resistance of the bended element (Mb,Rd) from the
designed value moment (MEd) produced by the linear force applied to the element (N Ed). The design buckling
resistance of the compressed member, Nb,Rd, is calculated according to Eurocode 3 1993-1-1-2005, Chapter 6.3.1.1.

M Ed
100  100% (6.46)
M b, Rd
Cross-class classification is made according to Table 5.2
■ for beam web:
c 248.6mm 
  35.014 c
t 7.1mm    35.014  72    72 therefore the beam web is considered to be
 t
 1 
Class 1
■ for beam flange:
c 56.45mm 
  5.276 c
t 10.7mm    5.276  9    9 therefore the haunch is considered to be Class1
 t
 1 

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In conclusion, the section is considered to be Class 1


The buckling curve will be determined corresponding to Table 6.2:

h 300mm
  2  2 the buckling curve about Y-Y will be considered “a”
b 150mm

The design buckling resistance moment against lateral-torsional buckling is calculated according the next formula:

 LT  W y  f y
M b, Rd  (6.55)
 M1
Where:

 LT reduction factor for lateral-torsional buckling:


1
 LT  1 (6.56)
 LT   LT   LT
2 2

Where:


LT  0.5  1   LT  (LT  0.2)   LT
2

 LT represents the imperfection factor;  LT  0.21

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 LT the non-dimensional slenderness corresponding:


Wy  f y
 LT 
M cr
Mcr is the elastic critical moment for lateral-torsional buckling, is based on gross cross sectional properties and takes
into account the loading conditions, the real moment distribution and the lateral restraints.

 2  E  I z   k z  I w k z  L 2  G  I t  C  z 2  C  z 
M cr  C1     
  k w  I z
(1)
k z  L 2 
2
  E  IZ
2 g 2 g


according to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; AN.3 Chapter 2
Where:
2
E is the Young’s module: E=210000N/mm
2
G is the share modulus: G=80770N/mm
4 4
Iz is the inertia of bending about the minor axis Z: Iz=603.8 x10 mm
4 4
It is the torsional inertia: It=20.12x10 mm
10 6
IW is the warping inertia (deformation inertia moment): Iw=12.59x10 mm
L is the beam length: L=5000mm
kz and kw are buckling coefficients
zg is the distance between the point of load application and the share center (which coincide with the center of
gravity)
C1 and C2 are coefficients depending on the load variation over the beam length
If the bending moment is linear along the bar, if there are no transversal loads or if the transverse load is applied to
the center, then C2xxg=0 and the Mcr formula become:

 ² E  Iz I w L²  G  I t
M cr  C1   
L² Iz  ² E  Iz
The C1 coefficient is chosen from the Table2 of the EN 1993-1-1-AN France; AN.3 Chapter 3.3:

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 ²  210000N / mm 2  603.80  104 mm 4


M cr  1.13  
(5000mm)²
12.59  1010 mm 6 (5000mm)²  80770N / mm 2  20.12  104 mm 4
  
603.80  104 mm 4  ²  210000N / mm 2  603.80  104 mm 4
 1.13  500578.44 N  230.80mm  130609424.8 Nmm  130.61kNm
therefore:

Wy  f y 628.4  103 mm 3  235N / mm 2


 LT    1.063
M cr 130609424.8 Nmm

 
LT  0.5  1   LT  (LT  0.2)   LT  0.5  1  0.21 (1.063  0.2)  1.0632   1.156
2

1 1
 LT    0.621  1
 LT   LT ²   LT ² 1.156  1.156²  1.063²

Finite elements modeling


■ Linear element: S beam,
■ 6 nodes,
■ 1 linear element.

Finite elements results


The steel calculation results can be found in the Shape Sheet window. The “Class” tab shows the classification of the
cross section and the effective characteristics (not applicable in this case, as the cross section is class 1).

Lateral torsional buckling coefficient

Simply supported beam subjected to bending efforts


Lateral torsional buckling coefficient

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Elastic critical moment for lateral-torsional buckling

Simply supported beam subjected to bending efforts


Mcr

12.37.2.3 Reference results


Result name Result description Reference value

 LT Lateral-torsional buckling coefficient [adim.] 0.621

Mcr Elastic critical moment for lateral-torsional buckling [kNm] 130.61

12.37.3Calculated results
Result Result description Value Error
name
XLT Lateral-torsional buckling coefficient 0.621588 adim 0.0947 %
Mcr Elastic critical moment for lateral-torsional buckling 130.699 kN*m 0.0681 %

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12.38 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the design plastic shear resistance of a
rectangular hollow section beam (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 12)

Test ID: 5706


Test status: Passed

12.38.1Description
Verifies the design plastic shear resistance of a rectangular hollow section beam made of S275 steel.
The verification is made according to Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-1-1) French Annex.

12.38.2Background
Verifies the adequacy of a rectangular hollow section beam made of S275 steel to resist shear. Verification of the
shear resistance at ultimate limit state is realised. The name of the cross-section is RC3020100 and can be found in
the Advance Design OTUA library. The beam is simply supported and it is subjected to an uniformly distributed load
(50 000 N/ml) applied at its top. The dead load will be neglected.
This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

12.38.2.1 Model description


■ Reference: Guide d’evaluation Advance Design, EN 1993-1-1: 2001;
■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);
■ Element type: linear.
The following load case and load combination are used:
■ Exploitation loadings (category A), Q:
► Fz = -50 000 N/ml,
■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

■ Cross section dimensions are in milimeters (mm).

Units
Metric System

Geometry
Below are described the beam cross section characteristics:
■ Height: h = 300 mm,
■ Width: b = 200 mm,
■ Thickness: t = 10 mm,
■ Outer radius: r = 15 mm,
■ Beam length: L = 5000 mm,
2
■ Section area: A = 9490 mm ,
■ Partial factor for resistance of cross sections:  M 0  1. 0 .

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Materials properties
S275 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:
■ Yield strength fy = 275 MPa,
5
■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 2.1 x 10 MPa.

Boundary conditions
The boundary conditions are described below:
■ Outer:
► Support at start point (x = 0) restrained in translation along X, Y and Z axis,
► Support at end point (x = 5.00) restrained in translation along Y, Z axis and restrained in rotation along
X axis.
■ Inner: None.

Loading
The beam is subjected to the following loadings:
■ External:
► Uniformly distributed load: q = Fz = -50 000 N/ml,
■ Internal: None.

12.38.2.2 Reference results for calculating the design plastic shear resistance of the cross-section
The design plastic shear resistance of the cross-section is determined with formula (6.18) from EN 1993-1-1:2001.
Before using it, the shear area (Av) has to be determined.

Shear area of the cross section


For a rectangular hollow section of uniform thickness the shear area is determined according to chapter 6.2.6 (3) from
EN 1993-1-1. As the load is parallel to depth, the shear area is:

A  h 9490mm 2  300mm
Av    5694mm 2
bh 300mm  200mm
Design plastic shear resistance of the cross section
EN 1993-1-1: 2011 provides the following formula to calculate the design plastic shear resistance of the cross-
section:

f 275MPa
Av  5694mm 2 
y

V pl , Rd  3  3  904044N
 M0 1.0

Work ratio
The verification of the design plastic shear resistance is done with relationship (6.17) from EN 1993-1-1. The
corresponding work ratio is:

q L 50 N / mm  5000mm
VEd 125000N
Work ratio =  100  2  100  2  100   100  13.83%
V pl , Rd V pl , Rd 904044N 904044N

Finite elements modeling


■ Linear element: S beam,
■ 6 nodes,
■ 1 linear element.

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Finite elements results

Work ratio of the design shear resistance

Beam subjected to uniformly distributed load


Work ratio - Fz

12.38.2.3 Reference results


Result name Result description Reference value
Work ratio - Fz Work ratio of the design shear resistance [%] 13.83 %

12.38.3Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Work ratio - Fz Shear resistance work ratio 13.8219 % 0.1587 %

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12.39 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the resistance of a rectangular hollow section
column subjected to bending and shear efforts (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 13)

Test ID: 5707


Test status: Passed

12.39.1Description
Verifies the resistance of a rectangular hollow section column (made of S235 steel) subjected to bending and shear
efforts.
The verification is made according to Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-1-1) French Annex.

12.39.2Background
Verifies the adequacy of a rectangular hollow section column made of S235 steel to resist shear and bending efforts.
Verification of the shear resistance at ultimate limit state, as well as the design resistance for bending, is realised.
The name of the cross-section is RC3020100 and can be found in the Advance Design OTUA library. The column is
fixed at its base and it is subjected to a punctual horizontal load applied to the middle height (200 000 N). The dead
load will be neglected.
This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

12.39.2.1 Model description


■ Reference: Guide d’evaluation Advance Design, EN 1993-1-1: 2001;
■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);
■ Element type: linear.
The following load case and load combination are used:
■ Exploitation loadings (category A), Q:
► Fx = 200 000 N,
■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

■ Cross section dimensions are in milimeters (mm).

Units
Metric System

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Geometry
Below are described the column cross section characteristics:
■ Height: h = 300 mm,
■ Width: b = 200 mm,
■ Thickness: t = 10 mm,
■ Outer radius: r = 15 mm,
■ Column height: L = 5000 mm,
2
■ Section area: A = 9490 mm ,
3
■ Plastic section modulus about y-y axis: W pl,y = 956000 mm ,
■ Partial factor for resistance of cross sections:  M 0  1. 0 .

Materials properties
S235 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:
■ Yield strength fy = 235 MPa,
5
■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 2.1 x 10 MPa.

Boundary conditions
The boundary conditions are described below:
■ Outer:
► Support at start point (z = 0) restrained in translation and rotation along X, Y and Z axis,
► Free at end point (z = 5.00).
■ Inner: None.

Loading
The column is subjected to the following loadings:
■ External:
► Point load at z = 2.5: V= Fx = 200 000 N,
■ Internal: None.

12.39.2.2 Reference results for calculating the design plastic shear resistance of the cross-section
The design plastic shear resistance of the cross-section is determined with formula (6.18) from EN 1993-1-1:2001.
Before using it, the shear area (Av) has to be determined.

Shear area of the cross section


For a rectangular hollow section of uniform thickness the shear area is determined according to chapter 6.2.6 (3) from
EN 1993-1-1. As the load is parallel to depth, the shear area is:

A  h 9490mm 2  300mm
Av    5694mm 2
bh 300mm  200mm
Design plastic shear resistance of the cross section
EN 1993-1-1: 2011 provides the following formula to calculate the design plastic shear resistance of the cross-
section:

f 235MPa
Av  5694mm 2 
y

V pl , Rd  3  3  772546.6 N
 M0 1.0

Work ratio
The verification of the design plastic shear resistance is done with relationship (6.17) from EN 1993-1-1. The
corresponding work ratio is:

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V 200000
Work ratio = 100  100  25.89%
V pl , Rd 772546.6

12.39.2.3 Reference results for calculating the design resistance for bending
Before calculating the design resistance for bending, the cross section class has to be determined.

Cross section class


The following results are determined according to Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures - Part 1-1: General rules
and rules for buildings (EN 1993-1-1: 2001), Chapter 5.5.2.
In this case, the column is subjected to bending efforts, therefore the stresses distribution is like in the picture below:

Table 5.2 - sheet 1, from Chapter 5.5.2 (EN 1993-1-1: 2001), establish the rules to determine the class for
compressed parts. The picture below shows an extract from this table.

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Taking into account that the top wing part is subjected to compression stresses, its class can be determined by
considering the geometrical properties and the conditions described in Table 5.2 - sheet 1 (the above highlighted
extract – part subject to compression).

c b  2  r  2  t 200mm  2  15mm  2  10mm


   15
t t 10mm
235
  1. 0
fy
Therefore:

c
 15  33  33
t
This means that the top wing is Class 1. Because the bottom wing is tensioned, it will be classified as Class 1.
The left/right web is subjected to bending stresses. Their class can be determined by considering the geometrical
properties and the conditions described in Table 5.2 - sheet 1 (the above highlighted extract – part subject to
bending):

c h  2  r  2  t 300mm  2 15mm  2 10mm


   25
t t 10mm
235
  1. 0
fy
Therefore:

c
 25  72  72
t
This means that the left/right web is Class 1.
Because a cross-section is classified according to the least favorable classification of its compression elements
(chapter 5.5.2(6) from EN 1993-1-1: 2001), this means that the cross-section is Class 1.

Design resistance for bending


The design resistance for bending, for Class 1 cross-section, is determined with formula (6.13) from EN 1993-1-
1:2001.

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W pl , y  f 956000mm 3  235MPa
M c , Rd    224660000Nmm
y

 M0 1.0

Work ratio
The verification of the design resistance for bending is done with relationship (6.12) from EN 1993-1-1. The
corresponding work ratio is:

L 5000mm
V 200000N 
M Ed 2  100  2
Work ratio =  100   100  222.56%
M c , Rd M c , Rd 224660000Nmm

Finite elements modeling


■ Linear element: S beam,
■ 6 nodes,
■ 1 linear element.

Finite elements results

Work ratio of the design shear resistance

Column subjected to a punctual horizontal load applied to the middle height


Work ratio - Fz

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Work ratio of the design resistance for bending

Column subjected to a punctual horizontal load applied to the middle height


Work ratio – Oblique

12.39.2.4 Reference results


Result name Result description Reference value
Work ratio - Fz Work ratio of the design plastic shear resistance [%] 25.89 %

Work ratio - Oblique Work ratio of the design resistance for bending [%] 222.56 %

12.39.3Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Work ratio - Fz Work ratio of the design plastic shear resistance 25.8793 % -0.0413 %
Work ratio - Work ratio of the design resistance for bending 222.559 % -0.0004 %
Oblique

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12.40 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the buckling resistance of a RC3020100 column
(evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 20)

Test ID: 5700


Test status: Passed

12.40.1Description
The test verifies the buckling of a RC3020100 column made of S355 steel.
The verifications are made according to Eurocode3 French Annex.

12.40.2Background
Verification of buckling under compression efforts for a rectangular hollow, RC3020100 column made of S235 steel.
The column is fixed at its base and free on the top. The column is subjected to a compression force (200 000 N)
applied at its top. The dead load will be neglected.
This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

12.40.2.1 Model description


■ Reference: Guide d’evaluation Advance Design, EN 1993-1-1: 2005;
■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);
■ Element type: linear.
The following load case and load combination are used:
■ Exploitation loadings (category A): Q1 = -200 000 N,
■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

■ Cross section dimensions are in milimeters (mm).

Units
Metric System

Geometrical properties
2
■ Cross section area: A=9490mm
4 4
■ Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: Iy=11819x10 mm
4 4
■ Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: Iz=6278x10 mm

Materials properties
S235 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:
■ Yield strength fy = 235 MPa,

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5
■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 2.1 x 10 MPa.

Boundary conditions
The boundary conditions are described below:
■ Outer:
► Support at start point (x = 0) restrained in translation and rotation along X, Y and Z axis,
► Free at end point (x = 5.00).
■ Inner: None.
■ Buckling lengths Lfy and Lfz are both imposed (10m)

Loading
The column is subjected to the following loadings:
■ External: Point load at Z = 5.0: FZ = N = -200 000 N,
■ Internal: None.

12.40.2.2 Buckling in the strong inertia of the profile (along Y-Y)


The calculations are made in order to obtain the work ratio of the analyzed element. The work ratio of the element is
calculated using the percentage of the design buckling resistance of the compressed element (N b,Rd) from the
compression force applied to the element (NEd). The design buckling resistance of the compressed member, N b,Rd, is
calculated according to Eurocode 3 1993-1-1-2005, Chapter 6.3.1.1.

N Ed
 100  100% (6.46)
Nb, Rd
The design buckling resistance of the compressed element is calculated using the next formula:

  A fy
Nb, Rd  (6.47)
 M1
Where:
Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness after the Y-Y axis

 coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness  will be determined from the relevant buckling curve
according to:

1
 2
1 (6.49)
  2  

 the non-dimensional slenderness corresponding to Class 1, 2 and 3 cross-sections:


A* f y

N cr
2 2
Where: A is the cross section area; A=5380mm ; fy is the yielding strength of the material; fy=235N/mm and Ncr is the
elastic critical force for the relevant buckling mode based on the gross cross sectional properties:

 ²  E  Iz  ²  210000MPa  11819 104 mm 4


N cr    2449625.943N
L fy ² 10000mm 2
A fy 9490mm 2  235N / mm 2
   0.954
N cr 2449625.943N


  0.5 1   (  0.2)   ² 

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It will be used the following buckling curve:

The imperfection factor  corresponding to the appropriate buckling curve will be 0.21:

 
  0.5  1    (  0.2)   ²  0.5  1  0.21 0.954  0.2  0.9542   1.034
Therefore:

1 1
   0.698  1
    2 2
1.034  1.0342  0.9542

 M1 is a safety coefficient,  M1  1
0.698 9490mm2  235N / mm2
Nb, Rd   1556644.7 N
1
N Ed  200000N

N Ed 200000N
100  100  12.848%
Nb, Rd 1556644.7 N

12.40.2.3 Buckling in the weak inertia of the profile (along Z-Z)


The calculations are made in order to obtain the work ratio of the analyzed element. The work ratio of the element is
calculated using the percentage of the design buckling resistance of the compressed element (N b,Rd) from the
compression force applied to the element (NEd). The design buckling resistance of the compressed member, N b,Rd, is
calculated according to Eurocode 3 1993-1-1-2005, Chapter 6.3.1.1.

N Ed
 100  100% (6.46)
Nb, Rd
The design buckling resistance of the compressed element is calculated using the next formula:

  A fy
Nb, Rd  (6.47)
 M1
Where:
Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness after the Z-Z axis

 coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness  will be determined from the relevant buckling curve
according to:

1
 2
1 (6.49)
  2  

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

 the non-dimensional slenderness corresponding to Class 1, 2 and 3 cross-sections:


A* f y

N cr
2 2
Where: A is the cross section area; A=5380mm ; fy is the yielding strength of the material; fy=235N/mm and Ncr is the
elastic critical force for the relevant buckling mode based on the gross cross sectional properties:

 ²  E  Iz  ²  210000MPa  6278 104 mm 4


N cr    1301188.905N
L fy ² 10000mm 2
A fy 9490mm 2  235N / mm 2
   1.309
N cr 1301188.905N


  0.5 1   (  0.2)   ² 
It will be used the following buckling curve:

The imperfection factor  corresponding to the appropriate buckling curve will be 0.21:

 
  0.5  1    (  0.2)   ²  0.5  1  0.21 1.309  0.2  1.3092   1.473
Therefore:

1 1
   0.465  1
    2 2
1.473  1.4732  1.3092

 M1 is a safety coefficient,  M1  1
0.465 9490mm2  235N / mm2
Nb, Rd   1037019.75N
1
N Ed  200000N

N Ed 200000N
100  100  19.286%
Nb, Rd 1037019.75N

Finite elements modeling


■ Linear element: S beam,
■ 6 nodes,
■ 1 linear element.

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Finite elements results

Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness after Y-Y axis

Buckling of a column subjected to compression force


Non-dimensional slenderness after Y-Y axis

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness after Z-Z axis

Buckling of a column subjected to compression force


Non-dimensional slenderness after Z-Z axis

Ratio of the design normal force to design buckling resistance (strong inertia)

Buckling of a column subjected to compression force


Work ratio (y-y)

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Ratio of the design normal force to design buckling resistance (weak inertia)

Buckling of a column subjected to compression force


Work ratio (z-z)

12.40.2.4 Reference results


Result name Result description Reference value

y coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness after Y-Y axis 0.698

z coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness after Z-Z axis 0.465

Work ratio (y-y) Ratio of the design normal force to design buckling resistance (strong 12.85%
inertia) [%]
Work ratio (z-z) Ratio of the design normal force to design buckling resistance (weak 19.29%
inertia) [%]

12.40.3Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Xy coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.697433 adim 0.0000 %
slenderness after Y-Y axis
Xz coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.465226 adim 0.0000 %
slenderness after Z-Z axis
SNy Ratio of the design normal force to design buckling 0.128586 adim 0.0000 %
resistance in the strong inertia of the profile
SNz Ratio of the design normal force to design buckling 0.192767 adim 0.0000 %
resistance in the weak inertia of the profile

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12.41 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Cross section classification and compression resistance
verification of a rectangular hollow section column (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test
11)

Test ID: 5705


Test status: Passed

12.41.1Description
Verifies the cross section classification and the compression resistance of a rectangular hollow section column.
The verification is made according to Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-1-1) French Annex.

12.41.2Background
Classification and verification under compression efforts of a hot rolled rectangular hollow section column made of
S235 steel. The name of the cross-section is RC3020100 and can be found in the Advance Design OTUA library.
The column is fixed at its base and free on the top. It is subjected to a compression force (100 000 N) applied at its
top. The dead load will be neglected.
This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

12.41.2.1 Model description


■ Reference: Guide d’evaluation Advance Design, EN 1993-1-1: 2001;
■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);
■ Element type: linear.
The following load case and load combination are used:
■ Exploitation loadings (category A), Q:
► Fz = -100 000 N,
■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

■ Cross section dimensions are in milimeters (mm).

Units
Metric System

Geometry
Below are described the column cross section characteristics:
■ Height: h = 300 mm,
■ Width: b = 200 mm,

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■ Thickness: t = 10 mm,
■ Outer radius: r = 15 mm,
■ Column length: L = 5000 mm,
■ Section area: A = 9490 mm2 ,

■ Partial factor for resistance of cross sections: .

Materials properties
S235 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:
■ Yield strength fy = 235 MPa,
5
■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 2.1 x 10 MPa.

Boundary conditions
The boundary conditions are described below:
■ Outer:
► Support at start point (z = 0) restrained in translation and rotation along X, Y and Z axis,
► Free at end point (z = 5.00).
■ Inner: None.

Loading
The column is subjected to the following loadings:
■ External: Point load at Z = 5.0:
► N = Fz = -100 000 N,
■ Internal: None.

12.41.2.2 Reference results for calculating the cross section class


The following results are determined according to Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures - Part 1-1: General rules
and rules for buildings (EN 1993-1-1: 2001), Chapter 5.5.2.
In this case, the column is subjected to a punctual compression load, therefore the stresses distribution is like in the
picture below:

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Table 5.2 - sheet 1, from Chapter 5.5.2 (EN 1993-1-1: 2001), establish the rules to determine the class for
compressed parts. The picture below shows an extract from this table. The entire cross-section is subjected to
compression stresses.

The cross-section class can be determined by considering the geometrical properties and the conditions described in
Table 5.2 - sheet 1, and it is calculated for the most defavourable compressed part:

c h  2  r  2  t 300mm  2 15mm  2 10mm


   25
t t 10mm
235
  1. 0
fy
Therefore:

c
 25  33  33
t
Because a cross-section is classified according to the least favorable classification of its compression elements
(chapter 5.5.2(6) from EN 1993-1-1: 2001), this means that the cross-section is Class 1.

12.41.2.3 Reference results for calculating the compression resistance of the cross-section
The compression resistance for Class 1 cross-section is determined with formula (6.10) from EN 1993-1-1:2001.

Compression resistance of the cross section


For Class 1 cross-section, EN 1993-1-1: 2011 provides the following formula in order to calculate the compression
resistance of the cross-section:

A f 9490mm 2  235MPa
N c , Rd    2230150N
y

 M0 1.0

Work ratio

N 100000N
Work ratio = 100  100  4.48%
N c, Rd 2230150N

Finite elements modeling


■ Linear element: S beam,

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■ 6 nodes,
■ 1 linear element.

Finite elements results

Work ratio of the design resistance for uniform compression

Column subjected to bending and axial force


Work ratio - Fx

12.41.2.4 Reference results


Result name Result description Reference value
Work ratio - Fx Compression resistance work ratio [%] 4.48 %

12.41.3Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Work ratio - Fx Compression resistance work ratio 4.484 % 0.0893 %

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12.42 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying an user defined I section class 4 column fixed on
the bottom and with a displacement restraint at 2.81m from the bottom (evaluated by
SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 25)

Test ID: 5712


Test status: Passed

12.42.1Description
The test verifies a user defined cross section column.
The cross section has an “I symmetric” shape with: 880mm height; 220mm width; 5mm center thickness; 15mm
flange thickness; 0mm fillet radius and 0mm rounding radius.
The column is subjected to a -328kN axial compression force; 1274 kNm bending moment after the Y axis and 127.4
kNm bending moment after the Z axis. All the efforts are applied on the top of the column. The column height is
5.62m and has a restraint of displacement at 2.81m from the bottom over the weak axis.
The calculations are made according to Eurocode 3 French Annex.

12.42.2Background
An I880*5+220*15 shaped column subjected to compression and bending, made from S275 steel. The column has a
880x5mm web and 220x15mm flanges. The column is hinged at its base and at his top the end is translation is
permitted only on vertical direction and the rotation is blocked for the long axis of the column. The column is
subjected to an axial compression load -328000 N, a 127400Nm bending moment after the X axis and a1274000Nm
bending moment after the Y axis.
The column has lateral restraints against torsional buckling placed in at 2.81m from the column end (in the middle).
This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

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12.42.2.1 Model description


■ Reference: Guide d’evaluation Advance Design, EN 1993-1-1: 2005;
■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);
■ Element type: linear.
The following load case and load combination are used:
■ Exploitation loadings (category A): Fz=-328000N N, Mx= 127400Nm; My=1274000Nm
■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q
■ Cross section dimensions are in millimeters (mm).

Units
Metric System

Geometrical properties
■ Column length: L=5620mm
■ Cross section area: A  10850mm2
■ Overall breadth: b  220mm
■ Flange thickness: t f  15mm

■ Root radius:r  0mm


■ Web thickness: t w  5mm

■ Depth of the web: hw  880mm


■ Elastic modulus after the Y axis, Wel , y  3387.66  103 mm 3
■ Plastic modulus after the Y axis, W y  3757.62  103 mm 3
■ Elastic modulus after the Z axis, Wel , z  242.08  103 mm 3
■ Plastic modulus after the Z axis, W pl , z  368.31 103 mm 3
4 4
■ Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: Iy=149058.04x10 mm
4 4
■ Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: Iz=2662.89x10 mm
4 4
■ Torsional moment of inertia: It=51.46x10 mm
6 6
■ Working inertial moment: Iw=4979437.37x10 mm

Materials properties
S275 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:
■ Yield strength fy = 275 MPa,

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■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 210000 MPa.


■ Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800MPa

Boundary conditions
The boundary conditions are described below:
■ Outer:
► Support at start point (x = 0) restrained in translation along X, Y and Z axis,
► Support at the end point (z = 5.62) restrained in translation along Y and Z axis and restrained rotation
along X axis.
■ Inner:
► Lateral buckling restraint in the middle of the column (z=2.81).

Loading
The column is subjected to the following loadings:
■ External: Point load From X=0.00m and z=5.62m: FZ =--328000N; Mx=127400Nm and My=1274000Nm

12.42.2.2 Cross section Class


According to Advance Design calculations:
Cross-class classification is made according to Table 5.2

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-for beam web:


The web dimensions are 850x5mm.
N Ed 0.328
  2 1  2   1  0.78  1
A fy 0.0109  275

1  N Ed  1  0.328 
   1     1    0.64  0.5
2  f y  t  d  2  275 0.85  0.005 

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235 235
   0.924
fy 275

c 880mm  2 15mm 
  170 c 42   42  0.924
t 5mm    170    94.06
 t 0.67  0.33 0.67  0.33 (0.78)
  924 
therefore the beam web is considered to be Class 4
- for beam flange:

c 107.5 
  7.61 c
t 15    7.61  9  0.924  8.316 therefore the haunch is considered to
 t
  924 
be Class1.
In conclusion, the section is considered to be Class 4.

12.42.2.3 Effective cross-sections of Class4 cross-sections


- the section is composed from Class 4 web and Class 1 flanges, therefore will start the web
calculation:
- in order to simplify the calculations the web will be considered compressed only

c 880mm  2  15mm
  170 :
t 5mm
  1  k  4
According to EC3 Part 1,5 – EN 1993-1-5-2004; Table 4.1

bw
p  t
28.4    k

bw is the width of the web; bw  850mm


t is the web thickness; t=5mm

235 235
   0.9244
fy 275

850mm
p  5mm  3.261
28.4  0.9244  4
According to EC3 Part 1,5 – EN 1993-1-5-2004; Chapter4.4
-the web is considered to be an internal compression element, therefore:

 p  3.261  0.673  p  0.055 3   3.261 0.055 4


     0.286
3   4  0 
2
p 3.2612

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beff    bw  beff  0.286  850mm  243.1mm


 
be1  0.5  beff   be1  0.5  243.1mm  121.55mm
 
be 2  0.5  beff  be 2  0.5  243.1mm  121.55mm

Aeff ,web  t w  be1  t w  be 2  5mm 121.55mm  5mm 121.55mm  1215.5mm 2

Aeff , flange  t f  b f  15mm  220mm  3300mm 2

Aeff  Aeff ,web  2  Aeff , flange  1215.5mm 2  2  3300mm 2  7815.2mm 2

12.42.2.4 Effective elastic section modulus of Class4 cross-sections


- In order to simplify the calculation the section will be considered in pure bending

 inf 850mm
  1  bc  bt   425mm
 sup 2
  1  k  23.9
According to EC3 Part 1,5 – EN 1993-1-5-2004; Table 4.1

c 880mm  2  15mm
  170
t 5mm
bw
p  t
28.4    k

bw is the width of the web; bw  850mm


t is the web thickness; t=5mm

235 235
   0.9244
fy 275

850mm
p  5mm  1.325
28.4  0.9244 23.9
According to EC3 Part 1,5 – EN 1993-1-5-2004; Chapter4.4

 p  1.325  0.673  p  0.055 3   1.325  0.055 2


     0.692
3   2  0 
2
p 1.3252

bw   850mm
beff    bc     beff  0.692   294.1mm
1  1   1

  
be1  0.4  beff   be1  0.4  294.1mm  117.64mm
 b  0.6  294.1mm  176.46mm
be 2  0.6  beff   e2
 
 

155
ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

-the weight center coordinate is:

yG 
22015 432.5  117.64  5 366.18  22015 432.5  601.46  5124.27 
22015  117.64  5  601.46  5  22015
 158330.095
  15.53mm
10195.5
-the inertial moment along the strong axis is:

153  220 117.643  5


Iy   220  15  448.032   117.64  5  381.712 
12 12
601.463  5 153  220
  601.46  5  107.742   220  15  416.97 2 
12 12
 748854356.6  699380072.5  1448234429mm 4
2203 15 53 117.64
Iz   220 15  0 2   117.64  5  0 2 
12 12
5  601.46
3
2203 15
  601.46  5  0 
2
 220  15  0 2  26627490.63mm 4
12 12
Iy 1448234429mm 4
Wel , y    3179229.533mm 3
z max 455.53mm

Iz 26627490.63mm 4
Wel , z    242068.10mm 3
y max 110mm

12.42.2.5 Buckling verification


a) over the strong axis of the section, y-y:
- the imperfection factor α will be selected according to Tables 6.1 and 6.2:

156
ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

  0.34
Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness after Y-Y axis:

 y coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness y will be determined from the relevant buckling
curve according to:

1
y  2
1 (6.49)
 y   y  y
2

 y the non-dimensional slenderness corresponding to Class 4 cross-sections:


Aeff * f y
y 
N cr , y

Where: A is the effective cross section area; Aeff  7815.2mm 2 ; fy is the yielding strength of the material;
2
fy=275N/mm and Ncr is the elastic critical force for the relevant buckling mode based on the gross cross sectional
properties:

² E Iy  ²  210000N / mm 2  1448234429mm 4


N cr , y    95035371.44 N  95035.37kN
l fy ² 5620mm ²

157
ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Aeff  f y 7815.2mm 2  275N / mm 2


y    0.15
N cr , y 95035371.44N

 
 y  0.5  1    ( y  0.2)   y ²  0.5  1  0.34  0.15  0.2  0.152   0.503

1 1 
y    1.017
y  y  y
2 2
0.503  0.503  0.15
2 2
  y 1

y 1 
b) over the weak axis of the section, z-z:
- the imperfection factor α will be selected according to Tables 6.1 and 6.2:

  0.49
Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness after Z-Z axis:

 z coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness z will be determined from the relevant buckling curve
according to:

1
z  1 (6.49)
z  z   z
2 2

158
ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

 z the non-dimensional slenderness corresponding to Class 1, 2 and 3 cross-sections:


Aeff * f y
z 
N cr , z

Where: A is the effective cross section area; Aeff  7815.2mm 2 ; fy is the yielding strength of the material;
2
fy=275N/mm and Ncr is the elastic critical force for the relevant buckling mode based on the gross cross sectional
properties:

l fz  2.81m because of the torsional buckling restraint from the middle of the column

 ² E  Iz  ²  210000N / mm 2  26627490.63mm 4
N cr , z    6989347.62 N  6989.35kN
l fz ² 2810mm ²
Aeff  f y 7815.2mm 2  275N / mm 2
z    0.555
N cr , z 6989347.62N

 
 z  0.5  1    ( z  0.2)   z ²  0.5  1  0.49  0.555  0.2  0.5552   0.741
1 1 
z    0.812
z  z   z 0.741  0.741  0.555    z  0.812
2 2 2 2


z  1 

12.42.2.6 Lateral-torsional buckling verification


a) for the top part of the column:
The elastic moment for lateral-torsional buckling calculation, Mcr:
- the transversal load is applied to the shear center, therefore C 2zg=0 and the moment formula will be:

 ²  E  Iz I w L²  G  I t
M cr  C1   
L² Iz  ²  E  Iz
According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 2; …(3)
- where:
C1 is a coefficient that depends of several parameters as: section properties; support conditions; moment diagram
allure

1
C1 
0.325  0.423  0.252 ²
According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 3; …(6)

637kNm
 is the fraction of the bending moment from the column extremities:    0.50
1274kNm

159
ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

637kNm
  0.5  C1  1.31
1274kNm
According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 3.2; Table 1

Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: I y  1448234429mm 4

Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: I z  26627490.63mm 4


2
Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 210000 N/mm .
4
Torsional moment of inertia: It=514614.75mm
Warping inertial moment:
IW is the warping inertia (deformation inertia moment):

I z  h  t f 
2

Iw 
4
h cross section height; h=880mm

tf flange thickness; t f  15mm

26627490.63 mm 4  880mm  15mm 


2
Iw   49.808  1011 mm 6
4
According to EN1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 2 (…4)
Length of the column part: L=2810mm
2
Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800N/mm

160
ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

 ² E  Iz I w L²  G  I t  2  210000N / mm 2  26627490.63mm 4
M cr  C1     1.31 
L² Iz  ² E  Iz 2810mm 2
49.8081011 mm 6 2810mm   80800N / mm 2  514614mm 4
2
   1.31 6989347.626N  439.32mm 
26627490.63mm 4  2  210000N / mm 2  26627490.63mm 4
 4022433856Nmm  4022.43kNm
Iy 1448234429mm 4
The elastic modulus : Wel , y    3179229.533mm 3
z max 455.53mm

Weff , y f y 3179229.533mm 3 275N / mm 2


 LT    0.466
M cr 4022433856Nmm

Calculation of the  LT for appropriate non-dimensional slenderness  LT will be determined with formula:

1
 LT  1 (6.56)
LT  LT ²   LT ²


LT  0.5  1   LT   LT  0.2   LT ² 
The cross section buckling curve will be chosen according to Table 6.4:

h 880mm
 42
b 220mm

The imperfection factor α will be chose according to Table 6.3:

  0.76
   
LT  0.5 1   LT   LT  0.2   LT ²  0.51  0.76  0.466  0.2  0.466²  0.710
1 1
 LT    0.803  1
LT  LT ²   LT ² 0.710  0.710²  0.466²
b) for the bottom part of the column:
The elastic moment for lateral-torsional buckling calculation, Mcr:
- the transversal load is applied to the shear center, therefore C 2zg=0 and the moment formula will be:

161
ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

 ²  E  Iz I w L²  G  I t
M cr  C1   
L² Iz  ²  E  Iz
According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 2; …(3)
- where:
C1 is a coefficient that depends on several parameters, such as: section properties; support conditions; moment
diagram allure

1
C1 
0.325  0.423  0.252 ²
According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 3; …(6)

0
 is the fraction of the bending moment from the column extremities:   0
637kNm

  0  C1  1.77
According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 3.2; Table 1

Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: I y  1448234429mm 4

Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: I z  26627490.63mm 4


2
Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 210000 N/mm .
4
Torsional moment of inertia: It=514614.75mm
Warping inertial moment:
IW is the warping inertia (deformation inertia moment):

I z  h  t f 
2

Iw 
4
h cross section height; h=880mm

tf flange thickness; t f  15mm

162
ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

26627490.63 mm 4  880mm  15mm 


2
Iw   49.808  1011 mm 6
4
According to EN1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 2 (…4)

Length of the column part: L=2810mm


2
Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800N/mm

 ² E  Iz I w L²  G  I t  2  210000N / mm 2  26627490.63mm 4
M cr  C1     1.77  
L² Iz  ² E  Iz 2810mm 2
49.8081011 mm 6 2810mm   80800N / mm 2  514614mm 4
2
   1.77  6989347.626N  439.32mm 
26627490.63mm 4  2  210000N / mm 2  26627490.63mm 4
 5434891269Nmm  5434.89kNm

Iy 1448234429mm 4
The elastic modulus : Wel , y    3179229.533mm 3
z max 455.53mm

Weff , y f y 3179229.533mm 3 275N / mm 2


 LT    0.401
M cr 5434891269Nmm

Calculation of the  LT for appropriate non-dimensional slenderness  LT will be determined with the formula:

1
 LT  1 (6.56)
LT  LT ²   LT ²


LT  0.5  1   LT   LT  0.2   LT ² 
The cross section buckling curve will be chose according to Table 6.4:

h 880mm
 42
b 220mm

The imperfection factor α will be chose according to Table 6.3:

  0.76

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

   
LT  0.5 1   LT   LT  0.2   LT ²  0.51  0.76  0.401 0.2  0.401²  0.657
1 1
 LT    0.849  1
LT  LT ²   LT ² 0.657  0.657²  0.401²

12.42.2.7 Internal factor, k yy , calculation

The internal factor k yy corresponding to a Class 4 section will be calculated according to Annex A, Table a.1, and will be
calculated separately for the two column parts separate by the middle torsional lateral restraint:
a) for the top part of the column:

y
k yy  C my  C mLT 
N Ed
1
N cr , y

N Ed
1
N cr , y
y 
N
1   y  Ed
N cr , y

 y  1 (previously calculated)
N Ed  328kN

 ² E Iy
N cr , y   95035371.44 N  95035.37kN (previously calculated)
l fy ²
N Ed
1 1
328000N
N cr , y 95035371.44 N  1
y  
N Ed 328000N
1  y  1  1
N cr , y 95035371.44 N

164
ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

The Cmy will be calculated according to Table A.1:

Calculation of the  0 term:

Weff , y  f y
0 
M cr 0
According to Eurocode 3 EN 1993-1-1-2005; Chapter 6.3.2.2
4
Iy 1448234429mm
Wel , y    3179229.533mm 3
z max 455.53mm
The calculation the M cr 0 will be calculated using C1  1 and C2  0 , therefore:

 ² E  Iz I w L²  G  I t  2  210000N / mm 2  26627490.63mm 4
M cr 0  C1     1 
L² Iz  ² E  Iz 2810mm 2
49.8081011 mm 6 2810mm   80800N / mm 2  514614mm 4
2
   1 6989347.626N  439.32mm 
26627490.63mm 4  2  210000N / mm 2  26627490.63mm 4
 3070560199Nmm  3070.56kNm
Weff , y  f y 3179229.533mm 3  275N / mm 2
0    0.534
M cr 0 3070560199Nmm

165
ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

 N   N 
Calculation of the 0.20  C1  4 1  Ed   1  Ed  term:
 N cr , z   N cr ,TF 
Where:
- for a symmetrical section for the both axis, N cr ,TF  N cr ,T

A   2  E  I w 
Ncr ,T    G  It 
I0  Lcr ,T ² 
The mass moment of inertia I 0

I 0  I y  I z  A  z g2
Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: I y  1490580416.67mm 4

Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: I z  26628854.17mm 4

Cross section area: A  10850mm2


Distance between the section neutral axis and the section geometrical center: z g 0

I 0  I y  I z  A  z g2  I y  I z  1490580416.67mm 4  26628854.17mm 4  1517209270mm 4

- the buckling length, Lcr ,T ,

Lcr ,T  2.81m
Torsional moment of inertia: I t  514614.75mm 4

Working inertial moment: I w  49.808  1011 mm6 (previously calculated)

Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 210000 MPa


Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800MPa

10850mm 2   2  210000N / mm 2  49.8081011 mm 6 


N cr ,T    80800N / mm 2
 514614.75mm 4
  
1517209270mm 4  2810mm ² 
 9646886.24N
N Ed  328000N
N cr ,TF  N cr ,T  9646886.24N
 ² E Iz
N cr , z   6989347.62N  6989.35kN (previously calculated)
l fz ²
C1=1.31 for the top part of the column
C1=1.77 for the bottom part of the column
For the top part of the column:

 N     328000N   328000N 
0.20  C1  4 1  Ed   1  N Ed   0.20  1.31  4 1    1  
N cr , z   N cr ,TF   6989347.62 N   9646886.24N 
   
 0.224

166
ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Therefore:
For the top part of the column:

 
   y  a LT
 0  0.534  C my  C my , 0  1  C my , 0 
  1   y  a LT
 N     
0.20  C1  4 1  Ed   1  N Ed   0.224   C mz  C mz , 0
  N 
 N cr , z   cr ,TF    a LT
 C mLT  C my 2
 1
 N   N       
0  0.534  0.20  C1  4 1  Ed   1  Ed   0.224  N
1  Ed   1  Ed  N
N  N       N   N 
cr , z cr ,TF
  cr , z   cr ,T 

The Cmy coefficient takes into account the column behavior in the buckling plane: the buckling and bending moment distribution.
The coefficient must be calculated considering the column over the entire height.

 y  a LT
Cmy  Cmy , 0  1  Cmy , 0 
1   y  a LT

M y , Ed Aeff
y  
N Ed Weff , y

Elastic modulus after the Y axis, Wel , y  Weff , y  3179229.533mm 3

M y , Ed Aeff 1274 106 Nmm 7815.2mm 2


y      9.55
N Ed Weff , y 328000N 3179229.533mm 3

It 514614.75mm 4
a LT  1   1  0.9996  1
Iy 1448234429mm 4

The C m 0 coefficient is defined according to the Table A.2:

The bending moment is null at the end of the column, therefore:  0

Cmy ,0  0.79  0.21  0.36    0.33 


N Ed
Ncr , y

167
ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Where:

 ² E Iy
N cr , y   95035371.44 N  95035.37kN (previously calculated)
l fy ²

Cmy ,0  0.79  0.36  0  0.33


328000N
 0.79
95035371.44N
 y  a LT 9.55 1
C my  C my , 0  1  C my ,0   0.79  1  0.79  0.949
1   y  a LT 1  9.55 1

Equivalent uniform moment factor, C mLT , calculation

- C mLT must be calculated separately for each column part, separated by the lateral buckling restraint

aLT
CmLT  Cmy
2
 1
   
1  N Ed   1  N Ed 
 N   N 
 cr , z   cr ,T 
-the C my term used for C mLT calculation, must be recalculated for the corresponding column part (in this case the top column part)

-this being the case, the C my will be calculated using   0.5 :

 y a LT
C my  C my , 0  1  C my , 0 
1   y a LT

Cmy ,0  0.79  0.21  0.36    0.33  0.79  0.21 0.5  0.36  0.5  0.33
N Ed 328000N
 0.895
N cr , y 95035371.44N
M y , Ed Aeff 1274 106 Nmm 7815.2mm 2
y      9.55 (previously calculated)
N Ed Weff , y 328000N 3179229.533mm 3

 y  a LT 9.55  1
Cmy  Cmy , 0  1  Cmy , 0    0.895  1  0.895   0.974
1   y  a LT 1  9.55  1

a LT 1 
C mLT  C my
2
  0.9742   0.989
     0.328   0.328  
1  N Ed   1  N Ed  1    1     C mLT  1
 N   N   6.9897   9.644 
 cr , z   cr ,T  
C mLT  1 

Therefore the k yy term corresponding to the top part of the column will be:
y 1
k yy  C my  C mLT   0.949  1   0.952
N Ed 328000N
1 1
N cr , y 95035371.44N

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

b) for the bottom part of the column:

y
k yy  C my  C mLT 
N Ed
1
N cr , y

Weff , y  f y 3179229.533mm 3  275N / mm 2


0    0.534
M cr 0 3070560199Nmm
For the bottom part of the column:

   
N
0.20  C1  4 1  Ed   1  N Ed   0.20  1.77  4 1  328000N   1  328000N  
  N   6989347.62N   9646886.24 N 
 N cr , z   cr ,TF 
 0.260

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Therefore:
For the bottom part of the column:

 
   y  a LT
 0  0.534  C my  C my , 0  1  C my , 0 
  1   y  a LT
 N     
0.20  C1  4 1  Ed   1  N Ed   0.260   C mz  C mz , 0
  N 
 N cr , z   cr ,TF    a LT
 C mLT  C my 2
 1
 N   N       
0  0.534  0.20  C1  4 1  Ed   1  Ed   0.260  1  N Ed   1  N Ed 
N  N       N   N 
cr , z cr ,TF
  cr , z   cr ,T 

The Cmy coefficient takes into account the column behavior in the buckling plane: the buckling and bending moment distribution.
The coefficient must be calculated considering the column over the entire height.

 y  a LT
Cmy  Cmy , 0  1  Cmy , 0 
1   y  a LT

M y , Ed Aeff
y  
N Ed Weff , y

Elastic modulus after the Y axis, Wel , y  Weff , y  3179229.533mm 3

M y , Ed Aeff 1274 106 Nmm 7815.2mm 2


y      9.55
N Ed Weff , y 328000N 3179229.533mm 3

It 514614.75mm 4
a LT  1   1  0.9996  1
Iy 1448234429mm 4

The C m 0 coefficient is defined according to the Table A.2:

M Ed ,inf 0
The bending moment is null at the end of the column, therefore:    0
M Ed ,sup 1274kNm

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Cmy ,0  0.79  0.21  0.36    0.33 


N Ed
Ncr , y
Where:

 ² E Iy
N cr , y   95035371.44 N  95035.37kN (previously calculated)
l fy ²

Cmy ,0  0.79  0.36  0  0.33


328000N
 0.79
95035371.44N
 y  a LT 9.55 1
C my  C my , 0  1  C my ,0   0.79  1  0.79  0.949
1   y  a LT 1  9.55 1

Equivalent uniform moment factor, C mLT , calculation

- C mLT must be calculated separately for each column part, separated by the lateral buckling restraint
aLT
CmLT  Cmy
2
 1
   
1  N Ed   1  N Ed 
 N   N 
 cr , z   cr ,T 
-the C my term used for C mLT calculation, must be recalculated for the corresponding column part (in this case the top column part)

-this being the case, the C my will be calculated using   0.5 :

 y a LT
C my  C my , 0  1  C my , 0 
1   y a LT

Cmy ,0  0.79  0.21  0.36    0.33  0.79  0.21 0.5  0.36  0.5  0.33
N Ed 328000N
 0.895
N cr , y 95035371.44N
M y , Ed Aeff 637 106 Nmm 7815.2mm 2
y      4.77
N Ed Weff , y 328000N 3179229.533mm 3

 y  a LT 4.77 1
C my  C my , 0  1  C my , 0   0.895  1  0.895  0.967
1   y  a LT 1  4.77  1

a LT 1 
C mLT  C my
2
  0.9672   0.974
     328000N   328000N  
1  N Ed   1  N Ed  1    1     C mLT  1
 N   N   6989347.62 N   9646886.24 N 
 cr , z   cr ,T  
C mLT  1 

y 1
k yy  C my  C mLT   0.949  1   0.952
N Ed 328000N
1 1
N cr , y 95035371.44N

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Note: The software does not give the results of the lower section because it is not the most solicited segment.

12.42.2.8 Internal factor, k yz , calculation

a) for the top part of the column:

y
k yz  C mz 
N Ed
1
N cr , z

 M 0 
The Cmz term must be calculated for the hole column length   Ed ,inf   0
 M Ed ,sup 1274kNm 
 

Cmz  Cmz ,0  0.79  0.36   0.33  0.79  0.36   0.33


N Ed 328000N
 0.784
N cr , z 6989347.62N
y 1
k yz  C mz   0.784   0.823
N Ed 328000N
1 1
N cr , z 6989347.62N

b) for the bottom part of the column:

y 1
k yz  C mz   0.784   0.823
N Ed 328000N
1 1
N cr , z 6989347.62N
Note:
The software does not give the results of the lower section because it is not the most solicited segment.

12.42.2.9 Internal factor, k zy , calculation

a) for the top part of the column:

z
k zy  C my  C mLT 
N Ed
1
N cr , y

N Ed
1 1
328000N
N cr , z 6989347.62N
z    0.991
N Ed 328000N
1 z  1  0.812 
N cr , z 6989347.62N

z 0.991
k zy  C my  C mLT   0.949  1   0.944
N Ed 328000N
1 1
N cr , y 95035371.44 N

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b) for the bottom part of the column:

z 0.991
k zy  C my  C mLT   0.949  1   0.944
N 328000N
1  Ed 1
N cr , y 95035371.44 N
Note:
The software does not give the results of the lower section because it is not the most solicited segment.

12.42.2.10Internal factor, k zz , calculation


a) for the top part of the column:

z 0.991
k zz  C mz   0.784   0.815
N Ed 328000N
1 1
N cr , z 6989347.62 N

b) for the bottom part of the column:

z 0.991
k zz  C mz   0.784   0.815
N 328000N
1  Ed 1
N cr , z 6989347.62 N
Note:
The software does not give the results of the lower section because it is not the most solicited segment.

12.42.2.11Bending and axial compression verification

 N Ed M y , Ed  M y , Rd M  M z , Rd
  k yy   k yz  z , Ed
N M M z , Rk
  y  Rk  LT  y ,Rk
  M1  M1  M1

 N Ed M y , Ed  M y , Rd M  M z , Rd
 k zy   k zz  z , Ed
 N Rk M M z , Rk
z   LT  y ,Rk
  M1  M1  M1

N Rk  f y  Ai

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

a) for the top part of the column:

328000N 1274  106 Nmm


 0.952  
7815.2mm 2  275N / mm 2 3179229.533mm 3  275N / mm 2
1 0.803 
1 1
127.4  10 Nmm
6
 0.823   0.15  1.73  1.58  3.46
242068.10mm 3  275N / mm 2
1
328000N 1274  106 Nmm
 0.944  
7815.2mm 2  275N / mm 2 3179229.533mm 3  275N / mm 2
0.812  0.803 
1 1
127.4  10 Nmm
6
 0.815   0.19  1.71  1.56  3.56
242068.10mm 3  275N / mm 2
1

b) for the bottom part of the column:

328000N 1274  106 Nmm


 0.952  
7815.2mm 2  275N / mm 2 3179229.533mm 3  275N / mm 2
0.812  0.803 
1 1
127.4  10 Nmm
6
 0.823   0.19  1.73  1.58  3.46
242068.10mm 3  275N / mm 2
1
328000N 1274  106 Nmm
 0.944  
7815.2mm 2  275N / mm 2 3179229.533mm 3  275N / mm 2
0.812  0.803 
1 1
127.4  10 Nmm
6
 0.815   0.19  1.71  1.56  3.56
242068.10mm 3  275N / mm 2
1
Note:
The software does not give the results of the lower section because it is not the most solicited segment.

Finite elements modeling


■ Linear element: S beam,
■ 6 nodes,
■ 1 linear element.

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

 y coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness  y

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

y

 z coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness  z


Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

z

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Internal factor, k yy

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

k yy

Internal factor, k yz

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

k yz

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Internal factor, k zy

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

k zy

Internal factor, k zz

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

k zz

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the compression effort over the Y axis: SNy

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the compression effort
over the Y axis
SNy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y bending moment over the Y axis: SMyy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y bending moment
over the Y axis
SMyy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z bending moment over the Y axis: SMyz

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z bending moment
over the Y axis
SMyz

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the compression effort over the Z axis: SNz

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the compression effort
over the Z axis
SNz

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y bending moment over the Z axis: SMzy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y bending moment
over the Z axis
SMzy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z bending moment over the Z axis: SMzz

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z bending moment
over the Z axis
SMzz

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12.42.2.12Reference results
Result name Result description Reference value

y  y coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness  y 1

z  z coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness  z 0.81

0.95
k yy Internal factor, k yy

k yz Internal factor, k yz 0.82

k zy Internal factor, k zy 0.94

k zy Internal factor, k zy 0.82

SNy Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the 0.15
compression effort over the Y axis
SMyy Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y 1.72
bending moment over the Y axis
SMyz Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z 1.58
bending moment over the Y axis
SNz Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the 0.19
compression effort over the z axis
SMzy Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y 1.71
bending moment over the Z axis
SMzz Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z 1.56
bending moment over the Z axis

12.42.3Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Xy Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 1 adim 0.0000 %
slenderness
Xz Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.771957 adim 0.2542 %
slenderness
Kyy Internal factor, kyy 0.954682 adim 0.4928 %
Kyz Internal factor, kyz 0.823048 adim 0.3717 %
Kzy Internal factor, kzy 0.944081 adim 0.4341 %
Kzz Internal factor, kzz 0.813909 adim -0.7428 %
SNy Bending and axial compression verification term 0.12109 adim 0.9083 %
depending of the compression effort over the Y axis
SMyy Bending and axial compression verification term 1.77289 adim 0.1633 %
depending of the Y bending moment over the Y axis
SMyz Bending and axial compression verification term 1.57519 adim 0.3306 %
depending of the Z bending moment over the Y axis
SNz Bending and axial compression verification term 0.156861 adim -1.9619 %
depending of the compression effort over the z axis
SMzy Bending and axial compression verification term 1.7532 adim 2.5263 %
depending of the Y bending moment over the Z axis
SMzy Bending and axial compression verification term 1.7532 adim 2.5263 %
depending of the Z bending moment over the Z axis

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.43 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying an user defined I section class 3 column fixed on
the bottom (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 26)

Test ID: 5714


Test status: Passed

12.43.1Description
The test verifies a user defined cross section column.
The cross section has an “I symmetric” shape with: 408mm height; 190mm width; 9.4mm center thickness; 14.6mm
flange thickness; 0mm fillet radius and 0mm rounding radius.
The column is subjected to 1000kN axial compression force and a 200kNm bending moment after the Y axis. All the
efforts are applied on the top of the column.
The calculations are made according to Eurocode 3 French Annex.

12.43.2Background
An I40.8*0.94+19*1.46 shaped column subjected to compression and bending, made from S275 steel. The column
has a 40.8x9.4mm web and 190x14.6mm flanges. The column is fixed at it’s base The column is subjected to an axial
compression load -1000000 N, a 200000Nm bending moment after the Y axis and a 5000N lateral force after the Y
axis.
This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

12.43.2.1 Model description


■ Reference: Guide d’evaluation Advance Design, EN 1993-1-1: 2005;
■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);
■ Element type: linear.
The following load case and load combination are used:
■ Exploitation loadings (category A): Fz=-1000000N N; My=200000Nm

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q


■ Cross section dimensions are in millimeters (mm).

Units
Metric System

Geometrical properties
■ Column length: L=2000mm
■ Cross section area: A  9108.72mm2
■ Overall breadth: b  190mm
■ Flange thickness: t f  14.6mm

■ Root radius:r  0mm


■ Web thickness: t w  9.4mm

■ Depth of the web: hw  408mm


■ Elastic modulus after the Y axis, Wel , y  1261435.06mm 3
■ Plastic modulus after the Y axis, W y  1428491.78mm 3
■ Elastic modulus after the Z axis, Wel , z  175962.65mm 3
■ Plastic modulus after the Z axis, W pl , z  271897.69
4
■ Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: Iy=257332751mm
4
■ Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: Iz=16716452.10 mm
4
■ Torsional moment of inertia: It=492581.13 mm
6
■ Working inertial moment: Iw=645759981974.33mm

Materials properties
S275 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:
■ Yield strength fy = 275 MPa,
■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 210000 MPa.
■ Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800MPa

Boundary conditions
The boundary conditions are described below:
■ Outer:
► Support at start point (x = 0) restrained in translation and rotation along X, Y and Z axis,

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Loading
The column is subjected to the following loadings:
■ External: Point load From X=0.00m and z=2.00m: FZ =-1000000N; Mx=200000Nm and Fy=5000N

12.43.2.2 Cross section Class


According to Advance Design calculations:
Cross-class classification is made according to Table 5.2

- for beam web:


The web dimensions are 378.8x9.4mm.

N Ed 1.000
  2 1  2   1  0.20  1
A f y 0.0091 275

1  N Ed  1  1 
   1     1    1.01  0.5
2  f y  t  d  2  275 0.3788 0.0094 

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

235 235
   0.924
fy 275

c 408mm  2 14.6mm 
  40.30 c 42   42  0.924
t 9.4mm    170    64.25
 t 0.67  0.33  0.67  0.33  ( 0.20)
  0.924 
therefore the beam web is considered to be Class 3.
- for beam flange:

c 90.30 
  6.18 c
t 14.6    6.18  9  0.924  8.316 therefore the haunch is considered to be Class1
 t
  0.924 
In conclusion, the section is considered to be Class 3.

12.43.2.3 Buckling verification


a) over the strong axis of the section, y-y:
- the imperfection factor α will be selected according to Tables 6.1 and 6.2:

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  0.34
Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness after Y-Y axis:

 y coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness y will be determined from the relevant buckling
curve according to:

1
y  2
1 (6.49)
 y   y  y
2

 y the non-dimensional slenderness corresponding to Class 4 cross-sections:


A * fy
y 
N cr , y

Cross section area: A  9108.72mm2


4
Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: Iy=257332751mm

² E  Iy  ²  210000N / mm 2  257332751mm 4


N cr , y    133338053.7 N  133338.05kN
l fy ² 2000mm ²

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A f y 9108.72mm 2  275N / mm 2
y    0.137
N cr , y 133338053.7 N

 
 y  0.5  1    ( y  0.2)   y ²  0.5  1  0.34  0.137  0.2  0.1372   0.499

1 1 
y    1.022
y  y  y
2 2
0.499  0.499  0.137
2 2
  y 1

y 1 
b) over the weak axis of the section, z-z:
- the imperfection factor α will be selected according to Tables 6.1 and 6.2:

  0.49
Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness after Z-Z axis:

 z coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness z will be determined from the relevant buckling curve
according to:

1
z  1 (6.49)
z  z   z
2 2

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 z the non-dimensional slenderness corresponding to Class 1, 2 and 3 cross-sections:


A* f y
z 
N cr , z

l fz  2.00m
4
Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: Iz=16716452.10 mm

Cross section area: A  9108.72mm2


 ² E  Iz  ²  210000N / mm 2 16716452.10mm 4
N cr , z    8661700.38N  8661.70kN
l fz ² 2000mm ²
A fy 9108.72mm 2  275N / mm 2
z    0.538
N cr , z 8661700.38N

 
 z  0.5  1    ( z  0.2)   z ²  0.5  1  0.49  0.538  0.2  0.5382   0.728
1 1 
z    0.821
z  z   z 0.728  0.728  0.538    z  0.821
2 2 2 2


z  1 

12.43.2.4 Lateral torsional buckling verification


The elastic moment for lateral-torsional buckling calculation, Mcr:
- the transversal load is applied to the shear center, therefore C2zg=0 and the moment formula will be:

 ²  E  Iz I w L²  G  I t
M cr  C1   
L² Iz  ²  E  Iz
According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 2; …(3)
-where:
C1 is a coefficient that depends of several parameters as: section properties; support conditions; moment diagram
allure

1
C1 
0.325  0.423  0.252 ²
According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 3; …(6)

- in order to simplify the calculation, we will consider C1  1

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4
Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: Iy=257332751mm
4
Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: Iz=16716452.10 mm
2
Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 210000 N/mm .
4
Torsional moment of inertia: It=492581.13 mm
Warping inertial moment:

IW is the warping inertia (deformation inertia moment):

I z  h  t f 
2

Iw 
4
h cross section height; h=408mm

tf flange thickness; t f  14.6mm

16716452.10mm4  408mm  14.6mm 


2
Iw   6.46774 1011 mm 6
4
According to EN1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 2 (…4)
Length of the column: L=2000mm
2
Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800N/mm

 ² E  Iz I w L²  G  I t  2  210000N / mm 2 16716452.10mm 4
M cr  C1     1 
L² Iz  ² E  Iz 2000mm 2
6.467741011 mm 6 2000mm   80800N / mm 2  492581.13mm 4
2
   1 8661700.384N  208.052mm 
16716452.10mm 4  2  210000N / mm 2 16716452.10mm 4
 1802088994Nmm  1802.089kNm
Iy 257332751mm 4
The elastic modulus : Wel , y    1261434.172mm 3
z max 204mm

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Weff , y f y 1261434.172mm 3 275N / mm 2


 LT    0.439
M cr 1802088994Nmm
Calculation of the  LT for appropriate non-dimensional slenderness  LT will be determined with formula:

1
 LT  1 (6.56)
LT  LT ²   LT ²


LT  0.5  1   LT   LT  0.2   LT ² 
The cross section buckling curve will be chose according to Table 6.4:

h 408mm
  2.147  2
b 190mm

The imperfection factor α will be chose according to Table 6.3:

  0.76
   
LT  0.5  1   LT   LT  0.2   LT ²  0.5  1  0.76  0.439  0.2  0.439²  0.687
1 1
 LT    0.813  1
 LT   LT ²   LT ² 0.687  0.687²  0.439²

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12.43.2.5 Internal factor, k yy , calculation

The internal factor k yy corresponding to a Class 4 section will be calculated according to Annex A, Table a.1, and will be
calculated separately for the two column parts separate by the middle torsional lateral restraint:

y
k yy  C my  C mLT 
N Ed
1
N cr , y

N Ed
1
N cr , y
y 
N
1   y  Ed
N cr , y

 y  1.022 (previously calculated)

N Ed  1000kN

² E  Iy
N cr , y   133338053.7 N  133338.05kN (previously calculated)
l fy ²
N Ed
1 1
1000000N
N cr , y 133338053.7 N  1
y  
N Ed 1000000N
1  y  1  1
N cr , y 133338053.7 N

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The Cmy will be calculated according to Table A.1:

Calculation of the  0 term:

Weff , y  f y
0 
M cr 0
According to Eurocode 3 EN 1993-1-1-2005; Chapter 6.3.2.2

Iy 257332751mm 4
Wel , y    1261434.172mm 3
z max 204mm
The calculation the M cr 0 will be calculated using C1  1 and C 2  0 , therefore:

 ² E  Iz I w L²  G  I t  2  210000N / mm 2 16716452.10mm 4
M cr  C1     1 
L² Iz  ² E  Iz 2000mm 2
6.467741011 mm 6 2000mm   80800N / mm 2  492581.13mm 4
2
   1 8661700.384N  208.052mm 
16716452.10mm 4  2  210000N / mm 2 16716452.10mm 4
 1802088994Nmm  1802.089kNm
Weff , y f y 1261434.172mm 3 275N / mm 2
0    0.439
M cr 1802088994Nmm

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 N   N 
Calculation of the 0.20  C1  4 1  Ed   1  Ed  term:
 N cr , z   N cr ,TF 
Where:

- for a symmetrical section for the both axis, N cr ,TF  N cr ,T

1   2  E  I w 
N cr ,T   G  I 
i0  Lcr ,T ² 
2 t

The mass moment of inertia I 0

i0  i y  iz  y02  z02  0.0301


2 2 2

4
Torsional moment of inertia: It=492581.13 mm
6
Working inertial moment: Iw=645759981974.33mm

- the buckling length, Lcr ,T ,

Lcr ,T  2.00m

1mm 2   2  210000N / mm 2  645759981974.33mm 6 


N cr ,T    80800N / mm 2  492581.13mm 4   
0.0301mm 4  2000mm ² 
 1.244  1013 N
N Ed  1000000N

N cr ,TF  N cr ,T  1.2441013 N

 ² E  Iz  ²  210000N / mm 2  16716452.10mm 4
N cr , z    8661700.38N
2000mm ²
(previously calculated)
l fz ²
C1=1 for the top part of the column

For the top part of the column:

 N     1000000N   1000000N 
0.20  C1  4 1  Ed   1  N Ed   0.20  1  4 1    1  
  N   8661700.38N   1.244 10 N 
13
 N cr , z   cr ,TF 
 0.172

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Therefore:
For the top part of the column:

 
   y  a LT
 0  0.469  C my  C my , 0  1  C my , 0 
  1   y  a LT
 N     
0.20  C1  4 1  Ed   1  N Ed   0.172   C mz  C mz , 0
  N 
 N cr , z   cr ,TF    a LT
 C mLT  C my 2
 1
 N   N       
0  0.469  0.20  C1  4 1  Ed   1  Ed   0.172  N
1  Ed   1  Ed  N
N  N       N   N 
cr , z cr ,TF
  cr , z   cr ,T 

The Cmy coefficient takes into account the column behavior in the buckling plane: the buckling and bending moment distribution.
The coefficient must be calculated considering the column over the entire height.

 y  a LT
Cmy  Cmy , 0  1  Cmy , 0 
1   y  a LT

M y , Ed Aeff
y  
N Ed Weff , y

Elastic modulus after the Y axis, Wel , y  Weff , y  1261435.06mm 3

M y , Ed Aeff 200 106 Nmm 9108.72mm 2


y      1.444
N Ed Weff , y 1000000N 1261435.06mm 3

It 492581.13mm 4
a LT  1   1  0.998  1
Iy 257332751mm 4

The C m 0 coefficient is defined according to the Table A.2:

The bending moment has the same value on both ends of the column:  1

Cmy ,0  0.79  0.21  0.36    0.33 


N Ed
Ncr , y

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Where:

² E Iy  ²  210000N / mm 2  257332751mm 4


N cr , y    133338053.7 N
2000mm ²
(previously calculated)
l fy ²

N Ed  1000000N

Cmy ,0  0.79  0.211  0.36  1  0.33


1000000N
 1.002
133338053.7 N
 y  a LT 1.444 1
C my  C my , 0  1  C my ,0   1.002  1  1.002  1.001
1   y  a LT 1  1.444  1

Equivalent uniform moment factor, C mLT , calculation

a LT 1 
C mLT  C my
2
  1.0012   1.065
     1000000N   1000000N  
1  N Ed   1  N Ed  1    1     C mLT  1.06
 N   N   8661700.38N   1.244 10 N 
13
 cr , z   cr ,T  
C mLT  1 

Therefore the k yy term corresponding to the top part of the column will be:
y 1
k yy  C my  C mLT   1.001 1.065   1.074
N 1000000N
1  Ed 1
N cr , y 133338053.7 N

12.43.2.6 Internal factor, k yz , calculation

y
k yz  C mz 
N Ed
1
N cr , z

 M 
Cmz term must be calculated for the whole column length   Ed ,inf  200kNm  1
 M Ed ,sup 200kNm 

 ² E  Iz  ²  210000N / mm 2 16716452.10mm 4
N cr , z    8661700.38N  8661.70kN
l fz ² 2000mm ²
N Ed
Cmz  Cmz ,0  0.79  0.36   0.33  0.79  0.36   0.33
1000000N
 0.776
N cr , z 8661700.38N
y 1
k yz  C mz   0.776   0.878
N 1000000N
1  Ed 1
N cr , z 8661700.38N

12.43.2.7 Internal factor, k zy , calculation

z
k zy  C my  C mLT 
N Ed
1
N cr , y

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N Ed
1 1
1000000N
N cr , z 8661700.38N
z    0.799
N Ed 1000000N
1 z  1  0.821
N cr , z 8661700.38N

 z  0.821 (previously calculated)


z 0.977
k zy  C my  C mLT   1.001 1.065   1.050
N Ed 1000000N
1 1
N cr , y 133338053.7 N

12.43.2.8 Internal factor, k zz , calculation

z 0.977
k zz  C mz   0.776   0.857
N Ed 1000000N
1 1
N cr , z 8661700.38N

12.43.2.9 Bending and axial compression verification

 N Ed M y , Ed  M y , Rd M  M z , Rd
  k yy   k yz  z , Ed
N M M z , Rk
  y  Rk  LT  y ,Rk
  M1  M1  M1

 N Ed M y , Ed  M y , Rd M  M z , Rd
 k zy   k zz  z , Ed
 N Rk M M z , Rk
z   LT  y ,Rk
  M1  M1  M1
N Rk  f y  Ai

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1000000N 200 106 Nmm


 1.074  
9108.72mm 2  275N / mm 2 1261435.06mm 3  275N / mm 2
1 0.813
1 1
10  10 Nmm
6
 0.878  0.40  0.76  0.18  1.34
175962.5mm 3  275N / mm 2
1
1000000N 200  106 Nmm
 1.050  
9108.72mm 2 mm 2  275N / mm 2 1261435.06mm 3  275N / mm 2
0.821 0.813
1 1
10 10 Nmm
6
 0.857   0.49  0.74  0.18  1.41
175962.5mm 3  275N / mm 2
1
Finite elements modeling
■ Linear element: S beam,
■ 5 nodes,
■ 1 linear element.

 y coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness  y

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

y

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 z coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness  z


Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

z

Internal factor, k yy

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

k yy

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Internal factor, k yz

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

k yz

Internal factor, k zy

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

k zy

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Internal factor, k zz

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

k zz

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the compression effort over the Y axis: SNy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the compression effort
over the Y axis
SNy

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Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y bending moment over the Y axis: SMyy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y bending moment
over the Y axis
SMyy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z bending moment over the Y axis: SMyz

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z bending moment
over the Y axis
SMyz

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Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the compression effort over the Z axis: SNz

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the compression effort
over the Z axis
SNz

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y bending moment over the Z axis: SMzy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y bending moment
over the Z axis
SMzy

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Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z bending moment over the Z axis: SMzz

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z bending moment
over the Z axis
SMzz

12.43.2.10Reference results
Result name Result description Reference value

y  y coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness  y 1

z  z coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness  z 0.821

k yy Internal factor, k yy 1.074

k yz Internal factor, k yz 0.878

k zy Internal factor, k zy 1.050

k zy Internal factor, k zy 0.857

SNy Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the 0.40
compression effort over the Y axis
SMyy Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y 0.76
bending moment over the Y axis
SMyz Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z 0.18
bending moment over the Y axis
SNz Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the 0.49
compression effort over the z axis
SMzy Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y 0.74
bending moment over the Z axis
SMzz Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z 0.18
bending moment over the Z axis

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12.43.3Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Xy coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 1 adim 0.0000 %
slenderness
Xz coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.821634 adim 0.0772 %
slenderness
Kyy Internal factor kyy 1.11758 adim 4.0577 %
Kyz Internal factor kyz 0.877605 adim -0.0450 %
Kzy Internal factor kzy 1.09216 adim 4.0152 %
Kzz Internal factor kzz 0.857639 adim 0.0746 %
#SNy Bending and axial compression verification term 0.399218 adim -0.1955 %
depending of the compression effort over the Y axis
SMyy Bending and axial compression verification term 0.783246 adim 3.0587 %
depending of the Y bending moment over the Y axis
SMyz Bending and axial compression verification term 0.181362 adim 0.7567 %
depending of the Z bending moment over the Y axis
SNz Bending and axial compression verification term 0.485883 adim -0.8402 %
depending of the compression effort over the z axis
SMzy Bending and axial compression verification term 0.765426 adim 3.4359 %
depending of the Y bending moment over the Z axis
SMzz Bending and axial compression verification term 0.177236 adim -1.5356 %
depending of the Z bending moment over the Z axis

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12.44 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying an user defined I section class 3 beam simply
supported with a displacement restraint (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 27)

Test ID: 5717


Test status: Passed

12.44.1Description
The test verifies a user defined cross section beam. The beam is hinged at one end and the translations over the Y
and Z axis and rotation after the X axis are blocked.
The cross section has an “I symmetric” shape with: 530mm height; 190mm width; 12mm center thickness; 19mm
flange thickness; 0mm fillet radius and 0mm rounding radius.
The beam is subjected to 10 kN/m linear force applied vertically, 5 kN/m linear force applied horizontally and 3700 kN
punctual force applied on the end of the beam.
The calculations are made according to Eurocode 3 French Annex.

12.44.2Background
An I53*1.2+22*1.9 beam column subjected to axial compression, uniform distributed vertical force and uniform
distributed horizontal force, made from S235 steel. The beam has a 53x12mm web and 220x19mm flanges. The
beam is simply supported. The beam is subjected to an axial compression load 3700000 N, 10000 N/m uniform
distributed load over the Z axis and 5000 N/m horizontal uniform distributed force after the Y axis.
This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

12.44.2.1 Model description


■ Reference: Guide d’evaluation Advance Design, EN 1993-1-1: 2005;
■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);
■ Element type: linear.
The following load case and load combination are used:
■ Exploitation loadings (category A): Fx=-3700000N; Fy=-5000N/m; Fz=-10000N/m
■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q
■ Cross section dimensions are in millimeters (mm).

Units
Metric System

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Geometrical properties
■ Column length: L=5000mm
■ Cross section area: A  14264mm2
■ Overall breadth: b  220mm
■ Flange thickness: t f  19mm

■ Root radius:r  0mm


■ Web thickness: t w  12mm

■ Depth of the web: hw  530mm


■ Elastic modulus after the Y axis, Wel , y  2509773.11mm 3
■ Plastic modulus after the Y axis, W y  2862172.00mm 3
■ Elastic modulus after the Z axis, W el , z  307177.41mm 3
■ Plastic modulus after the Z axis, W pl , z  477512.00mm 3
■ Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: I y  665089874.67mm 4

Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: I z  33789514.67mm 4

Torsional moment of inertia: I t  1269555.73mm 4

Working inertial moment: I w  2201162989666.67mm 6

Materials properties
S235 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:
■ Yield strength fy = 235 MPa,
■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 210000 MPa.
■ Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800MPa

Boundary conditions
The boundary conditions are described below:
■ Outer:
► Support at start point (x = 0) restrained in translation along X, Y and Z axis,
► Support at the end point (x = 5) restrained in translation along Y and Z axis and restrained rotation
along X axis.

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■ Inner:
► Lateral buckling restraint in the middle of the column (x=2.50).

Loading
The beam is subjected to the following loadings:
■ External: Point load from X=f.00m and z=.00m: Fx =-3700000N;
■ External: vertical uniform distributed linear load from X=0.00 to X=5.00: Fz=-10000N/m
■ External: horizontal uniform distributed linear load from X=0.00 to X=5.00: Fy=-5000N/m

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12.44.2.2 Cross section Class


According to Advance Design calculations:
Cross-class classification is made according to Table 5.2

-for beam web:


The web dimensions are 850x5mm.

 inf 246.94Mpa
  1
 sup 246.94Mpa

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235 235
  1
fy 235

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c 530mm  2 19mm 
  41 c
t 12mm   38    38   41  42    42 therefore the beam web is
 t
 1 
considered to be Class 3
-for beam flange:

220  12 
 c
 5.47   4.57  9  1  9
c 2
 therefore the haunch is considered to be Class1
t 19  t
 1 
In conclusion, the section is considered to be Class 3.

12.44.2.3 Buckling verification


a) over the strong axis of the section, y-y:
-the imperfection factor α will be selected according to the Table 6.1 and 6.2:

  0.34

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Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness after Y-Y axis:

 y coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness y will be determined from the relevant buckling
curve according to:

1
y  2
1 (6.49)
 y   y  y
2

 y the non-dimensional slenderness corresponding to Class 3 cross-sections:


A * fy
y 
N cr , y

Cross section area: A  14264mm2


Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: I y  665089874.67mm 4

² E Iy  ²  210000N / mm 2  665089874.67mm 4


N cr , y    55139061.21N  55139.06kN
l fy ² 5000mm ²
A f y 14264mm 2  235N / mm 2
y    0.247
N cr , y 55139061.21N

 
 y  0.5  1    ( y  0.2)   y ²  0.5  1  0.34  0.247  0.2  0.2472   0.538

1 1 
y    0.984
y  y y
2 2
0.538  0.5382  0.2472    y  0.984

y 1 

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b) over the weak axis of the section, z-z:


-the imperfection factor α will be selected according to the Table 6.1 and 6.2:

  0.49
Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness after Z-Z axis:

 z coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness  z will be determined from the relevant buckling curve
according to:

1
z  1 (6.49)
z  z   z
2 2

 z the non-dimensional slenderness corresponding to Class 1, 2 and 3 cross-sections:


A* f y
z 
N cr , z

l fz  2.50m

Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: I z  33789514.67mm 4

Cross section area: A  14264mm2

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² E  Iz  ²  210000N / mm 2  33789514.67mm 4


N cr , z    11205235.19 N  11205.235kN
l fz ² 2500mm ²
A f y 14264mm 2  235N / mm 2
z    0.547
N cr , z 11205235.19N

 
 z  0.5  1    ( z  0.2)   z ²  0.5  1  0.49  0.547  0.2  0.5472   0.735
1 1 
z    0.819
z  z   z 0.735  0.735  0.547    z  0.816
2 2 2 2


z 1 

12.44.2.4 Lateral torsional buckling verification


The elastic moment for lateral-torsional buckling calculation, Mcr:
-it must be studied separately for each beam segment
-however, the two sections are symmetrical, the same result will be obtained

 is the isotactic moment report (for simply supported bar) due to Q load ant the maxim moment value

q  L² 10000N / m  2500mm ²
   0.25
8 M 8  31.25 103 Nm

-the transversal load is applied to the shear center, therefore C2zg=0 and the moment formula will be:

 ²  E  Iz I w L²  G  I t
M cr  C1   
L² Iz  ²  E  Iz
According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 2; …(3)
-where:
C1 is a coefficient that depends of several parameters as: section properties; support conditions; moment diagram allure

According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 3; …(6)

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 0 therefore:

C1  1.31

Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: I y  665089874.67mm 4

Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: I z  33789514.67mm 4

Longitudinal elastic modulus: E  210000N / mm 2


Torsional moment of inertia: I t  1269555.73mm 4

Working inertial moment: I w  2201162989666.67mm 6

Shear modulus of rigidity: G  80800N / mm 2


Buckling length of the beam L  2500mm
Elastic modulus after the Y axis, Wel , y  2509773.11mm 3

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 ² E  Iz I w L²  G  I t  2  210000N / mm 2  33789514.67mm 4
M cr  C1     1.31 
L² Iz  ² E  Iz 2500mm 2
22.01163 1011 mm 6 2500mm   80800N / mm 2  1269555.73mm 4
2
   1.31 11205235.19N  272.58mm 
33789514.67mm 4  2  210000N / mm 2  33789514.67mm 4
 4001163141Nmm

Weff , y f y 2509773.11mm 3 235N / mm 2


 LT    0.384
M cr 4001163141Nmm
Calculation of the  LT for appropriate non-dimensional slenderness  LT will be determined below:

Note:

M Ed 31.25 106 Nmm


  7.81103
M cr 4001163141
 LT  0.384  0.20  
 M Ed 2 
M Ed 3    LT , 0 
 7.81 10  0.04 M cr M Ed 2
M cr    0.00781  LT , 0  0.0156
 M cr
 0.125   LT ,0  0.0156
b 220
 LT ,0  0.3   0.3 
2

h 530
According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; AN.3; Chapter 6.3.2.2(4)
M Ed 2
For slendernesses  LT , 0 (see 6.3.2.3) lateral torsional buckling effects may be ignored and only cross sectional checks
M cr
apply.
-therefore:

 LT  1
According to EN 1993-1-1-AN (2005); Chapter 6.3.2.2(4)

12.44.2.5 Internal factor, k yy , calculation

The internal factor k yy corresponding to a Class 4 section will be calculated according to Annex A, Table a.1, and will be calculated
separately for the two column parts separate by the middle torsional lateral restraint:

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y
k yy  C my  C mLT 
N Ed
1
N cr , y

N Ed
1
N cr , y
y 
N
1   y  Ed
N cr , y

 y  0.984 (previously calculated)

N Ed  3700kN

² E Iy  ²  210000N / mm 2  665089874.67mm 4


N cr , y    55139061.21N
5000mm ²
(previously
l fy ²
calculated)

N Ed
1 1
3700000N
N cr , y 55130961.21N
y    0.999
N Ed 3700000N
1 y  1  0.984 
N cr , y 55130961.21N
- Cmy coefficient takes into account the behavior in the plane of bending (buckling in the plan and distribution of the
bending moment).
- Must be calculated considering the beam along its length.

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The Cmy will be calculated according to Table A.1:

Calculation of the  0 term:

Weff , y  f y
0 
M cr 0
-according to Eurocode 3 EN 1993-1-1-2005; Chapter 6.3.2.2
4
Iy 665089874.67mm
Wel , y    2509773.11mm 3
z max 265mm

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The calculation the M cr 0 will be calculated using C1  1 and C2  0 , therefore:


 ² E  Iz I w L²  G  I t  2  210000N / mm 2  33789514.67mm 4
M cr , 0  C1     1 
L² Iz  ² E  Iz 2500mm 2
22.01163 1011 mm 6 2500mm   80800N / mm 2  1269555.73mm 4
2
   1  11205235.19 N  272.58mm 
33789514.67mm 4  2  210000N / mm 2  33789514.67mm 4
 3054323008Nmm
Weff , y f y 2509773.11mm 3  235N / mm 2
0    0.439
M cr ,0 3054323008Nmm

 N   N 
Calculation of the 0.20  C1  4 1  Ed   1  Ed  term:
 N cr , z   N cr ,TF 
Where:

-for a symmetrical section for the both axis, N cr ,TF  N cr ,T

1   2  E  I w 
N cr ,T   G  I 
i0  Lcr ,T ² 
2 t

i0  i y  iz  y02  z02  0.0491


2 2 2

Torsional moment of inertia: I t  1269555.73mm 4

Working inertial moment: I w  2201162989666.67mm 6


- the buckling length, Lcr ,T ,

Lcr ,T  2.50m

1mm 2   2  210000N / mm 2  2201162989666.67mm 6 


N cr ,T    80800N / mm 2
 1269555.73mm 4
  
0.0491mm 4  2500mm ² 
 1.696  10 N
13

N Ed  3700000N
N cr ,TF  N cr ,T  1.696  1013 N
 ² E  Iz  ²  210000N / mm 2  33789514.67mm 4
N cr , z    11205235.19 N
2500mm ²
(previously calculated)
l fz ²
C1=1

   
  0.20  1  4 1  3700000N   1  3700000N  
N N
0.20  C1  4 1  Ed   1  Ed
  N   11205235.19N   1.696  10 N 
13
 N cr , z   cr ,TF 
 0.181

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Therefore:

 
   y  a LT
 0  0.439  C my  C my , 0  1  C my , 0 
  1   y  a LT
 N   N   
0.20  C1  4 1  Ed   1  Ed
  N
  0.181
   C mz  C mz , 0
 N cr , z   cr ,TF    a LT
 C mLT  C my 2
 1
 N   N       
0  0.439  0.20  C1  4 1  Ed   1  Ed   0.181  N
1  Ed   1  Ed 
N
N N       N   N 
cr , z cr ,TF
  cr , z   cr ,T 

The Cmy coefficient takes into account the column behavior in the buckling plane: the buckling and bending moment distribution.
The coefficient must be calculated considering the column over the entire height.
 y  a LT
Cmy  Cmy , 0  1  Cmy , 0 
1   y  a LT

M y , Ed Aeff
y  
N Ed Weff , y
Elastic modulus after the Y axis, Wel , y  Weff , y  2509773.11mm 3

M y , Ed Aeff 31.25  10 6 Nmm 14264mm 2


y      0.048
N Ed Weff , y 3700000N 2509773.11mm 3

It 1269555.73mm 4
a LT  1   1  0.998
Iy 665089874.67mm 4

The C m 0 coefficient is defined according to the Table A.2:

N Ed
Cmy ,0  1  0.03
N cr , y

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Where:

² E Iy  ²  210000N / mm 2  665089874.67mm 4


N cr , y    55139061.21N
5000mm ²
(previously calculated)
l fy ²

N Ed  3700000N

3700000N
C my ,0  1  0.03   1.002
55139061.21N
 y  a LT 0.048  1
C my  C my , 0  1  C my , 0   1.002  1  1.002   1.002
1   y  a LT 1  0048  1

Equivalent uniform moment factor, C mLT , calculation


- It must be calculated for each of the two sections.

aLT
CmLT  Cmy
2

   
1  N Ed   1  N Ed 
 N   N 
 cr , z   cr ,T 
It must again calculate the coefficient Cmy, but only for the left section.

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 z  0.0001396m
 2  E  Iy    N
Cmy ,0 1   1  Ed 
 L2  M y ,Ed  N cr , y
 
  2  210000N / mm 2  665089874.67mm 4  0.0001396  3700000N
 1    1   0.999
 2500mm   31.25  10 Nmm
2 6
 55139061.21N
 y  a LT 0.219  0.998
C my  C my , 0  1  C my , 0   0.999  1  0.999   0.999
1   y  a LT 1  0.219  0.998

a LT 0.998
C mLT  C my
2
  0.999²   1.377
 N   N   3700000N   3700000N 
1  Ed   1  Ed  1    1  
 N cr , z   N cr ,T   11205235.19N   1.696  10 N 
13
   
Therefore the k yy term corresponding to the top part of the column will be:
y 1
k yy  C my  C mLT   1.002  1.377   1.476
N 3700000N
1  Ed 1
N cr , y 55130961.21N

12.44.2.6 Internal factor, k yz , calculation

y
k yz  C mz 
N Ed
1
N cr , z
Cmz coefficient must be calculated considering the beam along its length.

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N Ed 3700000N
C mz  C mz ,0  1  0.03   1  0.03   1.010
N cr , z 11205235.19N
y 1
k yz  C mz   0.776   1.506
N Ed 3700000N
1 1
N cr , z 11205235.19 N

12.44.2.7 Internal factor, k zy , calculation

z
k zy  C my  C mLT 
N Ed
1
N cr , y

N Ed
1 1
3700000N
N cr , z 11205235.19N
z    0.917
N Ed 3700000N
1 z  1  0.816 
N cr , z 11205235.19N

 z  0.816 (previously calculated)


z 0.917
k zy  C my C mLT  1.002  1.377   1.355
N Ed 3700000N
1 1
N cr , y 55130961.21N

12.44.2.8 Internal factor, k zz , calculation

z 0.917
k zz  C mz   0.776   1.383
N Ed 3700000N
1 1
N cr , z 11205235.19N

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12.44.2.9 Bending and axial compression verification

 N Ed M y , Ed  M y , Rd M  M z , Rd
  k yy   k yz  z , Ed
N M M z , Rk
  y  Rk  LT  y ,Rk
  M1  M1  M1

 N Ed M y , Ed  M y , Rd M  M z , Rd
 k zy   k zz  z , Ed
 N Rk M M z , Rk
z   LT  y ,Rk
  M1  M1  M1
N Rk  f y  Ai

3700000N 31.25  106 Nmm


 1. 476  
14264mm 2  235N / mm 2 2509773.11mm 3  235N / mm 2
0.984  1
1 1
15.62  10 Nmm
6
 1.506   0.12  0.08  0.33  0.53
307177.41mm 3  235N / mm 2
1
3700000N 31.25  106 Nmm
 1. 355  
14264mm 2  235N / mm 2 2509773.11mm 3  235N / mm 2
0.816  1
1 1
15.62  10 Nmm
6
 1.383   1.35  0.07  0.30  1.72
307177.41mm 3  235N / mm 2
1
Finite elements modeling
■ Linear element: S beam,
■ 7 nodes,
■ 1 linear element.

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 y coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness  y

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

y

z coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness z


Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

z

Internal factor, k yy

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

k yy

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Internal factor, k yz

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

k yz

Internal factor, k zy

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

k zy

Internal factor, k zz

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

k zz

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Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the compression effort over the Y axis: SNy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the compression effort over
the Y axis
SNy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y bending moment over the Y axis: SMyy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y bending moment over
the Y axis
SMyy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z bending moment over the Y axis: SMyz

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z bending moment over
the Y axis
SMyz

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Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the compression effort over the Z axis: SNz

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the compression effort
over the Z axis
SNz

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y bending moment over the Z axis: SMzy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y bending moment
over the Z axis
SMzy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z bending moment over the Z axis: SMzz

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z bending moment over
the Z axis
SMzz

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12.44.2.10Reference results
Result name Result description Reference value

y  y coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness  y 0.98

z  z coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness  z 0.82

k yy Internal factor, k yy 1.47

k yz Internal factor, k yz 1.51

k zy Internal factor, k zy 1.35

k zz Internal factor, k zz 1.38

SNy Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the 1.12
compression effort over the Y axis
SMyy Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y 0.08
bending moment over the Y axis
SMyz Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z 0.33
bending moment over the Y axis
SNz Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the 1.35
compression effort over the z axis
SMzy Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y 0.07
bending moment over the Z axis
SMzz Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z 0.30
bending moment over the Z axis

12.44.3Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Xy coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.983441 adim 0.3511 %
slenderness
Xz coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.816369 adim -0.4428 %
slenderness
Kyy Internal factor, kyy 1.47276 adim 0.1878 %
Kyz Internal factor, kyz 1.50599 adim -0.2656 %
Kzy Internal factor, kzy 1.35211 adim 0.1563 %
Kzz Internal factor, kzz 1.38261 adim 0.1891 %
SNy Bending and axial compression verification term 1.12239 adim 0.2134 %
depending of the compression effort over the Y
SMyy Bending and axial compression verification term 0.078033 adim -2.4587 %
depending of the Y bending moment over the Y
axis
SMyz Bending and axial compression verification term 0.325974 adim -1.2200 %
depending of the Z bending moment over the Y
axis
SNz Bending and axial compression verification term 1.35209 adim 0.1548 %
depending of the compression effort over the z
axis
SMzy Bending and axial compression verification term 0.0716405 adim 2.3436 %
depending of the Y bending moment over the Z
axis
SMzz Bending and axial compression verification term 0.29927 adim -0.2433 %
depending of the Z bending moment over the Z
axis

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12.45 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the buckling resistance for a IPE300 column
(evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 19)

Test ID: 5699


Test status: Passed

12.45.1Description
The test verifies the buckling resistance for a IPE300 column made of S235 steel.
The verifications are made according to Eurocode3 French Annex.

12.45.2Background
Classification and verification under compression efforts for an IPE 300 column made of S235 steel. The column is
fixed at its base and free on the top. The column is subjected to a compression force (200 000 N) applied at its top.
The dead load will be neglected.
This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

12.45.2.1 Model description


■ Reference: Guide d’evaluation Advance Design, EN 1993-1-1: 2005;
■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);
■ Element type: linear.
The following load case and load combination are used:
■ Exploitation loadings (category A): Q1 = -200 000 N,
■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

■ Cross section dimensions are in millimeters (mm).

Units
Metric System

Geometrical properties
2
■ Cross section area: A=5380mm
4 4
■ Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: Iy=603.80x10 mm
4 4
■ Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: Iz=8356x10 mm

Materials properties
S235 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:
■ Yield strength fy = 235 MPa,
5
■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 2.1 x 10 MPa.

Boundary conditions
The boundary conditions are described below:

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

■ Outer:
► Support at start point (x = 0) restrained in translation and rotation along X, Y and Z axis,
► Free at end point (x = 5.00).
■ Inner: None.
■ Buckling lengths Lfy and Lfz are doth imposed with 10m value

Loading
The column is subjected to the following loadings:
■ External: Point load at Z = 5.0: FZ = N = -200 000 N,
■ Internal: None.

12.45.2.2 Buckling in the strong inertia of the profile (along Y-Y)


The calculations are made in order to obtain the buckling resistance work ratio of the analyzed element. The work
ratio of the element is calculated using the percentage of the design buckling resistance of the compressed element
(Nb,Rd) from the compression force applied to the element (N Ed). The design buckling resistance of the compressed
member, Nb,Rd, is calculated according to Eurocode 3 1993-1-1-2005, Chapter 6.3.1.1.

N Ed
 100  100% (6.46)
Nb, Rd
The design buckling resistance of the compressed element is calculated using the next formula:

  A fy
Nb, Rd  (6.47)
 M1
Where:

Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness for Y-Y axis

 coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness  will be determined from the relevant buckling curve
according to:

1
 2
1 (6.49)
  2  

 the non-dimensional slenderness corresponding to Class 1, 2 and 3 cross-sections:


A* f y

N cr
2 2
Where: A is the cross section area; A=5380mm ; fy is the yielding strength of the material; fy=235N/mm and Ncr is the
elastic critical force for the relevant buckling mode based on the gross cross sectional properties:

 ²  E  Iz  ²  210000MPa  8356  104 mm 4


N cr    1731878.70 N
L fy ² 10000mm 2
A fy 5380mm 2  235N / mm 2
   0.854
N cr 1731878.70 N


  0.5 1   (  0.2)   ² 

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It will be used the following buckling curve:

The imperfection factor  corresponding to the appropriate buckling curve will be 0.21:

 
  0.5  1    (  0.2)   ²  0.5  1  0.21 0.854  0.2  0.8542   0.933
Therefore:

1 1
   0.764  1
    2 2
0.933  0.9332  0.8542

 M1 is a safety coefficient,  M1  1
0.764  5380mm2  235N / mm2
Nb, Rd   966051.089N
1
N Ed  200000N

N Ed 200000N
 100   100  20.703%
Nb, Rd 966051.089N

12.45.2.3 Buckling in the weak inertia of the profile (along Z-Z)


The calculations are made in order to obtain the work ratio of the analyzed element. The work ratio of the element is
calculated using the percentage of the design buckling resistance of the compressed element (N b,Rd) from the
compression force applied to the element (NEd). The design buckling resistance of the compressed member, N b,Rd, is
calculated according to Eurocode 3 1993-1-1-2005, Chapter 6.3.1.1.

N Ed
 100  100% (6.46)
Nb, Rd
The design buckling resistance of the compressed element is calculated using the next formula:

  A fy
Nb, Rd  (6.47)
 M1

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Where:

Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness for Z-Z axis

 coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness  will be determined from the relevant buckling curve
according to:

1
 2
1 (6.49)
   2

 the non-dimensional slenderness corresponding to Class 1, 2 and 3 cross-sections:


A* f y

N cr
2 2
Where: A is the cross section area; A=5380mm ; fy is the yielding strength of the material; fy=235N/mm and Ncr is the
elastic critical force for the relevant buckling mode based on the gross cross sectional properties:

 ²  E  Iz  ²  210000MPa  603.80  104 mm 4


N cr    125144.610N
L fy ² 10000mm 2
A fy 5380mm 2  235N / mm 2
   3.178
N cr 125144.610N


  0.5 1   (  0.2)   ² 
It will be used the following buckling curve:

The imperfection factor  corresponding to the appropriate buckling curve will be 0.34:

 
  0.5  1    (  0.2)   ²  0.5  1  0.34  3.178  0.2  3.1782   6.056
Therefore:

1 1
   0.089  1
  2  
2
6.056  6.0562  3.1782

 M1 is a safety coefficient,  M1  1

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

0.089  5380mm2  235N / mm2


Nb, Rd   112771.78N
1
N Ed  200000N

N Ed 200000N
100  100  177.349%
Nb, Rd 112771.78N

Finite elements modeling


■ Linear element: S beam,
■ 6 nodes,
■ 1 linear element.

Finite elements results

Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness after Y-Y axis

Buckling of a column subjected to compression force


Non-dimensional slenderness after Y-Y axis

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Ratio of the design normal force to design buckling resistance (strong inertia)

Buckling of a column subjected to compression force


Work ratio (y-y)

12.45.2.4 Reference results


Result name Result description Reference value

y coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness after Y-Y 0.764


axis

z coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness after Z-Z 0.089


axis
Work ratio (y-y) Ratio of the design normal force to design buckling resistance 0.21 %
(strong inertia) [%]
Work ratio (z-z) Ratio of the design normal force to design buckling resistance (weak 1.77 %
inertia) [%]

12.45.3Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Xy coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.763129 adim -0.1140 %
slenderness after Y-Y axis
Xz coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.0891543 adim 0.1734 %
slenderness after Z-Z axis
SNy Ratio of the design normal force to design buckling 0.207253 adim -1.3081 %
resistance in the strong inertia of the profile
SNz Ratio of the design normal force to design buckling 1.77401 adim 0.2266 %
resistance in the weak inertia of the profile

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.46 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a IPE400 column for compression, shear,
bending moment, buckling, lateral torsional buckling and bending and axial compression
(evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 23)

Test ID: 5703


Test status: Passed

12.46.1Description
The test verfies a IPE400 column, made of S275 steel, subjected to compression, shear, bending moment, buckling,
lateral torsional buckling and bending and axial compression
A lateral restraint is placed at 3m from the base.
The verifications are made according to Eurocode 3 French Annex.

12.46.2Background
Unrestrained IPE400 column subjected to compression and bending, made from S275 steel. The column is fixed at
its base and free on the top end. A lateral restraint is placed at 3m from the base. The column is subjected to an axial
compression load (-125000 N) applied and to a lateral load after the X global axis (28330N). Both loads are applied
on the top end of the column. The dead load will be neglected. The results will be compared with the ones obtained
by the CTIM n4-2006.
This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

12.46.2.1 Model description


■ Reference: Guide d’evaluation Advance Design, EN 1993-1-1: 2005;
■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);
■ Element type: linear.
The following load case and load combination are used:
■ Exploitation loadings (category A): Q1x= 28330 N, Q1z= -125000 N
■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

■ Cross section dimensions are in millimeters (mm).

Units
Metric System

Geometrical properties
■ Column length: L=9000mm
■ Cross section area: A  8446mm2
■ Overall breadth: b  180mm
■ Flange thickness: t f  13.5mm

■ Root radius:r  21mm


■ Web thickness: t w  8.6mm

■ Depth of the web: hw  400mm


■ Elastic modulus after the Y axis, Wel , y  1156  103 mm 3
■ Plastic modulus after the Y axis, Wy  1307  103 mm3
■ Elastic modulus after the Z axis, Wel , z  146.40 103 mm 3
■ Plastic modulus after the Z axis, W pl , z  229  103 mm3
4 4
■ Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: Iy=23130.00x10 mm
4 4
■ Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: Iz=1318.00x10 mm
4 4
■ Torsional moment of inertia: It=51.08x10 mm
6 6
■ Working inertial moment: Iw=490000x10 mm

Materials properties
S235 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:
■ Yield strength fy = 275 MPa,
■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 210000 MPa.
■ Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800MPa

Boundary conditions
The boundary conditions are described below:
■ Outer:
► Support at start point (x = 0) restrained in translation along X, Y and Z axis,
► Support at the end point (z = 9.00) restrained in translation along Y and Z axis and restrained rotation
along X axis.
■ Inner: lateral (xoz) restraint at z=3m

Loading
The column is subjected to the following loadings:
■ External: Point load From X=0.00m and Y=9.00m: FZ =-125000N and Fx=28330N
■ Internal: None.

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

CTICM model
The model is presented in the CTICM 2006-4-Resistance barre comprimee selon

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.46.2.2 Cross section Class


According to Advance Design calculations:
Cross-class classification is made according to Table 5.2
-for beam web:

c 331mm 
  38.49 c
t 8.6mm    38.49  72    72 therefore the beam web is considered to be Class 1
 t
 1 

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

-for beam flange:

c 67.47mm 
  4.50 c
t 13.5mm    4.50  9    9 therefore the haunch is considered to be Class1
 t
 1 

In conclusion, the section is considered to be Class 1


According to CTICM document:
The cross section is considered to be Class 1. The column strength will be determined considering the plastic
characteristics of the cross-section. Below can be seen the CTICM conclusion, extracted from CTICM 2006-4:

12.46.2.3 Compression verification


According to Advance Design calculations:
The calculations are made in order to obtain the work ratio of the analyzed element. The work ratio of the element is
calculated using the percentage of the design axial compression resistance of the element (Nc,Rd) from the
compression force applied to the element (NEd). The compressed resistance of the member, Nc,Rd, is calculated
according to Eurocode 3 1993-1-1-2005, Chapter 6.2.4.

N Ed
 100  100% (6.9)
N c ,Rd
The design resistance of the cross-section for uniform compression Nc,Rd is determined using the formula below:

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

A f y
N c , Rd  (6.10)
 M0
-where:

A is the section area: A  8446mm2


f y is the yielding strength: f y  275N / mm
2

M0 is the partial safety factor:  M0 1


A f y 8446mm 2  275N / mm 2
N c , Rd    2322650N  2322.65kN
 M0 1
N Ed  125000N

N Ed 125000N
  100  5.38%  100%
N c,Rd 2322650N

According to CTICM document:

The compression resistance of the column is Nc, Rd  2324kN as it can be seen from conclusion extracted from
CTCIM 2006-4:

12.46.2.4 Shear verification


According to Advance Design calculations:
The calculations are made in order to obtain the work ratio of the analyzed element. The work ratio of the element is
calculated using the percentage of the design shear resistance of the element (V c,Rd) from the shear force applied to
the element (VEd). The shear resistance of the member, Vc,Rd, is calculated according to Eurocode 3 1993-1-1-2005,
Chapter 6.2.6.

V Ed
 100  100% (6.17)
Vc , Rd
The design shear resistance of the element, Vc,Rd is determined using the formula below:

 f 
AV   y 
Vc , Rd   3 (6.18)
M0
-where:
AV is the shear area:

AV  A  2  b  t f  tw  2  r   t f    hw  tw
-where:

A is the cross section area: A  8446mm2


b is the overall breadth: b  180mm

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tf is the flange thickness: t f  13.5mm

r is the root radius: r  21mm


tw is the web thickness: t w  8.6mm

hw is the depth of the web: hw  400mm


 1
AV  A  2  b  t f  tw  2  r   t f 
 8446mm 2  2  180mm  13.5mm  8.6mm  2  21mm   13.5mm  4269.1mm 2
  hw  tw  1 8.6mm  400mm  3440mm2
AV  4269.1mm2  3440mm2

f y is the yielding strength: f y  275N / mm


2

M0 is the partial safety factor:  M0 1

 f   275N / mm 2 
AV   y  4269.1mm 2   
Vc , Rd   3
  3   677810.66 N
M0 1

VEd  28330N

V Ed 28330N
 100   100  0.04179 100  4.180%  100%
Vc, Rd 677810.66N

According to CTICM document:

The shear resistance of the column is Vpl , z , Rd  677.8kN as it can be seen from conclusion extracted from CTCIM
2006-4:

12.46.2.5 Bending moment verification


According to Advance Design calculations:
The calculations are made in order to obtain the work ratio of the analyzed element. The work ratio of the element is
calculated using the percentage of the design bending moment resistance of the element (M pl,Rd) from the bending
moment effor applied to the element (MEd). The Bending moment resistance of the member, Mpl,Rd, is calculated
according to Eurocode 3 1993-1-1-2005, Chapter 6.2.5.

M Ed
 100  100% (6.12)
M pl , Rd
-the shear force does not exceed 50% of the shear plastic resistance, therefore there is no influence of the shear on
the composed bending;

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

-the axial compression force does not exceed 25% of the plastic resistance, therefore there is no influence of the
compression on the composed bending
The design bending moment resistance of the element, Mpl,Rd is determined using the formula below:

wpl  f y
M pl , Rd  (6.13)
M0
-where:

wpl is the plastic modulus: wpl  1307000mm3

f y is the yielding strength: f y  275N / mm


2

M0 is the partial safety factor:  M0 1


wpl  f y 1307000mm3  275N / mm 2
M pl , Rd    359425000Nmm
M0 1
M Ed  254970000Nmm

M Ed 254970000Nmm
100  100  0.70938100  70.938%  100%
M pl , Rd 359425000Nmm
According to CTICM document:

The bending moment resistance of the column is M pl , y , Rd  359.7kNm as it can be seen from the conclusion
extracted from CTCIM 2006-4:

12.46.2.6 Buckling verification


According to Advance Design calculations:
a) over the strong axis of the section, y-y:
The cross section buckling curve will be chosen according to Table 6.2:

The imperfection factor α will be chosen according to Table 6.1:

  0.21

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Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness after Y-Y axis

 y coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness y will be determined from the relevant buckling
curve according to:

1
y  2
1 (6.49)
 y   y  y
2

 y the non-dimensional slenderness corresponding to Class 1, 2 and 3 cross-sections:

A* fy
y 
N cr , y
2 2
Where: A is the cross section area; A=8446mm ; fy is the yielding strength of the material; f y=275N/mm and Ncr is
the elastic critical force for the relevant buckling mode based on the gross cross sectional properties:

² E  Iy  ²  210000MPa  23130 104 mm 4


N cr , y    5918472.77 N
L fz ² 9000mm 2
A fy 8446mm2  275N / mm2
y    0.62645
Ncr , y 5918472.77 N

 
y  0.5  1    (y  0.2)   y ²  0.5  1  0.21 0.62645 0.2  0.626452   0.740997
1 1
y    0.87968  1
y  y   y
2 2
0.740997 0.7409972  0.626452

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According to CTICM document:


The determined value for the coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness for the strong section, y-y
axis,  y is:  y  0.8796 as it can be observed from the conclusion extracted from CTCIM 2006-4:

b) over the strong axis of the section, z-z:


The cross section buckling curve will be chosen according to Table 6.2:

The imperfection factor α will be chosen according to Table 6.1:

  0.34

 z coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness  z will be determined from the relevant buckling curve
according to:

1
z  1 (6.49)
z  z   z
2 2

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

 z the non-dimensional slenderness corresponding to Class 1, 2 and 3 cross-sections:


A* fy
z 
Ncr , z
2 2
Where: A is the cross section area; A=8446mm ; fy is the yielding strength of the material; f y=275N/mm and Ncr is
the elastic critical force for the relevant buckling mode based on the gross cross sectional properties:

Outside the frame, the calculation can be made with more than the safety of taking in account a buckling length equal
to the grater length of the two beam sections, 6m. A more accurate calculation is to perform a modal analysis of the
column buckling outside the frame. The first eigenmode of instability corresponds to an amplification factor equal to
critical  cr  9.15 . The normal critical force can be directly calculated:

 ²  E  Iz  ²  210000N / mm 2  1318 104 mm 4


N cr , z    1142396.153N
l fy ² 4890mm ²
A fy 8446mm2  275N / mm2
z    1.42588
Ncr , z 1142396.153

 
z  0.5  1    ( z  0.2)   z ²  0.5  1  0.34  1.42588 0.2  1.425882   1.72497
1 1
z    0.37096  1
z  z   z
2 2
1.72497  1.724972  1.425882
According to CTICM document:
The determined value for the coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness for the strong section, z-z
axis,  z is:  z  0.3711 as it can be observed from the conclusion extracted from CTCIM 2006-4:

12.46.2.7 Lateral torsional buckling verification


According to Advance Design calculations:
a) for the 3m part of the column:
The elastic moment for lateral-torsional buckling calculation, Mcr:
-the transversal load is applied to the shear center, therefore C2zg=0 and the moment formula will be:

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

 ²  E  Iz I w L²  G  I t
M cr  C1   
L² Iz  ²  E  Iz
According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 2; …(3)
-where:
C1 is a coefficient that depends of several parameters as: section properties; support conditions; moment diagram allure
1
C1 
0.325  0.423  0.252 ²
According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 3; …(6)

169.98kNm
 is the fraction of the bending moment from the column extremities:    0.66667
254.97kNm

1 1
C1    1.17932
0.325  0.423  0.252 ² 0.325  0.423 0.66667  0.252  0.66667²
4 4
■ Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: Iy=23130.00x10 mm
4 4
■ Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: Iz=1318.00x10 mm
5
■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 2.1 x 10 MPa.
4 4
■ Torsional moment of inertia: It=51.08x10 mm
6 6
■ Working inertial moment: Iw=490000x10 mm
■ Length of the column part: L=3000mm
■ Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800MPa

 ²  E  Iz I w L²  G  It  ²  210000N / mm 2  1318 104 mm 4


M cr  C1     1.17932 
L² Iz  ²  E  Iz 3000mm 2
49  1010 mm 6 3000mm   80800N / mm 2  51.08  104 mm 4
2
   1.17932 3035232.34 N  225.33396mm 
1318 104 mm 4  ²  210000N / mm 2  1318 104 mm 4
 806585210.2 Nmm

Calculation of the non-dimensional slenderness factor,  LT :


Wy f y
 LT 
M cr
Plastic modulus, Wy  1307  103 mm3

Wy  f y 1307  103 mm3  275N / mm 2


 LT    0.66754
M cr 806585210.2 Nmm

Calculation of the  LT for appropriate non-dimensional slenderness  LT will be determined with formula:

1
 LT  1 (6.56)
LT  LT ²   LT ²

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE


LT  0.5  1   LT   LT  0.2   LT ² 
The cross section buckling curve will be chosen according to Table 6.4:

The imperfection factor α will be chosen according to Table 6.1:

  0.34

LT  0.5  1  0.34  0.66754  0.2  0.66754²  0.80228


1 1
 LT    0.80173  1
LT  LT ²   LT ² 0.80228 0.80228²  0.66754²

According to CTICM document:

The determined value for the coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness,  LT is:  LT  0.7877 as
it can be observed from the conclusion extracted from CTCIM 2006-4:

b) for the 6m part of the column:


The elastic moment for lateral-torsional buckling calculation, Mcr:
-the transversal load is applied to the shear center, therefore C2zg=0 and the moment formula will be:

247
ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

 ²  E  Iz I w L²  G  I t
M cr  C1   
L² Iz  ²  E  Iz
According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 2; …(3)
-where:
C1 is a coefficient that depends of several parameters as: section properties; support conditions; moment diagram allure

1
C1 
0.325  0.423  0.252 ²
According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 3; …(6)

 is the fraction of the bending moment from the column extremities:  0

C1  1.77
4 4
■ Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: Iy=23130.00x10 mm
4 4
■ Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: Iz=1318.00x10 mm
5
■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 2.1 x 10 MPa.
4 4
■ Torsional moment of inertia: It=51.08x10 mm
6 6
■ Working inertial moment: Iw=490000x10 mm
■ Length of the column part: L=6000mm
■ Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800MPa

 ²  E  Iz I w L²  G  It  ²  210000N / mm 2  1318 104 mm 4


M cr  C1     1.77  
L² Iz  ²  E  Iz 6000² mm 2
49  1010 mm 6 6000² mm 2  80800N / mm 2  51.08  104 mm 4
   1.77  758808.085N  302.604mm 
1318 104 mm 4  ²  210000N / mm 2  1318 104 mm 4
 406423987Nmm
Calculation of the non-dimensional slenderness factor,  LT :
Wy f y
 LT 
M cr
Plastic modulus, Wy  1307  103 mm3

Wy  f y 1307  103 mm3  275N / mm 2


 LT    0.94040
M cr 406423987Nmm
Calculation of the  LT for appropriate non-dimensional slenderness  LT will be determined with formula:

1
 LT  1 (6.56)
LT  LT ²   LT ²

248
ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE


LT  0.5  1   LT   LT  0.2   LT ² 
The cross section buckling curve will be chosen according to Table 6.4:

The imperfection factor α will be chosen according to Table 6.1:

  0.34

LT  0.5  1  0.34  0.94040  0.2  0.94040²  1.06804


1 1
 LT    0.63518  1
LT  LT ²   LT ² 1.06804  1.06804²  0.94040²
According to CTICM document:

The determined value for the coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness,  LT is:  LT  0.694 as it
can be observed from the conclusion extracted from CTCIM 2006-4:

12.46.2.8 Bending and axial compression verification


According to Advance Design calculations:

N Ed M  M y , Rd M  M z , Ed
 k yy  y , Ed  k yz  z , Ed 1 (6.61)
N Rk M y , Rd M z , Rk
y   LT 
 M1  M1  M1
N Ed M  M y , Rd M  M z , Ed
 k zy  y , Ed  k zz  z , Ed 1 (6.62)
N M y , Rd M z , Rk
 z  Rk  LT 
 M1  M1  M1

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

The formulae can be simplified because:

There is no bending on the small inertia axis: M z , Ed  0

The section is considered to be a Class1: M y , Rd  0 and M z , Rd  0


Therefore the formulae are:

M y , Ed
N Ed
N Rk
 k yy 
M y , Rk
 1.00 6.61
y   LT 
 M1  M1
M y , Ed
N Ed
N Rk
 k zy 
M y , Rk
 1.00 6.62
z   LT 
 M1  M1

12.46.2.9 Internal factor, k yy , calculation:

The internal factor k yy corresponding to a Class 1 section will be calculated according to Annex A, Table a.1:

y 1
k yy  Cmy  CmLT  
N C yy
1  Ed
N cr , y
Auxiliary terms:
N Ed
1
N cr , y
y 
N
1   y  Ed
N cr , y
Where:
 y  0.87968 (previously calculated)
 ²  E  Iy  ²  210000N / mm 2  23130 104 mm 4
N cr , y    5918472.773N
l fy ² 9000mm ²

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

125000N
1
y  5918472.773N  0.99741
125000N
1  0.87968
5918472.773

According to CTICM document:

The Cmy will be calculated according to Table A.1:

Calculation of the  0 term:

0  C1  LT
-where:
C1 is a coefficient that depends of several parameters as: section properties; support conditions; moment diagram allure

1
C1 
0.325  0.423  0.252 ²
According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 3; …(6)
 is the fraction of the bending moment from the column extremities:   0

251
ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

C1  1.77

Wy  f y 1307  103 mm3  275N / mm 2


 LT    0.66754
M cr 806585210.2 Nmm
0  C1  LT  C1  LT  1.77  0.66754  0.88811

 N   N 
Calculation of the 0.20  C1  4 1  Ed   1  Ed  term:
 N cr , z   N cr ,TF 
Where:
-for a symmetrical section for the both axis, N cr ,TF  N cr ,T

A   2  E  I w 
Ncr ,T    G  It 
I0  Lcr ,T ² 
The mass moment of inertia I 0

I 0  I y  I z  A  z g2
4 4
Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: Iy=23130.00x10 mm
4 4
Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: Iz=1318.00x10 mm

Cross section area: A  8446mm2


Distance between the section neutral axis and the section geometrical center: z g 0

I 0  I y  I z  A  z g2  I y  I z  23130 104 mm 4  1318 104 mm 4  24448 104 mm 4

-for simplification, it will be considered the same buckling length, Lcr ,T , for all the column parts:

Lcr ,T  6m
4 4
Torsional moment of inertia: It=51.08x10 mm
6 6
Working inertial moment: Iw=490000x10 mm
Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 210000 MPa
Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800MPa

8446mm 2   2  210000N / mm 2  49  1010 mm6 


N cr ,T  
  80800N / mm  51.08  10 mm 
2 4 4
 
24448 104 mm 4  6000mm ² 
 2400423.788N

252
ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

N cr , TF  N cr , T  2400423.788N
Ncr , z  1142396.153N (previously calculated)

 N   N   125000N   125000N 
0.20  C1  4 1  Ed   1  Ed   0.20  1.77  4 1    1  
 N   N   1142396.153N   2400423.788N 
 cr , z   cr ,TF 

 0.25505

Therefore:



C  C  1  C   y  aLT
 my my , 0 my , 0
1   y  aLT
    
N N 
0  0.88811 0.20  C1  4 1  Ed   1  Ed   0.25505  Cmz  Cmz ,0
 N cr , z   N cr ,TF   aLT
CmLT  Cmy
2
 1
  N   N 
 1  Ed   1  Ed 
  N   N 
 cr , z   cr ,T 

The Cmy coefficient takes into account the column behavior in the buckling plane: the buckling and bending moment distribution.
The coefficient must be calculated considering the column over the entire height.

 y  a LT
Cmy  Cmy , 0  1  Cmy , 0 
1   y  a LT
M y , Ed A
y  
N Ed Wel , y
Elastic modulus after the Y axis, Wel , y  1156  103 mm 3
M y , Ed A 254.94  106 Nmm 8446mm 2
y      14.90119
N Ed Wel , y 125000N 1156 103 mm3
It 51.08 104 mm 4
a LT  1  1  0.99779
Iy 23130104 mm 4
The C m 0 coefficient is defined according to the Table A.2:

The bending moment is null at the end of the column, therefore:  0

Cmy ,0  0.79  0.21  0.36    0.33 


N Ed
Ncr , y
Where:
Ncr , y  5918472.773N (previously calculated)

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Cmy ,0  0.79  0.36  0  0.33


125000N
 0.78749
5918472.773N
 y  aLT 14.90119  0.99779
Cmy  Cmy , 0  1  Cmy , 0   0.78749  1  0.78749   0.95619
1   y  aLT 1  14.90119  0.99779
According to CTICM document:

The CmLT coefficient takes into account the laterally restrained parts of the column. The CmLT coefficient must be calculated
individually for each of the column parts.
a LT
CmLT  Cmy
2
 1
   
1  N Ed   1  N Ed 
 N   N 
 cr , z   cr ,T 
a) for the 3m part of the column:

 y a LT
C my .3m  C my , 0  1  C my , 0 
1   y a LT
 y  14.90119(previously calculated)
aLT  0.99779 (previously calculated)
The C m 0 coefficient is defined according to the Table A.2:

254
ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

169.98kNm
 is the fraction of the bending moment from the column part extremities:    0.66667
254.97kNm

Cmy ,0  0.79  0.21  0.36    0.33 


N Ed
Ncr , y
Where:

Ncr , y  5918472.773N (previously calculated)

Cmy ,0  0.79  0.21 0.66667  0.36  0.66667  0.33


125000N
 0.93256
5918472.773N
 y  a LT 14.90119  0.99779
C my ,3m  C my , 0  1  C my , 0   0.93256  1  0.93256   0.98609
1   y  a LT 1  14.90119  0.99779

Ncr , z  1142396.153N (previously calculated)

Ncr ,T  2400423.788N (previously calculated)


aLT  0.99779 (previously calculated)
aLT 
CmLT ,3m  Cmy
2
,3m   
 N   N  
1    
 N   1  N 
Ed Ed

 cr , z   cr ,T 

0.99779 
 0.98609²   1.05596  CmLT ,3m  1.05596
 125000N   125000N  
1    1   
 1142396.153N   2400423.788N 

CmLT ,3m  1 


a) for the 6m part of the column:

 y a LT
C my .6 m  C my , 0  1  C my , 0 
1   y a LT
M y , Ed A
y  
N Ed Wel , y
Elastic modulus after the Y axis, Wel , y  1156  103 mm 3

M y , Ed A 169.98  106 Nmm 8446mm 2


y      9.9353
N Ed Wel , y 125000N 1156 103 mm 3
It 51.08 104 mm 4
a LT  1  1  0.99779
Iy 23130104 mm 4

255
ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

The C m 0 coefficient is defined according to the Table A.2:

 is the fraction of the bending moment from the column part extremities:  0

Cmy ,0  0.79  0.21  0.36    0.33 


N Ed
Ncr , y
Where:

Ncr , y  5918472.773N (previously calculated)

Cmy ,0  0.79  0.21 0  0.36  0  0.33


125000N
 0.78749
5918472.773N
 y  a LT 9.9353  0.99779
C my , 6 m  C my , 0  1  C my , 0   0.78749  1  0.78749   0.94873
1   y  a LT 1  9.9353  0.99779

Ncr , z  1142396.153N (previously calculated)

Ncr ,T  2400423.788N (previously calculated)


a LT 
C mLT , 6 m  C my
2
,6 m   
 N   N  
1    
 N   1  N 
Ed Ed

 cr , z   cr ,T 

0.99779 
 0.94873²   0.97746  C mLT , 6 m  1
 125000N   125000N  
1    1   
 1142396.153N   2400423.788N 

C mLT , 6 m  1 


In conclusion:
CmLT ,3m  1.05596
CmLT  
CmLT ,6 m  1

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

The C yy coefficient is defined according to the Table A.1 on the “Auxiliary terms:” part:

 1.6 1.6   Wel , y


C yy  1  ( w y  1)   2   C my
2
 max   C my
2
 2max   n pl  bLT  
 
 wy wy   W pl , y
Where:
M y , Ed M z , Ed M y , Ed
■ bLT  0.5  aLT  20    0.5  aLT  20  0  0
 LT  M pl , y , Rd M pl , Rd  LT  M pl , y , Rd
Wpl , y
■ wy   1.5
Wel , y
■ Elastic modulus after the Y axis, Wel , y  1156  103 mm 3
■ Plastic modulus after the Y axis, W pl , y  1307  103 mm 3
W pl , y 1307  103 mm3
■ wy    1.13062  1.5
Wel , y 1156 103 mm3
N Ed
■ n pl 
N Rk
 M1
A fy 8446mm 2  275N / mm 2
■ N Rk  N c , Rd    2322650N
M0 1
N Ed 125000N
■ n pl    0.05382
N Rk 2322650N
 M1 1

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

■ 
 max  max  y ;  z 
■  y  0.62645 (previously calculated)
■  z  1.42504(previously calculated)

■  
 max  max  y ;  z  max 0.62645;1.42504  1.42504
■ C my  0.95619 (previously calculated)
 1.6 1.6  
C yy  1  (1.13062  1)   2   0.95619² 1.42504   0.95619² 1.42504²   0.05382  0 
 1.13062 1.13062  
 0.98511

Wel , y 1156 103 mm 3


C yy  0.98511   0.88447
W pl , y 1307  103 mm 3
In conclusion:
 y 1 0.99741 1
k yy `,3m  C my  CmLT ,3m  
N Ed C yy
 0.956191.05569
125000N
  1.04409
 0. 98511
1 1
 N cr , y 5918472.773N
k yy  
k y 1 0.99741 1
yy , 6 m  C my  C mLT , 6 m    0.956191   0.98902
 N Ed C yy 125000N 0.98511
 1  1 
 N cr , y 5918472.773N

According to CTICM 2006-4:

258
ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.46.2.10Internal factor, k zy , calculation:

The internal factor k zy corresponding to a Class 1 section will be calculated according to Annex A, Table a.1:

z 1 wy
k zy  Cmy  CmLT    0.6 
N Ed C zy wz
1
N cr , y
Auxiliary terms:
N Ed
1
N cr , z
z 
N
1   z  Ed
N cr , z
Where:
 z  0.37096 (previously calculated)

 ²  E  Iz  ²  210000N / mm 2  1318 104 mm 4


N cr , z    1142396.153N
l fy ² 4890mm ²
125000N
1
z  1142396.1533N  0.92826
125000N
1  0.37096
1142396.153N

According to CTICM document:

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

The Cmy will be calculated according to Table A.1:



C  C  1  C   y  aLT
 my my , 0 my , 0
1   y  aLT
    
N N 
0  0.88811 0.20  C1  4 1  Ed   1  Ed   0.208  Cmz  Cmz ,0
 N cr , z   N cr ,TF   aLT
CmLT  Cmy
2
 1
  N   N 
 1  Ed   1  Ed 
  N   N 
 cr , z   cr ,T 

(previously calculated)
M y , Ed A 254.94  10 Nmm
6
8446mm 2
y      14.90119 (previously calculated)
N Ed Wel , y 125000N 1156 103 mm3
It 51.08 104 mm 4
aLT  1  1  0.99779(previously calculated)
Iy 23130 104 mm 4
The C m 0 coefficient is defined according to the Table A.2:

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

The bending moment is null at the end of the column, therefore:  0

Cmy ,0  0.79  0.21  0.36    0.33 


N Ed
 0.78749
Ncr , y
(previously calculated)

 y a LT
C my  Cmy , 0  1  C my , 0   0.95619
1   y a LT
(previously calculated)

aLT CmLT ,3m  1.05596


CmLT  Cmy
2
 
    CmLT ,6 m  1
1  N Ed   1  N Ed 
 N   N 
 cr , z   cr ,T 
(previously calculated)

The Czy coefficient is defined according to the Table A.1 on the “Auxiliary terms:” part:

 C 2  2   wy Wel , y
Czy  1  ( wy  1)   2  14  my 5 max   n pl  d LT   0.6  
 wy 
 
 wz W pl , y
Where:

0 M y , Ed M z , Ed 0 M y , Ed
d LT  2  aLT     2  aLT   0  0
0.1  
4
z
Cmy   LT  M pl , y , Rd Cmz  M pl , z , Rd 0.1  4
z Cmy   LT  M pl , y , Rd

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

W pl , y 1307  103 mm 3
wy    1.13062  1.5 (previously calculated)
Wel , y 1156 103 mm 3
W pl , z
wz   1.5
Wel , z
Elastic modulus after the Z axis, Wel , z  146.40 103 mm 3

Plastic modulus after the Z axis, W pl , z  229  103 mm3

W pl , z 229  103 mm3 


wz    1.564
Wel , z 146.40  10 mm
3 3
  wz  1.5
wz  1.5 

N Ed
n pl 
N Rk
 M1
N Ed 125000N
n pl    0.05382 (previously calculated)
N Rk 2322650N
 M1 1
 
 max  max  y ;  z  max 0.62645;1.42504  1.42504(previously calculated)
 0.986092 1.425042  
Czy  1  (1.13062  1)   2  14  5
  0.05382  0  0.90887
 1.13062  
wy Wel , y 1.13062 1156 103 mm3
0.6    0.6    0.46073
wz W pl , y 1.5 1307  103 mm3
 C 2  2   wy Wel , y
C zy  1  ( wy  1)   2  14  my 5 max   n pl  d LT   0.90887  0.6    0.46073
 wy 
 
 wz W pl , y

In conclusion:

z 1 wy 0.923830 1 1.13062
k zy  C my  C mLT    0.6   0.986091.05569   0.6  
N Ed C zy wz 125000N 0.90887 1.5
1 1
N cr , y 5918472.773N
 0.56307

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

 y 1 wy
k zy `,3m  C my  C mLT ,3m    0.6  
 N C zy wz
1  Ed
 N cr , z

 0.99741 1 1.13062
 0.956191.05569 125000N

0.90887
 0.6 
1.5
 0.52306
 1
 5918472.773N
k zy  
 y 1 wy
k zy , 6 m  C my  C mLT , 6 m  N

C zy
 0.6 
wz

 1  Ed
 N cr , z

 0.956191 0.99741

1
 0.6 
1.13062
 0.50752
 125000N 0.98511 1.5
 1 
 5918472.773N

According to CTICM 2006-4:

The bending and axial compression verifications are:


-for the 3m column part:

N Ed M y ,Ed
 k yy  
N M y ,Rk
 y  Rk  LT 
 M1  M1
125000N 254970000Nmm
  1.04409 
2322650N 359425000Nmm
0.87968 0.80173
1 1
 0.06119  0.92383  0.98501 1
N Ed M y ,Ed
 k zy  
N Rk M y ,Rk
z   LT 
 M1  M1
125000N 254970000Nmm
  0.52306 
2322650N 359425000Nmm
0.37096 0.80173
1 1
 0.14508  0.46281  0.60789  1

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

-for the 6m column part:

N Ed M y ,Ed
 k yy  
N M y ,Rk
 y  Rk  LT 
 M1  M1
125000N 168980000Nmm
  0.98902 
2322650N 359425000Nmm
0.87968 0.63518
1 1
 0.06118  0.73204  0.79322  1
N Ed M y ,Ed
 k zy  
N Rk M y ,Rk
z   LT 
 M1  M1
125000N 168980000Nmm
  0.50752 
2322650N 359425000Nmm
0.37096 0.63518
1 1
 0.14508  0.37565  0.52073  1

According to CTICM 2006-4:

Finite elements modeling


■ Linear element: S beam,
■ 6 nodes,
■ 1 linear element.

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Ratio of the design normal force to design compresion resistance


Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top
Work ratio - Fx

Ratio of the design share force to design share resistance

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top


Work ratio - Fz

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Ratio of the design share force to design share resistance

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top


Work ratio - oblique

 y coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness  y

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

y

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

 z coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness  z


Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

z

Internal factor, k yy

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

k yy

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Internal factor, k yz

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

k yz

12.46.2.11Reference results
Result name Result description Reference value
Work ratio - Fx Ratio of the design normal force to design compression resistance 5.38
Work ratio - Fz Ratio of the design share force to design share resistance 4.18
Work ratio - Oblique Ratio of the design moment resistance to design bending resistance 70.94
one the principal axis

y  y coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness  y 0.88

z  z coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness  z 0.37

k yy Internal factor, k yy for the 3m segment 1.04

k yy Internal factor, k yy for the 6m segment 0.99

k zy Internal factor, k zy for the 3m segment 0.52

k zy Internal factor, k zy for the 6m segment 0.51

12.46.3Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Work ratio - Fx Ratio of the design normal force to design 5.38178 % 0.0331 %
compression resistance
Work ratio - Fz Ratio of the design share force to design share 4.17973 % -0.0065 %
resistance
Work ratio - Ratio of the design moment resistance to design 70.9383 % -0.0024 %
Oblique bending resistance one the principal axis

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Xy Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.879684 adim -0.0359 %


slenderness
Xz Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.370957 adim 0.2586 %
slenderness
Kyy Internal factor,kyy for the 3m segment 1.03159 adim -0.8087 %
Kyy Internal factor,kyy for the 6m segment 0.983324 adim -0.6743 %
Kzy Internal factor,kzy for the 3m segment 0.537037 adim 3.2763 %
Kzy Internal factor,kzy for the 6m segment 0.511305 adim 0.2559 %

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.47 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying an user defined I section class 4 column fixed on
the bottom and without any other restraint (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 24)

Test ID: 5709


Test status: Passed

12.47.1Description
The test verifies an user defined cross section column.
The cross section has an “I symmetric” shape with: 880mm height; 220mm width; 5mm center thickness; 15mm
flange thickness; 0mm fillet radius and 0mm rounding radius.
The column is subjected to 328 kN axial compression force; 1274 kNm bending moment after the Y axis and 127.4
kNm bending moment after the Z axis. All the efforts are applied on the top of the column. The column height is
5.62m and has no restraints over its length.
The calculations are made according to Eurocode 3 French Annex.

12.47.2Background
An I880*5+220*15 shaped column subjected to compression and bending, made from S275 steel. The column has a
880x5mm web and 220x15mm flanges. The column is hinged at its base and, at his top end, translation is permitted
only on vertical direction and the rotation is blocked for the long axis of the column. The column is subjected to an
axial compression load 328000 N, 127400Nm bending moment after the X axis and 1274000Nm bending moment
after the Y axis.
This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

12.47.2.1 Model description


■ Reference: Guide d’evaluation Advance Design, EN 1993-1-1: 2005;
■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

■ Element type: linear.


The following load case and load combination are used:
■ Exploitation loadings (category A): Fz=-328000N N, Mx= 127400Nm; My=1274000Nm
■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q
■ Cross section dimensions are in millimeters (mm).

Units
Metric System

Geometrical properties
■ Column length: L=5620mm
■ Cross section area: A  10850mm2
■ Overall breadth: b  220mm
■ Flange thickness: t f  15mm

■ Root radius:r  0mm


■ Web thickness: t w  5mm

■ Depth of the web: hw  880mm


■ Elastic modulus after the Y axis, Wel , y  3387.66  103 mm 3
■ Plastic modulus after the Y axis, W y  3757.62  103 mm 3
■ Elastic modulus after the Z axis, Wel , z  242.08  103 mm 3
■ Plastic modulus after the Z axis, W pl , z  368.31 103 mm 3
4 4
■ Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: Iy=149058.04x10 mm
4 4
■ Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: Iz=2662.89x10 mm
4 4
■ Torsional moment of inertia: It=51.46x10 mm
6 6
■ Working inertial moment: Iw=4979437.37x10 mm

Materials properties
S275 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:
■ Yield strength fy = 275 MPa,
■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 210000 MPa.
■ Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800MPa

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Boundary conditions
The boundary conditions are described below:
■ Outer:
► Support at start point (x = 0) restrained in translation along X, Y and Z axis,
► Support at the end point (z = 5.62) restrained in translation along Y and Z axis and restrained rotation
along X axis.

Loading
The column is subjected to the following loadings:
■ External: Point load From X=0.00m and z=5.62m: FZ =--328000N; Mx=127400Nm and My=1274000Nm

12.47.2.2 Cross section Class


According to Advance Design calculations:
Cross-class classification is made according to Table 5.2

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

-for beam web:


The web dimensions are 850x5mm.
N Ed 0.328
  2 1  2   1  0.78  1
A fy 0.0109  275

1  N Ed  1  0.328 
   1     1    0.64  0.5
2  f y  t  d  2  275 0.850 0.005 

235 235
   0.924
fy 275

c 880mm  2  15mm 
  170 c 42   42  0.924
t 5mm    170    94.057
 t 0.67  0.33  0.67  0.33  (0.78)
 1 
therefore the beam web is considered to be Class 4
-for beam flange:

c 107.5 
  7.61 c
t 15    7.61  9    9 therefore the haunch is considered to be Class1
 t
 1 
In conclusion, the section is considered to be Class 4

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.47.2.3 Effective cross-sections of Class4 cross-sections


-the section is composed from Class 4 web and Class 1 flanges, therefore will start the web
calculation:
-in order to simplify the calculations the web will be considered compressed only

c 880mm  2  15mm
  170 :
t 5mm
  1  k  4
-according EC3 Part 1,5 – EN 1993-1-5-2004; Table 4.1

bw
p  t
28.4    k

bw is the width of the web; bw  850mm


t is the web thickness; t=5mm

235 235
   0.9244
fy 275

850mm
p  5mm  3.261
28.4  0.9244  4
-according EC3 Part 1,5 – EN 1993-1-5-2004; Chapter4.4
-the web is considered to be an internal compression element, therefore:

 p  3.261  0.673  p  0.055 3   3.261 0.055 4


     0.286
3   4  0 
2
p 3.2612

beff    bw  beff  0.286  850mm  243.1mm


 
be1  0.5  beff   be1  0.5  243.1mm  121.55mm
 
be 2  0.5  beff  be 2  0.5  243.1mm  121.55mm

Aeff ,web  t w  be1  t w  be 2  5mm 121.55mm  5mm 121.55mm  1215.5mm 2

Aeff , flange  t f  b f  15mm  220mm  3300mm 2

Aeff  Aeff ,web  2  Aeff , flange  1215.5mm 2  2  3300mm 2  7815.2mm 2

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.47.2.4 Effective elastic section modulus of Class4 cross-sections


-In order to simplify the calculation the section will be considered in pure bending

 inf 850mm
  1  bc  bt   425mm
 sup 2
  1  k  23.9
-according EC3 Part 1,5 – EN 1993-1-5-2004; Table 4.1

c 880mm  2  15mm
  170
t 5mm
bw
p  t
28.4    k

bw is the width of the web; bw  850mm


t is the web thickness; t=5mm

235 235
   0.9244
fy 275

850mm
p  5mm  1.325
28.4  0.9244 23.9
-according EC3 Part 1,5 – EN 1993-1-5-2004; Chapter4.4

 p  1.325  0.673  p  0.055 3   1.325  0.055 2


     0.692
3   2  0 
2
p 1.3252

bw   850mm
beff    bc     beff  0.692   294.1mm
1  1   1

  
be1  0.4  beff   be1  0.4  294.1mm  117.64mm
 b  0.6  294.1mm  176.46mm
be 2  0.6  beff   e2
 
 

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

-the weight center coordinate is:

yG 
22015 432.5  117.64  5 366.18  22015 432.5  601.46  5124.27 
22015  117.64  5  601.46  5  22015
 158330.095
  15.53mm
10195.5
-the inertial moment along the strong axis is:

153  220 117.643  5


Iy   220  15  448.032   117.64  5  381.712 
12 12
601.463  5 153  220
  601.46  5  107.742   220  15  416.97 2 
12 12
 748854356.6  699380072.5  1448234429mm 4
2203 15 53 117.64
Iz   220 15  0 2   117.64  5  0 2 
12 12
5  601.46
3
2203 15
  601.46  5  0 
2
 220  15  0 2  26627490.63mm 4
12 12
Iy 1448234429mm 4
Wel , y    3179229.533mm 3
z max 455.53mm

Iz 26627490.63mm 4
Wel , z    242068.10mm 3
y max 110mm

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

12.47.2.5 Buckling verification


a) over the strong axis of the section, y-y:
-the imperfection factor α will be selected according to the Table 6.1 and 6.2:

  0.34
Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness after Y-Y axis:

 y coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness y will be determined from the relevant buckling
curve according to:

1
y  2
1 (6.49)
 y   y  y
2

 y the non-dimensional slenderness corresponding to Class 4 cross-sections:


Aeff * f y
y 
N cr , y

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Where: A is the effective cross section area; Aeff  7815.2mm 2 ; fy is the yielding strength of the material;
2
fy=275N/mm and Ncr is the elastic critical force for the relevant buckling mode based on the gross cross sectional
properties:

² E Iy  ²  210000N / mm 2  1448234429mm 4


N cr , y    95035371.44 N  95035.37kN
l fy ² 5620mm ²
Aeff  f y 7815.2mm 2  275N / mm 2
y    0.15
N cr , y 95035371.44N

 
 y  0.5  1    ( y  0.2)   y ²  0.5  1  0.34  0.15  0.2  0.152   0.503

1 1 
y    1.017
y  y  y
2 2
0.503  0.5032  0.152   y 1

y 1 
b) over the weak axis of the section, z-z:
-the imperfection factor α will be selected according to the Table 6.1 and 6.2:

  0.49

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Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness after Z-Z axis:

 z coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness z will be determined from the relevant buckling curve
according to:

1
z  1 (6.49)
z  z   z
2 2

 z the non-dimensional slenderness corresponding to Class 1, 2 and 3 cross-sections:


Aeff * f y
z 
N cr , z

Where: A is the effective cross section area; Aeff  7815.2mm 2 ; fy is the yielding strength of the material;
2
fy=275N/mm and Ncr is the elastic critical force for the relevant buckling mode based on the gross cross sectional
properties:

 ² E  Iz  ²  210000N / mm 2  26627490.63mm 4
N cr , z    1747336.905N  1747.34kN
l fz ² 5620mm ²
Aeff  f y 7815.2mm 2  275N / mm 2
z    1.109
N cr , z 1747336.905N

 
 z  0.5  1    ( z  0.2)   z ²  0.5  1  0.49  1.109  0.2  1.1092   1.338
1 1 
z    0.479
z  z   z 1.338  1.338  1.109    z  0.479
2 2 2 2


z 1 

12.47.2.6 Lateral torsional buckling verification


-the transversal load is applied to the shear center, therefore C2zg=0 and the moment formula will be:

 ²  E  Iz I w L²  G  I t
M cr  C1   
L² Iz  ²  E  Iz
According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 2; …(3)
-where:
C1 is a coefficient that depends of several parameters as: section properties; support conditions; moment diagram
allure

1
C1 
0.325  0.423  0.252 ²
According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 3; …(6)
0kNm
 is the fraction of the bending moment from the column extremities:   0
1274kNm

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0kNm
  0  C1  1.77
1274kNm
According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 3.2; Table 1
Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: I y  1448234429mm 4

Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: I z  26627490.63mm 4


2
Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 210000 N/mm .
4
Torsional moment of inertia: It=514614.75mm
Warping inertial moment:

IW is the warping inertia (deformation inertia moment):

I z  h  t f 
2

Iw 
4
h cross section height; h=880mm

tf flange thickness; t f  15mm

26627490.63 mm 4  880mm  15mm 


2
Iw   49.808  1011 mm 6
4
-according to EN1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 2 (…4)
Length of the column part: L=5620mm
2
Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800N/mm

 ² E  Iz I w L²  G  I t  2  210000N / mm 2  26627490.63mm 4
M cr  C1     1.77  
L² Iz  ² E  Iz 5620mm 2
49.8081011 mm 6 5620mm   80800N / mm 2  514614mm 4
2
   1.77 1747336.905N  459.185mm 
26627490.63mm 4  2  210000N / mm 2  26627490.63mm 4
 1420163158Nmm  1420.163kNm
Iy 1448234429mm 4
The elastic modulus : Wel , y    3179229.533mm 3
z max 455.53mm
Weff , y f y 3179229.533mm 3 275N / mm 2
 LT    0.785
M cr 1420163158Nmm
Calculation of the  LT for appropriate non-dimensional slenderness  LT will be determined with formula:

1
 LT  1 (6.56)
LT  LT ²   LT ²

LT  0.5  1   LT   LT  0.2   LT ² 
The cross section buckling curve will be chose according to Table 6.4:

h 880mm
 42
b 220mm

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The imperfection factor α will be chose according to Table 6.3:

  0.76

   
LT  0.5 1   LT   LT  0.2   LT ²  0.51  0.76  0.785  0.2  0.785²  1.030
1 1
 LT    0.589  1
LT  LT ²   LT ² 1.030  1.030²  0.785²

12.47.2.7 Internal factor, k yy , calculation

The internal factor k yy corresponding to a Class 1 section will be calculated according to Annex A, Table a.1:

y
k yy  C my  C mLT 
N Ed
1
N cr , y

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N Ed
1
N cr , y
y 
N
1   y  Ed
N cr , y
 y  1 (previously calculated)
N Ed  328kN

 ² E Iy
N cr , y   95035371.44 N  95035.37kN (previously calculated)
l fy ²
N Ed
1 1
328000N
N cr , y 95035371.44 N  1
y  
N Ed 328000N
1  y  1  1
N cr , y 95035371.44 N

The Cmy will be calculated according to Table A.1:

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Calculation of the  0 term:

Weff , y  f y
0 
M cr 0
-according to Eurocode 3 EN 1993-1-1-2005; Chapter 6.3.2.2

Wel , y  3387.66  10 mm 3 3

M cr  1420163158Nmm  1420.163kNm (previously calculated)


Weff , y  f y 3387660mm 3  275N / mm 2
0    0.810
M cr 0 1420163158Nmm

 N   N 
Calculation of the 0.20  C1  4 1  Ed   1  Ed  term:
 N cr , z   N cr ,TF 
Where:

-for a symmetrical section for the both axis, N cr ,TF  N cr ,T

A   2  E  I w 
Ncr ,T    G  It 
I0  Lcr ,T ² 

The mass moment of inertia I 0

I 0  I y  I z  A  z g2
Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: I y  1490580416.67mm 4

Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: I z  26628854.17mm 4

Cross section area: A  10850mm2


Distance between the section neutral axis and the section geometrical center: z g 0

I 0  I y  I z  A  z g2  I y  I z  1490580416.67mm 4  26628854.17mm 4  1517209270mm 4

- the buckling length, Lcr ,T ,


Lcr ,T  5.62m
Torsional moment of inertia: I t  514614.75mm 4

Working inertial moment: I w  49.808  1011 mm6 (previously calculated)

Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 210000 MPa


Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800MPa

10850mm 2   2  210000N / mm 2  49.8081011 mm 6 


N cr ,T    80800N / mm 2
 514614.75mm 4
  
1517209270mm 4  5620mm² 
 2634739.14N
N Ed  328000N
N cr ,TF  N cr ,T  2634739.14N

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 ²  E  Iz
N cr , z   1747336.905N (previously calculated)
l fz ²

   
  0.20  1.77  4 1  328000N   1  328000N  
N N
0.20  C1  4 1  Ed   1  Ed
  N 
 N cr , z   cr ,TF   1747336.905N   2634739.14 N 
 0.244

Therefore:

 
   y  a LT
 0  0.810  Cmy  Cmy ,0  1  Cmy , 0  
  1   y  a LT

 N  
  1  N Ed
  
0.20  C1  4 1  Ed  
  0.244
   Cmz  Cmz , 0
 N cr , z   N cr ,TF   
 CmLT  Cmy a LT
2
 1
 N   N       
0  0.810  0.20  C1  4 1  Ed   1  Ed   0.244  N
1  Ed   1  Ed  N
N  N       N cr , z   N cr ,T 
cr , z cr ,TF
 

The Cmy coefficient takes into account the column behavior in the buckling plane: the buckling and bending moment distribution.
The coefficient must be calculated considering the column over the entire height.
 y  a LT
Cmy  Cmy , 0  1  Cmy , 0 
1   y  a LT

M y , Ed Aeff
y  
N Ed Weff , y
Elastic modulus after the Y axis, Wel , y  Weff , y  3179229.533mm 3
M y , Ed Aeff 1274 106 Nmm 7815.2mm 2
y      9.55
N Ed Weff , y 328000N 3179229.533mm 3

It 514614.75mm 4
a LT  1   1  0.9996  1
Iy 1448234429mm 4

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The C m 0 coefficient is defined according to the Table A.2:

The bending moment is null at the end of the column, therefore:  0

Cmy ,0  0.79  0.21  0.36    0.33 


N Ed
Ncr , y
Where:

 ² E Iy
N cr , y   95035371.44 N  95035.37kN (previously calculated)
l fy ²

Cmy ,0  0.79  0.36  0  0.33


328000N
 0.79
95035371.44N
 y  a LT 9.55 1
C my  C my , 0  1  C my ,0   0.79  1  0.79  0.949
1   y  a LT 1  9.55 1
aLT
CmLT  Cmy
2
 1
   
1  N Ed   1  N Ed 
 N   N 
 cr , z   cr ,T 
1
CmLT  0.9492   1.068
 328000N   328000N 
1    1  
 1747336.905N   2634739.14N 
y 1
k yy  Cmy  CmLT   0.9491.068  1.0161
N Ed 328000N
1 1
N cr , y 95035371.44N

12.47.2.8 Internal factor, k yz , calculation

y
k yz  C mz 
N Ed
1
N cr , z

Cmz  Cmz ,0  0.79  0.36   0.33  0.79  0.36   0.33


N Ed 328000N
 0.7677
N cr , z 1747336.905N

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y 1
k yz  C mz   0.7677  0.945
N Ed 328000N
1 1
N cr , z 1747336.905N

12.47.2.9 Internal factor, k zy , calculation

z
k zy  C my  C mLT 
N Ed
1
N cr , y
N Ed
1 1
328000N
N cr , z 1747336.905N
z    0.893
N Ed 328000N
1 z  1  0.479 
N cr , z 1747336.905N
z 0.893
k zy  Cmy  CmLT   0.9491.068  0.908
N Ed 328000N
1 1
N cr , y 95035371.44N

12.47.2.10Internal factor, k zz , calculation

z 0.893
k zz  C mz   0.7677  0.844
N 328000N
1  Ed 1
N cr , z 1747336.905N

12.47.2.11Bending and axial compression verification

 N Ed M y , Ed  M y , Rd M  M z , Rd
  k yy   k yz  z , Ed
N M M z , Rk
  y  Rk  LT  y ,Rk
  M1  M1  M1

 N Ed M y , Ed  M y , Rd M  M z , Rd
 k zy   k zz  z , Ed
 N Rk M M z , Rk
z   LT  y ,Rk
  M1  M1  M1
N Rk  f y  Ai

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328000N 1274  106 Nmm


 1. 0161  
7815.2mm 2  275N / mm 2 3179229.533mm 3  275N / mm 2
1 0.589 
1 1
127.4  10 Nmm
6
 0.945   0.15  2.51  1.808  4.47
242068.10mm 3  275N / mm 2
1
328000N 1274  106 Nmm
 0.908  
7815.2mm 2  275N / mm 2 3179229.533mm 3  275N / mm 2
0.479  0.589 
1 1
127.4  10 Nmm
6
 0.844   0.32  2.24  1.61  4.14
242068.10mm 3  275N / mm 2
1
Finite elements modeling
■ Linear element: S beam,
■ 6 nodes,
■ 1 linear element.

 y coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness  y

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

y

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 z coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness  z


Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

z

Internal factor, k yy

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

k yy

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Internal factor, k yz

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

k yz

Internal factor, k zy

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

k zy

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Internal factor, k zz

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

k zz

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the compression effort over the Y axis: SNy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the compression effort
over the Y axis
SNy

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Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y bending moment over the Y axis: SMyy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y bending moment
over the Y axis
SMyy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z bending moment over the Y axis: SMyz

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z bending moment
over the Y axis
SMyz

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Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the compression effort over the Z axis: SNz

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the compression effort
over the Z axis
SNz

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y bending moment over the Z axis: SMzy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y bending moment
over the Z axis
SMzy

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Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z bending moment over the Z axis: SMzz

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z bending moment
over the Z axis
SMzz

12.47.2.12Reference results
Result name Result description Reference value

y  y coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness  y 1

z  z coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness  z 0.48

k yy Internal factor, k yy 1.011

k yz Internal factor, k yz 0.95

k zy Internal factor, k zy 0.902

k zy Internal factor, k zy 0.84

SNy Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the 0.15
compression effort over the Y axis
SMyy Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y 2.50
bending moment over the Y axis
SMyz Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z 1.81
bending moment over the Y axis
SMzy Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y 2.23
bending moment over the Z axis
SMzz Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z 1.61
bending moment over the Z axis

12.47.3Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Xy Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 1 adim 0.0000 %
slenderness

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Xz Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.412841 adim -0.0385 %


slenderness
Kyy Internal factor kyy 1.02452 adim 0.4431 %
Kyz Internal factor kyz 0.9451 adim -0.5158 %
Kzy Internal factor kzy 0.90212 adim 0.2356 %
Kzz Internal factor kzz 0.832189 adim 0.2637 %
#SNy Bending and axial compression verification term 0.12109 adim 0.9083 %
depending of the compression effort over the Y axis
#SMyy Bending and axial compression verification term 2.58158 adim 0.0612 %
depending of the Y bending moment over the Y axis
#SMyz Bending and axial compression verification term 1.80878 adim -0.0674 %
depending of the Z bending moment over the Y axis
#SMzy Bending and axial compression verification term 2.27316 adim 0.1392 %
depending of the Y bending moment over the Z axis
#SMzz Bending and axial compression verification term 1.59269 adim 0.1692 %
depending of the Z bending moment over the Z axis

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12.48 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying an user defined I section class 1, column hinged
on base and restrained on top for the X, Y translation and Z rotation (evaluated by SOCOTEC
France - ref. Test 29)

Test ID: 5729


Test status: Passed

12.48.1Description
The test verifies a user defined cross section column.
The column is an “I symmetric” shape with: 260mm height; 150mm width; 7.1mm web thickness; 10.7mm flange
thickness; 0mm fillet radius and 0mm rounding radius. The column is made of S275 steel.
The column is subjected to 328 kN axial compression force and 50kNm bending moment after the Y axis and 10kNm
bending moment after the Z axis. All the efforts are applied to the top of the column.
The calculations are made according to Eurocode 3 French Annex.

12.48.2Background
An I260*7.1+150*10.7 shaped column subjected to compression and bending, made from S275 steel. The column
has a 260x7.1mm web and 150x10.7mm flanges. The column is fixed for all translations and free for all rotations, at
its base, and on the top end, the translations over the X and Y axes and the rotation over the Z axis are not
permitted. In the middle of the column there is a restraint over the Y axis, therefore the bucking length for the XY
plane is equal to half of the column length. The column is subjected to an axial compression load -328000 N, a
10000Nm bending moment after the X axis and a 50000Nm bending moment after the Y axis
This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

12.48.2.1 Model description


■ Reference: Guide d’evaluation Advance Design, EN 1993-1-1: 2005;
■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);
■ Element type: linear.
The following load case and load combination are used:
■ Exploitation loadings (category A): Fz=-328000N N; My=50000Nm; Mx=10000Nm;
■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

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■ Cross section dimensions are in millimeters (mm).

Units
Metric System

Geometrical properties
■ Column length: L=5620mm
■ Cross section area: A  4904.06mm2
■ Overall breadth: b  150mm
■ Flange thickness: t f  10.70mm

■ Root radius:r  0mm


■ Web thickness: t w  7.10mm

■ Depth of the web: hw  260mm


■ Elastic modulus after the Y axis, Wel , y  445717.63mm 3
■ Plastic modulus after the Y axis, Wy  501177.18mm 3
■ Elastic modulus after the Z axis, Wel , z  80344.89mm 3
■ Plastic modulus after the Z axis, W pl , z  123381.96mm3
■ Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: I y  57943291.64mm 4
■ Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: I z  6025866.46mm 4
■ Torsional moment of inertia: I t  149294.97mm4
■ Working inertial moment: I w  93517065421.88mm6

Materials properties
S275 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:
■ Yield strength fy = 275 MPa,
■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 210000 MPa.
■ Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800MPa

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Boundary conditions
The boundary conditions are described below:
■ Outer:
► Support at start point (x = 0) restrained in translation along X, Y and Z axis,
► Restraint of translation over the Y axis at half (z=2.81)
► Support at start point (z = 5.62) restrained in translation along X and Y axis, and restrained in rotation
along Z axis,

Loading
The column is subjected to the following loadings:
■ External: Point load From X=0.00m and z=5.62m: FZ =-328000N; Mx=10000Nm and My=50000Nm

12.48.2.2 Cross section Class


According to Advance Design calculations:
Cross-class classification is made according to Table 5.2

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- for beam web:


The web dimensions are 238.6x7.1mm.
N Ed 0.328
  2 1  2   1  0.78  1
A fy 0.0109  275

1  N Ed  1  0.328 
   1     1    0.85  0.5
2  f y  t  d  2  275 0.2386 0.0071

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235 235
   0.924
fy 275

c 260mm  2 10.7mm 
  33.61 c 396  396 0.924
t 7.1mm    33.6    36.41 therefore the beam
 t 13   1 13 0.85  1
  0.924 
web is considered to be Class 1
-for beam flange:

150  7.1 
 c
 6.68   6.68  9  0.924  8.316
c 2
 therefore the haunch is considered to be Class1
t 10.7  t
  0.924 
In conclusion, the section is considered to be Class 1.

12.48.2.3 Buckling verification


a) over the strong axis of the section, y-y:
- the imperfection factor α will be selected according to Tables 6.1 and 6.2:

  0.34

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness after Y-Y axis:

 y coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness y will be determined from the relevant buckling
curve according to:

1
y  2
1 (6.49)
 y   y  y
2

 y the non-dimensional slenderness corresponding to Class 1 cross-sections:


A * fy
y 
N cr , y

Cross section area: A  4904.06mm2


Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: I y  57943291.64mm 4

² E Iy  ²  210000N / mm 2  57943291.64mm 4


N cr , y    3802327.95N  3802.33kN
l fy ² 5620mm ²
A f y 4904.06mm 2  275N / mm 2
y    0.5956
N cr , y 3802327.95N

 
 y  0.5  1    ( y  0.2)   y ²  0.5  1  0.34  0.5956  0.2  0.59562   0.7446

1 1 
y    0.839
y  y  y
2 2
0.7446  0.74462  0.59562    y  0.839

y 1 
b) over the weak axis of the section, z-z:
- the imperfection factor α will be selected according to Tables 6.1 and 6.2:

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

  0.49
Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness after Z-Z axis:

 z coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness  z will be determined from the relevant buckling curve
according to:

1
z  1 (6.49)
z  z   z
2 2

 z the non-dimensional slenderness corresponding to Class 1, 2 and 3 cross-sections:


A* f y
z 
N cr , z

Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: I z  6025866.46mm 4

Cross section area: A  4904.06mm2


 ²  E  Iz  ²  210000N / mm 2  6025866.46mm 4
N cr , z    1581706.51N  31581.71kN
l fz ² 2810mm ²
A fy 4904.06mm 2  275N / mm 2
z    0.923
Ncr , z 1581706.51N

 
z  0.5  1    ( z  0.2)   z ²  0.5  1  0.49  0.923  0.2  0.9232   1.103

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

1 1 
z    0.586
z  z   z 1.103  1.103  0.923    z  0.586
2 2 2 2


z  1 

12.48.2.4 Lateral torsional buckling verification


a) for the top part of the column:
The elastic moment for lateral-torsional buckling calculation, Mcr:
- the transversal load is applied to the shear center, therefore C 2zg=0 and the moment formula will be:

 ²  E  Iz I w L²  G  I t
M cr  C1   
L² Iz  ²  E  Iz
According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 2; …(3)
- where:
C1 is a coefficient that depends of several parameters as: section properties; support conditions; moment diagram
allure

1
C1 
0.325  0.423  0.252 ²
According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 3; …(6)
M y ,botom 25kN
   0.5  C1  1.31
M y ,top 25kN

Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: I y  57943291.64mm 4

Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: I z  6025866.46mm 4

Torsional moment of inertia: I t  149294.97mm 4

Working inertial moment: I w  93517065421.88mm 6


Yield strength fy = 275 MPa,
Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 210000 MPa.
Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800MPa

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Warping inertial moment (recalculated):

IW is the warping inertia (deformation inertia moment):

I z  h  t f 
2

Iw 
4
h cross section height; h  260mm

tf flange thickness; t f  10.7mm

6025866.46mm 4  260mm  10.7mm 


2
Iw   93627638290mm 6
4
According to EN1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 2 (…4)
Length of the column: L=2810mm

 ²  E  Iz I w L²  G  It  2  210000N / mm 2  6025866.46mm 4
M cr  C1     1.31 
L² Iz  ²  E  Iz 2810mm 2
93627638290mm 6 2810mm   80800N / mm 2  149294.97mm 4
2
   1.31 1581706.51N  152.20mm 
6025866.46mm 4  2  210000N / mm 2  6025866.46mm 4
 315363380.74 Nmm  315.36kNm
W pl , y f y 501177.18mm 3  275N / mm 2
 LT    0.661
M cr 315363380.74Nmm

Calculation of the  LT for appropriate non-dimensional slenderness  LT will be determined with formula:

1
 LT  1 (6.56)
LT  LT ²   LT ²


LT  0.5  1   LT   LT  0.2   LT ² 
The cross section buckling curve will be chose according to Table 6.4:

h 260mm
  1.733  2
b 150mm

The imperfection factor α will be chose according to Table 6.3:

 LT  0.49

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

 
LT  0.5  1   LT   LT  0.2   LT ²  0.5  1  0.49  0.661 0.2  0.661²  0.831
1 1
 LT    0.749  1
LT  LT ²   LT ² 0.831  0.831²  0.661²

b) for the bottom part of the column:


The elastic moment for lateral-torsional buckling calculation, Mcr:
- the transversal load is applied to the shear center, therefore C 2zg=0 and the moment formula will be:

 ²  E  Iz I w L²  G  I t
M cr  C1   
L² Iz  ²  E  Iz
According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 2; …(3)

- where:
C1 is a coefficient that depends of several parameters, such as: section properties; support conditions; moment diagram allure

1
C1 
0.325  0.423  0.252 ²
According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 3; …(6)

0
 is the fraction of the bending moment from the column extremities:   0
637kNm

  0  C1  1.77
According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 3.2; Table 1

Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: I y  57943291.64mm 4

Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: I z  6025866.46mm 4

Torsional moment of inertia: I t  149294.97mm 4

Working inertial moment: I w  93517065421.88mm 6


Yield strength fy = 275 MPa,
Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 210000 MPa.

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800MPa


Warping inertial moment (recalculated):
IW is the warping inertia (deformation inertia moment):

I z  h  t f 
2

Iw 
4
h cross section height; h  260mm

tf flange thickness; t f  10.7mm

6025866.46mm 4  260mm  10.7mm 


2
Iw   93627638290mm 6
4
According to EN1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 2 (…4)
Length of the column: L=2810mm

 ²  E  Iz I w L²  G  It  2  210000N / mm 2  6025866.46mm 4
M cr  C1     1.77  
L² Iz  ²  E  Iz 2810mm 2
93627638290mm 6 2810mm   80800N / mm 2  149294.97mm 4
2
   1.77  1581706.51N  152.20mm 
6025866.46mm 4  2  210000N / mm 2  6025866.46mm 4
 426102243.6 Nmm  426.10kNm

W pl , y f y 501177.18mm3  275N / mm 2
 LT    0.569
M cr 426102243.6 Nmm
Calculation of the  LT for appropriate non-dimensional slenderness  LT will be determined with formula:

1
 LT  1 (6.56)
LT  LT ²   LT ²

LT  0.5  1   LT   LT  0.2   LT ² 
The cross section buckling curve will be chose according to Table 6.4:

h 260mm
  1.733  2
b 150mm

The imperfection factor α will be chose according to Table 6.3:

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

 LT  0.49

 
LT  0.5  1   LT   LT  0.2   LT ²  0.5  1  0.49  0.569  0.2  0.569²  0.752
1 1
 LT    0.804  1
LT  LT ²   LT ² 0.752  0.752²  0.569²

12.48.2.5 Internal factor, k yy , calculation

The internal factor k yy corresponding to a Class 1 section will be calculated according to Annex A, Table a.1, and will
be calculated separately for the two column parts separate by the middle torsional lateral restraint:
a) for the top part of the column:

y `1
k yy  Cmy  CmLT  
N C yy
1  Ed
N cr , y

N Ed
1
N cr , y
y 
N
1   y  Ed
N cr , y

 y  0.839 (previously calculated)


N Ed  328kN

 ² E  Iy
N cr , y   3802327.95N  3802.33kN (previously calculated)
l fy ²

306
ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

N Ed
1 1
328000N
N cr , y 3802327.95N
y    0.985
N Ed 328000N
1 y  1  0.839 
N cr , y 3802327.95N

The Cmy will be calculated according to Table A.1:

Calculation of the  0 term:

W pl , y  f y
0 
M cr 0
According to Eurocode 3 EN 1993-1-1-2005; Chapter 6.3.2.2

Wy  501177.18mm 3

The calculation the M cr 0 will be calculated using C1  1 and C2  0 , therefore:

 ²  E  Iz I w L²  G  It  2  210000N / mm 2  6025866.46mm 4
M cr  C1     1 
L² Iz  ²  E  Iz 2810mm 2
93517065421.88mm 6 2810mm   80800N / mm 2  149294.97mm 4
2
   1  1581706.51N  152.20mm 
6025866.46mm 4  2  210000N / mm 2  6025866.46mm 4
 240735730.8 Nmm  240.73kNm

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

W pl , y f y 501177.18mm3  275N / mm 2
0    0.757
M cr 240735730.8 Nmm

 N   N 
Calculation of the 0.20  C1  4 1  Ed   1  Ed  term:
 N cr , z   N cr ,TF 
Where:

- for a symmetrical section for the both axis, N cr ,TF  N cr ,T

1   2  E  I w 
N cr ,T    G  It 
I0  Lcr ,T ² 

The mass moment of inertia I 0

I 0  I y  I z  A  z g2  I y  I z  57943291.64mm 4  6025866.46mm 4  63969158.1mm 4

Torsional moment of inertia: I t  149294.97mm4

Working inertial moment: I w  93517065421.88mm6

- the buckling length, Lcr ,T ,

Lcr ,T  2.81m

4904.06mm 2   2  210000N / mm 2  93517065421.88mm6 


N cr ,T  
  80800N / mm  149294.97mm 
2 4
 
63969158.1mm 4
 2810 mm ² 
 2806625.68N  2806.63kN

N Ed  328000N

Ncr ,TF  Ncr ,T  2806625.68N

 ²  E  Iz
N cr , z   1581706.51N  31581.71kN (previously calculated)
l fz ²
C1=1 for the top part of the column
For the top part of the column:

 N   N   328000N   328000N 
0.20  C1  4 1  Ed   1  Ed   0.20  1  4 1    1  
 N cr , z   N cr , TF   1581706.51N   2806625.68 N 
 0.183

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Therefore:
For the top part of the column:

 
   y  aLT
 0  0.757  Cmy  Cmy ,0  1  Cmy , 0 
  1   y  aLT
 N   N   
0.20  C1  4 1  Ed   1  Ed   0.183
   Cmz  Cmz , 0
 N cr , z   N cr ,TF    aLT
 CmLT  Cmy 2
 1
 N         
0  0.757  0.20  C1  4 1  Ed   1  N Ed   0.183  1  N Ed   1  N Ed 
 N cr , z   N cr ,TF 
    N   N 
  cr , z   cr ,T 

The Cmy coefficient takes into account the column behavior in the buckling plane: the buckling and bending moment distribution.
The coefficient must be calculated considering the column over the entire height.

 y  a LT
Cmy  Cmy , 0  1  Cmy , 0 
1   y  a LT

M y , Ed Aeff
y  
N Ed Weff , y

Elastic modulus after the Y axis, Wel , y  Weff , y  445717.63mm 3

M y ,Ed Aeff 50  106 Nmm 4904.06mm 2


y      1.677
N Ed Weff , y 328000N 445717.63mm 3

It 149294.97mm 4
aLT  1   1  0.997  1
Iy 57943291.64mm 4

The C m 0 coefficient is defined according to the Table A.2:

The bending moment in null at one end of the column, therefore:  0

Cmy ,0  0.79  0.21  0.36    0.33


N Ed N
 0.79  0.36  0.33 Ed
Ncr , y Ncr , y

309
ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Where:

² E  Iy
N cr , y   3802327.95N  3802.33kN (previously calculated)
l fy ²

N Ed  328000N

328000N
Cmy ,0  0.79  0.36  0.33   0.780
3802327.95N
 y  aLT 1.677  1
Cmy  Cmy , 0  1  Cmy , 0   0.780  1  0.780   0.904
1   y  aLT 1  1.677  1
Equivalent uniform moment factor, C mLT , calculation

Equivalent uniform moment factor, C mLT , calculation

- C mLT must be calculated separately for each column part, separated by the lateral buckling restraint
aLT
CmLT  Cmy
2
 1
   
1  N Ed   1  N Ed 
 N   N 
 cr , z   cr ,T 

- the C my term used for C mLT calculation, must be recalculated for the corresponding column part (in this case the top column
part)

- this being the case, C my will be calculated using   0.5 :

 y a LT
C my  C my , 0  1  C my , 0 
1   y a LT

Cmy ,0  0.79  0.21  0.36    0.33   0.79  0.21 0.5  0.36  0.5  0.33 
N Ed 238000N
 0.900
Ncr , y 3802327.95N
M y ,Ed Aeff 50  106 Nmm 4904.06mm 2
y      1.677 (previously calculated)
N Ed Weff , y 328000N 445717.63mm 3

 y  aLT 1.677  1
Cmy  Cmy , 0  1  Cmy , 0   0.900  1  0.900   0.956
1   y  aLT 1  1.677  1
aLT 
CmLT  Cmy
2
  
 N   N  
1    
 N   1  N 
Ed Ed

 cr , z   cr ,T 

0. 997 
 0.9562   1.089  CmLT  1.089
 328000N   328000N  
1    1   
 1581706.51N   2806625.68N 

CmLT  1 

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

The C yy coefficient is defined according to the Table A.1, Auxiliary terms:

 1.6 
1.6  2   W

C yy  1  ( wy  1)   2   Cmy   max 
2
 Cmy   max   n pl  bLT   el , y
2
 
 wy wy   W pl , y
2 M y , Ed M z , Ed
bLT  0.5  aLT   0  
 LT  M pl , y , Rd M pl , z , Rd

- bLT must be calculated separately for each of the two column parts, depending on  0 and  LT :
 
 0  C1   LT  1.31  0.661  0.757 (for the top part of the column)

2 M y , Ed M z , Ed 2 M y , Ed M z , Ed
bLT  0.5  aLT   0    0.5  aLT   0  
 LT  M pl , y , Rd M pl , z , Rd  LT  W pl , y  f y W pl , z  f y
50000000Nmm 10000000Nmm
 0.5  0.997  0.7572   
0.749  501177.18mm  275N / mm 123381.96mm 3  275N / mm 2
3 2

 0.041
W pl , y 501177.18mm 3
wy    1.124  1.5
Wel , y 445717.63mm 3

N Ed 328000N
n pl    0.243
N Rk 4904.06mm 2  275N / mm 2
 M1 1

max  max   y ;  z   max 0.5956;0.923  0.923


 

 

311
ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

 1.6 1.6  
C yy  1  (1.124  1)   2   0.904²  0.923   0.904²  0.923²   0.243  0.041  0.993
 1.124 1.124  


C yy  0.993 

Wel , y 445717.63mm 3

 3
 0. 889  C yy  0.993
W pl , y 501177.18mm 
Wel , y 
C yy  
W pl , y 

 ² E  Iy
N cr , y   3802327.95N  3802.33kN (previously calculated)
l fy ²

Therefore, the k yy term corresponding to the top part of the column will be:

y `1 0.985 1
k yy  Cmy  CmLT    0.904  1.089    1.069
N Ed C yy 328000N 0.993
1 1
N cr , y 3802327.95N
b) for the bottom part of the column:

y `1
k yy  Cmy  CmLT  
N Ed C yy
1
N cr , y

- the terms: C mLT ; bLT and C yy must be recalculated:

aLT
CmLT  Cmy
2
 1
   
1  N Ed   1  N Ed 
 N cr , z   N cr ,T 
 

- the Cmy term must be calculated corresponding to the bottom part of the column (with   0) :

312
ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Cmy ,0  0.79  0.21  0.36    0.33   0.79  0.36   0.33 


N Ed 238000N
 0.780
Ncr , y 3802327.95N

M y , Ed Aeff 25  106 Nmm 4904.06mm 2


y      0.839
N Ed Weff , y 328000N 445717.63mm 3

 y  aLT 0.839  1
Cmy  Cmy , 0  1  Cmy ,0   0.780  1  0.780   0.885
1   y  aLT 1  0.839  1

aLT 
CmLT  Cmy
2
  
 N   N  
1    
 N   1  N 
Ed Ed

 cr , z   cr ,T 

0. 997 
 0.8852   0.933  CmLT  1
 328000N   328000N  
1    1   
 1581706.51N   2806625.68N 

CmLT  1 


 1.6 
1.6  2   W
C yy  1  ( wy  1)   2   Cmy
2
  max   Cmy
2
  max   n pl  bLT   el , y
 
 wy wy   W pl , y
2 M y , Ed M z , Ed
bLT  0.5  aLT   0  
 LT  M pl , y , Rd M pl , z , Rd

-the bLT must be calculated separately for each of the two column parts, depending of  0 and  LT :
W pl , y f y 501177.18mm3  275N / mm 2
0    0.757 (for the bottom part of the column)
M cr 240735730.8 Nmm

1 1
 LT    0.804  1 (for the bottom part of the column)
LT  LT ²   LT ² 0.752  0.752²  0.569²

2 M y , Ed M z , Ed 2 M y , Ed M z , Ed
bLT  0.5  aLT   0    0.5  aLT   0  
 LT  M pl , y , Rd M pl , z , Rd  LT  W pl , y  f y W pl , z  f y
25000000Nmm 5000000Nmm
 0.5  0.997  0.7572   
0.804  501177.18mm  275N / mm 123381.96mm 3  275N / mm 2
3 2

 0.0095
W pl , y 501177.18mm 3
wy    1.124  1.5
Wel , y 445717.63mm 3

N Ed 328000N
n pl    0.243
N Rk 4904.06mm 2  275N / mm 2
 M1 1

313
ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

max  max   y ;  z   max 0.5956;0.923  0.923


 

 
 1.6 1.6  
C yy  1  (1.124  1)   2   0.904²  0.923   0.904²  0.923²   0.243  0.0095  0.997
 1.124 1.124  


C yy  0.997 

Wel , y 445717.63mm 3

 3
 0. 889  C yy  0.997
W pl , y 501177.18mm 
Wel , y 
C yy  
W pl , y 

 ² E  Iy
N cr , y   3802327.95N  3802.33kN (previously calculated)
l fy ²

Therefore the k yy term corresponding to the bottom part of the column will be:
y `1 0.985 1
k yy  Cmy  CmLT    0.904  1   0.977
N C yy 328000N 0.997
1  Ed 1
N cr , y 3802327.95N
Note: The software does not give the results of the lower section because it is not the most requested segment.

12.48.2.6 Internal factor, k yz , calculation

y 1 wz
k yz  Cmz    0.6 
N Ed C yz wy
1
N cr , z

-the Cmz ter will be considered for the entire column length (with   0) :

Cmz  Cmz ,0  0.79  0.36   0.33   0.79  0.36   0.33 


N Ed 328000N
 0.765
Ncr , z 1581706.51N
N Ed
1 1
328000N
N cr , y 3802327.95N
y    0.985
N Ed 328000N
1 y  1  0.839 
N cr , y 3802327.95N
(previously calculated)

 ²  E  Iz
Ncr , z   1581706.51N (previously calculated)
l fz ²

 2  
  Cmz   max 
2

C yz  1  ( wz  1)   2  14  5   n pl  cLT 
 
wz
 

314
ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

2
0 M y , Ed
cLT  10  aLT  
4 Cmy   lt  M pl , y , Rd
5 z
It 149294.97mm 4
aLT  1  1  0.997 (previously calculated)
Iy 57943291.64mm 4

W pl , y f y 501177.18mm3  275N / mm 2
0    0.757 (previously calculated)
M cr 240735730.8 Nmm

A fy 4904.06mm 2  275N / mm 2
z    0.923 (previously calculated)
Ncr , z 1581706.51N

M y , Ed  50000Nm

W pl , z 123381.96mm 3 
wz    1.536  1.5
  w z  1.5
3
Wel , z 80344.89mm
w z  1.5 

W pl , y 501177.18mm 3
wy    1.124  1.5
Wel , y 445717.63mm 3

- the Cmy term will be considered separately for each column part:

a) for the top part of the column:

 y  aLT 1.677  1
Cmy  Cmy , 0  1  Cmy , 0   0.900  1  0.900   0.956 (previously calculated)
1   y  aLT 1  1.677  1

1 1
 LT    0.749  1 (previously calculated)
LT  LT ²   LT ² 0.831  0.831²  0.661²

M pl , y , Rd  Wy  f y  501177.18mm3  275N / mm 2  137823724.5 Nmm


2
0 M y , Ed
cLT  10  aLT   
4 Cmy   lt  M pl , y , Rd
5  z
0.757² 50000000Nmm
 10  0.997    0.506
5  0.923 0.956  0.749  137823724.5 Nmm
4

 ²  E  Iz
Ncr , z   1581706.51N (previously calculated
l fz ²

Cmz  Cmz ,0  0.79  0.36   0.33   0.79  0.36   0.33 


N Ed 328000N
 0.765
Ncr , z 1581706.51N

max  max   y ;  z   max 0.5956;0.923  0.923


 

 

315
ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

N Ed
n pl   0.243 (previously calculated)
N Rk
 M1
- Therefore:

 2  
  Cmz   max 
2

C yz  1  ( wz  1)   2  14  5   n pl  cLT  
 
wz
 
 0.7652  0.9232  
 1  1.5  1   2  14  
  0.243  0.506  0.878
 1.55  
y 1 wz 0.985 1 1.5
k yz  Cmz    0.6   0.765   0.6   0.750
N C yz wy 328000N 0.878 1.124
1  Ed 1
N cr , z 1581706.51N
b) for the bottom part of the column:

 y  aLT 0.839  1
Cmy  Cmy , 0  1  Cmy , 0   0.780  1  0.780   0.885 (previously calculated)
1   y  aLT 1  0.839  1
1 1
 LT    0.804  1 (previously calculated)
LT  LT ²   LT ² 0.752  0.752²  0.569²

M pl , y , Rd  Wy  f y  501177.18mm3  275N / mm 2  137823724.5 Nmm


2
0 M y , Ed
cLT  10  aLT   
4 Cmy   lt  M pl , y , Rd
5  z
0.757² 25000000Nmm
 10  0.997    0.254
5  0.923 0.885  0.804  137823724.5 Nmm
4

 ²  E  Iz
Ncr , z   1581706.51N (previously calculated
l fz ²

Cmz  Cmz ,0  0.79  0.36   0.33   0.79  0.36   0.33 


N Ed 328000N
 0.765
Ncr , z 1581706.51N

max  max   y ;  z   max 0.5956;0.923  0.923


 

 
N Ed
n pl   0.243 (previously calculated)
N Rk
 M1

316
ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

-Therefore:

 2  
  C 2
  max  
C yz  1  ( wz  1)   2  14  mz
5   n pl  cLT  
 
wz
 
 0.7652  0.9232  
 1  1.5  1   2  14  5
  0.243  0.254  1.0043
 1.5  
y 1 wz 0.985 1 1.5
k yz  Cmz    0.6   0.765   0.6   0.656
N C yz wy 328000N 1.0043 1.124
1  Ed 1
N cr , z 1581706.51N
Note: The software does not give the results of the lower section because it is not the most requested segment.

12.48.2.7 Internal factor, k zy , calculation

a) for the top part of the column:

z 1 wz
k zy  Cmy  CmLT    0.6 
N Ed C zy wy
1
N cr , y

N Ed
1 1
328000N
N cr , z 1581706.51N
z    0.902
N Ed 328000N
1 z  1  0.586 
N cr , z 1581706.51N

 z  0.586 (previously calculated)


 2  
   max 
2
Cmy  wy Wel , y
C zy  1  ( wy  1)   2  14  5   n pl  d LT   0.6  
 wy  wz W pl , y
  
 
M pl , y , Rd  Wy  f y  501177.18mm3  275N / mm 2  137823724.5 Nmm

M pl , z , Rd  Wz  f z  123381.96mm3  275N / mm 2  33930039Nmm

-in order to calculate the d LT term, the terms Cmy and Cmz must be recalculated for each column part;

-the term Cmz must be recalculated for the top column part only, using   0.5 :

Cmz  Cmz ,0  0.79  0.21 0.5  0.36  0.5  0.33 


N Ed

N cr , z

 0.79  0.21 0.5  0.36  0.5  0.33 


328000N
 0.908
1581706.51N

317
ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE


0 M y ,Ed M z ,Ed
d LT  2  aLT    
Cmy   LT  M pl , y ,Rd
4 Cmz  M pl , z ,Rd
0.1   z
0.757 50000000Nmm 10000000Nmm
 2  0.997    
0.1  0.923 0.956  0.749  137823724.5 Nmm 0.908 33930039Nmm
4

 0.301
 2   
 Cmy   max   
2

C zy  1  ( wy  1)   2  14  5   n pl  d LT   
 
wy 
 
  
 0.904  1.847
2 2
  
 1  (1.124  1)   2  14  
  0. 243  0. 301  0. 859
  C zy  0.859
5
 1.124  

wy Wel , y 1.5 445717.63mm 3 
0.6    0.6    0.616
wz W pl , y 1.124 501177.18mm 3 

wy Wel , y 
C zy  0.6   
wz W pl , y 
- for the calculation of the Czy term, Cmy will be used for the entire column and d LT will be used for the top column part:

z 1 wy 0.902 1 1.124
k zy  Cmy  CmLT    0.6   0.904  1.089    0.6   0.588
N Ed C zy wz 328000N 0.859 1.5
1 1
N cr , y 3802327.95N
b) for the bottom part of the column:

z 1 wz
k zy  Cmy  CmLT    0.6 
N C zy wy
1  Ed
N cr , y

N Ed
1 1
328000N
N cr , z 1581706 .51N
z    0.902
N Ed 328000N
1 z  1  0.586 
N cr , z 1581706.51N

 z  0.586 (previously calculated)


 2  
 Cmy   max 
2
 wy Wel , y
C zy  1  ( wy  1)   2  14  5   n pl  d LT   0.6  


wy  
wz W pl , y
  
M pl , y , Rd  Wy  f y  501177.18mm3  275N / mm 2  137823724.5 Nmm

M pl , z , Rd  Wz  f z  123381.96mm3  275N / mm 2  33930039Nmm

- in order to calculate the d LT term, the terms Cmy and Cmz must be recalculated for each column part;

- the term Cmz must be recalculated for the top column part only, using   0 :

318
ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Cmz  Cmz ,0  0.79  0.36   0.33   0.79  0.36   0.33 


N Ed 328000N
 0.765
N cr , z 1581706.51N

0 M y ,Ed M z ,Ed
d LT  2  aLT    
4 Cmy   LT  M pl , y ,Rd Cmz  M pl , z ,Rd
0.1   z
0.757 25000000Nmm 5000000Nmm
 2  0.997    
0.1  0.923 0.885  0.804  137823724.5 Nmm 0.765  33930039Nmm
4

 0.090

max  max   y ;  z   max 0.5956;0.923  0.923


 

 

 2   
   max   
2
Cmy
C zy  1  ( wy  1)   2  14  5   n pl  d LT   
wy
 
  
  
 0.885  0.923 
2 2
 
 1  (1.124  1)   2  14  
  0 .243  0. 090  0.892
 1.1245     C zy  0.892

wy Wel , y 1.124 445717.63mm 3 
0.6    0.6    0.462
wz W pl , y 1.5 501177.18mm 3 

wy Wel , y 
C zy  0.6   
wz W pl , y 

- for the calculation of the Czy term, Cmy will be used for the entire column and d LT will be used for the top column part:

z 1 wy 0.902 1 1.124
k zy  Cmy  CmLT    0.6   0.904  1.089    0.6   0.566
N Ed C zy wz 328000N 0.892 1.5
1 1
N cr , y 3802327.95N
Note: The software does not give the results of the lower section because it is not the most requested segment.

12.48.2.8 Internal factor, k zz , calculation


a) for the top part of the column:

z 1
k zz  Cmz  
N C zz
1  Ed
N cr , z

 1.6 1.6   W
C zz  1  ( wz  1)   2   Cmz
2
  max   Cmz
2
  max   n pl  eLT   el , z
 wz wz   W pl , z
M pl , y , Rd  Wy  f y  501177.18mm3  275N / mm 2  137823724.5 Nmm

- in calculating the eLT , the Cmy term must be used accordingly with the corresponding column part:

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0 M y ,Ed
eLT  1.7  a LT   
4 Cmy   lt  M pl , y ,Rd
0.1   z
0.757 50000000Nmm
 1.7  0.997    0.787
0.1  0.923 0.956  0.749  501177.18mm 3  275N / mm 2
4

- for the calculation of the Czz term, C mz will be used for the entire column and eLT will be used for the top column part:

 1.6 1.6 2   
C zz  1  ( wz  1)   2   Cmz
2
  max   Cmz
2
  max   eLT   n pl  
 wz wz   

 1.6 1.6 2 
 1  (1.5  1)   2   0.765  1.847 
2
 0.765  1.847   0.787  0.243  1.013
2

 1.5 1 .5   
  C zz  1.013
Wel , z

80344.89mm 3
 0.651 
W pl , z 123381.96mm 3 

Wel , z 
C zz  
W pl , z 
z 1 0.902 1
k zz  Cmz    0.765   0.860
N Ed Czz 328000N 1.013
1 1
N cr , z 1581706.51N
b) for the bottom part of the column:

z 1
k zz  Cmz  
N Ed C zz
1
N cr , z

 1.6 1.6   W
C zz  1  ( wz  1)   2   Cmz
2
  max   Cmz
2
  max   n pl  eLT   el , z
 wz wz   W pl , z
M pl , y , Rd  Wy  f y  501177.18mm3  275N / mm 2  137823724.5 Nmm
- in calculating the eLT , the Cmy term must be used according to the corresponding column part


0 M y , Ed
eLT  1.7  aLT   
4 Cmy   lt  M pl , y , Rd
0.1   z
0.757 25000000Nmm
 1.7  0.997    0.396
0.1  0.923 0.885  0.804  501177.18mm 3  275N / mm 2
4

- for the calculation of the C zz term, C mz will be used for the entire column and eLT will be used for the top column part:

max  max   y ;  z   max 0.5956;0.923  0.923


 

 

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 1.6 1.6 2   
C zz  1  ( wz  1)   2   Cmz
2
  max   Cmz
2
  max   eLT   n pl  
 wz wz   

 1.6 1.6 2 
 1  (1.5  1)   2   0.765  0.923 
2
 0.765  0.923   0.396  0.243  1.060
2

 1 .5 1.5   
  C zz  1.060
Wel , z

80344.89mm 3
 0.651 
W pl , z 123381.96mm 3 

Wel , z 
C zz  
W pl , z 
z 1 0.902 1
k zz  Cmz    0.765   0.821
N Ed C zz 328000N 1.060
1 1
N cr , z 1581706.51N
Note: The software does not give the results of the lower section because it is not the most requested segment.

12.48.2.9 Bending and axial compression verification

 N Ed M y , Ed  M y , Rd M  M z , Rd
  k yy   k yz  z , Ed
N M M z , Rk
  y  Rk  LT  y ,Rk
  M1  M1  M1

 N Ed M y , Ed  M y , Rd M  M z , Rd
 k zy   k zz  z , Ed
 N Rk M M z , Rk
z   LT  y ,Rk
  M1  M1  M1
N Rk  f y  Ai

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a) for the top part of the column:

328000N 50  106 Nmm


 1 . 069  
4904.06mm 2  275N / mm 2 501177.18mm 3  275N / mm 2
0.839  0.749 
1 1
10  10 Nmm
6
 0.750   0.29  0.52  0.21  1.02
123381.96mm 3  275N / mm 2
1
328000N 50  106 Nmm
 0.588  
4904.06mm 2  275N / mm 2 501177.18mm 3  275N / mm 2
0.586  0.804 
1 1
10  10 Nmm
6
 0.860   0.41  0.27  0.25  0.93
123381.96mm 3  275N / mm 2
1
b) for the bottom part of the column:

328000N 25  106 Nmm


 0 . 977  
4904.06mm 2  275N / mm 2 501177.18mm 3  275N / mm 2
0.839  0.804 
1 1
5  10 Nmm
6
 0.656   0.29  0.22  0.97  1.30
123381.96mm 3  275N / mm 2
1
328000N 25  106 Nmm
 0 . 566  
4904.06mm 2  275N / mm 2 501177.18mm 3  275N / mm 2
0.586  0.804 
1 1
5  10 Nmm
6
 0.821  0.42  0.13  0.12  0.67
123381.96mm 3  275N / mm 2
1
Finite elements modeling
■ Linear element: S beam,
■ 7 nodes,
■ 1 linear element.

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 y coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness  y

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

y

 z coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness  z


Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

z

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Internal factor, k yy

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

k yy

Internal factor, k yz

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

k yz

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Internal factor, k zy

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

k zy

Internal factor, k zz

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

k zz

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the compression effort over the Y axis: SNy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the compression effort
over the Y axis
SNy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y bending moment over the Y axis: SMyy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y bending moment
over the Y axis
SMyy

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z bending moment over the Y axis: SMyz

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z bending moment
over the Y axis
SMyz

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the compression effort over the Z axis: SNz

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the compression effort
over the Z axis
SNz

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y bending moment over the Z axis: SMzy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y bending moment
over the Z axis
SMzy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z bending moment over the Z axis: SMzz

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z bending moment
over the Z axis
SMzz

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Coefficient that depends of several parameters as: section properties; support conditions; moment diagram allure

Coefficient that depends of several parameters as: section properties; support


conditions; moment diagram allure
C1

The elastic moment for lateral-torsional buckling calculation

The elastic moment for lateral-torsional buckling calculation


Mcr

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The appropriate non-dimensional slenderness

The appropriate non-dimensional slenderness

 LT

12.48.2.10Reference results
a) for the top part of the column:

Result name Result description Reference


value

y  y coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness  y 0.839

z  z coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness  z 0.586

k yy Internal factor, k yy 1.069

k yz Internal factor, k yz 0.750

k zy Internal factor, k zy 0.588

k zz Internal factor, k zz 0.860

SNy Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the compression 0.29
effort over the Y axis
SMyy Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y bending 0.52
moment over the Y axis
SMyz Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z bending 0.21
moment over the Y axis
SNz Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the compression 0.41
effort over the z axis
SMzy Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y bending 0.27
moment over the Z axis

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SMzz Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z bending 0.25
moment over the Z axis
C1 Coefficient that depends of several parameters as: section properties; support 1.77
conditions; moment diagram allure
Mcr The elastic moment for lateral-torsional buckling calculation 315.36

 LT The appropriate non-dimensional slenderness 0.749

b) for the bottom part of the column:

Result name Result description Reference value

y  y coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness  y 0.839

z  z coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness  z 0.586

k yy Internal factor, k yy 0.977

k yz Internal factor, k yz 0.656

k zy Internal factor, k zy 0.566

k zz Internal factor, k zz 0.821

SNy Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the 0.29
compression effort over the Y axis
SMyy Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y 0.22
bending moment over the Y axis
SMyz Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z 0.97
bending moment over the Y axis
SNz Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the 0.42
compression effort over the z axis
SMzy Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y 0.13
bending moment over the Z axis
SMzz Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z 0.12
bending moment over the Z axis
C1 Coefficient that depends of several parameters as: section properties; 1.77
support conditions; moment diagram allure
Mcr The elastic moment for lateral-torsional buckling calculation 426.10

 LT The appropriate non-dimensional slenderness 0.804

Note: The software does not give the results of the lower section because it is not the most requested segment.

12.48.3Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Xy Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.839285 adim 0.0340 %
slenderness by Y axis
Xz Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.585533 adim -0.0797 %
slenderness by the Z axis
Kyy Internal coefficient kyy 1.07027 adim 0.1188 %
Kyy Internal coefficient kyy (bottom) 0.954475 adim -2.3055 %
Kyz Internal coefficient kyz 0.750217 adim 0.0289 %
Kyz Internal coefficient kyz (bottom) 0.656481 adim 0.0733 %
Kzy Internal coefficient kzy 0.593445 adim 0.9260 %

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Kzy Internal coefficient kzy (bottom) 0.508819 adim -0.0356 %


Kzz Internal coefficient kzz 0.860237 adim 0.0276 %
Kzz Internal coefficient kzz (bottom) 0.821717 adim 0.0873 %

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12.49 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a rectangular hollow section column subjected
to bending and axial efforts (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 15)

Test ID: 5735


Test status: Passed

12.49.1Description
Verifies a rectangular hollow section column made of S235 steel subjected to bending and axial efforts.
The verification is made according to Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-1-1) French Annex.

12.49.2Background
Verifies the adequacy of a rectangular hollow section column made of S235 steel to resist bending and axial efforts.
The name of the cross-section is RC3020100 and it can be found in the Advance Design OTUA library. The column is
fixed at its base and it is subjected to a uniformly distributed load over its height and a punctual axial load applied on
the top. The dead load will be neglected.
This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

12.49.2.1 Model description


■ Reference: Guide d’evaluation Advance Design, EN 1993-1-1: 2001;
■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);
■ Element type: linear.
The following load case and load combination are used:
■ Exploitation loadings (category A), Q:
► Fz = - 500 000 N,
► Fx = 5 000 N/ml,
■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

■ Cross section dimensions are in milimeters (mm).

Units
Metric System

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Geometry
Below are described the column cross section characteristics:
■ Height: h = 300 mm,
■ Width: b = 200 mm,
■ Thickness: t = 10 mm,
■ Outer radius: r = 15 mm,
■ Column height: L = 5000 mm,
2
■ Section area:A = 9490 mm ,
3
■ Plastic section modulus about y-y axis: W pl,y = 956000 mm ,
■ Partial factor for resistance of cross sections:  M 0  1. 0 .

Materials properties
S235 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:
■ Yield strength fy = 235 MPa,
5
■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 2.1 x 10 MPa.

Boundary conditions
The boundary conditions are described below:
■ Outer:
► Support at start point (z = 0) restrained in translation and rotation along X, Y and Z axis,
► Free at end point (z = 5.00).
■ Inner: None.

Loading
The column is subjected to the following loadings:
■ External:
► Point load at z = 5.0: Fz = - 500 000 N,
► Uniformly distributed load: q = Fx = 5 000 N/ml
■ Internal: None.

12.49.2.2 Reference results for calculating the column subjected to bending and axial force
In order to verify the steel column subjected to bending and axial force, the design resistance for uniform
compression (Nc,Rd) and also the design plastic moment resistance (Mpl,Rd) have to be compared with the design
values of the corresponding efforts.
The design resistance for uniform compression is verified considering the relationship (6.9) from chapter 6.2.4 (EN
1993-1-1), while the design plastic moment resistance is verified considering the criterion (6.12) from chapter 6.2.5
(EN 1993-1-1).
Before starting the above verifications, the cross-section class has to be determined.

Cross section class


The following results are determined according to Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures - Part 1-1: General rules
and rules for buildings (EN 1993-1-1: 2001), Chapter 5.5.2.
In this case, the stresses distribution is like in the picture below:

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Table 5.2 - sheet 1, from Chapter 5.5.2 (EN 1993-1-1: 2001), establish the rules to determine the class for
compressed parts. The picture below shows an extract from this table.

Taking into account that the top wing part is subjected to compression stresses, its class can be determined by
considering the geometrical properties and the conditions described in Table 5.2 - sheet 1 (the above highlighted
extract – part subject to compression).

c b  2  r  2  t 200mm  2  15mm  2  10mm


   15
t t 10mm
235
  1. 0
fy

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Therefore:

c
 15  33  33
t
This means that the top wing is Class 1. Because the bottom wing is tensioned, it will be classified as Class 1.
The left/right web is subjected to bending stresses. Their class can be determined by considering the geometrical
properties and the conditions described in Table 5.2 - sheet 1 (the above highlighted extract – part subject to bending
and compression). It is also necessary to determine which portion of the web is compressed ().  is determined
considering the stresses distribution on the web.

 132MPa
    0.832  0.5
1   26.63MPa
c h  2  r  2  t 300mm  2 15mm  2 10mm
   25
t t 10mm
235
  1. 0
fy
Therefore:

c 396
 25   40.34
t 13  1
This means that the left/right web is Class 1.
Because a cross-section is classified according to the least favorable classification of its compression elements
(chapter 5.5.2(6) from EN 1993-1-1: 2001), this means that the cross-section is Class 1.

Verifying the design resistance for uniform compression


The design resistance for uniform compression, for Class 1 cross-section, is determined with formula (6.10) from EN
1993-1-1:2001.

A f 9490mm 2  235MPa
N c ,Rd    2230150N
y

M0 1.0
The verification of the design resistance for uniform compression is done with relationship (6.9) from EN 1993-1-1.
The corresponding work ratio is:

N Ed F 500000N
Work ratio = 100  z 100  100  22.42%
N c , Rd N c , Rd 2230150N

Verifying the design plastic moment resistance


The design plastic moment resistance, for Class 1 cross-section, is determined with formula (6.13) from EN 1993-1-
1:2001.

W pl , y  f 956000mm 3  235MPa
M c ,Rd  M pl ,Rd    224660000Nmm
y

M0 1.0
The verification of the design resistance for bending is done with relationship (6.12) from EN 1993-1-1. The
corresponding work ratio is:

L 5000mm
q L 5 N / mm  5000mm 
M Ed 2  100  2
Work ratio =  100   100  27.82%
M c , Rd M c , Rd 224660000Nmm

Finite elements modeling


■ Linear element: S beam,

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■ 6 nodes,
■ 1 linear element.

Finite elements results

Work ratio of the design resistance for uniform compression

Column subjected to bending and axial efforts


Work ratio – Fx

Work ratio of the design resistance for bending

Column subjected to bending and axial efforts


Work ratio – Oblique

12.49.2.3 Reference results


Result name Result description Reference value
Work ratio – Fx Compression resistance work ratio [%] 22.42 %

Work ratio – Oblique Work ratio of the design resistance for bending 27.82 %

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12.49.3Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Work ratio - Fx Compression resistance work ratio 22.42 % 0.0000 %
Work ratio - Work ratio of the design resistance for bending 27.8198 % -0.0007 %
Oblique

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12.50 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Determining lateral torsional buckling parameters for a I-
shaped welded built-up beam considering the load applied on the upper flange (evaluated by
SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 44)

Test ID: 5749


Test status: Passed

12.50.1Description
Determines the lateral torsional buckling parameters for a I-shaped welded built-up beam made of S235 steel,
considering the load applied on the upper flange. The loadings applied on the beam are: a uniformly distributed load
and 2 punctual bending moments, acting opposite to each other, applied at beam extremities.
The determination is made considering the provisions from Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-1-1) French Annex.

12.50.2Background
Determines the elastic critical moment (Mcr) and factors (C1, C2, LT) involved in the torsional buckling verification for
a simply supported steel beam. The beam is made of S235 steel and it is subjected to a uniformly distributed load (50
000 N/ml) applied over its length and concentrated bending moments applied at its extremities (loads are applied to
the upper fibre). The dead load will be neglected.
This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

12.50.2.1 Model description


■ Reference: Guide d’evaluation Advance Design, EN 1993-1-1: 2001;
■ Analysis type: static linear;
■ Element type: linear.
The following load case and load combination are used:
■ Exploitation loadings (category A), Q:
► Fz = - 50 000 N/ml,
6
► My,1 = 142 x 10 Nmm,
6
► My,2 = - 113.6 x 10 Nmm,
■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

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■ Cross section dimensions are in milimeters (mm).

Units
Metric System

Geometry
Below are described the beam cross section characteristics:
■ Height: h = 260 mm,
■ Flange width: b = 150 mm,
■ Flange thickness: tf = 10.7 mm,
■ Web thickness: tw = 7.1 mm,
■ Beam length: L = 5000 mm,
2
■ Section area: A = 5188 mm ,
4
■ Flexion inertia moment about the z axis: Iz = 6025866.46 mm ,
4
■ Torsional moment of inertia: It = 149294.97 mm ,
6
■ Warping constant: Iw = 93517065421.88 mm ,
3
■ Plastic modulus about the y axis: W y = 501177.18 mm
■ Partial factor for resistance of cross sections:  M 0  1. 0 .

Materials properties
S235 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:
■ Yield strength fy = 235 MPa,
5
■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 2.1 x 10 MPa;
■ Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800MPa.

Boundary conditions
The boundary conditions are described below:
■ Outer:
► Support at start point (x = 0) restrained in translation along X, Y and Z axis,
► Support at end point (x = 5.00) restrained in translation along Y and Z axis and restrained rotation
along X axis.
■ Inner: None.

Loading
The beam is subjected to the following loadings:
■ External:
► Uniformly distributed load over its length: q = Fz = -50 000 N/ml
6
► Bending moment at x=0: My,1 = 142 x 10 Nmm
6
► Bending moment at x=5: My,2 = - 113.6 x 10 Nmm,
■ Internal: None.

12.50.2.2 Reference results for calculating the elastic critical moment of the cross section
In order to determine the elastic critical moment of the cross section (Mcr), factors C1 and C2 have to be calculated.
They are determined considering the method provided at chapter 3.5 from French Annex of EN 1993-1-1. C1 and C2
coefficients are depending on the bending moment diagram along the member segment between lateral restraints.
The simply supported beam has the following bending moment diagram (the values are in “Newton x meter”):

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For a beam subjected to uniformly distributed load and concentrated bending moments applied at its extremities, the
moments distribution is defined considering two parameters:
■ Ratio between the moments at extremities:
 113600Nm
  0.8
 142000Nm
■ Ratio between the moment given by uniformly distributed load and the biggest bending moment from
extremity:

q  L2 50N / mm  5000mm 
2
   1.1
8 M 8  142  106 Nmm
Its value is positive as both loadings are deforming the beam about the same fibre (chapter 3.4 from French
Annex of EN 1993-1-1).
In order to determine C1 and C2 parameters, factors , , a, b, c, A, B, d1, e1, r1, , m, C10, d2, e2, r2 need to be
calculated considering the analytical relationships provided in chapter 3.5 from French Annex of EN 1993-1-1:

■     4    1  0.8  4 1.1 1  4.2


■    2  8    4.2 2  8  1.1  8.84
■ a  0.5  1     0.1413364  0.6960364  0.9126223 2  1.738
■ b  0.5  1     0.1603341  0.9240091  1.4281556 2  1.4765
■ c  0.1801266  0.0900633  0.5940757  0.9352904 2  0.0602
■ A  a  b  c 2  2.5625
b
■ B  2  a   4.2143
2
■ d1    0.52  1     2.036
■ e1  0.3
■ As d1 > e1, the factor r1 is equal to 1.0
1 
■   0.5   0.4773  1.0
8
■ m  1    1    4      1     2.002  1.0

B  B2  4 A
■ C10  r1   0.5363
2 A
■ d 2  0.425    0.675  2.065
■ e2  0.65  0.35   0.37
■ As d2 > e2, the factor r2 is equal to 1.0
Having the above factors, C1 and C2 coefficients become:

■ C1  m  C10  1.074
■ C 2  0.398 r2    C10  0.235
The load being applied at the top fibre it tends to accentuate the lateral torsional buckling, so it will reduce the value
of elastic critical moment. In this case, the distance from the shear centre to the point of load application (z g) will be
positive:

■ z g  130mm

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The French Annex of EN 1993-1-1 provides the analytical relationship used to determine the value of the elastic
critical moment:

 2  E  I z  I w L2  G  I t 
M cr  C1    2  C 2  z g   C 2  z g   91.71772 106 Nmm
2

L2  I z   E  I z 

12.50.2.3 Reference results for calculating the reduction factor for lateral torsional buckling
The calculation of the reduction factor for lateral torsional buckling (LT) is done using the formula (6.56) from chapter
6.3.2.2 (EN 1993-1-1).
Before determining the reduction factor for lateral torsional buckling (LT), the following terms should be determined:
LT , imperfection factor LT, LT.
■ Non dimensional slenderness for lateral torsional buckling,  LT :

W pl , y  f y 501177.18mm 3  235N / mm 2
LT    1.133
M cr 91.71772 106 Nmm
■ In order to determine the imperfection factor LT, the buckling curve must be chosen. According to table 6.4
from EN 1993-1-1, for welded I-sections which have the ratio h / b  2, the recommended lateral torsional
buckling curve is “c”. In this case, table 6.3 from EN 1993-1-1 recommends the value for imperfection factor
LT:
 LT  0.49
■ The value used to determine the reduction factor LT, LT, becomes:

   
 LT  0.5  1   LT   LT  0.2   LT 2  0.5  1  0.49  1.133  0.2  1.1332   1.370
■ The reduction factor for lateral torsional buckling is calculated using the formula (6.56) from EN 1993-1-1:
1 1
 LT    0.467  1.0
 LT   LT   LT 2 2
1.37  1.37 2  1.1332

Finite elements modeling


■ Linear element: S beam,
■ 6 nodes,
■ 1 linear element.

Finite elements results

C1 parameter

Simply supported beam


C1

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C2 parameter

Simply supported beam


C2

Elastic critical moment

Simply supported beam


Mcr

Reduction factor for lateral torsional buckling

Simply supported beam


XLT

12.50.2.4 Reference results


Result name Result description Reference value
C1 C1 parameter [adim.] 1.074

C2 C2 parameter [adim.] 0.235

Mcr Elastic critical moment [kNm] 91.72 kNm

XLT Reduction factor for lateral torsional buckling [adim.] 0.467

12.50.3Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
C1 C1 parameter 1.07375 adim -0.0233 %
C2 C2 parameter 0.234812 adim -0.0800 %
Mcr Elastic critical moment 91.72 kN*m 0.0000 %
XLT Reduction factor for lateral torsional buckling 0.466895 adim -0.0225 %

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12.51 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying the bending resistance of a rectangular hollow
section column made of S235 steel (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 14)

Test ID: 5728


Test status: Passed

12.51.1Description
Verifies the design resistance for bending of a rectangular hollow section column made of S235 steel.
The verification is made according to Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-1-1) French annex.

12.51.2Background
Verifies the adequacy of a rectangular hollow section column made of S235 steel to resist bending efforts.
Verification of the design resistance for bending at ultimate limit state is realised. The name of the cross-section is
RC3020100 and can be found in the Advance Design OTUA library. The column is fixed at its base and it is
subjected to a punctual horizontal load applied to the middle height (50 000 N). The dead load will be neglected.
This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

12.51.2.1 Model description


■ Reference: Guide d’evaluation Advance Design, EN 1993-1-1: 2001;
■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);
■ Element type: linear.
The following load case and load combination are used:
■ Exploitation loadings (category A), Q:
 Fx = 50 000 N,
■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

■ Cross section dimensions are in milimeters (mm).

Units
Metric System

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Geometry
Below are described the column cross section characteristics:
■ Height: h = 300 mm,
■ Width: b = 200 mm,
■ Thickness: t = 10 mm,
■ Outer radius: r = 15 mm,
■ Column height: L = 5000 mm,
3
■ Plastic section modulus about y-y axis: W pl,y = 956000 mm ,
■ Partial factor for resistance of cross sections:  M 0  1. 0 .

Materials properties
S235 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:
■ Yield strength fy = 235 MPa,
5
■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 2.1 x 10 MPa.

Boundary conditions
The boundary conditions are described below:
■ Outer:
► Support at start point (z = 0) restrained in translation and rotation along X, Y and Z axis,
► Free at end point (z = 5.00).
■ Inner: None.

Loading
The column is subjected to the following loadings:
■ External:
► Point load at z = 2.5: V= Fx = 50 000 N,
■ Internal: None.

12.51.2.2 Reference results for calculating the design resistance for bending
Before calculating the design resistance for bending, the cross section class has to be determined.

Cross section class


The following results are determined according to Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures - Part 1-1: General rules
and rules for buildings (EN 1993-1-1: 2001), Chapter 5.5.2.
In this case, the column is subjected to bending efforts, therefore the stresses distribution is like in the picture below:

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Table 5.2 - sheet 1, from Chapter 5.5.2 (EN 1993-1-1: 2001), establish the rules to determine the class for
compressed parts. The picture below shows an extract from this table.

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Taking into account that the top wing part is subjected to compression stresses, its class can be determined by
considering the geometrical properties and the conditions described in Table 5.2 - sheet 1 (the above highlighted
extract – part subject to compression).

c b  2  r  2  t 200mm  2  15mm  2  10mm


   15
t t 10mm
235
  1. 0
fy
Therefore:

c
 15  33  33
t
This means that the top wing is Class 1. Because the bottom wing is tensioned, it will be classified as Class 1.
The left/right web is subjected to bending stresses. Their class can be determined by considering the geometrical
properties and the conditions described in Table 5.2 - sheet 1 (the above highlighted extract – part subject to
bending):

c h  2  r  2  t 300mm  2 15mm  2 10mm


   25
t t 10mm
235
  1. 0
fy
Therefore:

c
 25  72  72
t
This means that the left/right web is Class 1.
Because a cross-section is classified according to the least favorable classification of its compression elements
(chapter 5.5.2(6) from EN 1993-1-1: 2001), this means that the cross-section is Class 1.

Design resistance for bending


The design resistance for bending, for Class 1 cross-section, is determined with formula (6.13) from EN 1993-1-
1:2001.

W pl , y  f 956000mm 3  235MPa
M c , Rd    224660000Nmm
y

 M0 1.0

Work ratio
The verification of the design resistance for bending is done with relationship (6.12) from EN 1993-1-1. The
corresponding work ratio is:

L 5000mm
V 50000N 
M Ed 2  100  2
Work ratio =  100   100  55.64%
M c , Rd M c , Rd 224660000Nmm

Finite elements modeling


■ Linear element: S beam,
■ 6 nodes,
■ 1 linear element.

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Finite elements results

Work ratio of the design resistance for bending

Column subjected to a punctual horizontal load applied to the middle height


Work ratio – Oblique

12.51.2.3 Reference results


Result name Result description Reference value
Work ratio - Oblique Work ratio of the design resistance for bending [%] 55.64 %

12.51.3Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Work ratio - Work ratio of the design resistance for bending 55.6396 % -0.0007 %
Oblique

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12.52 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Comparing the shear resistance of a welded built-up beam
made from different steel materials (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 45)

Test ID: 5745


Test status: Passed

12.52.1Description
The shear resistance of a welded built-up beam made of S275 steel is compared with the shear resistance of the
same built-up beam made of a user-defined steel material.
The verification is made according to Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-1-1) French Annex.

12.52.2Background
Verifies the shear resistance of a welded built-up beam made of 500 MPa yield strength user-defined steel. The
beam is simply supported and it is subjected to a uniformly distributed load (20 000 N/ml) applied over its length. The
dead load will be neglected.
Also verifies the shear resistance of the same welded built-up beam made of S275 steel. The loading and support
conditions are the same.
This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

12.52.2.1 Model description


■ Reference: Guide d’evaluation Advance Design, EN 1993-1-1: 2001;
■ Analysis type: static linear;
■ Element type: linear.
The following load case and load combination are used:
■ Exploitation loadings (category A), Q:
► Fz = - 20 000 N/ml,
■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

■ Cross section dimensions are in milimeters (mm).

Units
Metric System

Geometry
Below are described the beam cross section characteristics:
■ Height: h = 300 mm,
■ Flange width: b = 150 mm,

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■ Flange thickness: tf = 10.7 mm,


■ Web thickness: tw = 7.1 mm,
■ Beam length: L = 5000 mm,
2
■ Section area: A = 5188 mm ,
■ Partial factor for resistance of cross sections:  M 0  1. 0 .

Materials properties
500 MPa yield strength user-defined material and S275 steel are used. The following characteristics are used:
■ Yield strength fy = 500 MPa,
■ Yield strength (for S275 steel) fy = 275 MPa.

Boundary conditions
The boundary conditions are described below:
■ Outer:
► Support at start point (z = 0) restrained in translation along X, Y and Z axis,
► Support at end point (z = 5.00) restrained in translation along X, Y and Z axis.
► Inner: None.

Loading
The beam is subjected to the following loadings:
■ External:
► Uniformly distributed load: q = Fz = -20 000 N/ml
■ Internal: None.

12.52.2.2 Reference results for calculating the design plastic shear resistance of the cross section
In order to verify the steel beam subjected to shear, the criterion (6.18) from chapter 6.2.6 (EN 1993-1-1) has to be
used:

VEd
 1.0
V pl , Rd
■ VEd represents the design value of the shear force:
q  L 20000N / ml  5000mm
VEd    50000N
2 2
■ Vpl,Rd represents the design plastic shear resistance. The design plastic shear resistance of the cross-section
is determined with formula (6.18) from EN 1993-1-1:2001. Before using it, the shear area (A v) has to be
determined.

Shear area of the cross section made of 500 MPa yield strength user-defined material
According to chapter 5.1 from EN 1993-1-5, because the steel grade used for beam is higher than S460, the factor
for shear area () may be conservatively taken equal 1.0.
For a welded I sections, the shear area is determined according to chapter 6.2.6 (3) from EN 1993-1-1. As the load is
parallel to web, the shear area is:

Av     hw  t w   1.0  (278.6mm  7.1mm)  1978.06mm 2

Shear area of the cross section made of S275 steel


According to chapter 5.1 from EN 1993-1-5, because the steel grade used for beam is up to S460, the factor for
shear area () is 1.2.
As the load is parallel to web, the shear area becomes:

Av     hw  t w   1.2  (278.6mm  7.1mm)  2373.67mm 2

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Design plastic shear resistance of the cross section made of 500 MPa yield strength user-defined material
EN 1993-1-1 provides the following formula to calculate the design plastic shear resistance of the cross-section:

f 500MPa
Av  1978.06mm 2 
y

V pl , Rd  3  3  571016.7 N
 M0 1.0
The verification of the design plastic shear resistance of the cross section is done with criterion (6.18) from EN 1993-
1-1:

VEd 50000N
  0.0876  1.0
V pl , Rd 571016.7 N
The corresponding work ratio is:

VEd 50000N
Work ratio = 100  100  8.76%
V pl , Rd 571016.7 N

Design plastic shear resistance of the cross section made of S275 steel
EN 1993-1-1 provides the following formula to calculate the design plastic shear resistance of the cross-section:

f 275MPa
Av  2373.67mm 2 
y

V pl , Rd  3  3  376870.7 N
 M0 1.0
The verification of the design plastic shear resistance of the cross section is done with criterion (6.18) from EN 1993-
1-1:

VEd 50000N
  0.133  1.0
V pl , Rd 376870.7 N
The corresponding work ratio is:

VEd 50000N
Work ratio = 100  100  13.27%
V pl , Rd 376870.7 N

Finite elements modeling


■ Linear element: S beam,
■ 7 nodes,
■ 1 linear element.

Finite elements results

Work ratio of the design shear resistance (beam made of 500 MPa yield strength user-defined material)

Beam subjected to uniformly distributed load applied over its length


Work ratio – Fz

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Work ratio of the design shear resistance (beam made of S275 steel)

Beam subjected to uniformly distributed load applied over its length


Work ratio – Fz

12.52.2.3 Reference results


Result name Result description Reference value
Work ratio - Fz Work ratio of the design plastic shear resistance (fy = 275 MPa) 13.27 %

Work ratio - Fz Work ratio of the design plastic shear resistance (fy = 500 MPa) 8.76 %

12.52.3Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Work ratio - Fz Work ratio of the design plastic shear resistance (fy = 275 MPa) 13.2671 % -0.0219 %
Work ratio - Fz Work ratio of the design plastic shear resistance (fy = 500 MPa) 8.75631 % -0.0421 %

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12.53 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-2 - France: Verifying the bending resistance of a purlin for a 15min
duration

Test ID: 6259


Test status: Passed

12.53.1Description
Verifies bending resistance of a purlin for 15min duration according to Eurocode 3 - part 2 - French standards (EN
1993-1-2).

12.53.2Background
Simple Bending Design for in fire condition
Verifies the adequacy of an IPE220 purlin made from S235 to resist simple bending for a 15min duration.

12.53.2.1 Model description


■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);
■ Element type: linear.
The following load cases and load combination are used:
■ Loadings from the structure: G = 0.875 kN/m
■ Snow loads : S = 1.1kN/m,
■ Frequent combination of actions: CCQ = 1.0 x G + 0.2 x Q
■ Fire duration : 15mins
■ Exposed faces : 4 faces

Units
Metric System

Geometrical properties
■ Beam length: L=10000mm
■ Cross section area: A  3337mm2
■ Overall breadth: b  110mm
■ Flange thickness: t f  9.20mm

■ Web thickness: t w  5.90mm


■ Depth of the web: hw  201.6mm
■ Elastic modulus after the Y axis, Wel , y  252  103 mm 3
■ Plastic modulus after the Y axis, W y  285.4  103 mm 3

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■ Elastic modulus after the Z axis, Wel , z  37.250  103 mm 3


■ Plastic modulus after the Z axis, W pl , z  58.11 103 mm 3
4 4
■ Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: Iy=2772x10 mm
4 4
■ Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: Iz=2049x10 mm

Materials properties
S235 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:
■ Yield strength fy = 235 MPa,
■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 210000 MPa.
■ Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800MPa

Boundary conditions
The boundary conditions are described below:
■ Plane workplane
► Support at start point (x = 0) : hinged support
► Support at the end point (x = 10) : hinged support

Loading
The beam is subjected to the following load combinations:
Load combinations:
■ SLS Frequent combination of actions:
N ser , fr  G  0.2Q  135  150  1.095 kN / ml

12.53.2.2 Critical temperature

For a IPE220 with t=15mins and 4 exposed faces,  a  702C

12.53.2.3 k y , coefficient

k y , is then read from Table 3.1 :

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k y ,  0.2276

12.53.2.4 Bending resistance in fire conditions

M0
M fi , , Rd  k y ,   M Rd
 M , fi
 M 0 w pl  f y
M fi , , Rd  k y ,  
 M , fi M0
1 285.4  106  235
M fi , , Rd  0.2276  
1 1
M fi , , Rd  15.26kN .m

12.53.2.5 Bending moment My (design value)

ql ² 1.095  10²
M y , fi,Ed    13.69kN.m
8 8
12.53.2.6 Work ratio

M y , fi , Ed 13.69
  89.71%
M fi , , Rd 15.26

Finite elements modeling


■ Linear element: S beam,
■ 11 nodes,
■ 1 linear element.

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Bending moment My in fire conditions

Work ratio for bending My in fire conditions

12.53.2.7 Reference results


Result name Result description Reference value
Work ratio - My Work ratio for bending moment My in fire conditions 0.8970

12.53.3Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error

Work ratio - My My bending Fire 89.6982 % 0.0000 %

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12.54 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying an user defined I section class 1, column fixed
on base and without any other restraint (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 28)

Test ID: 5720


Test status: Passed

12.54.1Description
The test verifies a user defined cross section column.
The cross section has an “I symmetric” shape with: 260mm height; 150mm width; 7.1mm center thickness; 10.7mm
flange thickness; 0mm fillet radius and 0mm rounding radius. The column is made of S275 steel.
The column is subjected to 328 kN compression axial force, 10 kNm bending moment over the X axis and 50 kNm
bending moment over the Y axis. All the efforts are applied on the top of the column.
The calculations are made according to Eurocode 3 French Annex.

12.54.2Background
An I260*7.1+150*10.7 shaped column subjected to compression and bending, made from S275 steel. The column
has a 260x7.1mm web and 150x10.7mm flanges. The column is fixed at its base. The column is subjected to an axial
compression load -328000 N, a 10000Nm bending moment after the X axis and a 50000Nm bending moment after
the Y axis.
This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

12.54.2.1 Model description


■ Reference: Guide d’evaluation Advance Design, EN 1993-1-1: 2005;
■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);
■ Element type: linear.
The following load case and load combination are used:
■ Exploitation loadings (category A): Fz=--328000N N; My=50000Nm; Mx=10000Nm;
■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q
■ Cross section dimensions are in millimeters (mm).

Units
Metric System

Geometrical properties
■ Column length: L=5620mm

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■ Cross section area: A  4904.06mm2


■ Overall breadth: b  150mm
■ Flange thickness: t f  10.70mm

■ Root radius: r  0mm

■ Web thickness: t w  7.10mm

■ Depth of the web: hw  260mm


■ Elastic modulus after the Y axis, Wel , y  445717.63mm 3
■ Plastic modulus after the Y axis, Wy  501177.18mm 3
■ Elastic modulus after the Z axis, Wel , z  80344.89mm 3
■ Plastic modulus after the Z axis, W pl , z  123381.96mm3
■ Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: I y  57943291.64mm 4
■ Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: I z  6025866.46mm 4
■ Torsional moment of inertia: I t  149294.97mm4
■ Working inertial moment: I w  93517065421.88mm6

Materials properties
S275 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:
■ Yield strength fy = 275 MPa,
■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 210000 MPa.
■ Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800MPa

Boundary conditions
The boundary conditions are described below:
■ Outer:
► Support at start point (x = 0) restrained in translation along X, Y and Z axis,
► Support at start point (x = 0) restrained in translation along X and Y axis, and restrained inrotation
along Z axis,

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Loading
The column is subjected to the following loadings:
■ External: Point load From X=0.00m and z=5.62m: FZ =-328000N; Mx=10000Nm and My=50000Nm

12.54.2.2 Cross section Class


According to Advance Design calculations:
Cross-class classification is made according to Table 5.2

-for beam web:


The web dimensions are 850x5mm.

 inf 45.30Mpa
   0.253  1
 sup  179.06Mpa

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 238.6  45.3
 x  48.175
x y x y 238.6  224.36
   
45.30 179.06 45.30  179.06 224.36  238.6  179.06
y  190.73
 224.36
x 190.73
   0.80  0.5
238.6 238.6

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235 235
   0.924
fy 275

c 260mm  2 10.7mm 
  33.61 c 396   396  0.924
t 7.1mm    33.6    38.93 therefore the beam
 t 13    1 13  0.8  1
  0.924 
web is considered to be Class 1
-for beam flange:

150  7.1 
 c
 6.68   6.68  9  0.924  8.316
c 2

t 10.7  t
  0.924 
therefore the haunch is considered to be Class1
In conclusion, the section is considered to be Class 1.

12.54.2.3 Buckling verification


a) over the strong axis of the section, y-y:
-the imperfection factor α will be selected according to the Table 6.1 and 6.2:

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

  0.34
Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness after Y-Y axis:

 y coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness y will be determined from the relevant buckling
curve according to:

1
y  2
1 (6.49)
 y   y  y
2

 y the non-dimensional slenderness corresponding to Class 1 cross-sections:


A * fy
y 
N cr , y

Cross section area: A  4904.06mm2


Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: I y  57943291.64mm 4

² E Iy  ²  210000N / mm 2  57943291.64mm 4


N cr , y    3802327.95N  3802.33kN
l fy ² 5620mm ²
A f y 4904.06mm 2  275N / mm 2
y    0.5956
N cr , y 3802327.95N

 
 y  0.5  1    ( y  0.2)   y ²  0.5  1  0.34  0.5956  0.2  0.59562   0.7446

1 1 
y    0.839
y  y  y
2 2
0.7446  0.7446  0.5956
2 2
   y  0.839

y 1 

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b) over the weak axis of the section, z-z:


-the imperfection factor α will be selected according to the Table 6.1 and 6.2:

  0.49
Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness after Z-Z axis:

 z coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness  z will be determined from the relevant buckling curve
according to:

1
z  1 (6.49)
z  z   z
2 2

 z the non-dimensional slenderness corresponding to Class 1, 2 and 3 cross-sections:


A* f y
z 
N cr , z

Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: I z  6025866.46mm 4

Cross section area: A  4904.06mm2

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 ² E  Iz  ²  210000N / mm 2  6025866.46mm 4
N cr , z    395426.63N  395.43kN
l fz ² 5620mm ²
A f y 4904.06mm 2  275N / mm 2
z    1.847
N cr , z 395426.63N

 
 z  0.5  1    ( z  0.2)   z ²  0.5  1  0.49  1.847  0.2  1.8472   2.609
1 1 
z    0.225
z  z   z 2.609  2.609  1.847    z  0.225
2 2 2 2


z  1 

12.54.2.4 Lateral torsional buckling verification


The elastic moment for lateral-torsional buckling calculation, Mcr:
-the transversal load is applied to the shear center, therefore C2zg=0 and the moment formula will be:

 ²  E  Iz I w L²  G  I t
M cr  C1   
L² Iz  ²  E  Iz
According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 2; …(3)
-where:
C1 is a coefficient that depends of several parameters as: section properties; support conditions; moment diagram allure

1
C1 
0.325  0.423  0.252 ²
According to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 3; …(6)

M y ,botom 0
   0  C1  1.77
M y ,top 50

Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: I y  57943291.64mm 4

Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: I z  6025866.46mm 4

Torsional moment of inertia: I t  149294.97mm 4

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Working inertial moment: I w  93517065421.88mm 6


Yield strength fy = 275 MPa,
Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 210000 MPa.
Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800MPa
Warping inertial moment (recalculated):

IW is the warping inertia (deformation inertia moment):

I z  h  t f 
2

Iw 
4
h cross section height; h  260mm

tf flange thickness; t f  10.7mm

6025866.46mm 4  260mm  10.7mm 


2
Iw   93627638290mm 6
4
-according to EN1993-1-1-AN France; Chapter 2 (…4)

Length of the column: L=5620mm

 ²  E  Iz I w L²  G  I t  2  210000N / mm 2  6025866.46mm 4
M cr  C1     1.77  
L² Iz  ²  E  Iz 5620mm 2
93627638290mm 6 5620mm   80800N / mm 2  149294.97mm 4
2
   1.77  395426.63N  214.58mm 
6025866.46mm 4  2  210000N / mm 2  6025866.46mm 4
 150184702.1Nmm  15018kNm
W pl , y f y 501177.18mm 3  275N / mm 2
 LT    0.958
M cr 150184702.1Nmm
Calculation of the  LT for appropriate non-dimensional slenderness  LT will be determined with formula:

1
 LT  1 (6.56)
LT  LT ²   LT ²

LT  0.5  1   LT   LT  0.2   LT ² 
The cross section buckling curve will be chose according to Table 6.4:

h 260mm
  1.733  2
b 150mm

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The imperfection factor α will be chose according to Table 6.3:

  0.49
   
LT  0.5  1   LT   LT  0.2   LT ²  0.5  1  0.49  0.958  0.2  0.958²  1.145
1 1
 LT    0.564  1
LT  LT ²   LT ² 1.145  1.145²  0.958²

12.54.2.5 Internal factor, k yy , calculation

The internal factor k yy corresponding to a Class 4 section will be calculated according to Annex A, Table a.1, and will be
calculated separately for the two column parts separate by the middle torsional lateral restraint:

y `1
k yy  Cmy  CmLT  
N C yy
1  Ed
N cr , y
N Ed
1
N cr , y
y 
N
1   y  Ed
N cr , y

 y  0.839 (previously calculated)


N Ed  328kN

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 ² E  Iy
N cr , y   3802327.95N  3802.33kN (previously calculated)
l fy ²
N Ed
1 1
328000N
N cr , y 3802327 .95N
y    0.985
N Ed 328000N
1 y  1  0.839 
N cr , y 3802327.95N

The Cmy will be calculated according to Table A.1:

Calculation of the  0 term:

W pl , y  f y
0 
M cr 0
-according to Eurocode 3 EN 1993-1-1-2005; Chapter 6.3.2.2
Wy  501177.18mm 3

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

The calculation the M cr 0 will be calculated using C1  1 and C2  0 , therefore:

 ²  E  Iz I w L²  G  I t  2  210000N / mm 2  6025866.46mm 4
M cr  C1     1 
L² Iz  ²  E  Iz 5620mm 2
93517065421.88mm 6 5620mm   80800N / mm 2  149294.97mm 4
2
   1 395426.63N  214.58mm 
6025866.46mm 4  2  210000N / mm 2  6025866.46mm 4
 84850646.27 Nmm  84.85kNm
W pl , y f y 501177.18mm 3  275N / mm 2
0    1.274
M cr 84850646.27 Nmm

 N   N 
Calculation of the 0.20  C1  4 1  Ed   1  Ed  term:
 N cr , z   N cr ,TF 
Where:

-for a symmetrical section for the both axis, N cr ,TF  N cr ,T

1   2  E  I w 
N cr ,T    G  It 
I0  Lcr ,T ² 

The mass moment of inertia I 0

I 0  I y  I z  A  z g2  I y  I z  57943291.64mm 4  6025866.46mm 4  63969158.1mm 4

Torsional moment of inertia: I t  149294.97mm4

Working inertial moment: I w  93517065421.88mm6


- the buckling length, Lcr ,T ,

Lcr ,T  5.62m

4904.06mm 2   2  210000N / mm 2  93517065421.88mm 6 


N cr ,T    80800N / mm 2  149294.97mm 4   
63969158.1mm 4  5620mm² 
 1395246.607N

N Ed  328000N

Ncr ,TF  Ncr ,T  1395246.607N


 ²  E  Iz  ²  210000N / mm 2  6025866.46mm 4
N cr , z    395426.63N  395.43kN
5620mm ²
(previously calculated)
l fz ²
C1=1 for the top part of the column

For the top part of the column:

   
N
0.20  C1  4 1  Ed   1  N Ed   0.20  1  4 1  328000N   1  328000N  
  N   395426.63N   1395246.607N 
 N cr , z   cr ,TF 
 0.120

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Therefore:
For the top part of the column:

 
   y  aLT
 0  1.274  Cmy  Cmy ,0  1  Cmy , 0 
  1   y  aLT
 N     
0.20  C1  4 1  Ed   1  N Ed   0.120   Cmz  Cmz , 0
  N 
 N cr , z   cr ,TF    aLT
 CmLT  Cmy 2
 1
 N         
0  1.274  0.20  C1  4 1  Ed   1  N Ed   0.120  N
1  Ed   1  Ed  N
  N   N   N 
 N cr , z       cr , z   cr ,T 

cr ,TF

The Cmy coefficient takes into account the column behavior in the buckling plane: the buckling and bending moment distribution.
The coefficient must be calculated considering the column over the entire height.

 y  a LT
Cmy  Cmy , 0  1  Cmy , 0 
1   y  a LT

M y , Ed Aeff
y  
N Ed Weff , y
Elastic modulus after the Y axis, Wel , y  Weff , y  445717.63mm 3

M y ,Ed Aeff 50  106 Nmm 4904.06mm 2


y      1.677
N Ed Weff , y 328000N 445717.63mm 3

It 149294.97mm 4
aLT  1  1  0.997  1
Iy 57943291.64mm 4

The C m 0 coefficient is defined according to the Table A.2:

The bending moment in null at one end of the column, therefore:  0

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

Cmy ,0  0.79  0.21  0.36    0.33


N Ed N
 0.79  0.36  0.33 Ed
Ncr , y Ncr , y
Where:

 ² E  Iy
N cr , y   3802327.95N  3802.33kN (previously calculated)
l fy ²

N Ed  328000N

328000N
Cmy ,0  0.79  0.36  0.33   0.780
3802327.95N
 y  aLT 1.677  1
Cmy  Cmy , 0  1  Cmy , 0   0.780  1  0.780   0.904
1   y  aLT 1  1.677  1
Equivalent uniform moment factor, C mLT , calculation

aLT 
CmLT  Cmy
2
  
 N   N  
1    
 N   1  N 
Ed Ed

 cr , z   cr ,T 

0 .997 
 0.9042   2.256  CmLT  2.256
 328000N   328000N  
1    1   
 395426.63N   1395246.607N 

CmLT  1 


The C yy coefficient is defined according to the Table A.1, Auxiliary terms:

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

 1.6 
1.6  2   W
C yy  1  ( wy  1)   2   Cmy
2
  max   Cmy
2
  max   n pl  bLT   el , y
 
 wy wy   W pl , y
2 M y ,Ed M z ,Ed 2 M y ,Ed M z ,Ed
bLT  0.5  a LT   0    0.5  aLT   0  
 LT  M pl , y ,Rd M pl , z ,Rd  LT  W pl , y  f y W pl , z  f y
50000000Nmm 10000000Nmm
 0.5  0.997  1.2742   
0.564  501177.18mm  275N / mm 123381.96mm 3  275N / mm 2
3 2

 0.1534
W pl , y 501177.18mm 3
wy    1.124  1.5
Wel , y 445717.63mm 3

N Ed 328000N
n pl    0.243
N Rk 4904.06mm 2  275N / mm 2
 M1 1

max  max   y ;  z   max 0.5956;1.847  1.847


 

 
 1.6 1.6  
C yy  1  (1.124  1)   2   0.904² 1.847   0.904² 1.847²   0.243  0.1534  0.857
 1.124 1.124  


C yy  0.857 

Wel , y 445717.63mm 3

 3
 0 . 889  C yy  0.889
W pl , y 501177.18mm 
W 
C yy  el , y 
W pl , y 
 ² E  Iy
N cr , y   3802327.95N  3802.33kN (previously calculated)
l fy ²
Therefore the k yy term corresponding to the top part of the column will be:
y `1 0.985 1
k yy  Cmy  CmLT    0.904  2.256    2.47
N C yy 328000N 0.889
1  Ed 1
N cr , y 3802327.95N

12.54.2.6 Internal factor, k yz , calculation

y 1 wz
k yz  Cmz    0.6 
N C yz wy
1  Ed
N cr , z

Cmz  Cmz ,0  0.79  0.36   0.33  0.79  0.36   0.33


N Ed 328000N
 0.691
N cr , z 395426.63N

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

N Ed
1 1
328000N
N cr , y 3802327.95N
y    0.985
N Ed 328000N
1 y  1  0.839 
N cr , y 3802327.95N
(previously calculated)
 ²  E  Iz
Ncr , z   395426.63N  395.43kN (previously calculated)
l fz ²
 2  
  Cmz   max 
2

C yz  1  ( wz  1)   2  14  5   n pl  cLT 
 
wz
 
2
0 M y , Ed
cLT  10  aLT  
4 Cmy   lt  M pl , y , Rd
5 z
It 149294.97mm 4
aLT  1  1  0.997 (previously calculated)
Iy 57943291.64mm 4

W pl , y f y 501177.18mm 3  275N / mm 2
0    1.274 (previously calculated)
M cr 84850646.27 Nmm
A f y 4904.06mm 2  275N / mm 2
z    1.847 (previously calculated)
N cr , z 395426.63N
M y , Ed  50000Nm

 y  aLT
Cmy  Cmy , 0  1  Cmy , 0   0.904 (previously calculated)
1   y  aLT
1 1
 LT    0.564  1 (previously calculated)
LT  LT ²   LT ² 1.145  1.145²  0.958²

M pl , y , Rd  Wy  f y  501177.18mm3  275N / mm 2  137823724.5 Nmm


2
0 M y , Ed
cLT  10  aLT   
4 Cmy   lt  M pl , y , Rd
5 z
1.274² 50000000Nmm
 10  0.997    0.664
5  1.847 0.904  0.564  137823724.5 Nmm
4

 2  
  C 2
  max  
C yz  1  ( wz  1)   2  14  mz
5   n pl  cLT 
 
wz
 

Wpl , z 123381.96mm3 
wz    1.536  1.5
  wz  1.5
3
Wel , z 80344.89mm
wz  1.5 

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ADVANCE DESIGN USER GUIDE

 ²  E  Iz
Ncr , z   395426.63N  395.43kN (previously calculated)
l fz ²

Cmz  Cmz ,0  0.79  0.36   0.33   0.79  0.36   0.33 


N Ed 328000N
 0.691
Ncr , z 395426.63N

max  max   y ;  z   max 0.5956;1.847  1.847


 

 
N Ed
n pl   0.243 (previously calculated)
N Rk
 M1
 2  
  Cmz   max 
2

C yz  1  ( wz  1)   2  14  5   n pl  cLT  
 
wz
 
 0.6912  1.8472  
 1  (1.5  1)   2  14  5
  0.243  0.691  0.532
 1.5  

y 1 wz 0.985 1 1.5
k yz  Cmz    0.6   0.691   0.6   5.20
N C yz wy 328000 N 0.532 1.124
1  Ed 1
N cr , z 395426.63N

12.54.2.7 Internal factor, k zy , calculation

z 1 wz
k zy  Cmy  CmLT    0.6 
N C zy wy
1  Ed
N cr , y

N Ed
1 1
328000N
N cr , z 395426.63N
z    0.210
N Ed 328000N
1 z  1  0.225 
N cr , z 395426.63N

 z  0.225 (previously calculated)


 2  
 C 2
  max   wy Wel , y
C zy  1  ( wy  1)   2  14  my
  n pl  d LT   0.6  
 w5y  wz W pl , y
  
 
M pl , z , Rd  Wz  f z  123381.96mm3  275N / mm 2  33930039Nmm

0 M y , Ed M z , Ed
d LT  2  aLT    
4 Cmy   LT  M pl , y , Rd Cmz  M pl , z , Rd
0.1   z
1.274 50000000Nmm 10000000Nmm
 2  0.997    
0.1  1.847 0.904  0.564  137823724.5 Nmm 0.691 33930039Nmm
4

 0.771

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 2  
   max  
2
Cmy
Czy  1  ( wy  1)   2  14  5   n pl  d LT  
 
wy
 
 
 0.9042  1.8472 
 1  (1.124  1)   2  14    0.243  0.771  0.310
 1.1245 
wy Wel , y 1.124 445717.63mm3
0.6    0.6    0.462
wz W pl , y 1.5 501177.18mm3

wy Wel , y 
C zy  0.6   
wz W pl , y 

C zy  0.310   C zy  0.462

 0.462
wy Wel , y
0. 6  
wz W pl , y 
CmLT  2.256 (previously calculated)

z 1 wy 0.210 1 1.124
k zy  Cmy  CmLT    0.6   0.904  2.256    0.6   0.529
N C zy wz 328000N 0.462 1.5
1  Ed 1
N cr , y 3802327.95N

12.54.2.8 Internal factor, k zz , calculation

z 1
k zz  Cmz  
N C zz
1  Ed
N cr , z

 1.6 1.6   W
Czz  1  ( wz  1)   2   Cmz
2
  max   Cmz
2
  max   n pl  eLT   el , z
 wz wz   Wpl , z

0 M y , Ed
eLT  1.7  aLT   
4 Cmy   lt  M pl , y , Rd
0.1   z
1.274 50000000Nmm
 1.7  0.997    0.131
0.1  1.847 0.904  0.564  501177.18mm3  275N / mm 2
4

 1.6 1.6 2  
Czz  1  ( wz  1)   2   Cmz
2
  max   Cmz
2
  max   n pl  eLT  
 wz wz  
 1.6 1.6  
 1  (1.5  1)   2   0.6912  1.847   0.6912  1.8472   0.243  0.131  0.926
 1.5 1.5  

z 1 0.210 1
k zz  Cmz    0.691   0.919
N C zz 328000N 0.926
1  Ed 1
N cr , z 395426.63N

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12.54.2.9 Bending and axial compression verification

 N Ed M y , Ed  M y , Rd M  M z , Rd
  k yy   k yz  z , Ed
N M M z , Rk
  y  Rk  LT  y ,Rk
  M1  M1  M1

 N Ed M y , Ed  M y , Rd M  M z , Rd
 k zy   k zz  z , Ed
 N Rk M M z , Rk
z   LT  y ,Rk
  M1  M1  M1
N Rk  f y  Ai

328000N 50  106 Nmm


 2 . 479  
4904.06mm 2  275N / mm 2 501177.18mm 3  275N / mm 2
0.839  0.564 
1 1
10  10 Nmm
6
 5.20   0.29  1.59  1.53  3.41
123381.96mm 3  275N / mm 2
1
328000N 50  106 Nmm
 0 . 529  
4904.06mm 2  275N / mm 2 501177.18mm 3  275N / mm 2
0.225  0.564 
1 1
10  10 Nmm
6
 0.919   1.08  0.34  0.27  1.69
123381.96mm 3  275N / mm 2
1
Finite elements modeling
■ Linear element: S beam,
■ 7 nodes,
■ 1 linear element.

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 y coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness  y

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

y

 z coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness  z


Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

z

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Internal factor, k yy

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

k yy

Internal factor, k yz

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

k yz

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Internal factor, k zy

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

k zy

Internal factor, k zz
Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

k zz

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Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the compression effort over the Y axis: SNy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the compression effort
over the Y axis
SNy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y bending moment over the Y axis: SMyy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y bending moment
over the Y axis
SMyy

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Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z bending moment over the Y axis: SMyz

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z bending moment
over the Y axis
SMyz

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the compression effort over the Z axis: SNz

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the compression effort
over the Z axis
SNz

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Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y bending moment over the Z axis: SMzy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y bending moment
over the Z axis
SMzy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z bending moment over the Z axis: SMzz

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z bending moment
over the Z axis
SMzz

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Coefficient that depends of several parameters as: section properties; support conditions; moment diagram allure

Coefficient that depends of several parameters as: section properties; support


conditions; moment diagram allure
C1

The elastic moment for lateral-torsional buckling calculation

The elastic moment for lateral-torsional buckling calculation


Mcr

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The appropriate non-dimensional slenderness

The appropriate non-dimensional slenderness

 LT

12.54.2.10Reference results
Result name Result description Reference value

y  y coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness  y 0.839

z  z coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness  z 0.225

k yy Internal factor, k yy 2.47

k yz Internal factor, k yz 5.20

k zy Internal factor, k zy 0.529

k zz Internal factor, k zy 0.919

SNy Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the 0.29
compression effort over the Y axis
SMyy Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y 1.59
bending moment over the Y axis
SMyz Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z 1.53
bending moment over the Y axis
SNz Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the 1.08
compression effort over the z axis
SMzy Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y 0.34
bending moment over the Z axis
SMzz Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z 0.27
bending moment over the Z axis
C1 Coefficient that depends of several parameters as: section 1.77
properties; support conditions; moment diagram allure
Mcr The elastic moment for lateral-torsional buckling calculation 150.18

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 LT The appropriate non-dimensional slenderness 0.564

Work ratio Stability work ratio (bending and axial compression verification) [%] 341 %

12.54.3Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Xy Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.839285 adim 0.0340 %
slenderness after Y-Y axis
Xz Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional 0.224656 adim -0.1529 %
slenderness after Z-Z axis
Kyy Internal factor kyy 2.47232 adim 0.0939 %
Kyz Internal factor kyz 5.20929 adim 0.1787 %
Kzy Internal factor kzy 0.525982 adim -0.5705 %
Kzz Internal factor kzz 0.942941 adim 2.6051 %
Work ratio Stability work ratio 341.352 % 0.0000 %

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12.55 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying a simply supported rectangular hollow section
beam subjected to biaxial bending (evaluated by SOCOTEC France - ref. Test 16)

Test ID: 5736


Test status: Passed

12.55.1Description
Verifies a simply supported rectangular hollow section beam made of S235 steel subjected to biaxial bending.
The verification is made according to Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-1-1) French Annex.

12.55.2Background
Verifies the adequacy of a rectangular hollow section beam made of S235 steel to resist bi-axial bending efforts. The
name of the cross-section is RC3020100 and it can be found in the Advance Design OTUA library. The beam is
simply supported and it is subjected to uniformly distributed loads over its length. The dead load will be neglected.
This test was evaluated by the French control office SOCOTEC.

12.55.2.1 Model description


■ Reference: Guide d’evaluation Advance Design, EN 1993-1-1: 2001;
■ Analysis type: static linear;
■ Element type: linear.
The following load case and load combination are used:
■ Exploitation loadings (category A), Q:
► Fz = - 10 000 N/ml,
► Fy = 10 000 N/ml,
■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

■ Cross section dimensions are in milimeters (mm).

Units
Metric System

Geometry
Below are described the beam cross section characteristics:
■ Height: h = 300 mm,
■ Width: b = 200 mm,
■ Thickness: t = 10 mm,
■ Outer radius: r = 15 mm,
■ Beam length: L = 5000 mm,

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2
■ Section area: A = 9490 mm ,
3
■ Plastic section modulus about y-y axis: W pl,y = 956000 mm ,
3
■ Plastic section modulus about z-z axis: W pl,z = 721000 mm ,
■ Partial factor for resistance of cross sections:  M 0  1. 0 .

Materials properties
S235 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:
■ Yield strength fy = 235 MPa,
5
■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 2.1 x 10 MPa.

Boundary conditions
The boundary conditions are described below:
■ Outer:
► Support at start point (z = 0) restrained in translation along X, Y and Z axis,
► Support at end point (z = 5.00) restrained in translation along Y and Z axis, and restrained in rotation
about the X axis.
■ Inner: None.

Loading
The beam is subjected to the following loadings:
■ External:
► Uniformly distributed load: q1 = Fz = -10 000 N/ml
► Uniformly distributed load: q2 = Fy = 10 000 N/ml
■ Internal: None.

12.55.2.2 Reference results for calculating the beam subjected to bi-axial bending
In order to verify the steel beam subjected to bi-axial bending, the criterion (6.41) from chapter 6.2.9.1 (EN 1993-1-1)
has to be used.
Before verifying this criterion, the cross-section class has to be determined.

Cross section class


The following results are determined according to Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures - Part 1-1: General rules
and rules for buildings (EN 1993-1-1: 2001), Chapter 5.5.2.
In this case, the stresses distribution is like in the picture below:

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Table 5.2 - sheet 1, from Chapter 5.5.2 (EN 1993-1-1: 2001), establish the rules to determine the class for
compressed parts. The picture below shows an extract from this table.

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Taking into account that the entire cross-section is subjected to bending stresses, its class can be determined by
considering the geometrical properties and the conditions described in Table 5.2 - sheet 1 (the above highlighted
extract – part subject to bending).

c b  2  r  2  t 300mm  2 15mm  2 10mm


   25
t t 10mm
235
  1. 0
fy
Therefore:

c
 25  72  72
t
This means that the left/right web is Class 1. As the dimensions for top/bottom wing are smaller than the left/right
web, they will be also classified as Class 1.
Because a cross-section is classified according to the least favorable classification of its compression elements
(chapter 5.5.2(6) from EN 1993-1-1: 2001), this means that the cross-section is Class 1.

Determining the design plastic moment resistance


Before verifying for bi-axial bending a rectangular structural hollow section of uniform thickness, the design plastic
moment resistance reduced due to the axial force (MN,Rd) needs to be determined. Its determination has to be made
about 2 axes (according to the bending efforts) and it will be done with formulae (6.39) and (6.40) from EN 1993-1-1.
Other terms involved in calculation have to be determined: aw, af, n.
■ Ratio of design normal force to design plastic resistance to normal forces, n:
N Ed
n  as the beam is not subjected to axial efforts n = 0.
N pl ,Rd
■ Determination of aw for hollow section:
A  2bt
aw   0.5  aw  0.5
A
■ Determination of af for hollow section:
A  2 ht
af   0.5  a f  0.3678
A
■ Determination of aw for hollow section:
A  2bt
aw   0.5  aw  0.5
A
■ Determination of design plastic moment resistance (about y-y axis) reduced due to the axial force, MN,y,Rd:
M pl , y , Rd  1  n 
M N , y , Rd   M pl , y , Rd
1  0.5  aw 
In order to fulfill the above relationship MN,y,Rd must be equal to Mpl,y,Rd.

W pl , y  f y 956000mm 3  235MPa
M N , y ,Rd  M pl , y , Rd    22466104 Nmm
 M0 1.0
■ Determination of design plastic moment resistance (about z-z axis) reduced due to the axial force, MN,z,Rd:
M pl , z , Rd  1  n 
M N , z , Rd   M pl , z , Rd
1  0.5  a  f

In order to fulfill the above relationship MN,z,Rd must be equal to Mpl,z,Rd.

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W pl , z  f y 721000mm 3  235MPa
M N , z ,Rd  M pl , z , Rd    16943.5 104 Nmm
 M0 1.0

Verifying for bi-axial bending


Criterion (6.41) from EN 1993-1-1 has to be fulfilled:
 
 M y ,Ed   M z , Ed 
     1.0
M  M 
 N , y , Rd   N , z , Rd 
■ Determination of constants  and  for rectangular hollow section:
1.66
    6      1.66
1  1.13 n 2
■ Determination of design bending moments (My,Ed and Mz,Ed) at the middle of the beam:

q1  L2 10N / mm  50002 mm 2
M y , Ed    3125 104 Nmm
8 8
q 2  L2 10 N / mm  50002 mm 2
M z , Ed    3125104 Nmm
8 8
■ Verifying criterion (6.41) from EN 1993-1-1:
1.66 1.66
 3125 104 Nmm   3125 104 Nmm 
      0.0378  0.0604  0.098  1.0
 22466 10 Nmm   16943.5  10 Nmm 
4 4

0.098
 100  9.8%
Work ratio = 1.0

Verifying for simple bending about y-y axis


For class 1 cross-section, design resistance for simple bending about y-y axis is verified using the criterion (6.12)
from EN 1993-1-1:

M y , Ed 3125 104 Nmm


  0.139  1.0
M pl , y , Rd 22466 104 Nmm

0.139
100  13.9%
Work ratio = 1.0

Verifying for simple bending about z-z axis


For class 1 cross-section, design resistance for simple bending about z-z axis is verified using the criterion (6.12)
from EN 1993-1-1:

M z , Ed 3125104 Nmm
  0.1844  1.0
M pl , z , Rd 16943.5 104 Nmm

0.1844
100  18.44%
Work ratio = 1.0
As this work ratio is bigger than the others, we can consider it as reference.

Finite elements modeling


■ Linear element: S beam,
■ 6 nodes,

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■ 1 linear element.

Finite elements results

Work ratio of the design resistance for bending

Beam subjected to bending efforts


Work ratio – Oblique

12.55.2.3 Reference results


Result name Result description Reference value
Work ratio - Oblique Work ratio of the design resistance for biaxial bending 18.44 %

12.55.3Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Work ratio - Work ratio of the design resistance for biaxial 18.4437 % 0.2375 %
Oblique bending

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12.56 NTC 2008 - Italy: Stability check for steel column hinged base

Test ID: 6270


Test status: Passed

12.56.1Description
Verification of a steel column with a point load applied on the top and a linear load applied along the linear element,
the column is made of S235 material and is hinged on the bottom extremity and restrained in translation on x, y axis
and restrained in rotation on z axis.

12.56.2Background

12.56.2.1 Model description


■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);
■ Element type: linear.

Units
Metric

Geometry
■ Length: L = 5.00 m,
■ Area: A = 31.40 cm²
■ Inertia: I = 1033.00 cm4

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Materials properties
■ E = 210000 MPa
■ S235

Boundary conditions
■ Hinged at end x = 0,
■ Restrained in translation X,Y at the top (x = 5.00 m) and restrained in rotation along Z.

Loading
Point load on the top of the column, linear load on the left of the column and self-weight.

12.56.2.2 Reference results


Calculation method used to obtain the reference solution

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The result for My is considered in the middle point of the column, so the work ratio will be 0.551 + 0.350 = 0.90 = 90%

12.56.2.3 Theoretical results


Result name Result description Reference value
SNz Work ratio of the Normal force for the stability check 0.551

SMy Work ratio of the bending moment for the stability check calculated 0.350
in the middle
Work ratio Stability work ratio 0.900

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12.56.3Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
SNz Effect of the normal force 0.549572 adim -0.2592 %
SMzy Effect of My 0.348335 adim 0.0000 %
Work ratio Work ratio 91.1238 % -1.5091 %

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12.57 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1 - France: Buckling resistance of a steel column

Test ID: 6271


Test status: Passed

12.57.1Description
Compares the buckling resistance of a compresed column with the value from a CTICM example.

12.57.2Background
Compares the buckling resistance of a compressed column with the value from a CTICM example.

12.57.2.1 Model description


One windwall (dimensions: 10m x 5m)
Punctual support (fixed)
Snow parameters
■ Section: IPE200
■ Material: S235
■ Buckling lengths: section is prevented from buckling in its secondary plane at x = 3.5m from the bottom

Geometrical properties
■ Column length: L=6m

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■ Cross section area: A  28.48cm²


■ Overall breadth: b  100mm
■ Flange thickness: t f  8.5mm

■ Root radius:r  12mm


■ Web thickness: t w  5.6mm

■ Depth of the web: hw  159mm


■ Plastic modulus after the Y axis, W pl , y  220.60cm 6
■ Plastic modulus after the Z axis, W pl , z  44.61cm 6
4
■ Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: Iy=1943 cm
4
■ Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: Iz=142.4 cm
4 4
■ Torsional moment of inertia: It=6.98x10 mm
6 6
■ Working inertial moment: Iw=12990x10 cm

Materials properties
S235 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:
■ Yield strength fy = 235 MPa,
■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 210000 MPa.
■ Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800MPa

Boundary conditions
The boundary conditions are described below:
■ Outer:
► Hinged support at start point (x = 0m) restrained in translation along X, Y and Z axis,
► Support at the end point (z = 6m) restrained in translation along X and Y axis and restrained rotation
around Z axis.

Loading
The column is subjected to the following loadings:
■ External: Point load on column top : FZ =-176kN

12.57.2.2 Cross section Class


Cross-class classification is made according to Table 5.2

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235
 1
fy
Compressed flange:

(b  t w  2r ) / 2
 4.1  9  9
tf
Flange is Class 1.
Web:

(h  2t f  2r ) / 2
 28.4  33  33
tw
Web is Class 1.
Section class is Class 1. Plastic characteristics are to be used.

12.57.2.3 Buckling lengths


Section is prevented from buckling in its secondary plane at x = 3.5m from the bottom
Lfz (strong inertia): 6m
Lfy (weak inertia): 3.5m

12.57.2.4 Slenderness
Strong axis:

iy  8.26cm
 y  72.6
 y
y   0.773
93.9
Weak axis:

iz  2.24cm
z  156.25
 
 z  z  1.664
93.9

12.57.2.5 Buckling curves


Strong axis: Curve a (  0.21)
Weak axis: Curve b (  0.34)

12.57.2.6 Buckling factors


Strong axis:  y  0.810
Weak axis:  y  0.287
We keep the minimal value:  min  0.287

12.57.2.7 Buckling resistance

Nb , Rd   min  A  f y /  M 1  (0.287  2848 235 / 1)  103  192kN

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12.57.2.8 Work ratio

N Ed / Nb, Rd  176 / 192  91.66%

12.57.2.9 Reference results


Result name Result description Reference value
Stability Stability work ratio 91.66%

12.57.3Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Work ratio Buckling work ratio 91.456 % 0.0000 %

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12.58 NTC 2008 - Italy: Deflection check on simply supported beam

Test ID: 6266


Test status: Passed

12.58.1Description
Deflection check on simply supported beam made of steel S355, the cross section used is HEA140, the span of the
beam is 6.00 meter, the verification is made according to NTC 2008

12.58.2Background

12.58.2.1 Model description


■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);
■ Element type: linear.

Units
Metric

Geometry
■ Length: L = 6.00 m,
■ Area: A = 31.42 cm²
■ Inertia: I = 1033.00 cm4

Materials properties
■ E = 210000 MPa
■ S355

Boundary conditions
■ Hinge at end x = 0,
■ Hinge at end x = 6.00 m.

Loading
Uniformly distributed force of q = -10.00 kN/m on beam AB.

12.58.2.2 Reference results


Calculation method used to obtain the reference solution

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4
f = (5/384) X (10 X 6000 ) / (2100000 X 10330000) = 777.9 mm = L / 75

12.58.2.3 Theoretical result


Result name Result description Reference value
Deflection Maximum deflection calculated in the middle of the steel beam 777.9 mm = L / 75

12.58.3Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Max. deflection Max deflection 74.7801 adim 0.0000 %

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12.59 AISC 360 2010 - United States of America: Deflection and Strength for a W-Shape
Continuously Braced Flexural Member in Strong-Axis Bending (LRFD)

Test ID: 6273


Test status: Passed

12.59.1Description
Verifies the available flexural strength of a W18x50 in ASTM A992 simple supported beam with a span of 35 ft. The
deflection is limited to a ratio of L/360. The nominal loads are a uniform dead load of 0.45 kip/ft and a uniform live
load of 0.75 kip/ft. The beam is continuously braced. (LRFD)

12.59.2Background
Verifies the deflections, the deflection constraints, the bending moment and it related resistance to a simply
supported W18x50. The primary objective of this test is to validate the resistance of member exposed to uniformly
distributed load which would cause bending moments in the beam. With this the deflection will be verified against a
max deflection criterion.

12.59.2.1 Model Description


Reference: AISC Design Example Version 14.1
Example as taken from “Example F.1-1A&C W-Shape Flexural Member Design in Strong-Axis Bending, Continuously
Braced”
Select an ASTM A992 W-shape beam with a simple span of 35 ft. Limit the member to a maximum nominal depth of
18 in. Limit the live load deflection to L/360. The nominal loads are a uniform dead load of 0.45 kip/ft and a uniform
live load of 0.75 kip/ft. Assume the beam is continuously braced. Try a W18x50.

■ Analysis Type: Static


■ Element Type: Linear
The following load cases and load combination are used
■ Dead load: 0.450 kip/ft uniformly distributed load (Self-weight included in this value – Therefore not needed for AD to
calculate)
■ Live Load: 0.750 kip/ft uniformly distributed load
■ Combination used for this example is:
ULS Combination #102 -

SLS Combination #103 -

■ Steel cross-section used is an AISC W18x50


■ Unit System: IMPERIAL

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■ Conditions: Continuously braced the full length of the beam


■ Steel Type: ASTM A992
■ Fy = 50 ksi
■ Fu = 65 ksi

12.59.2.2 Calculation
Deflection Calculations:
Required Moment of Inertia for the Live-Load Deflection Criteria of L/360

4
Or for W18x50 where Ix = 800.04 in

Moment Calculations:
The required flexural strength must surpass:

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From the AISC Manual Table 1-1 for a W18x50 Zx=101 in3
Calculating the Nominal Flexural Strength, Mn

Finally, the available flexural strength is

Work Ratio is therefore

12.59.2.3 Reference Results


Result name Result description Reference value
Max Deflection L/? for Deflection Criteria L / 384.80
Actual Deflection 1.09 in
Mu Required Flexural Strength 266 kips·ft
ΦbMn Available Flexural Strength 379 kips·ft
Work Ratio, My Design Load Ratio due to Strong Axis Bending 70%

12.59.3Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Max. deflection Deflection Criteria 378.242 -1.7043 %
adim

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12.60 EC3 / CSN EN 1993-1-1 - Czech Republic: Compressed IPE300

Test ID: 6275


Test status: Passed

12.60.1Description
Class section classification and compression verification of an IPE300 column

12.60.2Background
Classification and verification of sections for an IPE 300 column made from S235 steel. The column is connected to
the ground by a fixed connection and is free on the top part. On top, the column is subjected to a 100kN force applied
gravitationally, defined as a live load. The dead load will be neglected.

12.60.2.1 Model description


■ Reference: Guide de validation Eurocode 3 Part1,1 EN 1993-1-1-2001;
■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);
■ Element type: linear.
The following load cases and load combination are used:
■ Exploitation loadings (category A): Q = -100kN,
■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

Units
Metric System

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Materials properties

Boundary conditions
The boundary conditions are described below:
■ Outer:
► Support at start point (x=0) restrained in translation and rotation along X, Y and Z axis,
► Support at end point (z = 5.00) free.
■ Inner: None.

12.60.2.2 Reference results for calculating the cross section class


In this case, the column is subjected only to compression, therefore the distribution of stresses along the section is
like in the picture below:

To determine the web class, we use Table 5.2 sheet 1, from CSN EN 1993-1-1 Chapter 5.5.2

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The section geometrical properties are described in the picture below:

According to Table 5.2 and the column section geometrical properties, the next conclusions can be found:

 1
Therefore:

This means that the column web is Class 2.


To determine the flanges class, we will use Table 5.2, sheet 2, from CSN EN 1993-1-1 Chapter 5.5.2

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The section geometrical properties are described in the picture below:

According to the Table 5.2 and the column section geometrical properties, the next conclusions can be found:

c 56.45mm
  5.276
t 10.7mm
 1
Therefore:

c 56.45mm
  5.276  9 *   9 this means that the column flanges are Class 1.
t 10.7mm
A cross-section is classified by quoting the heist (least favorable) class of its compression elements.
According to the calculation above, the column section have a Class 2 web and Class 1 flanges; therefore the class
section for the entire column section will be considered Class 2.
According to: CSN EN 1993-1-1 Chapter 5.5.2(6)

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12.60.2.3 Reference results in calculating the compressive resistance N c,Rd


The design resistance of the cross-section force Nc,Rd shall be determined as follows:

A* fy
For Class 1, 2 or 3 cross-section Nc , Rd 
M0
Where:
A section area A=53.81cm2
Fy nominal yielding strength for S235 fy=235MPa

 M 0 partial safety coefficient  M 0  1

Therefore:

A* fy 53.81*104 * 235
N c , Rd    1.264535MN  1264.54kN
M0 1
According to: CSN EN 1993-1-1 Chapter 6.2.4(2)

Finite elements modeling


■ Linear element: S beam,
■ 6 nodes,
■ 1 linear element.

Finite elements results


Compressive resistance work ratio

Column subjected to compressive load


Work ratio [%]

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12.60.2.4 Reference results


Result name Result description Reference value
Work ratio Compressive resistance work ratio [%] 8%

12.60.3Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Max Work ratio Max work ratio 7.90805 % -1.1494 %
Work ratio - Fx Work ratio Fx 7.90805 % -1.1494 %

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12.61 EC3 / CSN EN 1993-1-1 - Czech Republic: Compressed U_profile

Test ID: 6265


Test status: Passed

12.61.1Description
Verifies the classification and the compression resistance for an UPE240 vertical beam made of steel S235.

12.61.2Background
Verification of compressed steel profile
Verifies the steel centrically compressed vertical beam made of UPE240, steel S235. The beam is supported by
hinges at both extremities and blocked to swerve perpendicularly to local z-axis of the profile at all quarters of its
length.

12.61.2.1 Model description


■ Reference: Manually calculated example
■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);
■ Element type: linear.
Load cases and load combinations:
■ Dead load: g = 500 kN

Units
Metric System

Geometry
Below are described the beam cross section characteristics:
■ Height: h = 240 mm,
■ Width: b = 90 mm,
■ Length: L = 7200 mm,
2
■ Section area: A = 3850 mm ,
6 4
■ Bending moment of inertia around y-axis: Iy = 35.99*10 mm ,

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6 4
■ Bending moment of inertia around z-axis: Iz = 3.109*10 mm ,

■ Radius of inertia around y-axis: ,

■ Radius of inertia around z-axis: ,

■ Compressed part of web: d = 185.0 mm,


■ Web thickness: tw = 7.0 mm,
■ Compressed part of flange: c = 68.0 mm,
■ Flange thickness: tf = 12.5 mm

Materials properties
2
Steel: S235, fy = 235 N/mm
Material coefficient: γM0 = γM1 = 1.15

Boundary conditions
The boundary conditions are described below:
■ Outer:
► Support at start point (Z=0), hinged connection restrained to rotate around Z,
► Support at end point (Z = 7.20) hinged connection,
■ Inner:
► Support at each quarter of beam length (Z = 1.80, 3.60, 5.40), restrained to translate along Y

Loading
The beam is subjected only to axial force:
Load combinations:
■ Ultimate Limit State:
NEd = 1*g = 500.0 kN

12.61.2.2 Cross-section classification

Web

According to: CSN EN1993-1-1 Chapter 5.6, Table 5.2 (Sheet 1)

Flange

According to: CSN EN1993-1-1 Chapter 5.6, Table 5.2 (Sheet 2)


Cross-section belongs to class 1

12.61.2.3 Verification of resistance in compression for Ultimate Limit State

Buckling lengths
Ly = L = 7200 mm,
Lz = L/4 = 1800 mm

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Slenderness

λy >λz => to consider λy, corresponding to buckling curve "C"


According to: CSN EN1993-1-1 Chapter 6.3.1.2(2), Table 6.2

Buckling coefficient

λ1 = 93.9* = 93.9

According to: CSN EN1993-1-1 Chapter 6.3.1.3(1), Formula (6.50)

For buckling curve "C" and = 0.7934 the corresponding value is κ = 0.67
According to: CSN EN1993-1-1 Chapter 6.3.1.2(3), Picture 6.4

Verification of resistance in compression

According to: CSN EN1993-1-1 Chapter 6.3.1.1(3), Formula (6.47)

=> Work ratio in compression is 95%

Finite elements modeling


■ Linear element: S beam,
■ 5 nodes,
■ 1 linear element.

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Steel design results


Buckling coefficient κ (reference value 0.67) Work ratio in compression (reference value 95%)

12.61.2.4 Reference results


Result name Result description Reference value
κy Buckling coefficient corresponding to local y-axis [-] 0.67
Work ratio Work ratio in compression [%] 95 %

12.61.3Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Xy Buckling coefficient 0.666583 adim -0.5100 %
Work ratio Work ratio 95.7491 % 0.7885 %

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12.62 EC3 / NF EN 1993-1-1/NA - France: Verifying critical moment Mcr on a beam with intermediate
restraints

Test ID: 6279


Test status: Passed

12.62.1Description
The test verifies the critical bending moment Mcr of a IPE220 beam made of S235 steel.
It ensures Advance Design uses the intermediate restraint definition from the upper flange when the beam is subject
to forces acting downwards.
The calculations are made according to Eurocode 3, French Annex.

12.62.2Background
Critical bending moment verification for a restrained IPE220 beam subjected to axis bending efforts, made of S235
steel. The beam is simply supported.

12.62.2.1 Model description


■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);
■ Element type: linear.
The following load case and load combination are used:
■ Exploitation loadings (category A): Q1 = -20 000 N,
■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q

■ Cross section dimensions are in millimeters (mm).

Units
Metric System

Geometrical properties
■ Beam length: 5m
2
■ Cross section area: A=3337mm
4 4
■ Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: Iy=2772x10 mm
4 4
■ Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: Iz=2049x10 mm

Materials properties
S235 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:
■ Yield strength fy = 235 MPa,
5
■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 2.1 x 10 MPa.

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Boundary conditions
The boundary conditions are described below:
■ Outer:
► Hinged support at start point (x = 0)
► Hinged support at the end point (z = 5.00)
► Elastic support at start point (x = 0) : KRY = 45 kN.m/°.
► Elastic support at end point (x = 5) : KRY = 45 kN.m/°.
■ Inner: None.

Intermediate restraints
The boundary conditions are described below:
■ Top flange: intermediate restraints at x = 1.25m, x = 2.5m, x = 3.75m
■ Bottom flange: intermediate restraint at x = 2. 5m

Loading
The column is subjected to the following loadings:
■ External: Linear load From X=0.00m to X=5.00m: FZ = N = -20 000 N,
■ Internal: None.

12.62.2.2 Critical moment Mcr calculation


Mcr is the elastic critical moment for lateral-torsional buckling, is based on gross cross sectional properties and takes
into account the loading conditions, the real moment distribution and the lateral restraints.

 2  E  I z   k z  I w k z  L 2  G  I t  C  z 2  C  z 
M cr  C1     
  k w  I z
(1)
k z  L 2 
  E  IZ
2 2 g 2 g

according to EN 1993-1-1-AN France; AN.3 Chapter 2


Where:
2
E is the Young’s module: E=210000N/mm
2
G is the share modulus: G=80770N/mm
4 4
Iz is the inertia of bending about the minor axis Z: Iz=2049 x10 mm
4
It is the torsional inertia: It=90700mm
10 6
IW is the warping inertia (deformation inertia moment): Iw=2.267x10 mm
L is the distance between intermediate restraints on the compressed flange (in this case : top flange) : L =
1.25m
kz and kw are buckling coefficients
zg is the distance between the point of load application and the share center (which coincide with the center of
gravity)
C1 and C2 are coefficients depending on the load variation over the beam length
C1 = 1.114
If the bending moment is linear along the bar, if there are no transversal loads or if the transverse load is applied to
the center, then C2xxg=0 and the Mcr formula become:

 ² E  Iz I w L²  G  I t
M cr  C1   
L² Iz  ² E  Iz

 ²  210000 204.90 108 226701012 (1.25)²  80800 9.04 108


M cr  1.4815  
(1.250)² 204.9 108  ²  210000 204.9 108
M cr  355.06kNm

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Finite elements modeling


■ Linear element: S beam,
■ 21 nodes,
■ 1 linear element.

Finite elements results

Elastic critical moment for lateral-torsional buckling

Simply supported beam subjected to bending efforts


Mcr

12.62.2.3 Reference results


Result name Result description Reference value
Mcr Elastic critical moment for lateral-torsional buckling [kNm] 355.06

12.62.3Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Mcr Mcr 355.838 kN*m 0.0000 %

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12.63 EC3 / CSN EN1993-1-1 - Czech Republic: Bended beam without stability failure

Test ID: 6285


Test status: Passed

12.63.1Description
Classification and verification on bending of simply supported IPE240 beam made of S235 steel.
Considered loading consists of dead load and snow load. Self weigth is also considered.
Test verifies finite element results for deflections and design forces and steel design results for work ratios in shear
and bending and allowable deflections.

12.63.2Background
Verification of simple supported steel profile
Verifies the simple supported roof beam designed of IPE240 profile without stability failure. During this test is verified
bearing capacity for ultimate limit state and deflections for serviceability limit state.

12.63.2.1 Model description


■ Reference: "Martina Eliášková, Zdeněk Sokol: Ocelové konstrukce - Príklady"; Chapter "1.1 Ohyb nosníku bez
ztráty stability"
■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);
■ Element type: linear.
Load cases and load combinations:
■ Dead load: g = 2.20 kN/m, γG = 1.2
■ Snow load: s = 4.80 kN/m, γS = 1.4
■ ULS combination: CULS = 1.2*G + 1.4*S
■ SLS combination: CSLS = 1.0*G + 1.0*S

Units
Metric System

Geometry
Below are described the beam cross section characteristics:
■ Height: h = 240 mm,
■ Width: b = 120 mm,
■ Length: L = 7200 mm,
2
■ Section area: A = 3912 mm ,
6 4
■ Bending moment of inertia around y-axis: Iy = 38.97*10 mm ,
2
■ Reduced cross-section: Avz = 1914,0 mm ,
IPE 2
■ Weight: g = 30.7 kg/m ,
■ Compressed part of web: d = 194 mm

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■ Web thickness: tw = 6.2 mm


■ Compressed part of flange: c = 60.0 mm
■ Glange thickness: tf = 9.8 mm

Materials properties
Steel: S235
Material coefficient: γM0 = 1.15

Boundary conditions
The boundary conditions are described below:
■ Outer:
► Support at start point (x=0) , hinged connection,
► Support at end point (x = 7.20) restrained in translation along Y and Z, in rotation around X.
■ Inner: None.

Loading
The beam is subjected to the following load combinations:
Load combinations:
■ Ultimate Limit State:
IPE
NULS = 1.2*(g + g ) + 1.4*s = 1.2*(2.2 + 0.307) + 1.4*4.80 = 9.73 kN/m
■ Serviceability Limit State:
IPE
NSLS = 1.0*(G + G ) + 1.0*S = 1.0*(2.2 + 0.307) + 1.0*4.80 = 7.31 kN/m

12.63.2.2 Cross-section classification

Web

According to: CSN EN1993-1-1 Chapter 5.6, Table 5.2 (Sheet 1)

Flange

Table 5.2 (sheet 2)

According to: CSN EN1993-1-1 Chapter 5.6, Table 5.2 (Sheet 2)


Cross-section belongs to class 1

12.63.2.3 Verification of bearing capacity for Ultimate Limit State

Bending resistance verification


Design value of bending moment from loading:

Bending resistance of IPE240:

According to: CSN EN1993-1-1 Chapter 5.2.5(2), formula (6.13)

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Verification:

=> Work ratio for bending is 84%


According to: CSN EN1993-1-1 Chapter 5.2.5(1), formula (6.12)

Shear resistance verification


Design value of shear force from loading:

Shear resistance of IPE240:

According to: CSN EN1993-1-1 Chapter 5.2.6(2), formula (6.18)


Verification:

=> Work ratio for shear is 16 %


According to: CSN EN1993-1-1 Chapter 5.2.6(1), formula (6.17)

Finite elements modeling


■ Linear element: S beam,
■ 8 nodes,
■ 1 linear element.

Finite element results (Ultimate Limit State)


Design value of bending moment My (reference value 63.0 kNm)

Design value of shear force Fz (reference value 35.0 kN)

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Steel design results


Work ratio in bending (reference value 84%)

Work ratio in shear (reference value 16%)

12.63.2.4 Verification of deflections for Serviceability Limit State


Deflection from live load (snow):

Total deflection:

Deflections of roof beams must fulfill following conditions:


■ Deflection from live loads: δ2 ≤ L/250
20.6 mm < 28.8 mm => Work ratio for live load deflections is 72%
■ Total deflection: δmax ≤ L/200
31.3 mm < 36.0 mm => Work ratio for total deflections is 87%
According to: CSN EN1993-1-1 National Annex NA.2.22, Table NA.1

Finite element results (Serviceability Limit State)


Live load deflection (reference value 20.6 mm)

Total deflection (reference value 31.3 mm)

Steel design results


Live load deflection work ratio (reference value 72%)

Total deflection work ratio (reference value 87%)

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12.63.2.5 Reference results


Result name Result description Reference value
My Design value of bending moment for ULS load combination [kNm] 63.0 kNm
Fz Design value of shear force for ULS load combination [kN] 35.0 kNm
Work ratio - Oblique Maximal work ratio for bending resistance [%] 84 %
Work ratio - Fx Maximal work ratio for shear resistance [%] 16 %
D Live load deflection for ULS load combination [mm] 20.6 mm
D Total deflection for ULS load combination [mm] 31.3 mm
Deviat.all.defl. Deviation of allowed live load deflections [%] 72 %
Deviat.all.defl. Deviation of allowed total deflections [%] 87 %

12.63.3Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
D Deflection total 31.5644 mm 0.8447 %
D Deflection snow 20.7514 mm 0.7350 %
My Design moment -62.9946 kN*m 0.0086 %
Fz Design shear force 34.997 kN -0.0086 %
Deviat. all. defl. WR Deflection total 87.679 % 0.7805 %
Deviat. all. defl. WR Deflection snow 72.0535 % 0.0743 %
Work ratio - Oblique WR Oblique 84.0893 % 0.1063 %
Work ratio - Fz WR Fz 15.492 % -0.0516 %

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12.64 AISC 360 2010 - United States of America: Example G.1 W-shape in strong axis shear (LRFD)

Test ID: 6287


Test status: Passed

12.64.1Description
Determines the available shear strength and adequacy of a W24x62 ASTM A992 beam using the AISC Manual with
end shears of 48 kips from dead load and 145 kips from live load. Obtains the available shear strength, which is
determined by the tabulated values of the AISC Manual.

12.64.2Background
Determines the shear applied to the cross-section, its resistance to shear and finally the work ratio due to shear alone.
The objective of this test is to check the calculation of steel resistance due to shearing forces.

12.64.2.1 Model Description


■ Reference: AISC Design Example Version 14.1
■ Example as taken from “Example E.1A W-Shape Column Design with Pinned Ends” -
Example G.1A -
Determine the available shear strength and adequacy of a W24x62 ASTM A992 beam using the AISC Manual with
end shears of 48 kips from dead load and 145 kips from live load
Example G.1B -
The available shear strength, which can be easily determined by the tabulated values of the AISC Manual, can be
verified by directly applying the provisions of the AISC Specification. Determine the available shear strength for the
W-shape in Example G.1A by applying the provisions of the AISC Specification.
■ Analysis Type: static
■ Element Type: linear
■ Steel cross-section used is and AISC W24x62

The following load cases and load combination are used:


■ Dead load: 48 kips (Self-weight included in this value – Therefore not needed for AD to calculate)
■ Live Load: 145 kips axial force
■ Unit System: IMPERIAL
■ Steel Type: ASTM A992
Fy = 50 ksi
Fu = 65 ksi

12.64.2.2 Results
Combination used for this example is (ULS), Vu:

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“G2.1 Members with Unstiffened or Stiffened webs” is applicable to webs for the shear strength for singly or doubly
symmetric members and channels subject to shear in the plane of the web
The nominal shear strength, Vn, of unstiffened or stiffened webs according to the, limit states of shear yield and
shear buckling, is

Part (a) for webs of rolled I-shaped member with

Where Φv = 1 and Cv = 1 and

Therefore,

And finally

Work Ratio

12.64.2.3 Theoretical result


Result Name Result Description Reference
Vu Required Shear Strength 289.6 kips
ΦvVn Available Shear Strength 306 kips
Work Ratio Design Load Rate 94.65 %

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12.64.3Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Fz Shear Verify (not forces) -289.993 kip 0.0024 %

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12.65 NTC 2008 - Italy: Strenght verification of a steel linear hollow section

Test ID: 6282


Test status: Passed

12.65.1Description
Verifies the strengh of a steel linear hollow section with a point load applied on the top and a linear load applied along
the linear element, the element is fixed on the base

12.65.2Background
Verifies the adequacy of a rectangular hollow section column made of S235 steel to resist bending and axial efforts.
The name of the cross-section is RC3020100 and it can be found in the Advance Design European library. The
column is fixed at its base and it is subjected to a uniformly distributed load over its height and a punctual axial load
applied on the top.

12.65.2.1 Model description


■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);
■ Element type: linear.
The following load case and load combination are used:
■ Exploitation loadings (category A), Q:
► Fz = - 500 000 kN,
► Fx = 5 kN/ml,

■ Cross section dimensions are in millimeters (mm).

Units
Metric System

Geometry
Below are described the column cross section characteristics:
■ Height: h = 300 mm,
■ Width: b = 200 mm,
■ Thickness: t = 10 mm,

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■ Outer radius: r = 15 mm,


■ Column height: L = 5000 mm,
2
■ Section area: A = 9260 mm ,
3
■ Plastic section modulus about y-y axis: W pl,y = 921000 mm ,

■ Partial factor for resistance of cross sections: .

Materials properties
S235 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:
■ Yield strength fy = 235 MPa,
5
■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 2.1 x 10 MPa.

Boundary conditions
The boundary conditions are described below:
■ Outer:
► Support at start point (z = 0) restrained in translation and rotation along X, Y and Z axis,
► Free at end point (z = 5.00).
■ Inner: None.

Loading
The column is subjected to the following loadings:
■ External:
► Point load at z = 5.0: Fz = - 500 kN,
► Uniformly distributed load: q = Fx = 5 kN/ml
■ Internal: None.

12.65.2.2 Reference results for calculating the column subjected to bending and axial force
In order to verify the steel column subjected to bending and axial force, the design resistance for uniform
compression (Nc,Rd) and also the design plastic moment resistance (Mpl,Rd) have to be compared with the design
values of the corresponding efforts.
The design resistance for uniform compression is verified considering the relationship (4.2.4) from chapter 4.2.4.1.1
(NTC 2008), while the design plastic moment resistance is verified considering the criterion (4.2.12) from chapter
4.2.4.1.2 (NTC 2008).
Before starting the above verifications, the cross-section class has to be determined.

Cross section class


The following results are determined according to NTC 2008: “Costruzioni civili ed industriali” – Chapter 4.2.4.
In this case, the stresses distribution is like in the picture below:

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Table 4.2.I - from Chapter 4.2.3.1 (NTC 2008), establish the rules to determine the class for compressed parts. The
picture below shows an extract from this table.

Taking into account that the top wing part is subjected to compression stresses, its class can be determined by
considering the geometrical properties and the conditions described in Table 4.2.I

c b  2  r  2  t 200mm  2  15mm  2  10mm


   15
t t 10mm
235
  1. 0
fy
Therefore:

c
 15  33  33
t
This means that the top wing is Class 1. Because the bottom wing is tensioned, it will be classified as Class 1.
The left/right web is subjected to bending stresses. Their class can be determined by considering the geometrical
properties and the conditions described in Table 5.2 - sheet 1 (the above highlighted extract – part subject to bending

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and compression). It is also necessary to determine which portion of the web is compressed ().  is determined
considering the stresses distribution on the web.

 132MPa
    0.832  0.5
1   26.63MPa
c h  2  r  2  t 300mm  2 15mm  2 10mm
   25
t t 10mm
235
  1. 0
fy
Therefore:

c 396
 25   40.34
t 13  1
This means that the left/right web is Class 1.

Verifying the design resistance for uniform compression


The design resistance for uniform compression, for Class 1 cross-section, is determined with formula (4.2.11) from
NTC 2008.

Nc, Rd = A x fyk / gamma m0 = 9260 mm2 x 235 kN/mm2 / 1.05 = 2072.47 kN


The verification of the design resistance for uniform compression is done with relationship (4.2.10) from NTC 2008.
The corresponding work ratio is:
Work ratio =

Ned / Nc,Rd = 500 kN / 2072.47 kN = 0.24 < 1

Verifying the design plastic moment resistance


The design plastic moment resistance, for Class 1 cross-section, is determined with formula (4.2.13) from NTC 2008.

921000 mm3 x 235 kN / mm2 / 1.05 = 206125.57 kNm


The verification of the design resistance for bending is done with relationship (6.12) from EN 1993-1-1. The
corresponding work ratio is:

62500 KNm / 206125.57 kNm = 0.3032 < 1

Finite elements modeling


■ Linear element: S beam,
■ 6 nodes,
■ 1 linear element.

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Finite elements results

Work ratio of the design resistance for uniform compression

Column subjected to bending and axial efforts


Work ratio – Fx

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Work ratio of the design resistance for bending

Column subjected to bending and axial efforts


Work ratio – Oblique

12.65.2.3 Reference results


Result name Result description Reference value
Work ratio – Fx Compression resistance work ratio [%] 24.13 %

Work ratio – Oblique Work ratio of the design resistance for bending 30.32 %

12.65.3Calculated results
Result name Result description Value Error
Work ratio - Fx Strenght work ratio Fx 24.1257 % 0.5237 %
Work ratio - Oblique Strenght work ratio - oblique 30.3209 % 1.0697 %

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12.66 NTC 2008 - Italy: Lateral torsional buckling verification of a steel column

Test ID: 6293


Test status: Passed

12.66.1Description
Verifies the lateral torsional buckling of a steel column with a point load applied on the top and a bending moment on
y direction and another bending moment on the x direction both applied on the top.
The column is hinged on the base and restrained in traslation on x,y direction and restrained in rotation on x axis.

12.66.2Background
An I260*7.1+150*10.7 shaped column subjected to compression and bending, made from S275 steel. The column
has a 260x7.1mm web and 150x10.7mm flanges. The column is fixed at its base. The column is subjected to an axial
compression load -328000 N, a 10000Nm bending moment after the X axis and a 50000Nm bending moment after
the Y axis.

12.66.2.1 Model description


■ Analysis type: static linear (plane problem);
■ Element type: linear.
The following load case and load combination are used:
■ Exploitation loadings (category A): Fz=--328000N N; My=50000Nm; Mx=10000Nm;
■ The ultimate limit state (ULS) combination is: Cmax = 1 x Q
■ Cross section dimensions are in millimeters (mm).

Units
Metric System

Geometrical properties
■ Column length: L=5620mm

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■ Cross section area: A  4904.06mm2


■ Overall breadth: b  150mm
■ Flange thickness: t f  10.70mm
■ Root radius: r  0mm
■ Web thickness: t w  7.10mm
■ Depth of the web: hw  260mm
■ Elastic modulus after the Y axis, Wel , y  445717.63mm 3
■ Plastic modulus after the Y axis, Wy  501177.18mm 3
■ Elastic modulus after the Z axis, Wel , z  80344.89mm 3
■ Plastic modulus after the Z axis, W pl , z  123381.96mm3
■ Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: I y  57943291.64mm 4
■ Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: I z  6025866.46mm 4
■ Torsional moment of inertia: I t  149294.97mm4
■ Working inertial moment: I w  93517065421.88mm6

Materials properties
S275 steel material is used. The following characteristics are used:
■ Yield strength fy = 275 MPa,
■ Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 210000 MPa.
■ Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800MPa

Boundary conditions
The boundary conditions are described below:
■ Outer:
► Support at start point (x = 0) restrained in translation along X, Y and Z axis,
► Support at start point (x = 5.62) restrained in translation along X and Y axis, and restrained in rotation
along Z axis,

Loading
The column is subjected to the following loadings:

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■ External: Point load From X=0.00m and z=5.62m: FZ =-328 kN; Mx=10 kNm and My=50 kNm

12.66.2.2 Cross section Class


According to Advance Design calculations:
Cross-class classification is made according to Table 4.2 from NTC 2008 standard

-for beam web:


The web dimensions are 850x5mm.

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 inf 45.30Mpa
   0.253  1
 sup  179.06Mpa

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 238.6  45.3
 x  48.175
x y x y 238.6  224.36
   
45.30 179.06 45.30  179.06 224.36  238.6  179.06
y  190.73
 224.36
x 190.73
   0.80  0.5
238.6 238.6
235 235
   0.924
fy 275

c 260mm  2 10.7mm 
  33.61 c 396   396  0.924
t 7.1mm    33.6    38.93 therefore the beam
 t 13    1 13  0.8  1
  0.924 
web is considered to be Class 1
-for beam flange:

150  7.1 
 c
 6.68   6.68  9  0.924  8.316
c 2
 therefore the haunch is considered to be Class1
t 10.7  t
  0.924 
In conclusion, the section is considered to be Class 1.

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12.66.2.3 Buckling verification


a) over the strong axis of the section, y-y:
-the imperfection factor α will be selected according to the Table 4.2.VI from NTC 2008 standard:

  0.34
Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness after Y-Y axis:

 y coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness y will be determined from the relevant buckling
curve according to the formula taken from NTC 2008 standard:

1
y  2
1 (4.2.45)
 y   y  y
2

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 y the non-dimensional slenderness corresponding to Class 1 cross-sections:


A * fy
y 
N cr , y

Cross section area: A  4904.06mm2


Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: I y  57943291.64mm 4

² E Iy  ²  210000N / mm 2  57943291.64mm 4


N cr , y    3802327.95N  3802.33kN
l fy ² 5620mm ²
A f y 4904.06mm 2  275N / mm 2
y    0.5956
N cr , y 3802327.95N

 
 y  0.5  1    ( y  0.2)   y ²  0.5  1  0.34  0.5956  0.2  0.59562   0.7446

1 1 
y    0.839
y  y  y
2 2
0.7446  0.7446  0.5956
2 2
   y  0.839

y 1 

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b) over the weak axis of the section, z-z:


-the imperfection factor α will be selected according to the Table 4.2.VI from NTC 2008 standard:

  0.49

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Coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness after Z-Z axis:

 z coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness  z will be determined from the relevant buckling curve
according to the formula from NTC 2008 standard:

1
z  1 (4.2.45)
z  z   z
2 2

 z the non-dimensional slenderness corresponding to Class 1, 2 and 3 cross-sections:


A* f y
z 
N cr , z

Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: I z  6025866.46mm 4

Cross section area: A  4904.06mm2


 ² E  Iz  ²  210000N / mm 2  6025866.46mm 4
N cr , z    395426.63N  395.43kN
l fz ² 5620mm ²
A f y 4904.06mm 2  275N / mm 2
z    1.847
N cr , z 395426.63N

 
 z  0.5  1    ( z  0.2)   z ²  0.5  1  0.49  1.847  0.2  1.8472   2.609
1 1 
z    0.225
z  z   z 2.609  2.609  1.847    z  0.225
2 2 2 2


z  1 

12.66.2.4 Lateral torsional buckling verification


The elastic moment for lateral-torsional buckling calculation, Mcr:
-the transversal load is applied to the shear center, therefore C2zg=0 and the moment formula will be:

 ²  E  Iz I w L²  G  I t
M cr  C1   
L² Iz  ²  E  Iz
According to EN 1993-1-1; Chapter 2
-where:
C1 is a coefficient that depends of several parameters as: section properties; support conditions; moment diagram
allure

1
C1 
0.325  0.423  0.252 ²
According to EN 1993-1-1 ; Chapter 3

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M y ,botom 0
   0  C1  1.77
M y ,top 50

Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: I y  57943291.64mm 4

Flexion inertia moment around the Y axis: I y  57943291.64mm 4

Flexion inertia moment around the Z axis: I z  6025866.46mm 4

Torsional moment of inertia: I t  149294.97mm 4

Working inertial moment: I w  93517065421.88mm 6


Yield strength fy = 275 MPa,
Longitudinal elastic modulus: E = 210000 MPa.
Shear modulus of rigidity: G=80800MPa
Warping inertial moment (recalculated):
IW is the warping inertia (deformation inertia moment):

I z  h  t f 
2

Iw 
4
h cross section height; h  260mm

tf flange thickness; t f  10.7mm

6025866.46mm 4  260mm  10.7mm 


2
Iw   93627638290mm 6
4
Length of the column: L=5620mm

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The calculation of the Mcr

NOTE: For the calculation of the elastic moment, I used the formula from the Eurocode 3 and not the formula from the
“Circolare Ministeriale n. 917/2009”, because of the distribution of the moment along the column.
Knowing the Mcr we can calculate the non-dimensional slenderness for lateral – torsional buckling:

W pl , y f y 501177.18mm 3  275N / mm 2
 LT    0.958
M cr 150184702.1Nmm

Calculation of the  LT for appropriate non-dimensional slenderness  LT according NTC 2008 standard will be determined
with this formula:

Where:

The cross section buckling curve will be chose according to Table 4.2.VII from NTC 2008 standard:

h 260mm
  1.733  2
b 150mm

The imperfection factor α will be chose according to Table 4.2.VI:

  0.49
f = 1 -0.5 x (1 – 0.75) x [1 – 2.0 x (0.958 – 0.8)2] = 0.879

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   
LT  0.5  1   LT   LT  0.2   LT ²  0.5  1  0.49  0.958  0.2  0.958²  1.145
1 1
 LT    0.564  1
LT  LT ²   LT ² 1.145  1.145²  0.958²

The result is get without consider the effect of the reduction factor (with reduction factor = 0,639
The stability check for section class 1, 2 or 3 is performed checking:

Finite elements modeling


■ Linear element: S beam,
■ 7 nodes,
■ 1 linear element.

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 y coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness  y

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

y

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 z coefficient corresponding to non-dimensional slenderness  z


Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

z

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Internal factor, k yy

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

k yy

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Internal factor, k yz

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

k yz

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Internal factor, k zy

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

k zy

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Internal factor, k zz

Column subjected to axial and shear force to the top

k zz

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Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the compression effort over the Y axis: SNy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the compression effort
over the Y axis
SNy

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Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y bending moment over the Y axis: SMyy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y bending moment
over the Y axis
SMyy

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Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z bending moment over the Y axis: SMyz

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z bending moment
over the Y axis
SMyz

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Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the compression effort over the Z axis: SNz

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the compression effort
over the Z axis
SNz

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Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y bending moment over the Z axis: SMzy

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Y bending moment
over the Z axis
SMzy

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Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z bending moment over the Z axis: SMzz

Bending and axial compression verification term depending of the Z bending moment
over the Z axis
SMzz

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Coefficient that depends of several parameters as: section properties; support conditions; moment diagram
allure

Coefficient that depends of several parameters as: section properties; support


conditions; moment diagram allure
C1

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The elastic moment for lateral-torsional buckling calculation

The elastic moment for lateral-torsional buckling ca