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Type Two Diabetes Nutritional Paper

Courtney P. Whyte

University of South Florida College of Nursing


Type Two Diabetes Nutritional Paper

When dealing with a patient who has just been diagnosed with any new disease or

disorder it is imperative that the nurse provides them with education on their new diagnoses and

treatment options. Luke Skywalker who was just diagnosed with type two diabetes mellitus

(DM), it is crucial that he receives information about his new diagnosis and treatment options

before he is discharged. This paper will discuss the disease process of type two diabetes, what

nutrients this patient should consume and those to avoid, the rationale behind that decision, and

how to properly educate the patient on these findings.

Type Two Diabetes Etiology

Type two diabetes is caused by a multitude of factors including: a genetic disposition to

the disease, obesity, poor diet, and extreme caloric intake. Type two diabetes is characterized by

the body being able to produce insulin, but then becomes resistant to the insulin, (Waddell, 2017,

p.21). One way to help control type two diabetes is to eat a well-balanced diet and exercise.

Dietary Recommendations and Restrictions

The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans discusses the importance of eating a well-

rounded diet versus isolating specific nutrients. The American Heart Association and the

American Diabetes Association recommends that patients that have type two diabetes follow the

Mediterranean dietary pattern. The Mediterranean diet suggests that patients eat mostly plant-

based foods, with olive oil as the main source of fat, low-to-moderate intake of protein, and use

alterative herbs and spices instead of sodium, (Esposito, Maiorion, Bellastella, Panagiotakos, &

Giugliano, 2017, p.27).

Rationale for the Mediterranean Diet. There has been a noted link between

inflammation and insulin resistance in type two diabetics. The Mediterranean diet helps with the

inflammatory process because it promotes foods that are considered anti-inflammatory and

antioxidative nutrients such as fiber, vitamins and minerals and polyphenols. When following

this diet, patients are supposed to limit their starches, refined sugars, and trans fats which are

considered pro-inflammatory nutrients which the body doesn’t appreciated. (Esposito et al.,

2017, p.29). With the limitation of refined sugars, starches and trans fats it helps promote

lowering of blood glucose levels. Eating right and exercise will limit the need for other means

such as pharmaceuticals to help control patients’ blood glucose levels.

Patient Education

With Mr. Skywalker being discharged later on today it vital that he is taught about his

new diagnosis and how to manage it. One of the best ways to teach a patient is to give them

phamplets that are rich in information. These pamphletes can include why type two diabetes

occurs, how to know how much insulin to inject, and how to inject it. It also would be useful to

give the patient some sample reciepes to give them an idea of what their diet should include to

help lower their blood sugar levels. The teach-back method would be useful for this patient. The

nurse should have that patient demonstrate how to use a sliding scale for insulin, how to draw up

the insulin, then how to properly inject themselves.

Type two diabetes is a disease that can be managed using different methods. A non-

invasive way to help manage this diease is to make lifestyle adjustments. This includes eating

more frutis and veggies, and limiting starches, sugars, and processed meats. Informing the

patient why this needs to occur will help them have a better quality of life. Providing

informationa and sample recieps will give patients an idea of benefical nutrients and what to eat

to help lower their blood sugar levels.



Esposito, K., Maiorino, M.I., Bellastella, G., Panagiotakos, D.B., Giuglian, D. (2017).

Mediterranean diet for type 2 diabetes: cardiometabolic benefits. Endocrine, 56(1), 27-

32. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lib.usf.edu/10.1007/s12020-016-1018-2

Waddell, J.M. (2017). An update on type 2 diabetes management in primary care. The Nurse

Practitioner, 42(8), 20-29. DOI:10.1097/01.NPR.0000520827.83911.28