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POLYNESIAN ROOF TRUSS DESIGN

FOR CULTURAL AND EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CENTER

Supervisor:
Ir. Purwanto, M.T., M.Eng

Compiler:
Circle Wiryadhartha
Fikri Amrullah Muryasani 21010115120092
Faela Sufah 21010115120097
Mhd. Rony Asshidiqie 21010115140196

UNIVERSITAS DIPONEGORO
SEMARANG
2018
PREFACE

Thank to Almighty God who has given His bless to the compiler (Circle
Wiryadhartha) for finishing proposal entitled “Polynesian Roof Truss Design for
Cultural and Educational Development Center”. This proposal is used in order to
join International Roof Truss Design Competition 2018 that organized by
Universitas Gadjah Mada.

The compiler also wishes to express deep and sincere gratitude for those
have guided in completing this proposal:

1. Ir. Purwanto, M.T., M.Eng as the supervisor;


2. The lectures of Civil Engineering Department, Universitas Diponegoro;
3. Our family who always give supports and motivation;
4. Our beloved friends and all those who have helped that can’t mention one
by one.

This proposal contains the explanation of designing the polynesian truss for
cultural and educational development center. The structure analysis and the
advantages of the polynesian truss also completed.

Hopefully, this proposal can help the readers to expand their knowledge
especially about polynesian truss design.

Semarang, March 20th 2018


The Compiler,

Circle Wiryadhartha

ii
LIST OF CONTENT

TITLE .................................................................................................................. i
PREFACE .......................................................................................................... ii
LIST OF CONTENT ......................................................................................... iii
LIST OF FIGURE .............................................................................................. iv
LIST OF TABLE ............................................................................................... v
CHAPTER 1 PRELIMINARY .......................................................................... 1
1.1 Background ......................................................................................... 1
1.2 Aim ..................................................................................................... 1
1.3 Benefit/Advantage .............................................................................. 1
CHAPTER 2 THEORY ..................................................................................... 2
2.1 Polynesian Truss ................................................................................. 2
2.2 Dipterocarpus Kunstleri King ............................................................. 2
2.3 Standard for Wood Construction ........................................................ 3
CHAPTER 3 ROOF TRUSS DESIGN .............................................................. 4
3.1 Material Specification ......................................................................... 4
3.2 Design of Polynesian Truss ................................................................. 5
3.3 Design Load Analysis ......................................................................... 6
3.4 Structural Failure Analysis ................................................................. 8
3.5 Connection .......................................................................................... 9
CHAPTER 4 DRAWING .................................................................................. 10
REFERENCE ..................................................................................................... 11
APENDIX A: The Details of Polynesian Truss Selection Process ..................... 12
APENDIX B: The Details of Calculation and Analysis of Polynesian Truss with
Loading 250 kg ........................................................................... 16

iii
LIST OF FIGURE

Figure 2.1 The Shape of Polynesian Truss ......................................................... 2


Figure 3.1 Dipterocarpus kunstleri king (a), Plywood Plate (b), Bolt (c) ......... 4
Figure 3.2 Selection Process .............................................................................. 5
Figure 3.3 The Chosen Design of Polynesian Truss .......................................... 5
Figure 3.4 The Internal Forces of Polynesian Truss with Loading 250 kg ........ 7
Figure 3.5 The Failed Compression Member of Polynesian Truss .................... 8
Figure A-1. Model 1 ........................................................................................... 12
Figure A-2. Model 2 ........................................................................................... 12
Figure A-3. Model 3 ........................................................................................... 12
Figure A-4. Scoring Model 1, Model 2, dan Model 3 ........................................ 12
Figure A-5. Model 1.1 ........................................................................................ 13
Figure A-6. Model 1.2 ........................................................................................ 13
Figure A-7. Model 1.3 ........................................................................................ 13
Figure A-8. Model 1.4 ........................................................................................ 13
Figure A-9. Scoring Model 1.1, Model 1.2, Model 1.3, and Model 1.4 ............ 14
Figure A-10. Model 1.3.1 ................................................................................... 14
Figure A-11. Model 1.3.2 ................................................................................... 14
Figure A-12. Model 1.3.3 ................................................................................... 14
Figure A-13. Scoring Model 1.3.1, Model 1.3. 2, and Model 1.3.3................... 15
Figure B-1. Join Names of Polynesian Truss ..................................................... 16
Figure B-2. Member Names of Polynesian Truss .............................................. 16
Figure B-3. The Dimension of Polynesian Truss ............................................... 16
Figure B-4. The Polynesian Truss with Loading 250 kg ................................... 17
Figure B-5. Bolted Connection Geometry of Joint C ........................................ 23

iv
LIST OF TABLE

Table 3.1 Material Specification ........................................................................ 4


Table 3.2 Table Compression and Tension Analysis of Loading 250 kg .......... 7
Table 3.3 Table Compression and Tension Analysis of Loading 525 kg .......... 8
Table 3.4 The Number of Bolt Needed .............................................................. 9
Table B-1. Member Length of Polynesian Truss ............................................... 17
Table B-2. Edge Distance and Spacing Requirement ........................................ 23

v
CHAPTER 1
PRELIMINARY

1.1 Background
Cultural and educational is one of important thing in social life. The Culture
and educational issues are about many aspects of life, written in many print
media, interview, dialogue, and talk show in electronic media. The increments of
these cultural and educational issues automatically increase the amount of life
style especially in construction design. In other side, Indonesian is one the world’s
most diverse country, diversity is a central feature of Indonesian culture. It has
more than 300 ethnic groups, 700 languages and dialects that different each other.
It means, many construction design is affected from Indonesian culture such as
Polynesian truss.
Polynesian truss is one of the technologies in construction fields that have
been widely used since the royal period in Java. The truss is inspired of Joglo
houses, a traditional architectural building from Central Java. Polynesian truss has
two pitches, a lower pitch on the bottom part of roof and a steeper pitch on the top
part of the roof. The truss design is applied the structure of building but not too
widely used. However, the truss should not be underestimated because they have
unique structure characteristic beside the aesthetical view. So, it is one of good
alternative to make truss for the building.

1.2 Aim
The aim of this proposal is to study how to design the polynesian truss for
cultural and educational development center that has strength, light structure
weight, economic, workable and also has high aesthetic. Our analysis focuses on
polynesian truss with main material timber or wood and connection of truss is
bold. The span of polynesian truss is 1.5 meter.

1.3 Benefit/Advantage
The advantage, this proposal can be reference to the readers to know about
how to design polynesian truss for cultural and educational development center
with Dipterocarpus kunstleri king as the material.

1
CHAPTER 2
THEORY

2.1 Polynesian Truss


The polynesian truss is similar to Joglo roof shape of Javanese traditional
houses. It commonly uses teakwood (Tectona grandise) as the primary
construction for both the structure and the ornaments (Prihatmaji, Yulianto P.;
Kitamori, Akihisa; 2013)

Figure 2.1 The Shape of Polynesian Truss


(Source : www.aroostooktrusses.com)

2.2 Dipterocarpus Kunstleri King


Dipterocarpus kunstleri king is found in Indonesia, Peninsular Malaysia,
Borneo and the Philipines. The genus Dipterocarpus produces timber that is
known collectively as keruing. Dipterocarpus kunstleri grows as a canopy tree up
to 40 meters (130 feet) tall, with a trunk diameter of up to 1 meter (3 feet 3 inch).
The wood is included strong (strong class I-II) and durable (durable class III)
(Seng, 1990). The moisture content is 10.35%, the specific grafity is 0.7-0.75
g/cm3, and the density of air-dried is 0.73 g/cm3 (Kliwon, 1987). The wood has
resin ducts which occur singly or in short arcs as seen on end-grain surface. This
condition can make troublesome problems.
Sapwood and heartwood are moderately resistant to preservative treatments.
However, the wood should be treated with preservative when it is used in contact
with the ground (Forest Product Laboratory, 2010)

2
2.3 Standard of Wood Construction
The standard used in designing polynesian truss is based on American Wood
Council-National Design Specification for Wood Construction on Edition 2015
(AWC-NDS2015) which is Indonesian standard (SNI) referred to.
Tension design
Ft < Ft’ x Kf x Φt x λ

Compression design
Fc < Fc’x Kf x Φc x λ

Where:
Ft , Ft’ = reference and adjusted tension design value parallel to grain, MPa
Fc , Fc’ = reference and adjusted compression design value parallel to grain, MPa
Kf = format conversion factor
Φt,Φc = resistance factor
λ = time effect factor

3
CHAPTER 3
ROOF TRUSS DESIGN

3.1 Material Specification


The material used to design timber polynesian truss include Dipterocarpus
kunstleri king as the main material, plywood plate, and bolt. The following is
shown the specification of materials used in Table 3.1.
Table 3.1 Material Specification

Dipterocarpus kunstleri king


Specific gravity (G) 0.75 gr/cm3
Modulus of elasticity (E) 13081.660 MPa
Reference compression design value parallel to grain (Fc) 12.082 MPa
Reference tension design value parallel to grain (Ft) 28.245 MPa
Plywood Plate
Specific gravity (G) 0.75 gr/cm3
Thickness (t) 4 mm
Bolt
Specific gravity (G) 7.85 gr/cm3
Diameter (D) 9.525 mm
Length (l) 50 mm
Dowel bending yield strength of fastener (Fyb) 320 Mpa
(Source : Analysis result)

(a) (b) (c)


Figure 3.1 Dipterocarpus kunstleri king (a), Plywood Plate (b), Bolt (c)
(Source : indowoodseller.web.id)

4
3.2 Design of Polynesian Roof Truss
To get the best design of polynesian truss, we did some selection processes.
The best design is expected to have a good structure efficiency and also workable.
The summary of the selection processes are shown in Figure 3.2.
1 Study the stability of polynesian model
model model
truss in different bottom frame. 1 2 3

model
1

2 From step 1, use the best outer


model model model model
frame to get the best web. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4
Study the influence of
configuration type of polynesian model
1.3
truss.
3 Study the influence of segment
model model model
and dimension of polynesian 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3
truss.
model
1.3.1

Figure 3.2 Selection Process


(Source : Analysis result)

The explanation of selection process is detailed in APENDIX A: The Details


of Polynesian Truss Selection Process. The chosen design of polynesian truss is
shown in Figure 3.3.

Figure 3.3 The Chosen Design of Polynesian Truss


(Source : Analysis result)

5
The advantages of the chosen design of polynesian truss include:
1. Stability
Based on SAP2000 software analysis, The outer of the design are formed into
continuous section forms, it means the load can transform to restrain quickly.
2. Strength
The design has the highest ratio of load to structure weight (ratio F/w =
84,002) and the weight of structure itself is classified into the lightest than
other structures which are designed in selection process.
3. Structure Efficiency
The segment number of the design is proportional, not excessive. There is no
member that has length more than 400 mm so that no need to give special
treatment in constructing (e.g.: if the member length used is more than 400
mm, committee required to use the joint).
4. Workability
All the sections of the design are composed by single bars. This eases when
drilling the bar and installing the truss, so that it will shorten the construction
time. In the design, there is no member configuration that intersects each
other which can complicate in constructing the truss.
5. Economic and Aesthetics
The structure needs about 5.863 meters length of timber with section 30 mm
x 40 mm. Even if it is economic but still has high aesthetics because it is
formed into the shape of Joglo.

3.3 Design Load Analysis


The structure of chosen analysis truss design is analyzed with SAP2000
software. All the members of the truss uses single bar with section 30 mm x 40
mm with loading 250 kg that is put on the top joint at the middle of span. The load
cases are dead and live with load combination 1D+1L. The load factor uses 1
because the loads can be calculated exactly and to get the accuracy to the actual
loading test.

6
Figure 3.4 The Internal Forces of Polynesian Truss with Loading 250 kg
(Source : Analysis result)

Design load required can’t be less than 200 kg and not more than 300 kg.
According to the analysis, the design load is determined 250 kg. The value of
deflection when it reaches 250 kg load is 1.32 mm. The following is shown the
compression and tension analysis in Table 3.2.
Table 3.2 Table Compression and Tension Analysis of Loading 250 kg
Normal Force (N) Design (N) Checking
Member
Compression Tension P' T' P' T'
1 - 4162.98 14029.417 - OK
2 - 4154.98 14029.417 - OK
3 - 4154.98 14029.417 - OK
4 - 4154.98 14029.417 - OK
5 - 4154.98 14029.417 - OK
6 - 4162.98 14029.417 - OK
7 4346.61 - 9031.664 OK -
8 4343.19 - 9031.664 OK -
9 1427.12 - 9031.664 OK -
10 1427.12 - 9031.664 OK -
11 4343.19 - 9031.664 OK -
12 4346.61 - 9031.664 OK -
13 4.15 - 9031.664 OK -
14 - 8.05 14029.417 - OK
15 - 2.98 14029.417 - OK
16 1082.51 - 9031.664 OK -
17 2416.77 - 9031.664 OK -
18 266.44 - 9031.664 OK -
19 - 1119.98 14029.417 - OK
20 2416.77 - 9031.664 OK -
21 1082.51 - 9031.664 OK -
22 - 2.98 14029.417 - OK
23 - 8.05 14029.417 - OK
24 4.15 - 9031.664 OK -
(Source : Analysis result)

7
Details of the calculation and analysis of polynesian truss with loading 250 kg
is explained in Appendix B: The Details of Calculation and Analysis of
Polynesian Truss with Loading 250 kg.

3.4 Structural Failure Analysis


The structural failure occurs on the member of arch roof truss when it is
loaded up to 525 kg. The failed members are included into compression bar.

Failure Member Failure Member

Figure 3.5 The Failed Compression Member of Polynesian Truss


(Source : Analysis result)

Table 3.3 Table Compression and Tension Analysis of Loading 525 kg


Normal Force (N) Design (N) Checking
Member
Compression Tension P' T' P' T'
1 - 8657.7 14029.417 - OK
2 - 8649.69 14029.417 - OK
3 - 8649.69 14029.417 - OK
4 - 8649.69 14029.417 - OK
5 - 8649.69 14029.417 - OK
6 - 8657.7 14029.417 - OK
7 9039.23 - 9031.664 NOT OK -
8 9035.81 - 9031.664 NOT OK -
9 2983.62 - 9031.664 OK -
10 2983.62 - 9031.664 OK -
11 9035.81 - 9031.664 NOT OK -
12 9039.23 - 9031.664 NOT OK -
13 4.15 - 9031.664 OK -
14 - 8.05 14029.417 - OK
15 - 2.98 14029.417 - OK
16 2244.55 - 9031.664 OK -
17 5028.75 - 9031.664 OK -
18 571.8 - 9031.664 OK -
19 - 2315.71 14029.417 - OK
20 5028.75 - 9031.664 OK -
21 2244.55 - 9031.664 OK -
22 - 2.98 14029.417 - OK

8
Normal Force (N) Design (N) Checking
Member
Compression Tension P' T' P' T'
23 - 8.05 14029.417 - OK
24 4.15 - 9031.664 OK -
(Source : Analysis Result)

3.5 Connection
The connection is designed using bolt and plywood plate. The diameter of
bolt used is 9.525 mm with Fyb = 320 Mpa. The thickness of the plywood plate is
4 mm. The following is shown the number of bolt needed.
Table 3.4 The Number of Bolt Needed
Joint Member Z' Zu Zu/Z' Number of bolt
A=G 12 = 7 4235.886 4346.61 1.03 2
1=6 4235.886 4162.98 0.98 1
B=F 1=6 4235.886 4162.98 0.98 1
2=5 4235.886 4154.98 0.98 1
13 = 24 4235.886 4.15 0.00 1
14 = 23 4235.886 8.05 0.00 1
C=E 2=5 4235.886 4154.98 0.98 1
3=4 4235.886 4154.98 0.98 1
15 = 22 4235.886 2.98 0.00 1
D 3 4235.886 4154.98 0.98 1
4 4235.886 4154.98 0.98 1
16 4235.886 1082.51 0.26 1
19 4235.886 1119.98 0.26 1
21 4235.886 2416.77 0.57 1
H=L 7 = 12 4235.886 4346.61 1.03 2
8 = 11 4235.886 4343.19 1.03 2
24 = 13 4235.886 4.15 0.00 1
I=K 8 = 11 4235.886 4343.19 1.03 2
9 = 10 4235.886 1427.12 0.34 1
20 = 17 4235.886 2416.77 0.57 1
21 = 16 4235.886 1082.51 0.26 1
22 = 15 4235.886 2.98 0.00 1
23 = 14 4235.886 8.05 0.00 1
J 17 4235.886 2416.77 0.57 1
18 4235.886 266.44 0.06 1
19 4235.886 1119.98 0.26 1
20 4235.886 2416.77 0.57 1
M 9 4235.886 1427.12 0.34 1
10 4235.886 1427.12 0.34 1
18 4235.886 266.44 0.06 1
Total 57
(Source : Analysis result)

9
CHAPTER 4
DRAWING

Member Length Unit


1,6 375 mm
2,5 125 mm
3,4 250 mm
7,8,11,12,17,20 261 mm
9,10 391 mm
13,24 145,8 mm
14,23 195,3 mm
15,22 150 mm
16,21 291,5 mm
18,19 225 mm
Total 5863.2 mm

FRONT VIEW
UNITS IN mm

10
REFERENCE

American Wood Council-National Design Specification for Wood Construction


on Edition 2015 (AWC-NDS2015)
Forest Products Laboratory. (2010). Wood Handbook: Wood as An Engineering
Material, General Technical Report FPL-GTR-190. Madison, WI: U.S.
Department of Agriculture
Oey Djoen Seng. 1990. Berat jenis kayu dari jenis-jenis kayu Indonesia dan
pengertian beratnya kayu untuk keperluan praktek. Pengumuman LPHH No.
1, Bogor.
SNI 7973:2013
Suwarno Kliwon, M.I. Iskandar dan Paribotro Sutigno. 1987. Sifat Papan Blok
dengan Inti Limbah Eksploitasi Hutan Lampung. Vol. 4, No. 2 pp 16-20

11
APPENDIX A : The Details of Polynesian Truss Selection Process
1. Selection to get the best outer frame

Figure A-1. Model 1

Figure A-2. Model 2

Figure A-3. Model 3

5.29
5.38
Model 3
10586.83
7511.45

11,03
5.56
Model 2
15696.25
12333.48

3.57
6.04
Model 1
8648.6
6066.94

Deflection (mm) Weight (kg) Max Compression (N) Max Tension (N)

Figure A-4. Scoring Model 1, Model 2, dan Model 3

12
The phase of this selection process is to study the stability of polynesian truss in
different bottom frame. There are 3 alternatives of bottom frame that are given by
committe. The design are analyzed with simulation load on joint in the middle of
polynesian truss. Simulation load is 250 kg to every selection process.

2. Selection to get the best web (inner) frame

Figure A-5. Model 1.1

Figure A-6. Model 1.2

Figure A-7. Model 1.3

Figure A-8. Model 1.4

13
2.22
Model 1.4 5.74
5771.25
5633.6

2.24
Model 1.3 5.18
5758.62
5621.27

3.57
Model 1.2 6.04
8648.6
6066.94

2.27
Model 1.1 5,68
5769.84
5632.22

Deflection (mm) Weight (kg) Mas Compression (N) Mas Tension (N)

Figure A-9. Scoring Model 1.1, Model 1.2, Model 1.3, dan Model 1.4

3. Selection to get the best web segment and dimension of polynesian truss

Figure A-10. Model 1.3.1

Figure A-11. Model 1.3.2

Figure A-12. Model 1.3.3

14
1.28
5.7
Model 1.3.3
4355.8
4171.77

1.32
5.42
Model 1.3.2
4350.83
4167.03

1.32
5.28
Model 1.3.1
4346.61
4162.98

Deflection (mm) Weight (kg) Max Compression (N) Max Tension (N)

Figure A-13. Scoring Model 1.3.1, Model 1.3. 2, and Model 1.3.3

15
APPENDIX B: The Details of Calculation and Analysis of Polynesian Truss
with Loading 250 kg

Figure B-1. Join Names of Polynesian Truss

Figure B-2. Member Names of Polynesian Truss

Figure B-3. The Dimension of Polynesian Truss

16
250 kg

Figure B-4. The Polynesian Truss with Loading 250 kg

Table B-1. Member Length of Polynesian Truss

Member Length Unit


1,6 375 mm
2,5 125 mm
3,4 250 mm
7,8,11,12,17,20 261 mm
9,10 391 mm
13,24 145,8 mm
14,23 195,3 mm
15,22 150 mm
16,21 291,5 mm
18,19 225 mm
Total 5863.2 mm

17
a. Tension Design Calculation
1. Data:
Tension force (Tu) = 4162.980 N
Specific gravity (G) = 0.75 gr/cm3
E = 16000xG0,7
= 13081,660 MPa
Ft = 12.082 MPa

2. Applicaility Adjustment Factors:


Ф (Resistance factor) = 0.8 (AWC-NDS2015 Table 2.3.6)
λ (Time effect factor) = 0.8 (AWC-NDS2015 App N.3.3
Kf (Format conversion factor) = 2.7 (AWC-NDS2015 Table 2.3.5)
CM (Wet service factor) = 1 (AWC-NDS2015 Table 4A)
Ct (Temperature factor) = 1 (AWC-NDS2015 Table 2.3.3)
CF (Size factor) = 1 (AWC-NDS2015 Table 4A)
Ci (Incising factor) = 0.8 (AWC-NDS2015 Table 4.3.8)

3. Section Dimension:
H (Height of section) = 40 mm
B (Width of section) = 30 mm
Ag (Area of gross section) = H*B = 40 mm*30 mm =1200 mm2

4. Step of Calculation:
An = Ag x 0.7
= 1200 x 0.7
= 840 mm2
Ft’ = Ft x CM x Ct x CF x Ci x Kf x Φt x λ (AWC-NDS2015 Table 4.3.1)
= 12,082 x 1 x 1 x 1 x 0.8 x 2.7 x 0.8 x 0.8
= 16.702 MPa
T’ = Ft’ x An
= 16.702 x 840
= 14029.417 N

18
Checking
Tu ≤ T’
4162.980 N ≤ 14029.417 N (OK)

b. Compression Design Calculation


1. Data:
Compression Force (P’) = 4346.610 N
Specific gravity (G) = 0.75 gr/cm3
E = 13081.660 MPa
Emin (Appendix D; hlm 173) = E x (1-1,645 x COVB) x 1.3 / 1.66
= 13081.660 x (1-1,645 x 0.25) x 1.3 / 1.66
= 4778.845 MPa
Fc = 28.245 MPa
L (member length) = 261,010 mm

2. Applicabilityof Adjustment Factors:


Φc (Resistance factor) = 0.9 (AWC-NDS2015 Table 2.3.6)
λ (Time effect factor) = 0.6 (AWC-NDS2015 App N.3.3)
Kf (Format conversion factor) = 2.4 (AWC-NDS2015 Table 2.3.5)
CM (Wet service factor) = 0.8 (AWC-NDS2015 Table 4A)
Ct (Temperature factor) = 1 (AWC-NDS2015 Table 2.3.3)
CF (Size factor) = 1 (AWC-NDS2015 Table 4A)
Ci (Incising factor) = 0.8 (AWC-NDS2015 Table 4.3.8)

3. Section Dimension:
H (Height of section) = 40 mm
B (Width of section) = 30 mm
Ag (Area of gross section) = H*B
= 40*30 =1200 mm2
4. Steps of Calculation:
Fc’ = Fc . CM . Ct . Cf . Ci . Kf . Φc . λ
= 28.245 x 0.8 x 1 x 1 x 0.8 x 2.4 x 0.9 x 0.6 = 23.427 MPa

19
Le = Ke .L
= 1 x 261.010
= 261.010 mm
CT =

= 1.015
Emin’ = Emin x Ct x Ci x CT x 1.76 x 0.8
= 4778.845 x 1 x 1 x 1.015 x 1.76 x 0.8
= 6828.262 MPa

FcE =

= 8.239 MPa

Cp = √

= √

= 0.321
FC* = Fc x CM x Ct x Cf x Ci x Kf x CP x Φc . λ
= 28.245 x 0.8 x 1 x 1 x 0.8 x 2.4 x 0.321 x 0.9 x 0.6
= 7.526 MPa
P’ = Fc’ . Ag
= 7.526 x 1200
= 9031.664 N

Checking
Pu ≤ P’
4346.610 N ≤ 9031.664 N (OK)

20
c. Connection Calculation
1. Data:
Zu = 4346.61 N
D (Diameter of bolt) = 9,525 mm
l (Length of bolt) = 50 mm
tm = 20 mm
ts = 20 mm
Fyb (Yield strength ) = 320 MPa

2. Applicabilityof Adjustment Factors:


CM (Wet service factor) = 1 (AWC-NDS2015)
Ct (Temperature factor) = 1 (AWC-NDS2015)
CG (Group action factor) = 1 (AWC-NDS2015)
Cd (Penetration depth factor) = 1 (AWC-NDS2015)
Ceg (End grain factor) = 1 (AWC-NDS2015)
Cdi (Diaphragm factor) = 1 (AWC-NDS2015)
Ctn (Toe-nail factor) = 1 (AWC-NDS2015)
Kf (Format conversion factor) = 3.32 (AWC-NDS2015 Table 2.3.5)
Φz (Resistance factor) = 0.65 (AWC-NDS2015)
λ (Time effect factor) = 0.6 (AWC-NDS2015 App N.3.3)

3. Step of Calculation
a) Side bearing strength (Fes)
Fes = 70 x G
= 70 x 0.75
= 52.5 MPa
b) Main bearing strength (Fem)

Fem =

=

= 39,498 Mpa

21
c) Re =

= 0.752
d) Rt =

=1
e) Reduction term (Rd)
According to AWC-NDS 2015, for bolt with D=9,525 mm, the
reduction term is 4 mm.
f) Lateral design values (Z)
ZIm =

= 1561.317 N
ZIs =

= 4150.519 N

K3 = (-1)+√

= (-1)+√

= 1.384

Zlv = √

= √

= 3271.459 N
g) Adjusted lateral design values (Z’)
Z’ = Z x Cm x Ct x CG x Ceg x Cdi x Ctn x Φz x Kf
= 3271.459 x 1 x 1 x 1 x 1 x 1 x 1 x 1 x 0.65 x 3.32
= 4235.886 N

22
h) Number of bolt
Zu  n x Z’
4346.610 N  n x 4235.886
n  1.026  2

d. Bolted Connection Geometry (AWC-NDS2015 Table 12.5.1D and Table


12.5.1E)
Diameter of bolt (D) = 9,525 mm
Length of fastener in wood member (l) = 20 mm
Table B-2. Edge Distance and Spacing Requirement

Minimum Edge
Direction of Loading Value
Distance/Spacing
Parallel to grain 1.5 D 15 mm
Perpendicular to grain (5l + 10D)/8 20 mm
Spacing 4D 40 mm

The following is shown bolted connection geometry of joint C.

Figure B-5. Bolted Connection Geometry of Joint C

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