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Emerging Sustainable Design

Technologies for Green Buildings

W S Lui
CNA Group Ltd

Crafting Innovative Green Solutions for an Office Environment

Pervasiveness of Green Sustainable Technologies

Energy Generation Energy Efficiency Water & Wastewater Manufacturing / Industrial

 Wind  Lighting  Water Treatment  Smart Production
 Solar  HVAC  Water Conservation  Advanced Packaging

 Hydro/Marine  Glass  Wastewater Treatment  Monitoring & Control

 Biofuels  Building
 Geothermal

Air & Environment Agriculture

Energy Storage  Cleanup / Safety  Natural Pesticides
 Vehicle GPS Tracking
 Fuel Cells  Emissions Control  Hydrophonics
 Logistics
 Advanced Batteries  UVGI / Green Chemistry  Aquaculture
 Structures
 Hybrid Systems  Carbon Sequestration
 Green Fuels

Energy Infrastructure  Nano

 Management  Bio

 Transmission  Chemical

 Smart Grid
Smart Grids

Use of digital information and controls Use of smart technologies - metering and communications
technology to improve reliability, security, concerning grid operations and status and distribution automation.
and efficiency of the electric grid.
Advanced electricity storage and peak-shaving technologies -
Integration of distributed resources and plug-in electric and hybrid electric vehicles, and thermal-storage
generation including renewable resources. air conditioning.
Blending Green Elements into Sustainable Buildings
Integrating the Design Process
Site Considerations
 Location and weather
 Microclimate
 Site Layout
 Orientation

Built Form
 Shape
 Thermal response
 Insulation
 Windows / glazing

Ventilation Strategy Daylighting Strategy

Services Strategy
 Plant and controls
 Thermal response
 Fuels
 Metering
Performance Metrics for Sustainable Buildings

 EEI (Energy Efficiency Index) : kWh/m2/year

 Overall Chiller Plant Efficiency : kW/ton
 Building Lighting Intensity : W/m2
 Efficiency of Lamps : lumens/W
 Ventilation Fan Motor Efficiency : W/m2
 Indoor Air Quality : Compliance with SS554 : 2009
(Air sampling to check bacteria and mould count,
operative temperature and RH)
Leveraging Intelligent Building Management Systems

Building Management Operations Building Occupants

 Real-time building /  Centralised operation  Enhanced indoor
portfolio information and control climate and
environmental quality
 Increased visibility, better  Improved energy and
decision-making operating efficiency  Improved health,
comfort and
 Asset management, lower  Streamlined productivity
lifecycle costs maintenance, high
equipment uptime  Occupant satisfaction
Utility Management System (UMS)

 Electrical usage and analysis and identification of peak demand levels.

 Fair and equitable cost allocation for tenant billing and departments.
 Measurement, verification and benchmarking of kW/kWh for energy
 Profiling and efficiency tracking of common loads (e.g. chiller plant)
 Threshold alarming and notification.
 Online monitoring via ethernet, web-browser, wireless RF link.
 Power quality monitoring – power factor, harmonics.
Importance of Accurate and Reliable Measuring Devices

Old computer adage: “Garbage in, Garbage out”

Today’s high performance green buildings require accurate and reliable field
measuring devices for:
 Performance tracking – energy and water utilization, system performance
 Precise control of essential M&E systems
 Enhancement of indoor environment
Robust Instrumentation and Controllers

Robust field sensors and controllers are critical in maintaining

system integrity, superior building performance, energy
efficiency and safety.
Consider the use of precision, long-lasting industrial-grade
transmitters and fail-safe, hot-redundant PLCs.

Tracking of Performance Metrics Through IBMS

 Chiller efficiency (KW/ton or COP)

 Plant efficiency (KW/ton or COP)
 Wire-to-water efficiency (%)
 Flow Economy (gpm/kW)
 Measured plant load (tons and ton-hrs)
 Temperature (ºC) and water flows (l/s)
Benefits of using Transmitters

A transmitter is a signal conditioner.

It accepts a low-level input signal from a
sensor, a millivolt signal from a thermocouple
or a resistance signal from an RTD (Pt 100), and
provides an output signal that is directly
proportional to the input signal.
Most transmitters provide a current output
signal (generally 4 to 20 mA or 0 to 20 mA
signal) rather than a voltage signal.
Conversion to current signal virtually eliminates
any interference from line noise and allows
accurate transmission over relatively long
distances using ordinary uncompensated
copper wires.
Advantages of Temp Transmitters over Temp Sensors

Better Accuracy and Repeatability

Majority of temperature measurement error is inherent
to the temperature sensor (RTD, thermocouple, etc..) and
not to the signal communications equipment (i.e.
transmitter, PLC, or DCS input card).
Today’s advanced temperature transmitters are able to
eliminate the majority of this temperature sensor error by
utilizing Transmitter-Sensor Matching.
First, an RTD’s precise resistance versus temperature
relationship is determined by sensor calibration. Next, the
resultant sensor calibration information is “matched" to a
device enabled with Transmitter-Sensor Matching by
loading it onto the transmitter’s internal memory.
As a result, the transmitter is able to process the sensor’s
resistance information and calculate the exact
temperature of the process, thereby eliminating the bulk
of the sensor’s error.
Enhance Reliability with Redundancy

Ethernet Primary PLC Backup PLC


Fail-over cable

Redundant I/O

Remote I/O with Remote I/O with Remote I/O with Remote I/O with
Redundant I/O Bus Redundant I/O Bus Redundant I/O Bus Redundant I/O Bus
Enhance Reliability with Redundancy


Industrial Redundant Industrial

Ethernet Ethernet
Fiber Optic Switch
Network Ring


Location A Location C

Location B
Fundamentals of Energy Management Strategies

Clarifying Key Definitions

Energy Efficiency Load Management Demand Response

Reduce total KWh of Flattening the load Temporary reduction

load shape with shape by using off-peak of peak energy usage
permanent efficient power in place of on for a defined period.
technologies (e.g. peak power.
VSD Chillers, PE Also known as load
Motors, LED This is akin to efficient shedding or
Lighting) or efficient purchasing. This also curtailment.
operation. reduces the kW
demand charges.
Energy Conservation – HVAC Systems

Co-Generation System Displacement Cooling System Heat Pipe

 Thermal storage system

 Peak shaving strategy, lowering of demand charges
 Use of low-cost, off-peak electricity for air-conditioning
 Co-generation and tri-generation systems
 Efficient chiller plant (VSDs, VSD chillers, Chiller Frictionless
Magnetic Bearing Technology, Auto Condenser Tube Cleaning
 Energy recycling, heat recovery (Heat pipes, air-to-air heat
exchangers, enthalpy exchangers)
Thermal Storage System
 Displacement cooling / Radiant floor cooling
Displacement Cooling and Radiant Floor Cooling Application

Suvarnabhumi Airport, Bangkok

Displacement cooling air outlets are shown in yellow

Radiant Floor Cooling (600 kilometres of cross-link polyethylene pipes) directly removes
radiation striking the floor.
An Air Displacement System (1,500 sets of specially designed displacement diffusers), with
controllable air stream supplying cool air to the space at floor level and at low velocity.
Because cool air is heavier than warm air, thermal stratification occurs in the building,
supported by the radiant floor cooling. The air-conditioned zone extends only 2.50 m
above floor level. In the higher levels the air is near ambient temperature; therefore, it is
not necessary to insulate this part of the envelope. Due to thermal air stratification, this
has no influence on the conditioned, inhabited spaces below.
Displacement Cooling and Radiant Floor Cooling Application

Gardens by the Bay

Project Data
 12,000 sq. metre of radiant floor cooling for the conservatories “Cool Dry Biome”
and “Cool Moist Biome” and the concrete walkways for the visitors.
 Thermal simulation by Uponor for the combination of radiant floor cooling with
the A/C system.
Chiller Plant Optimization Strategies

 Chiller Plant Configuration

- Fixed-speed Primary Chilled Water Pumps Only
- Variable-speed Primary Chilled Water Pumps
- Primary and Secondary (with VSD) Chilled Water Pumps
- Chiller Plant with Everything on VSDs
- Pumping Arrangement (Manifold or Dedicated?)

 Correct Control Strategies

- Which parameters control which final control elements?
- Chiller plant sequencing
- Staggered start-up
- Stretching chiller operation (Optimize chiller cut-in and cut-
off points)
- Chiller efficiency tracking (kW/ton)
- Reset strategies (Chilled water and condenser temp
- Auto Adaptive Controls (E.g. Constantly adjusting condenser
water temp to minimise chiller and CT energy)
- PLCs with in-built Psychometric Chart.
Energy Conservation – Lighting Systems

Daylit Building Low-Energy LED Lighting System

 Maximizing natural lighting (Enhances

working / living environment)
 Adopting low-energy lighting
systems (e.g. LED lamps)
 Design for minimum W/m2
 Light dimming sensor technology
 Daylight harvesting with photocells
 Lighting sweep
Closed-Loop Photocell PV- Powered
 Solar photovoltaic panels for Lighting Controls Lighting
exterior lighting, gardens and walk
Daylighting Options

 Optimizing daylight through

fenestrations (light shelves,
louvers, prismatic glazing)
Light Shelf Prismatic Louvers
 Daylight through roofs (light well,
 Optical systems to collect,
transport and distribute daylight to
inner spaces
 Light pipes / tubes
 Transparent hollow light guides
 Optical fibres / fibrescopes

Atrium Light Pipe

Green Innovations

Crafting Innovative Green Solutions for an Office Environment

Increasing Building Intelligence with IMSC
Computerized Facility Booking System

Users require after- Meeting facilitator

hours meeting uses MS Outlook to
book meeting

Motion detectors sense

end of meeting and turn Meeting room
of lights, a/c and signage lights activated, A/C
turned on 15mins before
meeting. Digital signage
outside room shows
meeting name &
Property Management participants
System tracks usage
and bills user / dept
for after hours usage
Increasing Building Intelligence with IMSC

Integration with Airport FIDS

Changi Airport Terminal 3 Changi Airport Terminal 3

IBMS receives up-to-date arrival and departure information

including flight numbers, scheduled date and time, actual
time of departure, current and actual gates.
IBMS optimizes the turning on and off of air-conditioning
and lighting based on gate allocation and scheduled date
and time provided by the FIDS system.
Weather Responsive Control Strategies

Rain Sensor

PLC Controller


Rain sensor and weather programme will enable the Novena Hospital save energy on
rainy days via space temperature reset. A 1°C temperature raise will save approximately
7% to 8 % energy.
Photocells will be installed at various strategic locations around the building for ‘daylight
harvesting’. Lights along corridors, glass-clad building perimeter areas, external lighting
will be controlled via photocells to conserve energy.
Fuel Cells – Green Power Backup

Proposed Green Power Backup for the Intelligent

Building Management

 Quiet, clean, highly efficient on-site electrical

generators .
 Use an electrochemical process — not combustion — to
convert fuel into electricity.
 Fuel cell power systems have been proposed as the
environmentally friendly, reliable, decentralized
electricity generation solution of the future .
 Low life-cycle costs. Eliminate high battery replacement
costs of UPS.
 Unlike UPS, fuel cells do not need to be placed in air-
conditioned rooms.
 Long power backup time of 50 hours, unlike UPS.
Eco-Friendly Methanol-Based Fuel Cell System

Fuel Cell has built-in reformer to

convert methanol to hydrogen to
power the fuel cell.
Convergence of Building Controls and Infocomm Technologies
One Wire Ascendas AIMS
One Protocol (IP) OTTIS Community Portal
IBMS Business Rules Engine
One Data Framework (XML) Enterprise Energy Management
Service Oriented Network Architecture IBMS Dashboard
Data Utility Metering & Billing


XML, IP Laptops PDA

HMI/ Trending/ Operator Security Lighting Digital Phone
Configuration Logging Workstation Server Management
Server UC Media WSDL
Manager System

Quad Play TCP/IP network

NCU with XML NCU with XML
Control Network Cisco
Controllers IPICS

Radio Telepresence
Elevators/ Systems
BACnet, Water Access Control
LonTalk, MODBUS Supply & Control panels
Drainage Parking
FCU Chillers DG Fire
Sets Alarm Channel
8 Controllers

16 Detectors
Digital Signage
Meters CCTV Lighting Interface

VFD Precision Power and Utility Security Powered by CNA SIRIUS

Monitoring Monitoring Lighting Elevators
OPC, BACnet/IP LonTalk, MODBUS/ RS485
HVAC Controls and Monitoring MODBUS RTU, SNMP
BACnet/MODBUS MSTP Communications Communications
Enhancing Indoor Environment Quality

It is not only desirable, but also a fundamental human right to

live and work in spaces with healthy indoor environments.
Buildings enhance people’s lives when they permit ample air
circulation, maintain clean air and comfortable temperatures,
and allow individuals to have a sense of control over their own
indoor experience.
Enhancing IEQ with Building Automation

CO Sensor Temperature
CO² Sensor Humidity

VOC Sensor
BAS Central

Refrigerant Leak
Detector Chemical and Outside Air Damper
Biological Sensors UVC Radiometer
& Actuator
Deploying Advanced Green IAQ Technologies

Carbon Dioxide  Demand-controlled Ventilation for

Sensor / Monitor adequate fresh air supply and
energy savings.
 Electronic Air Filtration to capture
harmful fine and ultra-fine air
Electronic Air pollutants. Building is effectively
Filtration haze-proofed.
 Germicidal UVC Emitters to destroy
mould, bacteria and viruses and
UVC Emitters maximize HVAC system efficiency.
Provide pandemic protection for
students and teaching staff.
Titanium  PCO (Photocatalytic Oxidation) for
odour and VOC removal.
Green FCUs – Is it Possible?
How Do You Upkeep the Cleanliness of Concealed FCUs for
Maximum Efficiency and Good Indoor Air Quality?

Concealed FCU Cramped in

Tight Ceiling Spaces – Difficult
to Access, Clean and Service
Air Diffuser

Not Easy to Find Nearby

Source of Water for Washing

Problems of Traditional Cleaning Methods

 Office downtime and disruption  Use of chemicals and biocides –
harmful effects
 Source of water for pressure washing?
 Dispersal of mould fragments and
 Draining of dirty water?
spores during cleaning
Greening FCUs and AHUs with UVGI (Ultra-violet Germicidal Irradiation)

UVC Lamps Emit Strong UV Light to UVC Lamps Lethal Magnetic Waveforms
Eliminate Moulds & Microorganisms Installed at AHU Destroys Harmful Pathogens

 Zero cooling coil maintenance, self-cleaning cooling coils.

 Enhanced cooling coil heat transfer, energy savings.
 Prolongation of cooling coil life.
 Eliminate drain pan overflow.
 Effective surface and air sterilization.
 Healthy indoor air, minimize cross-infection within building.
 Pandemic control.
Cost of Cooling Fin Fouling

Fouling Thickness Efficiency Loss

0.15 mm 16%

0.30 mm 20%

0.61 mm 27%

0.91 mm 33%

1.63 mm 50%

A study published in the ASHRAE Journal in 2006 concludes

that “coil fouling increases coil pressure drop and reduces
airflow, reducing heat transfer from coil fins to lessen the
amount of work a system can perform and reducing indoor
environmental quality”.

Source: “Study Verifies Coil Cleaning Saves Energy” by R. Montgomery

Importance of Efficient Heat Transfer

The Air-conditioning Process is a Series of Heat Transfers

AHU Cooling Coil

Chiller Cooling Tower
Titanium Dioxide – An Application of Green Chemistry


Photocatalyst coating is a "green" nanotechnology that can be

applied on cooling coils, walls, ceilings, floor carpets, curtains, toilet
walls, exterior building façade, etc. and all kinds of surfaces to form
an invisible film.
The film can work all day to decompose all kinds of micro-organic
matters like bacteria, viruses, mould and pollutants like
formaldehyde, benzene, xylene, ammonia and VOC's as well as
offending odours.
Catalytic Converters for Cars
A device used to reduce the toxicity of emissions from an internal
combustion engine.
A catalytic converter provides an environment for a chemical
reaction wherein toxic combustion by-products are converted to
harmless or less-toxic substances.
Photocatalytic Oxidation Application for HVAC Systems

View „A‟

Cooler clean air out

Acting as a
Converter‟ for
AHU in removing
VOCs and odours
Application of Titanium
Dioxide on Cooling Coil

Warmer polluted Titanium dioxide

air in treated cooling coil

PCO application for HVAC Systems has been used in:

 Khoo Teck Puat Hospital
 Tan Tock Seng Hospital
 NUH Medical Centre View A – Installation of
UVC Emitters
 National Art Gallery
Advanced IAQ Enhancement Solution

Titanium Dioxide Sanitization of Toilets


TiO² Treatment in

Titanium dioxide when activated

by UV lights becomes a powerful
oxidizing agent which:
 Converts harmful VOCs (e.g. Toilet Treated with TiO²

formaldehyde) into harmless

 Removes odours (e.g. ammonia
from toilets).
 Kills bacteria, viruses and mould.
Toilet Treated with TiO²
Next Generation Self-Cleaning Building Facade

 Titanium Dioxide (Photocatalyst) Treated

Facade Glass – self-cleaning property.
 Titanium Dioxide coating breaks down dirt
which collects on glass surface.
Condensate from AHUs
 Cool and clean condensate drips from the
Drip Irrigation Piping on Top of Facade Glass top of glass facade.
 Hydrophilic property of TiO² spreads
water drips into a thin even film to wash
down dirt.
 As water evaporates, heat is removed
from facade wall, making it a ‘super clean’
and ‘super cool’ facade wall.
 With a cooler facade, air-conditioning
heat load is reduced.
TiO² Coated Glass
Water Management & Conservation

Collection Tank
Water Meter

 Rain water harvesting – underground tank for

water storage.

Piping  AHU and FCU condensate recovery.

 Elimination of cooling coil washing.
 Building facade that requires minimal washing
and cleaning - TiO² coating on facade.
 Water sub-metering by BMS.
Irrigation of Rooftop Landscape
Green Technologies for Sustainable Buildings
 Rain Sensor for Indoor
Environmental Control
Solar Hot Water

Sky Garden
Photovoltaic Panels
for Green Power
Energy Efficient LED Lighting

CO & CO2 Double Glazing

Monitoring Indoor Air
Quality Audit

Sun Shading Feature

Tree Transplant
Shuttle Bus to Public & Landscaping
Transport Facilities
Titanium Dioxide
Coating for Self-
Cleaning Facade  UVGI & Titanium
Dioxide for AHU

Water Efficient Fixtures

Waterless Urinal

LED Lights Eco Tour

District Cooling System

Pneumatic Waste Provision for Use of NEWater

Conveyance System Fuel Cell – Green Power

Organic Compost
Back-up for IBMS

Adapted from BCA

The End

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