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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,

Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010



Dr.R.Seshadri ,B.Tech,M.E,Ph.D Yaswanth Kumar.Avulapati,M.C.A,M.Tech,(Ph.D)

Director, S.V.U.Computer Center Research Scholar, Dept of Computer Science
S.V.University, Tirupati S.V.University, Tirupati
E-mail : ravalaseshadri@gmail.com E-mail:yaswanthkumar_1817@yahoo.co.in

Abstract Keywords-Biometrics, Classifier,Level-

1,Level-2 features,Level-3 features
Biometrics is the science of
establishing the identity of an person based Introduction
on their physical, chemical and behavioral
characteristics of the person. Fingerprints are A fingerprint is a pattern of ridges and
the most widely used biometric feature for valleys located on the tip of each finger.
person identification and verification in the Fingerprints were used for personal
field of biometric identification .A finger identification for many centuries and the
print is the representation of the epidermis of matching accuracy was very high. Human
a finger. It consists of a pattern of interleaved fingerprint recognition has a tremendous
ridges and valleys. potential in a wide variety of forensic,
Fingerprints are graphical flow-like commercial and law enforcement
ridges present on human fingers. They are applications.
fully formed at about seven months of fetus
development and finger ridge configurations Fingerprints are broadly classified into
do not change throughout the life of an three levels they are Level-1 which includes
individual except due to accidents such as arch,tentarch, loop, double Loop, pocked
bruises and cuts on the fingertips. Loop, whorl ,mixed, left-loop, right-loop the
Level-2 includes the minutiae and Level 3
This property makes fingerprints a includes pores etc.
very attractive biometric identifier. Now a There are so many approaches are
day’s fingerprints are widely used among there for recognizing the fingerprints among
different biometrics technologies. In this these correlation based, minutiae based, ridge
paper we proposed an approach to feature based are most popular ones.
classifying the fingerprints into different Several biometrics systems have been
groups. These fingerprints classifiers are successfully developed and installed. How
combined together for recognizing the people ever some methods do not perform well in
in an effective way. many real-world situations due to its noise.

128 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
ISSN 1947-5500
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010

Fingerprint Classifier

Here we proposed a fingerprint classifier

framework. A combination scheme involving
different fingerprint classifiers which
integrates vital information is likely to
improve the overall system performance.

The fingerprint classifier combination can be

implemented at two levels feature level and
decision level. We use the decision level
combination that is more appropriate when Fig 1. Fingerprint Level 1 Features
the component classifiers use different types
of features. Kittler provides a theoretical Level 2 features describe various ridge
framework to combine various classifiers at path deviations where single or multiple
the decision level. Many practical ridges form abrupt stops, splits, spurs
applications of combining multiple classifiers bifurcation Composite minutiae (i.e., forks,
have been developed. Brunelli and Falavigna spurs, bridges, crossovers and bifur-cations)
presented a person identification system by can all be considered as combinations of
combining outputs from classifiers based on these basic forms enclosures, etc. These
Audio and visual. features, known as the Galton points or
minutiae, have two basic forms: ridge ending
Here the combination approach is designed at and ridge as shown in fig 2.
the decision level utilizing all the available
information, i.e. a subset of (Fingerprint)
labels along with a confidence value, called
the matching score provided by each of the
nine finger print recognition method.

Classification of Fingerprint
(Level-1,Level -2 & Level-3) Features Fig 2. Fingerprint Level 2 Features

Level 3 features refer to all

Level 1 features describe the ridge
dimensional attributes of a ridge, such as
flow pattern of a fingerprint. According to
ridge path deviation, width, shape, pores,
the Henry classification system there are
edge contour, incipient ridges, breaks,
eight major pattern classes, comprised of
creases, scars and other permanent details as
whorl, left loop, right loop, twin loop, arch,
shown in fig 3.
tented arch. as shown in the figure 1.

129 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
ISSN 1947-5500
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010

Level -1 Matching
Level -2 Score
Features of
finger prints


Final Out Put

Final Out Put

Training Fingerprint
Fig 3. Fingerprint Level 3 Features
Fig 4.Fingerprint Classifier Combination
Classifier Combination System
We proposed a classifier combination
Combination Strategy
shown in the Fig .Here currently we use only
nine classifiers for level-1 features of
Kittler analyzed several classifier
fingerprints namely arch,tentarch, loop,
combination rules and concluded that the
double Loop, pocked Loop, whorl ,mixed,
sum rule as shown in the given below
left-loop, right-loop
outperforms other combination schemes
based on empirical observations.
For Finger print level-2 features
namely right-loop various ridge path
Unlike explicitly setting up
deviations where single or multiple ridges
combination rules, it is possible to design a
form abrupt stops, splits, spurs bifurcation
new classifier using the outputs of individual
Composite minutiae (i.e., forks, spurs,
classifiers as features to this new classifier.
bridges, crossovers and bifurcations
Here we assume the RBF network as a
For Level-3 features namely deviation,
new classifier. Given m templates in the
width, shape, pores, edge contour, incipient
training set, m matching scores will be output
ridges, breaks, creases, scars
for each test image from each classifier.
We consider the following two integration
Following two strategies are provided
for integrating outputs of individual
classifiers, (i) the sum rule, and (ii) a RBF
130 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
network as a classifier, using matching scores ISSN 1947-5500
as the input feature vectors as shown in fig 4.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010

Level-1 Level-2 Level-3

1. Strategy I: Sum Rule. The combined Features Features Features
matching score is calculated as 70 75 90
Fig.5a recognition accuracies of
Macomb = MSPCA +MSICA +MSLDA: different finger print recognition
approaches are listed
For a given sample,Output the class
with the largest value of Macomb.
Cumulative match score vs. rank
100 curve for the sum rule.
2. Strategy II: RBF network. For each 90
test image, the m matching scores obtained
from each classifier are used as a feature
vector. Concatenating these feature vectors
derived from Level-1,Level-2,Level-3 60

classifiers results in a feature vector of size 50
3m. 40
An RBF network is designed to use 30
this new feature vector as the input to 20 Series1
generate classification results. We adopt a 10
Level-1,Level-2,Level-3 layers RBF
network. The input layer has 3 levels m Level 1 Level 2 Level 3
nodes and the output has c nodes, where c is Features Features Features
the total number of classes (number of Cumulative Match Score
distinct features of fingerprints). In the output
layer, the class corresponding to the node
with the maximum output is assigned to the Figure 5 b show that the combined
input image. The number of nodes in the classifiers, based on both the sum-rule and
hidden layer is constructed empirically, RBF network, outperform each individual
depending on the sizes of the input and classifier.
output layers. Sum score is output as the final

The recognition accuracies of different Finally we conclude that in our

finger print recognition approaches are listed proposed approach the combination scheme
in table 5a. The cumulative match score vs. which combines the output matching scores
rank curve is used to show the performance of three levels of well-known Fingerprint
of each classifier, see Fig 5b. Since our RBF recognition system. Basically we proposed
network outputs the final label, no rank the model to improve the performance of a
information is available. As a result, we fingerprint identification system at the same
cannot compute the cumulative match score time the system provides high security from
vs. rank curve for RBF combination unauthorized access.

Two mixing strategies, sum rule and

RBF-based integration are implemented to
131 combine the outputhttp://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
information of three level
ISSN 1947-5500
features of fingerprint 0individual classifiers.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010

The proposed system framework is scalable ment of Computer Science and Engineering,
other fingerprint recognition modules can be Michigan State University, 2008.
easily added into this framework. Results are
encouraging, illustrating that both the [9].K. Kryszczuk, A. Drygajlo, and P.
combination strategies lead to more accurate Morier. Extraction of Level 2 and Level 3
fingerprint recognition than that made by any Features for Fragmentary Fingerprints. In
one of the individual classifiers. Proc. COST Action 275 Workshop,
pages 83{88, Vigo, Spain, 2004.
[10]A. K. Jain, S. Prabhakar, and S. Chen,
[1].A. K. Jain,Patrick Flynn,Arun A.Ross . “Combining multiple matchers for a high
“Handbook of Biometrics”. security fingerprint verification system,”
Pattern Recognition Letters, vol. 20, no. 11-
[2].D. Maltoni, D. Maio, A. K. Jain, and S. 13, pp. 1371–1379, 1999.
Prabhakar, Handbook of Fingerprint
Recognition. Springer, 2003. Authors Profile
Dr.R.Seshadri was born in
[3.] N. Yager and A. Amin. Fingerprint Andhra Pradesh, India, in
1959. He received his
classi_cation: A review. Pattern Analysis
B.Tech degree from
Application, 7:77{93, 2004. Nagarjuna University in
1981. He received his M.E
[4]. O. Yang, W. Tobler, J. Snyder, and Q. H. degree in Control System
Yang. Map Projection Transforma-tion. Engineering from PSG
Taylor & Francis, 2000. College of Technology,
Coimbatore in 1984. He was
awarded with PhD from Sri Venkateswara
[5]. Z. Zhang. Flexible Camera Calibration University, Tirupati in 1998. He is currently
by Viewing A Plane from Unknown Director, Computer Center, S.V.University,
Orientations. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Tirupati, India. He has Published number of papers
Analysis and Machine in national and international conferences, seminars
Intelligence,11:1330{1334, 2000. and journals. At present 12 members are doing
research work under his guidance in different areas
[6]. J. Zhou, C. Wu, and D. Zhang. Mr.YaswanthKumar
Improving Fingerprint Recognition Based on .Avulapati received his
Crease Detection. In Proc. International MCA degree with First
Conference on Biometric Authentication class from Sri Venkateswara
(ICBA), pages 287{293, Hong Kong, China, University, Tirupati. He
received his M.Tech
July 2004.
Computer Science and
Engineering degree with
[7]. Y. Zhu, S. Dass, and A. K. Jain. Distinction from Acharya
Statistical Models for Assessing the Nagarjuna University,
Individual- ity of Fingerprints. IEEE Guntur.He is a research
Transactions on Information Forensics and scholar in S.V.University
Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh.He has presented number
Security, 2:391{401, 2007.
of papers in national and international conferences,
seminars.He attend Number of work shops in
[8]. Y. F. Zhu. Statistical Models for132 different fields.
ISSN 1947-5500
Fingerprint Individuality. PhD thesis, Depart-