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Pulse Oximeter

Akashkumar Gupta Abhijit Iyer

Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Department of Electronics and Telecommunication
Sardar Patel Institute of Technology Sardar Patel Institute of Technology
Mumbai, India Mumbai, India
akashkumar.gupta@spit.ac.in abhijit.iyer@spit.ac.in

Arpit Jain Dr.Preetida Jani

Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Department of Electronics and Telecommunication
Sardar Patel Institute of Technology Sardar Patel Institute of Technology
Mumbai, India Mumbai, India
arpit.jain@spit.ac.in preeti.vinayakray@spit.ac.in

Abstract—Pulse Oximeter is a non-invasive electronic device B. signal transmission and processing

used for checking a person’s oxygen saturation level. It can
detect even small changes in how efficiently oxygen is being
signal transmission is the process of sending and propagat-
regulated throughout the body to the parts furthest from the ing an analogue or digital information signal over a physical
heart, including the legs and the arms.The pulse oximeter is a point-to-point or point-to-multipoint transmission medium, ei-
small, clip-like device that attaches to a body part, like toes or ther wired, optical fiber or wireless.While analog transmission
an earlobe. Its most commonly put on a finger, and its often used is the transfer of a continuously varying analog signal over
in a critical care setting like emergency rooms or hospitals.If you
have a symptom of shortness of breath or a known lung or heart
an analog channel, digital communication is the transfer of
disease, your doctor may use a pulse oximeter for monitoring discrete messages over a digital or an analog channel. Signal
oxygen in your blood. processing is a sub field of mathematics, information and
electrical engineering that concerns the analysis, synthesis, and
I. I NTRODUCTION modification of signals, which are broadly defined as functions
conveying information about the behavior or attributes of
A oximeter is a small, light weighed device used to monitor
some phenomenon, such as sound, images, and biological
the amount of oxygen carried in the body. This noninva-
measurements. Biomedical field is one the field in which the
sive tool attaches painlessly to your fingertip, sending one
data processing used extensively.Biomedical signal processing
wavelength of light through the finger to measure how much
involves the analysis of these measurements to provide useful
oxygen is in your system. Once the oximeter finishes analysing
information which clinicians can make decisions on. It encom-
, its screen will display the percentage of oxygen in your
passes the entire spectrum of health and wellness and is the
blood coming from your heart. In the transmittance type pulse
basis of how engineering aids the field of medicine.
oximeter that CSIO has developed, the absorption of light
by oxygenated and reduced hemoglobin is measured at two C. Digital Filtering
wavelengths 660 nm (red) and 940 nm (infrared). Filtering of a signal is an important stage of signal
processing, so to filter the signal we use digital filter. The
A. Sensor technology digital filter is use to perform various arithmetic task on the
Sensors which measure the presence of electromagnetic discrete time signals.The digital filter is use for improving
radiation are called Electro-optical sensors which include or degrading the few parameters of the discrete signal. The
infrared, X-ray, ultraviolet, and visual light sensors. Infrared cost of the digital filter is more than the regular analog filter
(IR) light has been used for centuries in medical diagnostics.In because it has highly complicated design. The digital filter
examining the use of IR light for biological applications, one has made many designs achievable which were not possible
can see the light penetration into biological objects requires to be designed by using the analog filters.Digital filters is
the instrumentation to work in reflected mode. Even in light used in many devices around us such as mobile,computers
transmission mode, the collected information allows the visu- and etc. Difference equation is used for expressing the
alization of mostly blood vessels and, in some cases, of soft transfer function of the digital filter in mathematical form by
tissue. Due to advancements in laser and detector technology, using Z-transforms method. It very simple to understand and
it has been known that light in the near IR region in the range design the mathematical model of the filter but it becomes
of 7001400 nm, and even further from the visible region, is challenging to make a practical one, so we use the concept
the most efficient region for light to be transmitted through of filter realization. A bandpass filter allows signals between
biological tissues. This is called the near infrared region. two specific frequencies to pass, but that discriminates against
signals at other frequencies. In our product of the oximeter in the NodeMCU where transmitter and receiver value are
we are using digital band pass filter,which has following compared and their ratio gives us the oxygen saturation value.
The pulse oximeter is for obtaining percentage of oxygen
Passband frequency edge: 0.2pi and 0.6pi rad/sample present in blood bound by hemoglobin.The difference in the
Passband ripple: less than 1dB oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin helps us to obtain
Stopband frequency edge: 0.1pi and 0.8pi rad/sample the oxygen saturation in blood when we measure the oxygen
Stopband attenuation: greater than 40dB level of a human at sea level.
it is found to have a range from 95 to 99 percent and when
we check the oxygen level at higher altitude should be above
90 percent.the SpO2 range tells us the following effect which
shown in the table below:

Fig. 1. Bandpass Filter

II. M ETHODOLOGY Fig. 3. SpO2 Level Table

[1] Professor S. Mil’Shtein Infrared scanning for biomedical applications.
Advanced Electronic Technology Center, ECE Department, University of
Massachusetts, Lowell, Massachusetts 01854, USA.
[2] Pablo Roncagliolo, Luis Arredondo and Agustn Gonzlez Biomedical
signal acquisition, processing and transmission using smartphone.Journal
of Physics: Conference Series. Pablo Roncagliolo et al 2007 J. Phys.:
Conf. Ser. 90 012028
[3] M. E. Valdez Digital Filters, 2001.
[4] A. Antoniou Digital Filters: Analysis, Design, and Applications. New
York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1993., chapter 1

Fig. 2. Overall process Block Daigram

The proposed model is of an oximeter.The proposed

model has components NodeMCU,Tx model(consits of 3 Red
LED),Rx model (consists of 3 NIR sensors), PC screen. When
the power is turned ON, the Vcc is given to the red transmitter
LED from the NodeMCU .Then we keep the finger such that
both the transmitter and the receiver gets touched. The Red
light from the transmitter LED penetrate in the blood through
the finger. The IR Receiver receives the reflected signal from
the blood, this is where the signal processing takes place. The
received signal is analog signal. This analog signal is then
send to the ADC pin of the NodeMCU where the signal is
an analog signal so it is converted into digital signal.Then the
signal is passed through the band pass filter which is designed
and stored in the NodeMCU.The internal process takes place