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Q.

1 Discuss social stratification and explain why man’s world is not just one society
or one culture? Answer your question in the light of M. Rafiq Razan and Saghir
Ahmed’s readings. (20)Q.2 Highlight social organization among the Swat Pathans
and highlight Hazarwal ethnicity in light of Fredrik Barth and Akber S. Ahmed’s
readings. (20)Q.3 Write an essay on the development and evolution of cultural,
political and economic institutions and the process of institutionalization focusing on
Pakistani “Society. (See Horton & Hunt and Will Durant prescribed readings)
(20)Q.4 Discuss the historical background of ‘Modern Economic and Political
System’ in light of Metta Spencer’s article. (20)Q.5 Analyze Amartya Sen’s
arguments ‘the main contribution of twentieth century is recognition of democracy
as universally relevant system’. Discuss (see prescribed reading of Amartya Sen).
(20)ASSIGNMENT No. 2(Units 6–9)Total Marks: 100 Pass Marks: 40Q.1 Discuss
the historical background of the ruling elites and dominant groups that emerged
during the colonial period in northwestern India (modern Pakistan). (20)Q.2
Critically analyze the correlation amongst migration, urbanization and politic
Pakistani society in light of Shahid Javed Burki reading. (20)Q.3 Evaluate social
power in Pakistani Society as discussed by Muhammad Rafique Raza in his article
entitled “SocialPower in Pakistani Villages, Elitist vs Pluralistic Conception”.
(20)Q.4 Write notes on the following; (20)i) Descriptive analysis of the political
system of Swatii) Evolution of family and religionQ.5 Write an essay on the status of
women in Pakistani society. Give your answer in the light of Sara Bano’s reading.
(20)Q.1 Discuss social stratification and explain why man’s world is not just one
society or one culture? Answer your question in the light of M. Rafiq Razan and
Saghir Ahmed’s readings. (20)

Ans: Defining Culture

Culture is a term used by social scientists, like anthropologists and sociologists, to


encompass all the facets of human experience that extend beyond our physical fact.
Culture refers to the way we understand ourselves both as individuals and as
members of society, and includes stories, religion, media, rituals, and even language
itself.It is critical to understand that the term culture does not describe a singular,
fixed entity. Instead, it is a useful heuristic, or way of thinking, that can be very
productive in understanding behavior. As a student of the social sciences, you
should think of the word culture as a conceptual tool rather than as a uniform, static
definition. Culture necessarily changes, and is changed by, a variety of interactions,
with individuals, media, and technology, just to name a few.Culture and
SocietyCulture is what differentiates one group or society from the next; different
societies have different cultures.