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ATTITUDES OF TEACHERS TOWARDS THE USE OF

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL IN THE EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND

LEARNING OF INTEGRATED SCIENCE EDUCATION IN SECONDARY

SCHOOL IN APA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA BENUE STATE

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

The influence of instructional materials in promoting students’ teaching and learning

in educational development is indisputable. Teaching at any level requires that the

students be exposed to some form of simulation. Adekunle (2008) noted that an

instructional material in Integrated Science means anything that can assist the

teacher in promoting teaching and learning. When the students are given the chance

to learn through more senses than one, they can learn faster and easier. The use of

instructional materials provides the teacher with interesting and compelling

platforms for conveying information since they motivate learners to learn more.

Furthermore the teacher is assisted in overcoming physical difficulties that could

have hindered his effective presentation of a given topic.

Integrated Science was introduced into the Nigerian school system to achieve one of

the philosophies of Nigerian education as indicated in the National Policy on

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Education which is “the development of the individual into a sound and effective

citizen” (FGN, 2004). The realization of this objective through Integrated Science is

possible since the subject is an integrated programme which are taught and learnt in

Integrated Science looks at all aspects of the life of the child in the society. It is

further stated in the National Policy on Education (2004) that education is to achieve

the inculcation of national consciousness and national unity; the inculcation of the

right type of values and attitudes for the survival of the individual and the Nigerian

society. Therefore, Integrated Science teaching has been a factor in determining

whether a society will have democratic attitudes, values, problem-solving and

decision-making skills and whether the society will consist of productive and

participatory individuals (Ozturk and Otluoglu, 2002; Keeler, 2008). In Integrated

Science teaching, which is given such an important mission; it is possible to make

the learning process easy, enduring and meaningful through the use of instructional

materials. Orakwe (2000) refers to instructional materials as information repositories

from the society sourced to transfer the desired information to the learners during

classroom instruction. Agwu (2001) views Instructional Materials as those apparatus

of teaching which may include textbooks, workbooks, charts, audio visual aids,

chemicals, specimens and other relevant things that will attract students’ attention,

and which should only be introduced at the appropriate time by the teacher.

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Instructional materials are software and hardware that are used to make lessons more

meaningful and clearer to learners. They are devises that appeal to multi model

senses which help the learners conceive, perceive, internalize, interpret and transfer

the experiences gained to similar or different learning situations. These materials

and equipment, could be those that appeal to the sense of hearing-known as audio

material/ equipment those of seeing called visual materials/equipment and those that

combine the two senses called audio-visual materials.

The teacher alone cannot provide all the needed condition for an effective teaching

and learning process, other supporting materials should be provided. The students

learn better when most of the senses are appealed to the instruction and use of

instructional materials in Integrated Science education has added a new dimension

in the positive promotion of the teaching and learning process. It provides the much

need sensory experiences needed by the learners for an effective and meaningful

behavioural change. Instructional materials are meant to improve the quality of

education for effective learning of students in schools. The performance of the

students on the intended learning outcome provide the validation – loop on the

success other interaction and instruction (Bakare1986).

In making use of any instructional materials factors that influence it must be

considered, such materials must be previewed that is, having full knowledge of the

material; prepare the environment where it will be used; prepare audience by means

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of making sure that the materials to be used will attract attention, arouse, motivate

and provide the rationale that could be used in the beginning, middle or end. The

effectiveness of utilizing appropriate instructional materials in teaching and learning

of Integrated Science is not void of quality instructor. In order to give quality

education to the younger generation, there is need for employment of more

competent, experienced and qualified Integrated Science teachers. The need to

identify the suitable instructional materials, by which students can be made to

comprehend the extent of the subject easily and intelligibly, is the focus of this study.

An in depth look at the secondary schools Integrated Science programmes revealed

that there is the need for improving all phases of the programmes (IMAA, 2004).

For example, there is need for the introduction and use of instructional materials and

equipments for use in both the classrooms and Integrated Science Museum. The

broad aim of any good training materials are to induce and support the learning

process that leads to improve on-the-job performance through affecting changes in

the knowledge, attitudes, skills and practices of the learners. With the above reasons,

it is worth investigating the influence of instructional materials in the teaching and

learning of Integrated Science in our Secondary Schools, for better performance of

students in their examination and chosen career in any field of life. If instructional

materials are used in Secondary Schools, it would help improving the teaching and

learning and hence the learning of students in Integrated Science effectively.

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1.2 Statement of the Problem

Poor performance of Students in Integrated Science Public Junior Secondary

Schools in Apa local government area, Benue State may partly be attributed to poor

usage or lack of sufficient instructional materials to teach Integrated Science.

Lemchi (2001) noted that some students are losing interest in the subject due to the

attitudes of teachers towards teaching Integrated Science without the use of

instructional materials which tends to affect students’ performance in the subject.

Research consistently shows that teacher usage of instructional materials is a

powerful determinant of student achievement gains.

Many of the school authorities have very lukewarm attitudes over the provision of

needed tools, equipments or materials required for effective Integrated Science

teaching. This non-challant attitude tends to retard genuine efforts of some teachers

of Integrated Science in the secondary schools (Bello, 2010). Inspite of the emphasis

being placed on Integrated Science as one of the integrated subjects in secondary

schools. Hence, the prosecution of a functional education in relation to Integrated

Science in secondary schools still leaves much to be desired. In view of this

difficulties, (Omeiza, 2011) opined that most teachers of Integrated Science still

resort to the theoretical method of teaching the subject (i.e explaining without an

object to make learning real) which makes learning not interesting to learners. This

undoubtedly, is contrary to the improvement of Integrated Science education, which

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is greatly needed at this period of our development with emphasis on practical

oriented learning (Mammudu, 1996). It is therefore imperative to carry out a study

on the factors influencing the use of instructional materials on learning of Integrated

Science in secondary schools in Apa local government area, Benue State.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The major objective of this study is to determine the factors influencing the use of

instructional materials on learning of Integrated Science in secondary schools in Apa

local government area, Benue State. The specific objectives are to:

1. Identify the level of availability of instructional materials being used for teaching

Integrated Science in secondary schools in Apa local government area, Benue State;

2. Examine the adequacy of the instructional materials used in teaching of Integrated

Science in secondary schools in Apa local government area, Benue State;

3. Determine the attitude of teachers towards the use of instructional materials in

teaching of Integrated Science in secondary schools in Apa local government area,

Benue State;

4. Examine the environmental factors influencing the use of instructional materials

in teaching of Integrated Science in secondary schools in Apa local government area,

Benue State;

1.4 Research Questions

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The following research questions were answered in the course of the study.

1. What are the available instructional materials used in the teaching of Integrated

Science in Junior secondary schools in Apa local government area, Benue State?

2. How adequate are the instructional materials used in teaching of Integrated

Science in junior secondary schools in Apa local government area, Benue State?

3. What is the attitude of teachers towards the use of instructional materials in the

teaching of Integrated Science in junior secondary schools in Apa local government

area, Benue State?

4. What are the environmental factors influencing the use of instructional materials

in teaching of Integrated Science in junior secondary schools in Apa local

government area, Benue State?

1.5 Scope of the Study

The study is aimed at explaining the factors influencing the use of instructional

materials for learning of Integrated Science in junior secondary schools in Apa local

government area, Benue State, availability of instructional materials influencing

learning of Integrated Science, teachers attitudes towards the use of instructional

materials, and environmental influencing instructional materials usage.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This research work “Factors influencing the use of Instructional Material on the

learning of Integrated Science in Junior Secondary School, Apa local government

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area, Benue State is significant and useful in the teaching and learning of Integrated

Science. Subsequently, the findings from the study will help Integrated Science

teachers in choosing an appropriate instructional material(s) capable of releasing

students’ tension towards the subject thus improving students’ learning in Integrated

Science. It will motivate Integrated Science teachers to develop interest towards

utilizing suitable teaching materials that will be a possible means towards reducing

failure in the teaching and learning of Integrated Science. Findings of this study will

also help clarify among the teachers the need for continuous and regular

improvisation of suitable instructional materials for teaching and learning of

Integrated Science.

Moreover, the results of this study will be of great significance to the Integrated

Science curriculum planners. The curriculum developers will find the work useful

in reviewing the Integrated Science curriculum by seriously laying emphasis on

utilization of instructional materials so as to meet up with emerging needs of the

society. This study will be of immense benefit to researchers in the field of Integrated

Science by forming a basis for further studies on the usage of instructional materials

and teachers’ quality.

This study will also be of benefit to principal as they would understand more on

where their Integrated Science teachers’ ineffectiveness comes from in the area of

instructional material usage and this would set the base for what they can do in order

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to help the teachers and hence improve their effectiveness toward influencing

learners with the use of instructional materials.

1.7 Abbreviation

F.C.T:- Federal Capital Territory.

FGN: - Federal Government of Nigeria.

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CHAPTER TWO

2.0 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1. Introduction

The aim of this chapter is to present already existing views of people in related topic

on “Factors Influencing the use of Instructional Materials in the teaching of

Integrated Science in junior secondary Schools in Apa local government area, Benue

State.” This chapter is sequentially arranged and discussed under the following sub-

headings:

2.2 Concept of Integrated Science

Defining the concept of Integrated Science is not an easy task; the reason being that various individuals

and organizations see the label differently depending on their view, experience and what Integrated

Science represents in their environment.

Integrated Science was defined by Omulewa and Sarumi (2002) as an approach to the teaching of science

in which concepts and principles are presented so as to express the fundamental unity of scientific thought

and avoid premature and undue stress on the distinction between the various scientific fields. Science is

generally seen as a product of knowledge as well as a process of generating knowledge. Adding the word

“integrated” therefore makes this science, as presented in the 31 classroom, to mean the teaching of

science as unified knowledge and a process of taking an investigatory look at natural phenomena

(Omulewa and Sarumi, 2002).

2.2.1 Philosophy of Integrated Science

The reasons or philosophy for teaching Integrated Science in Nigeria can be discussed from two major

sources or stand points. The first is the STAN Integrated Science materials and the other is the National

Core-curriculum for Integrated Science. The Nigerian Integrated Science Project (NISP) derived its

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philosophy from the teaching of pupils what science is and how scientists work. What this philosophy

means is that the learner should be exposed to as many aspects of science as possible. What science is

pertains to the subject as a body of knowledge and a way of gathering knowledge. How the scientist works

concerns the skills and attitudes he uses in his daily effort to gather knowledge. It also involves the social

environment surrounding the scientists and how they interact with it. When it became clear that

Integrated Science has become a part of Nigerian education, the Federal Government officially adopted it

and developed a core curriculum for the subject.

The Federal Government of Nigeria derived the philosophy of Integrated Science from the National Policy

on Education. The following steps where used to derive the Integrated Science philosophy:

1. Portions of the National Policy on Education relating to Science Education in general and to Integrated

Science in particular were examined. As stated in section 4 of the policy, secondary school education is

expected to be a preparation for:

i. Useful living in the society; ii. Higher education, specifically, secondary school education should:

a) Provide an increased number of primary school pupils with the opportunities for education of a higher

quality, irrespective of sex or social, religious and ethnic background;

b) Diversify its curriculum to cater for the differences in talent, opportunities and role possessed by, or

opened to students after their secondary school course;

c) Equip students to live effectively in a modern age of science and technology; and

d) Raise a generation of people who can think for themselves, respect the views and feelings of others,

respect the dignity of labour, and appreciate those values specified under the our broad national aims

and live as good citizens.

2. It was felt that if Integrated Science was to be taught in the junior secondary schools it must be tailored

to realizing the above broad national objectives for secondary education.

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3. Based on 1 and 3 above therefore, the Federal Government fashioned a philosophy for teaching

Integrated Science as a course which:

i. Is relevant to the child‟s need and experience;

ii. Stresses the fundamental unity of science;

iii. Lays adequate foundation for subsequent special study; and

iv. Adds a cultural dimension to science education. In addition, the government also gave its own

explanation of integration as applied to the science at the JSS. It says that the course must assist the

learner to gain:

a) The concept of the fundamental unity of science;

b) The commonality of approach to problems of a scientific nature; and

c) An understanding of the role and function of science in everyday life, and the world in which the child

lives.

2.2.3 Objectives of Integrated Science

According to the Nigerian Integrated Science Project (1979), integrated principles are intended to produce

among other things a course which:

i. Is relevant to the child‟s need and experience;

ii. Stresses the fundamental unity of science;

iii. Lays adequate foundation for subsequent special study; and

iv. Adds a cultural dimension to science education. Based on these objectives and the facts of Integrated

Science discussed earlier, students should be made to master the following skills:

i. Observing carefully and thoroughly;

ii. Reporting completely and accurately what is observed by organizing information acquired by the above

processes;

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iii. Generating ideas on the basis of acquired information; iv. Predicting outcomes as a result of these

generalization;

v. Designing experiments (including control where necessary to check these directions);

vi. Using models to explain phenomena where appropriate;

vii. Continuing the process of inquiring when the new data do not confirm with predictions.

2.3 Criteria for the Selection of Instructional Methods

Several educationists have advanced criteria for selection of instructional materials. Some of these

educationists include From the criteria given, it would appear that the following are necessary in the

selection of instructional methods (Yusuf, 2012) and (Danladi, 2006).

1. Instructional methods should be selected based on the type of instructional objectives that are

expected to be achieved. For example, objectives set at the psychomotor and cognitive domains will

require learner-centered teaching methods such as discussion, discovery, play way and assignment.

2. Cost implication: Some methods are more expensive than others. The method selected should not be

so expensive that both the teacher and the learner cannot meet the cost.

3. The subject to be taught: Demonstration and experimentation methods are appropriate for the

sciences.

4. The size and number of students: Discussion method is appropriate for small group of students but

inappropriate for a class of more groups of students or more than 500. If the class is large the teacher

needs teaching methods that can cater for the interests and needs of the entire pupil in the class.

5. The time available for the teacher to cover the scheme of work or course outline – many teachers opt

for lecture method when they have limited time to cover the course outline.

6. The interest of the learner: Interest disposes learners to be attentive during instruction.

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7. Media materials available: There are some teaching method that may require instructional materials

for effectiveness e.g. a Home Economics teacher cannot embark on using demonstration without the

required equipment and ingredients.

8. Other characteristics such as age class intellectual capacity and their background are also to be

considered in selection of instructional methods.

2.3 Classification of Integrated Science Instructional Materials

According to Ololobou, (2010) Integrated Science teachers need to exhibit

skill and understanding in the use of some instructional materials for maximum

results. The practical use of a few would be described below:

2.3.1 Print Materials

These are referred to as reading materials. Individuals go through them to gather

information about people, places, processes and events. In the class, they can be used

to provoke general class discussions or raise issues for in depth class analysis. The

class textbook is a basic material for the Integrated Science class. However, the

nature of Integrated Science require broad and current knowledge. Therefore, the

teacher need to expose the learners to other print materials such as encyclopedia,

new magazines, pamphlets, poems, supplementary readers. In using them, teacher

should not turn the class into a reading session even though developing reading skills

is important. These materials should be use to:

i) Provide organized subject matter for learners to study.

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ii) Develop the skill of identifying needed information on a variety of

issues person and processes.

iii) Solve identified group problems to suggest rational solutions.

iv) Stimulate thinking and interest

v) Create awareness of current matters of national and international

importance.

However for these purposes to be achieved the teacher must ensure that the content

of such materials is authentic and accurate, suitable to the learners and cultural

environment, free form distortions and bias. In addition, materials should be checked

for good illustrations, clear prints and durability. In addition, the teachers should

combine the use of reading materials with other categories of materials to practically

illustration and demonstrate processes.

2.3.2 Non-Print Material

(Chalkboard and charts) chalkboard and charts are common non-electrically

operated instructional materials, most Integrated Science teachers use. They are

visual aids.

(a) Chalkboard: The chalkboard is also a display materials salient points of

a lesson. It is therefore the focal point of learning in the class. Whether

they are the moveable or unmovable types, the chalkboard should be

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properly positioned for all learners to benefit from materials displayed on

them. To effectively use the chalkboard the teacher should abide by the

following standards (Ololobou, 2010).

i) On entering the classroom, the teacher should ensure that all materials

not relevant to the lesson be completely removed.

ii) Partition the available space into portions to allow for orderly

presentation of materials

iii) Begin writing on the chalkboard from the left to the right.

iv) Stand side ways while writing on the board. Teacher should not talk to

the board and back the class. He should explain points facing the class

and move sideways to write on the board.

v) Write and draw neatly and legibly.

vi) Endeavour to write straight not in a slanting, manner on the chalkboard.

vii) The materials on the board should be not be crowded.

viii) The chalkboard should be cleaned with a duster. Teacher must not use

the bare fingers to clean the board.

ix) After writing on the board, it is good practice to check materials from

the back of the class to ensure clarity and to correct any observed error

or mistake.

x) Constantly maintain the chalkboard to enable it serve its purpose.

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(b) Charts: These are visual materials that carry instructional messages on a

subject matter. The teacher through local available materials and simple tools

can easily prepare them. They could be diagrammatic representations, which

combine pictorial, graphic and written materials to give a clear and vivid

summary of a vital process, concept or a set of relationships. These are also

cheap commercially produce charts that can be procured and used to meet the

needs of a Integrated Science class.

Charts could be flow charts, organizational charts, time-line or flip charts. To

effectively use charts as instructional materials, the teacher needs to check and

master the content, and skillfully use them at the most appropriate time in the

lesson especially as a concept or process is being developed. They also need

to be adequately managed for learners to see and benefit from the information

they carry. It is professionally wrong for the Integrated Science teacher to ask

the learners to hold up charts in their hands while he explains points in the

lesson. Teacher should creatively devise means to hold up charts in the

classroom either on the walls or somewhere provided on the chalkboard

(Ololobou, 2010).

2.3.3 Electrically Operated Materials (Films and Slides)

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Films and slides are motion pictures, which contain series of episodes about people,

places and events. They are used to present information in sequence and to create

lasting impressions and experiences in Integrated Science. They are modern

materials that give learners the opportunity to learn through more than one of their

sense organs and are very useful substitute for travel. To ensure that slides and films

are used to achieve maximum results in terms of stated objectives, the teacher must

ensure the following:

i) They focus on an aspect of subject matter the class is interested in studying.

ii) Familiarize himself with the content and identify the specific features to

be observed by the learners. In other words, the teacher should preview the

film or slide to be shown to ensure that the audio and visual quality is okay.

iii) Prepare the learners by telling them the purpose of the lesson.

iv) Check to make sure that all the electrical gadgets to be used are in good

functioning condition.

v) Non-interruption of electricity supply.

vi) Organize follow-up activities through questioning to promote critical and

reflective thinking (ibid).

2.3.4Community Resources

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The community is the world around the school. It is a living resource centre, whether

it is big or small, rural or urban, traditional or modern. It is the Integrated Science

laboratory that needs to be used to create real life learning experiences. The

community has both human and non-human resources. The human resources are

persons with vast knowledge and skills, which can be utilized to enrich the classroom

learning experiences. Professionals and on-professionals like doctors, lawyers,

artisans, and masons can be use. In addition, there are non-human resources like

resource places such as government agencies, physical features, transportation

facilities, historical sites, industrial and business organizations, health facilities and

even farms.

The demand on the Integrated Science teacher on arrival in any school is to”

i) Make a community survey and identify materials relevant to various

aspects of the syllabus.

ii) Outline all the possible materials and keep the list close for use as may be

necessary.

iii) Organize study trips to resource places or invite resource persons to the

class.

iv) Mobilize the learners to assist in the collection of some of the materials

and to participate in community development activities (Ololobou, 2010).

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2.4 Utilization of Integrated Science Instructional Materials in Teaching

Instructional Materials for teaching are gathered and prepared ahead of time as

students cannot be expected to sit diligently while waiting for the teacher to prepare

the Instructional materials and collect activity supplied for teaching. Accessibility

depends upon your available storage and upon your own usage habits Abdullahi

(2009). Consider how much space you have for storing relevant Instructional

materials for the activity to be carried out in participation in Integrated Science

teaching, and the location(s).

Instructional materials do not do the whole teaching on its own only, but through

human effort. As the name implies, instructional material mean any materials that

aid the teaching of a subject or topic. Also without technology education, the

instructional materials cannot be in existence because educational technology is

based on instructional materials. According to Odo (2001:p,93) “In every school,

whether at the primary, secondary or tertiary levels of education, there are men and

materials that make it possible for a school to attain her desired goals”, These men

and materials constitute the resource base of the school as a whole. The importance

of instructional materials, which is embodied in educational technology in some

subjects taught in secondary schools especially Integrated Science, cannot be

overemphasized as various educational technologies has put forward. The use of

instructional materials in the school setting can be brought about through the use of

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appropriate teaching method. Anyele (1990) lamented that it is very disappointing

and disheartening that most of our secondary schools lack the necessary materials

for teaching and learning. In our society today, instructional materials which help in

the teaching of Integrated Science are lacking.

Ezi (1989) also said that, “it is a disgrace that over many years after the Nigeria civil

war, teachers in this country are still made to work under conditions, which are not

conducive to teaching and learning. There are no good infrastructural facilities (the

equipment lacking includes: chairs, tables, chalks) instructional materials like

textbooks, library, laboratory equipments, workshop equipments) and where such

facilities exist, they are not made available and well utilized in schools, yet the

teachers like the biblical Israelite is expected to make bricks without straws, and

when the children we teach do not perform well in their studies, the teacher will be

made the scape goat”.

The quality of the education and training on participation given to learners depends

greatly on the availability and adequacy of Instructional materials to adjust their

educational content to the changing skill requirements of the nation. In other words,

participation in Integrated Science classrooms are expected to provide knowledge

and training that satisfies the learners’ demands of the nation and the nation’s

economy Mayindo (2008). Institutional training should aim to equip learners with

useful skills and to improve their knowledge and capabilities in their participation in

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Integrated Science classroom, National Policy on Education (2004). Awobodu

(2001) has noted that availability and adequacy of Instructional materials in

participation facilitates learning and enhances student achievement because every

learner is involved in the activity given. Aromolaran (2003) noted that the lack of

Instructional materials in participation was a significant problem in the Nigerian

education system In the same vein, Tawari (1998) states that the Commission for

Education for now can only supply exercise books, chalks and such minor things.

Instructional materials are grossly inadequate for effective teaching/learning

process.

Ekpo (2004) aptly declared that instructional materials are often used to compensate

for the inadequacies of the sense organs or to reinforce the capacity of the dominant

organs. They must be relevant for the realization of the intentions of the curriculum.

Thus, there is a short fall in the available instructional materials and teachers are

unable to improvise with what is available in our environment in order to effectively

drive home the lessons taught. Therefore, the inadequacies of sense organs are not

compensated.

2.5 The attitude of teachers towards the use of instructional materials

Attitude as a concept is concerned with an individual way of thinking, acting and

behaving. It has very serious implication for the learner, the teacher, the immediate

social group with which the individual learner relates and the entire school system.

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Attitudes are formed as a result of some kinds of learning experiences. They may

also be learned simply by following the example or opinion of parent, teacher or

friend. This is mimicry or imitation, which also has a part to play in the teaching and

learning situation. What teachers like or dislike, appreciate and how they feel about

their learning or studies could have a significant effect on their students.

Unfortunately, however, many teachers seldom realize that the way they teach,

behave and interact with students can be more paramount than what they teach. In a

nutshell, teachers’ attitudes directly affect students’ attitudes. Teachers’ attitudes are

in turn influenced by their culture and belief system. Teachers’ attitudes towards

their students must be favourable enough to carry students along. When the learners

exhibit the expected behaviour or response, the value attached determines very

significantly the effectiveness of the learning processes in any aspect of education.

The development and progress of any country is a function of the standard of

education and the quality of its products. But, it is not often realized that it is the

teacher who holds the keys to the quality and quantity of education of any society.

According to Adeyanju (2005), teachers constitute a significant variable in the

teaching-learning process and effectiveness of schools. Quality teaching depends on

their academic standing and more importantly their attitudinal disposition towards

instruction and use of relevant instructional materials. It is in recognition of this fact

that the Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004) stated trenchantly that teacher education

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will continue to be given a major emphasis in all our educational planning because

no educational system can rise above the quality of its teachers.

Teaching and learning are gradually becoming scientific and more systematic with

less emphasis placed on them as arts. The approach to teaching, therefore, must

allow for factual and measurable evidence which can be achieved through systematic

activities and resource utilization of instructional materials.

The National Policy document on Education also emphasizes the need to adequately

utilize teaching-learning materials and equipment in the instructional process.

Unfortunately, the economic status of Nigeria makes it difficult to procure these

materials for use at the various levels of education. The need to improvise various

forms of instructional materials for use during lessons becomes imperative.

Teacher-made instructional materials, therefore, remain an important means of

lesson enrichment. In the absence of imported instructional materials for Integrated

Science instruction in secondary schools. Teachers must take decisions on the type

of instructional materials (locally-made or imported) they wish to use in a particular

Integrated Science lesson.

Many research evidences have indicated that the disposition of teachers towards use

of instructional material as a profession and, in many cases, coupled with the subject

matter, has a marked influence both on student attitude and their academic

performance. It does follow that teachers with positive disposition on use

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instructional material are always hardworking, committed and dedicated to their

jobs, often ready to make extra effort to realize his aims and objectives within the

classroom. But teachers with negative attitudes behave contrarily. It has been

observed that teachers teach Integrated Science in a way that merely requires the

students to listen, read and regurgitate. This depicts negative attitude to teaching.

Several research findings have confirmed the hypothesis that teachers’ attitude either

towards the use of instructional material affect their students’ achievement in and

attitude towards Integrated Science.

Thus, teachers’ attitude towards the use of self-made Integrated Science

instructional material constitutes a significant variable in the instructional process

and students’ performance. According to Okoro (2002) attitudinal factors have great

influence on learning and students’ achievement. Undoubtedly, attitude consists of

beliefs, feelings, interest, likeness, anxiety, perception and motivation. Attitude is

said to be the energizer of human behaviour. This explains why the attitude of

teachers towards the subjects they teach like Integrated Science and the instructional

materials they use influence the subjects offered, their students’ attitude and

consequently their performances. Some teachers exhibit a negative attitude towards

the use of locally made instructional materials for various reasons. To this category

of teachers, the use of self-made materials is burdensome, time consuming and that

such materials are of poor quality. While those that perceive their use positively

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prefer them to the imported ones because they are relatively cheaper, often up-to-

date in content readily available, customized according to specification to meet the

objective(s) of the lesson as well as involve both teachers and learners in realistic

problem solving activities (Ekpo-Eloma, 2010).

2.6 Environmental Factors influencing the use of Instructional Materials

In determining the instructional materials to be used for the conveyance of

information in Integrated Science, the followings were the factors influenced the use

of instructional materials. Bakare (1986) outlined the following factors:

a. Nature of the subject matter and the objectives to be attained: If the subject

matter is such that is diversified, it may involve the use of more than one type of

instructional material to achieve its objective.

b. Number of learners/students involved: If the number of learners to be taught

are up to one hundred (100), it would be more logical and efficient to use microphone

for the presentation of information.

c. The space of time available: Time is always limited and has its effect upon the

kind of instructional materials used. If there is ample time, the Integrated Science

teacher is more likely to use the chalkboard and other techniques that encourage

maximum participation. But when time becomes a limiting factor, the chalk and talk

would be preferred.

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d. Facilities and materials available: The kind and extent of physical facilities and

the instructional material available, including community resources, affect the

choice of instructional materials that can be used.

e. Interests and ability of Integrated Science teacher: Most teachers have

personal preferences and more security conscious in using selected instructional

materials. Other things being equal, the teacher should use the methods that he/she

likes or uses best. This does not mean that he/she should not be sensitive to other

development that supplement or improve upon the instructional materials he/she

frequently uses.

f. Effectiveness of instructional materials: All Integrated Science teachers should

evaluate instructional materials used in terms of the objectives to be accomplished,

and the situation at hand, and choose the one that will best meet the goals of the

programme. Balogun(1986) explained that school environment as the physical and

material resources otherwise known as infrastructural facilities available to teachers

and students to facilitate their teaching and learning. If the school environment is

not conducive and thus affect student academic performance. Abdulkareem(1992):

“resources –human and material resources are not equitably distributed among

schools in Nigeria” Fakomogbon(2000) observed that one of the causes of failure in

Nigerian Secondary Schools is inadequate school resources. He further explained

that it cannot be over-emphasized that the provision of adequate resources is a


27
prerequisite for adequate performance in schools. Most of our schools lack

necessary infrastructural facilities required for effective learning

2.7 Summary of the Literature Reviewed

In the review, the concept of Integrated Science instructional Material were

explained and was refers to as information repositories from the society sourced to

transfer the desired information to the learners during classroom instruction. Moreso

it was viewed as those apparatus of teaching which may include textbooks,

workbooks, charts, audio visual aids, specimens and other relevant things that will

attract students’ attention, and which should only be introduced at the appropriate

time by the teacher. The classification of instructional materials were identified and

these included printed, non printed materials which comprises of electrically

operated and Non electrically operated and Community resources. The

characteristics of instructional materials were also identified as including the

following appeal to senses (sound and sight), attract and hold attention, flexibility,

simplicity, visibility, clarity, accuracy, sufficiency, purposefulness etc. Also, the

significance of instructional materials in our educational setting was treated. This is

because, they are of prime importance to both dull and bright students as they aid

learning by aiding the sense of seeing, hearing etc., making lesson more interesting,

directing teaching to its goals, arousing students interest and motivating them to

learn and develop the sense of imagination and comparison. Attitude of teachers
28
toward the use of instructional material in teaching and learning was emphasized.

The environmental factors affecting the instructional materials usage were

discussed. Among which included number of learners or students involved, the

space of time available, facilities and materials available, interest and ability of

Integrated Science teachers and effectiveness of instructional materials.

29
CHAPTER THREE

3.0 METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction

This chapter is concerned with the method used in carrying out this study. The

chapter is presented under the following sub-heading; Research design, Population

of the study, Sample of size and sampling techniques, Instrumentation, Validity of

the instrument, Data Collection Procedure, Method of data analysis.

3.2 Research Design

The study employed descriptive survey design. According to Sambo (2005), a

survey research design is one in which group of people or items are studied by

collecting and analyzing data from only a few people or items considered being

representative of the entire group. The choice of survey research design is informed

by the fact that the research has wide scope and which allows a great deal of

information to be obtained from large population that is geographically dispersed.

3.3 Population of the Study

According to Nisiri et al, (2000) population is any theoretically specified aggregation

of items, elements or things with common characteristics or interest.

30
The target population used for this study comprises of all Integrated Science

Teachers in all Public Junior Secondary School of Apa local government area, Benue

State.

3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques

This study carries out this research with the entire population, this is as result of few

population of Integrated Science Teachers available in the study area. There are fifty

(50) Integrated Science Teacher in Public Junior Secondary School in Apa local

government area, Benue State. As the entire population is to be used, no sampling

and sampling techniques will be employed in the study.

3.5 Instrumentation

The instrumentation used for the collection of data is a structured questionnaire

titled “Factors Influencing the uses of Instructional Material in the teaching of

Integrated Science Questionnaire”. The questionnaire is divided into two sections.

The questionnaire is divided into two sections. Section A consists of the

demographic data of respondents while section B consists of statement to elicit

information on the Factors Influencing the Uses of Instructional Material in the

teaching of Integrated Science. The response mode is likert scale of measurement

which consists of the following:

Strongly Agree - SA - 4
31
Agree - A - 3

Disagree - D - 2

Strongly Disagree - SD - 1

For research question two only, the response mode is as stated below;

Very Available - VA - 4

Available - A - 3

Not Available - NA - 2

Not Very Available - NVA - 1

3.6 Validity of Instrument

In order to ascertain the content and construct validity of the instrument for the

study, the researcher ensured that the questionnaire covered the research

questions of the study and then subjected the initial draft to the scrutiny of the expert

in the department and the project supervisor. Some items were modified based on

expert advice before the researcher produced the final copy of the instrument which

was be used for the study.

3.6 Data Collection Procedure

32
The researcher visited eleven (11) public Junior Secondary School schools with the

consent of the school authority the questionnaires were personally administered on

the respondents. The researcher was present in the schools and made clarification

were necessary.

The respondents were given enough time to complete the questionnaires. The

numbers of questionnaires administered were fifty questionnaires the researcher’s

waited and collected them back at the same spot.

3.7 Method of Data Analysis

The data collected from the study would be analyzed usin g frequency

counts and mean statistics.

Any mean that is lower than 2.50 is rejected while any mean of 2.50 and

above is accepted i.e. SA = 4, A= 3, D=2 SD=1


4+3+2+1 10
= = 2.50
4 4

From the above Average mean (2.50) using Likert Scale rating, it signifies

that for every each question administered if lower than 2.50 it will be

rejected and if above 2.50 it will be accepted.

33
CHAPTER FOUR

4.0. DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

4.1. Introduction

This chapter is concerned with the data presentation analysis and interpretation using

the method already described earlier in Chapter three. The chapter also discusses the

major finding of the Factors Influencing the use of Instructional Material in the

teaching of Integrated Science in the Junior Secondary School in Apa local

government area, Benue State. Every data presented, analysed and interpreted are

based on the outcome of the respondents using questionnaire.

4.2 Presentation of Data

Presentation of data was on the report of the research findings based on the data

collected from teachers and students.

The first set of data (Section A) was presented in tables of frequencies and

percentages on Bio-data of the respondents. The second set of (Section B) which is

the research questions were presented in likert scale of measurement which consist

of frequencies and Measuring rate with relevant items. The decision was based on

any mean lower than 2.50 will be rejected while mean of 2.50 and above will be

accepted.

34
4.3 Analysis of Data and Interpretation

Section A: Bio- Data of Respondents

Table 4.1: Distribution of Respondents Sex

Sex Frequency Percentage (%)


Male 12 24%
Female 38 76%
Total 50 100(%)
Source: Field Survey, 2016

Table 4.1 above shows that 12(24%) of the respondent were males teachers while

38(76%) were female teachers from the various secondary schools that served in the

study.

Table 4.2: Age Distribution of Teachers

Age Frequency Percentage (%)


18-25 34 68
26-50 16 32
Total 50 100%
Source: Field Survey, 2016

Table 4.2 above shows that 34 respondent which represent 68% were age between

18-25 while 16 respondent which represent 32% were age between 26 -50.

35
Table 4.3: Academic Qualification of Teachers

Academic qualification Frequency Percentage (%)


N.C.E 28 56
B.Sc(Ed) / B.A(Ed) 18 36
Masters 4 8
Total 50 100%
Source: Field Survey, 2016

Table 4.3 shows that 28 of the Respondents representing 56% have NCE, 18 of the

Respondents which represents 36% have B.sc (Ed)/ B.A (Ed) and 4 of the

respondents representing 8% have Masters Degree Qualification. This shows that

the majority of the Respondents have N.C.E.

Table 4.4: Working Experience of Teachers.

Working Experience Frequency Percentage (%)


1-5years 21 42
6-10years 15 30
11 years and above 14 28
Total 50 100
Source: Field Survey, 2016

Table 4.4 shows that 21 respondent which represent 42% have their working
experience within 1-5 years, 15 respondents which represent 30% also have their
working experience within 6-10 years while 14 respondents which represent 28%
have 11 years and above as working experience.

36
4.5 Marital Status of Teachers

Marital Status Frequency Percentage (%)


Single 30 60
Married 20 40
Total 50 100
Source: Field Survey, 2016

Table 4.5 reveals that 30 of the respondents which represent 60% are still single

while 20 of the respondents which represent 40% are married.

37
SECTION B: Answering the Research Questions

Research Questions 1: What are the available instructional materials used in

the teaching of Integrated Science in junior secondary schools in Apa local

government area, Benue State?

Table 4.6: The available instructional materials used in the teaching of

Integrated Science

S/No Statement SA A D ̅
SD 𝒙 Decision

1. There is availability of printed 30 20 - - 3.60 Agree


materials for teaching of
Integrated Science
2. Teachers use appropriate 35 13 2 - 3.66 Agree
charts and diagrams for the
immediate illustration of
Integrated Science lesson.
3. Teachers makes use of 10 10 20 10 2.40 Disagree
community resource(market
place, Social Centers, Church,
Mosque etc) to enhance
teaching of Integrated Science
4. Pictures, models, drawings and 18 15 10 7 2.88 Agree
specimens influence students
academic performance in
Integrated Science
5. Good relevant textbooks were 25 15 8 2 3.26 Agree
necessary to influence the
academic performance of
students in Integrated Science
Overall Mean 3.16 Agree

Source: Field Survey, 2016

38
Table 4.6 above revealed the respondent responses on the available instructional

materials used in the teaching of Integrated Science. There is availability of printed

materials for teaching of Integrated Science has a mean score of 3.60, Teachers use

appropriate charts and diagrams for the immediate illustration of Integrated Science

lesson has a mean score of 3.66, Teachers makes use of community resource(market

place, Social Centers, Church, Mosque etc) to enhance teaching of Integrated

Science has a mean score of 2.40, Pictures, models, drawings and specimens

influence students academic performance in Integrated Science has a mean score of

2.88 while Good relevant textbooks were necessary to influence the academic

performance of students in Integrated Science has a mean score of 3.26. The overall

mean score of 3.16 signifies the overall acceptance that ICT pose the availability of

instructional materials used in the teaching of Integrated Science.

39
Research Questions 2: How adequate are the instructional materials used in

teaching of Integrated Science in junior secondary schools in Apa local

government area, Benue State?

Table 4.7: Adequacy of Instructional Materials used in teaching of Integrated

Science.

S/No Statement VA A ̅
NA NVA 𝒙 Decision

6. Availability of printed 25 16 6 3 3.26 Adequate


materials for teaching of
Integrated Science e.g.
Textbooks, Newspaper,
Teachers guide etc.
7. Appropriate charts. Pictures, 10 15 20 5 2.30 Not Adequate
models, and diagrams for the
immediate illustration of
Integrated Science lesson.
8. Electrical Operated Materials - 10 25 15 1.90 Not Adequate
like slides, film projector,
television, Radio etc.
9. Computer and internet 11 - 30 9 2.26 Not Adequate
facilities for Integrated
Science teaching.
10. Integrated Science Resource 10 9 11 20 2.18 Not Adequate
Person
Overall Mean 2.38 Not Adequate

Source: Field Survey, 2016

The result on table 4.7 expressed that the mean score of item 7, 8, 9 and 10 were

respectively lesser than 2.5. This applied that the respondents did not admit that

40
Appropriate charts. Pictures, models, and diagrams for the immediate illustration of

Integrated Science lesson, Electrical Operated Materials like slides, film projector,

television, Radio etc, Computer and internet facilities for Integrated Science

teaching and Integrated Science Resource Person Instructional Materials are

adequate for teaching of Integrated Science in Gwagwalada Public Junior Secondary

School while item 6 is greater than 2.5 which indicates that availability of printed

materials for teaching of Integrated Science e.g. Textbooks, Newspaper, Teachers

guide etc are instructional material adequate for teaching of Integrated Science. The

overall mean score of 2.38 signifies the inadequacy of Instructional Materials used

in teaching of Integrated Science.

41
Research Questions 3: What is the attitude of teachers towards the use of

instructional materials in the teaching of Integrated Science in junior secondary

schools in Apa local government area, Benue State?

Table 4.8: Response to the attitude of teachers towards the use of instructional

materials in the teaching of Integrated Science

S/No Statement SA A SD D ̅
𝒙 Decision
11. Integrated Science Teachers 11 - 31 8 2.24 Disagree
mostly ignore the use of
Electrical Operated machine as
Instructional Material when
teaching
12. Teachers mostly prefer chart and 29 18 - 3 3.02 Agree
chalkboard as Instructional
Material to teach Integrated
Science
13. Provision of a Integrated Science 16 15 10 9 2.76 Agree
Resource Person makes Teachers
work easier and simpler and this
make them happy.

14. Teachers see Integrated Science 17 15 10 8 2.82 Agree


Instructional Material as waste of
time as students overcrowd the
available Instructional Materials.

15. Teachers feel reluctant in using 25 15 10 - 3.30 Agree


Instruction Material in teaching
Integrated Science when salaries
are not being paid.
Overall Mean 2.83 Agree

Source: Field Survey, 2016


42
The result on table 4.8 expressed that the mean score of item 12, 13, 14 and 15 were

respectively greater than 2.5. This applied that the respondents admitted that

Teachers mostly prefer chart and chalkboard as Instructional Material to teach

Integrated Science, Provision of a Integrated Science Resource Person makes

Teachers work easier and simpler and this make them happy, Teachers see Integrated

Science Instructional Material as waste of time as students overcrowd the available

Instructional Materials and Teachers feel reluctant in using Instruction Material in

teaching Integrated Science when salaries are not being paid are the positive attitudes

teachers expressed towards the use of Integrated Science Instructional Material.

While the mean of item 11 which is less than 2.5. This implies that the respondent

did not have a positive attitude because Integrated Science Teachers mostly ignore

the use of Electrical Operated machine as Instructional Material when teaching. The

overall mean score of 2.83 signifies the overall acceptance that the attitude of

teachers towards the use of instructional materials in the teaching of Integrated

Science is positively effective.

43
Research Questions 4: What are the environmental factors influencing the use

of instructional materials in teaching of Integrated Science in junior secondary

schools in Apa local government area, Benue State?

Table 4.9: Response to the environmental factors influencing the use of

instructional materials in teaching of Integrated Science

S/No Statement SA A D ̅
SD 𝒙 Decision
16. Stable electricity to make use 20 15 10 5 2.70 Agree
of Electrical Operated
Materials when needed to be
use influences Integrated
Science Instructional material.
17. Educational Standard or level 25 20 5 - 3.40 Agree
of the Country influences
Integrated Science
Instructional material.
18. The population of students in 19 17 3 1 2.68 Agree
the community has influence
on the use of Integrated
Science instructional materials.
19. The physical facilities and 22 18 5 5 3.14 Agree
community resources available
influence Integrated Science
Instructional material.
20. Physical Ability of student 20 16 8 6 3.00 Agree
(Disability or Handicapped)
influence Integrated Science
Instructional material.
Overall Mean 2.98 Agree
Source: Field Survey, 2016

44
The result on table 4.9 expressed that the mean score of item 16-20 were respectively

greater than 2.5. This implied that the respondents totally admitted that Stable

electricity to make use of Electrical Operated Materials when needed to be use

influences Integrated Science Instructional material, Educational Standard or level

of the Country influences Integrated Science Instructional material, The population

of students in the community has influence on the use of Integrated Science

instructional materials, The physical facilities and community resources available

influence Integrated Science Instructional material and Physical Ability of student

(Disability or Handicapped) influence Integrated Science Instructional material. The

overall mean score of 2.98 signifies the overall acceptance that the environmental

factors influencing the use of instructional materials in teaching of Integrated

Science is effective.

4.4 Summary of Findings

Findings of the study are presented according to the purpose of the study and

research questions. From the results obtained, respondents agreed that;

i. The available instructional materials used in the teaching of Integrated

Science. The respondents agreed Teachers does makes use of community

resource(market place, Social Centers, Church, Mosque etc) to enhance

teaching of Integrated Science.

45
ii. The Adequacy of Instructional Materials used in teaching of Integrated

Science. The respondents agreed that printed materials for teaching of

Integrated Science e.g. Textbooks, Newspaper, Teachers guide etc are the

only Integrated Science Instructional Materials Adequately Available.

iii. Attitude of teachers towards the use of instructional materials in the

teaching of Integrated Science. The respondents majorly agreed that

Teachers mostly prefer chart and chalkboard as Instructional Material to

teach Integrated Science.

iv. The environmental factors influencing the use of instructional materials in

teaching of Integrated Science. The respondents agreed that Educational

Standard or level of the Country is the major environmental factor

influencing Integrated Science Instructional material.

4.5 Discussions of Findings

In the research questions above, the researcher seeks to determine the factors

influencing the use of instructional materials in School in Apa local government

area, Benue State . From the response,

Table 4.6 above which deals with identifying the level of availability of instructional

materials being used for teaching Integrated Science in secondary schools in Apa

local government area, Benue State., it has an overall mean of 3.16, this revealed

that printed materials for teaching of Integrated Science and appropriate charts and

46
diagrams for the immediate illustration of Integrated Science lesson were the major

instructional materials being used to influence student’s academic performance in

Integrated Science, this was because it was rated high by the respondents. These

findings coincided with Anyawu and Anyawu (1987) who stated that printed

material like textbooks and Charts were the most common instructional materials

available that teachers used to disseminate knowledge.

Table 4.7 seeks to examine the adequacy of the instructional materials used in

teaching of Integrated Science in secondary schools in Apa local government area,

Benue State. It has an overall mean of 2.38. It was found out based on the analysis

of the data collected from the respondents that printed materials for teaching of

Integrated Science e.g. Textbooks, Newspaper, Teachers guide etc were the most

adequate Integrated Science Instructional Material available out of other Integrated

Science Instructional Materials. This finding is in line with Bello (1990) who stated

that printed materials are generally cheap to be afforded which constitute it generous

availability and adequacy is Teaching and learning.

Table 4.8 above, which determine the attitude of teachers towards the use of

instructional materials in teaching of Integrated Science in secondary schools in Apa

local government area, Benue State, has an overall mean of 2.83, it was reveal that

teachers mostly prefer chart and chalkboard as Instructional Material to teach

Integrated Science, it was also revealed that Teachers feel reluctant in using

47
Instruction Material in teaching Integrated Science when salaries are not being paid.

This finding was buttressed by Adeyemo (1985) who stated that teachers attitude

should be positive towards the use instructional materials should.

Table 4.9 above examine the environmental factors influencing the use of

instructional materials in teaching of Integrated Science in secondary schools in Apa

local government area, Benue State, has an overall mean of 2.98, The items were

rated and it was observed that Educational Standard or level of the Country

influences Integrated Science Instructional material was the major environmental

factors affecting effective use of instructional materials to influence students’

academic performance in Integrated Science. Also it was found out that the physical

facilities and community resources available influence Integrated Science

Instructional material were environmental factors that can affect the effective use of

instructional materials. This finding agreed with Femi (1986) who listed

environmental factors affecting the use of instructional materials to include; Physical

ability of learners, Educational Standard of the country, stable electricity nature of

the subject matter and so on.

48
CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Introduction

This chapter presents a general summary of the present research work carried out by

the researcher. The outlines of areas discussed were the conclusions,

recommendations and suggestions for further studies.

5.2 Summary

The study was carried out to determine the Factors Influencing the use Instructional

Materials in the teaching of Integrated Science in Junior Secondary School in Apa

local government area, Benue State. In order to achieve this objective, four specific

objectives were raised which included: Identify the level of availability of

instructional materials being used for teaching Integrated Science in secondary

schools in Apa local government area, Benue State. In line with these objectives,

four research questions were formulated and four null hypotheses were posited . The

total population for the study is the total Public Junior Secondary Schools in Apa

local government area, Benue State which was made up of 50 Integrated Science

Teachers’.

Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 50

respondents made up of Integrated Science Teachers only were used for the study.

49
The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages

and frequencies.

5.3 Conclusion

Based on the findings in this study, the following conclusions were drawn:

a. The failure rate of students will be curtailed if Integrated Science teachers were

made to utilize appropriate and relevant instructional materials adequately while

teaching Integrated Science in junior secondary schools.

b. Students will perform better in Integrated Science when the instructional materials

possess the characteristics of appropriateness, relevancy, visibility, sufficiency,

simplicity and attraction, hence improve students academic performance in

Integrated Science.

c. Instructional materials were very important to influence students academic

performances in Integrated Science as they can simplify and clarify what is complex

and difficult to express in words.

d. The Integrated Science knowledge and subsequent performance of students in

junior secondary schools and Integrated Science as a subject becomes more

interesting to learn when it was taught by experienced, well committed, dedicated

and qualified Integrated Science teachers.

50
5.4 Recommendations

The following recommendations were made based on the findings of the study.

1. The Integrated Science teachers should endeavour to use and try to improvise

instructional materials for effective teaching of Integrated Science in the secondary

schools.

2. Government should ensure the adequate employment of dedicated and qualified

Integrated Science teachers to teach the subject in all secondary schools in the study

area and in the state.

3. Suitable and adequate textbooks on utilization of Integrated Science materials

should be made available to all secondary schools.

4. Government should make available funds and sponsor the teachers’ attendance at

conferences, seminars and workshops on utilization of Integrated Science

instructional materials.

5. The government through the Ministry of Education(MOE), should make available

Integrated Science instructional materials for use by teachers to enhance students’

academic performance in Integrated Science.

7. Parents should not be left out in the drive to provide and encourage the effective

utilization of Integrated Science instructional materials by their children in

secondary schools. Once parents and guardians realize the importance of

instructional materials in the education of their children and wards, they will not

51
hesitate to give moral, material and financial support for the use of Integrated

Science instructional materials.

5.5 Suggestions for Further Studies

The researcher suggests the following areas for further studies.

1. Research should also be carried out on teachers’ attitude towards

improvisation of teaching resources for effective teaching of Integrated

Science

2. This study concentrated on the influence of instructional materials on

students’ academic performance in Integrated Science, other subjects such as

Civic education, Geography etc should also be researched into, for a total

upliftment of education in Nigeria.

3. An assessment of competence teachers in the Integrated Science contents

should be carried out too. This is to assess the personnel handling the teaching

of Integrated Science and arrange for their capacity building.

4. The researcher also recommends the basic instructional materials for special

students (disables).

52
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56
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR INTEGRATED SCIENCE TEACHERS

SECTION A: PERSONAL DATS (BIO DATA)

1. Sex: Male ( ) Female ( )


2. Class: J.S.S 1( ) J.S.S 2 ( ) J.S.S 3 ( )
3. Age:
4. Marital Status: Single ( ) Married ( ) Divorced ( )
5. Highest Academic Qualifications
(a) First School Leaving Certificate ( )
(b) SSCE/WASSCE ( )
(c) NCE/OND ( )
(d) B.Sc, B.Ed /HND ( )
(e) M.Ed, Ph.D (Ed) ( )
6. Working Experience 1-5 ( ) 6-10 years ( ) 11years and above ( )

SECTION B

Please tick (√) of this option that most appropriately described your opinion

KEY

SA – Strongly Agree, A – Agree, D- Disagree, SD- Strongly Disagree

57
1. What are the available instructional materials used in the teaching of

Integrated Science in Junior secondary schools in Apa local government

area, Benue State?

S/N Statement SA A D SD

7. There is availability of printed


materials for teaching of Integrated
Science
8. Teachers use appropriate charts and
diagrams for the immediate
illustration of Integrated Science
lesson.
9. Teachers makes use of community
resource(market place, Social Centers,
Church, Mosque etc) to enhance
teaching of Integrated Science
10. Pictures, models, drawings and
specimens influence students
academic performance in Integrated
Science
11. Good relevant textbooks were
necessary to influence the academic
performance of students in Integrated
Science

2. How adequate are the instructional materials used in teaching of Integrated

Science in junior secondary schools in Apa local government area, Benue

State?

58
S/N Statement VA A NA NVA

12. Availability of printed materials for


teaching of Integrated Science e.g.
Textbooks, Newspaper, Teachers
guide etc.
13. Appropriate charts. Pictures, models,
and diagrams for the immediate
illustration of Integrated Science
lesson.
14. Electrical Operated Materials like
slides, film projector, television,
Radio,
15. Computer and internet facilities for
Integrated Science teaching.
16. Integrated Science Resource Person

3. What is the attitude of teachers towards the use of instructional materials in

the teaching of Integrated Science in junior secondary schools in Apa local

government area, Benue State?

S/N Statement SA A D SD

17. Integrated Science Teachers mostly


ignore the use of Electrical Operated
machine as Instructional Material
when teaching
18. Teachers mostly prefer chart and
chalkboard as Instructional Material to
teach Integrated Science
19. Provision of a Integrated Science
Resource Person makes Teachers work
easier and simpler and this make them
happy.
59
20. Teachers see Integrated Science
Instructional Material as waste of time
as students overcrowd the available
Instructional Materials.
21. Teachers feel reluctant in using
Instruction Material in teaching
Integrated Science when salaries are
not being paid.

60
4. What are the environmental factors influencing the use of instructional

materials in teaching of Integrated Science in junior secondary schools in

Apa local government area, Benue State?

S/N Statement SA A D SD

21. Stable electricity to make use of


Electrical Operated Materials when
needed to be use influences Integrated
Science Instructional material.
22. Location of the School either at rural or
urban area affects the use of Integrated
Science instructional materials.
23. The population of students in the
community has influence on the use of
Integrated Science instructional
materials.
24. The physical facilities and community
resources available influence
Integrated Science Instructional
material.
25. Parental contribution towards learning
also affect the use of Integrated
Science instructional materials

61