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TEXT AND DISCOURSE Give the students 10 sheets of paper and let them build the

strongest tower that can stand alone for 2 minutes. No any

Originally the word 'discourse' comes from Latin other material is allowed. Only the papers.
'discursus' which denoted 'conversation, speech'.
Discourse is a term used in LINGUISTICS to refer to a Lesson proper:
continuous stretch of (especially spoken) LANGUAGE Brainstorming is a group creativity technique by which efforts
larger than a SENTENCE — but, within this broad notion, are made to find a conclusion for a specific problem by
several different applications may be found. gathering a list of ideas spontaneously contributed by its
members. The term was popularized by Alex Faickney Osborn
At its most, a discourse is a behavioral UNIT which has a in the 1953 book Applied Imagination.
pre-theoretical status in linguistics: it is a set of
UTTERANCES which constitute any recognizable SPEECH Brainstorming is a large or small group activity that
event, e.g. a conversation, a joke, a sermon, an encourages students to focus on a topic and contribute to the
interview… [Crystal, Dictionary of linguistics and free flow of ideas. The teacher may begin
phonetics, 3rd edn 1991] brainstorming session by posing a question or a problem, or by
introducing a topic. Students then express possible answers,
In the broad sense, discourse ‘includes’ TEXT (q.v.), but relevant words and ideas.
the two terms are not always easily distinguished, and are
often used synonymously. The advantages of brainstorming include the ability to refine
ideas and use every person's input to develop specific
Text ideas; disadvantages include the hindrance that it can impose
• A large unit of written language on an individual's creativity.
• A group of ideas put together to make a point or
central idea
• Has structure which requires the ideas in the GRAPHIC ORGANIZER
discourse to be relevant to each other
Some linguists would restrict discourse to spoken SOMEBODY WANTED BUT SO THEN
communication, and reserve text for written:
1. Result of the process of speech production in graphic Lesson Proper:
form A graphic organizer is a visual and graphic display that depicts
2. Indirect (processed) speech the relationships between facts, terms, and or ideas within a
3. No personal contacts between agents learning task. Graphic organizers are also sometimes referred
4. Perception of speech in different space and time to as knowledge maps, concept maps, story maps,
5. One agent cognitive organizers, advance organizers, or concept diagrams.

Some linguists would restrict discourse to spoken Graphic organizers come in many different forms, each one
communication, and reserve text for written: best suited to organizing a particular type of information.
1. The process of speech production in the form of a
sound 1. Descriptive/ Thematic Map- Descriptive or Thematic
2. Spontaneous speech in a particular situation with the Map works well for mapping generic information,
help of verbal and nonverbal means but particularly well for mapping hierarchical
3. Personal contacts between agents relationships.
4. generation and perception of speech in a unity of
space and time
5. Two authors constantly change their roles ‘speaker –
hearer’ (bilateral discourse).
Techniques in Selecting and Organizing Information
a. Brainstorming list
b. Graphic organizer
c. Topic outline
d. Sentence outline


Paper Tower
2. Network Tree- Organizing a hierarchical set of A topic outline provides a quick overview of topics to be
information, reflecting superordinate or subordinate included in an essay.
elements, is made easier by constructing a Network A sentence outline lists complete sentences.
A topic outline arranges one’s ideas hierarchically (showing
which are main and which are sub-points), in
the sequence he/she wants. As the name implies, it identifies
all the little mini-topics that the paper comprises, and shows
how these mini-topics relate.

3. Problem and Solution Map- When information

contains cause and effect problems and solutions, a
Problem and Solution Map can be useful for

Graphic organizers are tools that can be used to visualize and

organize information. Because graphic organizers are often
used as prompts for students to fill in the blanks, graphic
organizers provide many benefits to students who use them
• Helping students structure writing project
• Encouraging students to make decisions
• Making it easy for students to classify ideas and

Importance of Graphic Organizers

• Allowing students to examine relationships
• Guiding students in demonstrating their thinking
• Helping students increase reading comprehension
• Making it easy to brainstorm
• Encouraging students to organize essential concepts
and ideas


5 bowls of Soup

Lesson Proper:
Outline is a condensed treatment of a subject.

Types of Outline
1. Topic Outline
2. Sentence Outline

Both types are hierarchical but a topic outline is briefer.

A topic outline lists words and phrases.