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Chapter 2


This chapter presents the related works of a number of local and foreign authors, other

researchers, developers and studies derived from the books, article, and other references such as

internet which are all necessary in framing of the concept of the study. And the theories and its

compatibility issue to the software that is needed in the development of the software project. To

attain a deeper and better understanding of the present study, various literature and related to the

study was extensively read and analyzed.

The purpose of this chapter placed the current study into the context of previous and related

research. As such, the review system emphasizes the relatedness between the current system and

the work of other. Readers should be familiarized with the points of agreement and disagreement

among the previous studies, as well as with the theoretical and empirical relevance of each to the

present research.

2.1 Foreign Studies

2.1.1 Development of a real-time multiplayer game for the computer tablet

According to Johan Lindström (2012). This master’s thesis discusses game development

on the computer tablet, with Apple’s iPad as the target platform. Its main focus is development of

non-trivial components such as online multiplayer and touch (screen) controls for a real-time

action game, using frameworks and APIs that are mainly free and open source. For each non-trivial

component problems are pointed out and possible solutions are presented, the resulting game,

Battle Angels, is evaluated along with the game design and development.
Battle Angels is a 2D real-time multiplayer action game, the development of it lead to the

conclusions and results in this thesis. The abstract nature of the subject of this thesis makes it

impossible to present a set of numerical values that can be compared to existing research. The

result is therefore presented by showing images from the actual game with a discussion. It could

be concluded that designing and implementing a fast paced multiplayer game on a computer tablet

system is a major challenge. It typically requires developers to incorporate a variety of different

technologies into their implementation in order to succeed. It could also be concluded that each

technology in its isolation were not a major issue, however combining them and allowing them

toco-exist were.

2.1.2 Development of three AI techniques for 2D platform games

According to Martin Persson; [2009]. This thesis serves as an introduction to anyone that

has an interest in artificial intelligence games and has experience in programming or anyone who

knows nothing of computer games but wants to learn about it. The first part will present a brief

introduction to AI, then it will give an introduction to games and game programming for someone

that has little knowledge about games. This part includes game programming terminology,

different game genres and a little history of games. Then there is an introduction of a couple of

common techniques used in game AI. The main contribution of this dissertation is in the second

part where three techniques that never were properly implemented before 3D games took over the

market are introduced and it is explained how they would be done if they were to live up to today’s

standards and demands. These are: line of sight, image recognition and pathfinding. These three

techniques are used in today’s 3D games so if a 2D game were to be released today the demands

on the AI would be much higher than they were ten years ago when 2D games stagnated. The last

part is an evaluation of the three discussed topics.

2.1.3 Design and Implementation of Application Independent Easy-to-use Game Engine

According to Krzysztof of Kondrak; [2009]. The objective of this Master's thesis is to study

whether it is possible to create a versatile game engine that can be both application independent

and easy to use. In order to study this issue, we have implemented a prototype game engine that

supports 2D game development. The system includes predefined programming constructs in order

to make game development faster and easier. The conclusion of this thesis work is that the

presented problem, while theoretically possible to solve, and would introduce too many practical

problems during the game development. Furthermore, we conclude that growth in ease of use may

limit the functionality of the engine.

2.1.4 Evaluation of Sprite Kit for iOS Game Development

Amaru Ubillis; [2014]

The purpose with this thesis is to investigate whether Sprite Kit is a good tool to simplify

the development process for game developers when making 2D games for mobile devices. To

answer this question a simple turn based strategy game has been developed with Sprite Kit. Sprite

Kit is a game engine for making 2D games released by Apple.

Based on the experience I got during the development I will go through and discuss some

of the most important tools provided by the game engine and how they helped us to complete our


The conclusions I reached after making a game with Sprite Kit is that the frame- work

provides all the tools necessary for creating a simple 2D mobile game for iOS. Sprite Kit hides

much of the lower level details and gives the game developer comprehensive development support.

This helps the game developer to save a lot of time and focus more on the gameplay when creating

a game.
2.2 Local Studies

2.2.1 Sipa Mobile App Game

According to (O.P.S Inc.) of (2011) “Kick” is literally meaning Sipa in Filipino language,

one of the many traditional games in the Philippines’ It involves an object which is made out of

rubber and washer, or sometimes a 5 centavo coin and a piece of candy wrapper. The objective of

the game is to kick the object upwards as long as it takes by alliance without the object hitting the

ground, the longest time who kicks the object is considered as the winner.

Since this game is widely played by Filipinos in their childhood days the developers of this

game Team Buthchokoy were inspired to make “Sipa”, a mobile app to show their love for the

game itself and to cater their nationalistic efforts in introducing Filipino culture to the global

market. According to their main website the inspiration here is not just to develop a mobile game,

but to prove and inspire other Filipinos, that even with a limited resources and not know-how, one

can create something if you put your heart and soul for it” …( Butchokoy.com, 2011).

Sipa also features different levels that show different landmarks found in the Philippines,

like the Luneta, University of the Philippines, Quiapo Church and Mt. Pulag. The game was

featured in both television and on multiple sites and blogs, according to an interview by Tj

Manotoc in TV Patrol one of Team Butchokoy’s leader Dale David say “We developed this game

most probably for them to be encouraged to play Sipa in the streets even sometimes. (Translated)”

Larong ‘Sipa’ patok… (ABS CBN News, 2012). Sipa is currently available in Apple’s App Store

and in the Android Market as well.

2.2.2 Patintero Playtime

Zeenoh games released and introduced Patintero Playtime in November of 2011. It is a

virtual "Filipino street game" that involves two teams and a grid. The objective of the game is for

the first team to cross the grid, and for the second team to block the opponents from crossing. The

first team is the players, who must avoid the taggers and acquire points by going to and fro across

the field.

The second team is the taggers, who are assigned each line to guard the grid and stop the

opponents from crossing through tagging them. A Patintero game lasts for 2 minutes, and the team

with the most points wins. Players can get power-ups, in the form of: speed, time, 10pts coin and

20pts coin. In order to win a Patintero game, a player must be equipped with speed, agility and


Zeenoh purposely designed this app in order for Filipino children who forgot to play the

game and also for those who unfortunately missed the chance of experiencing the game itself

Patintero Playtime for… (GDAP, 2011). Patintero Playtime offers a unique gameplay, though the

rules of the original Patintero games apply power ups and human vs. human play are some of its

amusing features.

2.2.3 School Rush

According to (developer of School Rush) of (year) School Rush is a type of running

platform game with Pilipino culture style of interface. The feature of School Rush is play thru level

by level, gaining power-ups and answering different kind of questions. The power-ups of the game

are based on Pilipino heroes’ powers. It can be gain through the levels of the game. The game play

of School Rush is to pass all levels of the game thru the obstacles of every level. Each level has
cases that to earn a specific power on passing the level is to answer a particular question. Pass all

levels and earning points to get the highest possible score.

2.2.4 Manila Rush

According to (Anino Games) of (2014) Manila Rush is all about the character whose name

Miguel that run through the highways of Manila as he races against the clock to get to work on

time. With magical flip-flops at his feet, control Miguel and make him run fast or jump high to

avoid swerving cars, construction works, and other obstacles along the way. Grab power-ups such

as the Agila Energy Drink, Score Booster, and the Piggy Bank Coin Magnet to help him thread

through the traffic easier. Run as far as you can, but don't forget to collect coins and post your top

score on the leaderboards.

2.2.5 Juan not Tamad Mobile Game

According to Teddy Catuira of 2012 at TOOCH Inc. Juan Tamad is an iconic Filipino

character whose laziness is the stuff of legend. But if you think that you’re already familiar with

his folktale, then think again. This time we take Juan Tamad’s story and turn it around so that kids

can learn a lesson or two while having fun! It’s also a great way of improving visual logic skills in

a challenging puzzle setting. This game INTRODUCES FILIPINO FOLKLORE Kids learn stories

of Juan Tamad and the Bayabas Tree, Juan Tamad and the Alimango, and Juan Tamad and Maria

Masipag – but with a positive spin. Also REINFORCES POSITIVE VALUES by helping Juan

Tamad get over his laziness, kids learn industriousness and hard work and ENCOURAGES NON-

VERBAL LOGIC Kids develop their visual logic and spatial skills when solving the puzzle it has

a different features, such as four engaging puzzles in three different stories for a total of twelve

unique puzzles. Flip, rotate, drag, and drop building blocks to create a wooden bridge to connect

Juan to his goals.

With its distinct and graphic Filipino illustrations and catchy all-original music, Juan

Tamad is definitely one of the most exciting and visually-arresting Filipino game apps in the


2.3 Summary of Related Literature

2.3.1 Preservation of Traditional Filipino Games

Every country has its own traditional game. These are games that originate from a country’s

rich cultural heritage and are passed down from one generation to another. These games are also

critical because these games eventually give them the sense of nationalism and be an essential part

of one’s childhood. But some these games through time are being left out and worse forgotten.

“Most of the traditional games and sports, expressions of indigenous cultures and ways of life

contributing to the common identity of humanity, have already disappeared and those that are

surviving are threatened of imminent disappearance and extinction under the combined effect of

globalization and harmonization of the rich diversity of world sport heritage” says UNESCO on

their article Traditional Sports and… (UNESCO, n.d.) .

Vera Misurcova believes that “Every game represents a certain content expressed in a fixed

stabilized form. The themes of games encompass different phenomena from the nature as well as

social life, most frequently from human work and entertainment” Implementation of Children’s…

(Misurcova, n.d.) She believes that traditional games are essential to a child’s growth and well-

being and sense of nationalism as well she stated that “children become first of all acquainted with

the culture of their own nation and only in consequence they have the chance of coming into

contact with other cultures in a suitable selection”.

Modernization really had taken its toll in countries especially in a growing country like the

Philippines therefore compromising the trend in playing traditional games. According to the article

by Gerard Anthony Naval Philippines try to… (Naval, 2008). Instead of the typical “Larong

Pinoy” games that children are expected to play children instead are seen in internet cafes or in

their homes playing digital games. There is indeed a need for the Filipino children to engage in

these games once again not only to remind them or their cultural heritage but also to help them

improve physically and psychologically. “Nowadays, kids do not engage in outdoor Filipino

games as much as the older generation used to. “The kids of today need to spend time in playing

such games as this not only preserved our cultural heritage but also helps children develop their

physical and psychological skills”, Philippines try to… (Naval, 2008) claims Dean Hercules

Callanta of the University of the Philippines College of Human Kinetics.

Aside from the aforementioned claims there is a non-government organization that aims to

preserve Filipino culture and arts and that is the Magna Kultura. Spearheaded by Dickie Aguado

he believes that “The proper approach in re-institutionalizing the games of our heritage back in the

mainstream of society is to create a ‘school’ for teaching the way each and every game are played.

The passing on of the tradition of play must be formalized in a fun way among the new Filipino

youth. After learning the proper way to play it, they can enjoy it with their peers in school or in

their neighborhood communities.” Keeping the Traditional… (Aguado, 2011).

An article written by ABS-CBN news features Kabataan Party List representative Rep.

Raymond Palatino being convinced that the Filipino youth are being urged by the commercial

market to pursue western products and cultural practices. “This inevitably affects the existence of

our very own Philippine games and sports, now considered by many as dying cultural legacies. It

will be an utter loss if these Pinoy games will be completely gone in the future” Youth Group
push... (ABS CBN News, 2011). That is why Kabataan Party list launched “Larong Pinoy” drive

that aims to hold mini leagues for traditional Filipino games in small communities in order to boost

its popularity among the youth.

Traditional Filipino games may have been forgotten and left behind by some due to the

support they give to modern day games, products and culture but with the efforts of non-

government organizations and other concerned citizens, preservation of such games can truly be

achieved and may as well still be passed down in the generations to come.

2.4 Synthesis

With the aforementioned reviews of related literature and related studies, the researchers

are convinced that the proposed research study which is to implement a game adaptation of some

of the Filipino traditional game will be implemented accordingly with the purpose of instilling the

game’s fundamentals and principles to the consciousness of its players. Given that Unity 3D is

free and has many technical features such as its built -in physics engine, scripting/programming

functions and modeling functions that would cater the designing & development process of the

game especially the game is proposed to be in a 2D perspective, not to mention the support features

and tutorials that can be obtained from its main website and on other known Unity 3D tutorial

sites. Also the researchers are convinced that this study will contribute to the preservation of

traditional Filipino games and the researchers also believe that this study may bring the advantages

of gaming mentioned in the related literatures regarding gaming and its benefits since this study

aims to instill the fundamentals of the game to the players in way that the game itself would present

Filipino characters, setting, storyline and most of all gameplay which will be accurately based to

the Filipino traditional game rules being reviewed in this chapter.

2.5 Gap

2.6 Concept of the Study

Coming up with a research topic especially in multimedia has become more challenging

nowadays. Topics should be able to be as innovative as possible, purpose driven & at the same

time relevant to the community . But with opportunities in fields like mobile application

development, game programming, video processing & computer aided design student researchers

like the researchers are driven to come up and conceptualize research topics that would surely

benefit society or a certain social community at least. With this in mind the researchers came up

with concepts wherein the proponents can enhance, innovate and engage the concepts in a real

world settings and preferences with a purpose of entertaining and providing users interactive

learning experience . The researchers came up with the idea of adapting one of many traditional

Filipino street games such as Patintero, Luksong Tinik, Shatong, Tumbang Preso and the like into

a computer game application. With this traditional Filipino games would gain necessary attention

to the mass (or on a certain target audience to say the least), be an enjoyable learning medium and

would be able to prove to be an effective gaming platform . And also since a wide variety of

computer games has become mainstream on the youth, the researchers are also coming up with a

concept that would incorporate gaming experience to education and that is through an interactive

movie game. An interactive movie game is a game which takes place on a storyline and is patterned

into movie scenes wherein users may decide on the outcome of the scenes , the decisions of the

character/s and also its courses of action.

The said movie game would take place on a storyline that would be fit for a game & at the

same time would be instrumental in relaying educational concepts to the users. The researchers are

also currently seeking out research opportunities for mobile applications that would cater the

standards of the research guidelines provided unto the researchers.With this to consider the

researchers are planning to implement the aforementioned concepts in either Flash based inteface

using Actionscript in mobile using Android and in a 3D platform by the help of Python in Blender

3D or in Unity 3D.

2.7 Definition of Terms

Android - An operating system designed for smart phones, tablets, and laptops. The

application was developed to run in an Android platform device.

Filipino Traditional Games - Games that are commonly played by children. The

application presented the traditional Filipino games.