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SBS Senior Capstone

Armando Arias



By Marijeanne Santina
California State University Monterey Bay

Spring 2019

SBS 300: SBS Major ProSeminar: Theory

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Tufekci, Z. (2017). Part I: Making a Movement. In Twitter and Tear Gas: The Power and
Fragility of Networked Protest (pp. 3-112). New Haven & London: Yale University Press.[348

The topic of Part I of this book is the development of technology and the communities it creates
that inspire social movements and political change across the globe.

The author’s main points are: 1… 2… 3… 4….

1. In Chapter One, the focus is on the development of a technologically connected public.

Tufekci begins the chapter with a story of her grandmother and explains how without
mass media and a national education system people are isolated from each other. This can
be seen in that time through language, and the lack of a national language for Turkey.
Mass media has changed community, culture, and experiences by connecting
communities from all around the world.
2. Chapter 2 focuses on censorship that is influenced by the wealthy and the powerful
people in local communities that own media outlets. There can be media blackouts on
certain subjects that people in power don’t want the public to be aware of, but with the
digitally networked public sphere people can go on their cell phones and figure out the
real stories. Now especially ordinary people can document news and report the story in
real time using cell phones and social media like Twitter.
3. Chapter 3 is centered on the success and failures of organizing social movements without
any structured leadership. Tufekci makes it clear that the lack of structure is due to
technology but explains that it is due to political choices.
4. Chapter 4 focuses on the positive features of digital tools, focusing specifically on what is
used during a protest. Cell phones act as integrating screens instead of isolating people,
and it allows protesters to share their own feelings and helps them find a community of
similar thinking people. Technology also helps causes get more attention by local and
global audiences increasing the participants.

Tufekci uses a variety of sources, data, and evidence to support her main points. These include
anecdotes about her grandmother and other people she has interviewed during her research. She
also speaks about events that are apart of recent history that showcase her theories and
perspective on social media. An example of this is when she researches Tahrir Square and says
that Facebook made it easy as a click to invite people to join a revolution. Tufekci also uses facts
to back up her main points throughout Part 1 of this book. For example during the Gezi protest
she illuminates the difference between CNN International and their live stream of the protest, in
comparison to CNN Turkey who was shown on a documentary of penguins. This shows the
censorship of media due to the fact media outlets are controlled by prominent wealthy figures.
She also utilizes other researchers findings such as Doug McAdam, a sociologist who studied the
success of the civil rights movement in the U.S.
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The author’s argument is convincing to me because the use of factual evidence and supporting
theories used by the author. She also shares her personal experience living out her theories which
allows me to further understand her perspective on technology in society.

I found these chapters helpful in understanding the timeline of technology in society, especially
during recent social movements around the world.

Tufekci, Zeynep. "Part II: A Protester’s Tools." In Twitter and Tear Gas: The Power and
Fragility of Networked Protest, 115-164. New Haven & London: Yale University Press, 2017.

The topic of Part II of this book is addressing the technological advantages for organizing people
with the same ideals to protest for their beliefs. Part II includes three chapters which highlights
the negative aspects of social media while acknowledging the positives of community that come
from an online network.

1. The author’s main points in Chapter 5 is the focus on technologies effect on people and
vice versa. She acknowledges that this is the most abstract chapter within the book about
the differences in pre-internet society vs. post internet society. She states that technology
has become a new architecture of connectivity.

2. The author’s main point in Chapter 6 was the focus on platforms and their use of
algorithms. Tufekci points out the timeline of internet platforms which she says blogging
has been replaced Facebook. She also addresses the complex effects of algorithmic
filtering which can lead to more polarization and deepen the filter bubble.

3. In Chapter 7 the focus was on names on internet platforms and how names effects
connection. There are both positives and negatives in using names, many use fake names
on social movement pages to protect their identities. While some people use fake names
to join communities that encourage socially deviant behavior, such as child pornography.

Tufekci uses a variety of sources, data, and evidence to support her main points. These include
referencing other major theorist such as Barlow, and then challenges his theories in Chapter 5.
Tufekci also uses personal experience, such as her use of Twitter to coordinate rides to the
airport with people that were at the same conference as her. Although it may seem trivial, it is
historically significant because internet wasn’t around twenty years ago.In Chapter 7 she also,
uses a graph to illustrate the differences in platforms like Reddit, 4chan. She describes the
affordances of identity and reputation between different platforms.

The author’s argument is convincing to me because her challenge to the thought that everyone is
separate from their actual selves on the internet vs real life. She believes that our social facts
(gender) can’t be wiped from us the minute we get on a platform. It is easy to find social profiles
that are entirely based on gender or race which are two major social facts.

I found chapter 6 insight on the mathematical filtering that is used on social media outlets. I was
aware that Facebook, and Twitter both use “likes” or “favorites” to dictate what post are on the
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top of a personal feed but I often don’t think about it when using both apps. As a user of both
platforms I feel like I need to be aware of the feed manipulation occurring on social media.

Tufekci, Z. (2017). Part III:After the Protests. In Twitter and Tear Gas: The Power and Fragility
of Networked Protest (pp.189-277).New Haven & London:Yale University Press.

The topic of Part III of this book is focusing on the aftermath of a movement and its
effects on the social and political sphere.

The author’s main points are:

1. Signaling Power and Signaling to power, which focus on the definition of capacity when
it comes to social movements and how movements can potentially use the biology theory
of signaling.
2. Governments Strike Back during and after a protest to censor media and communication
between people in their country and the globe. She outlines keys to having successful
censorship as denial of attention, focus and credibility by governments attempting to
derail a movement.
3. Epilogue: The Uncertain Climb Tufekci encourages society as a whole to grow and keep
moving with technology but also keep asking questions about technology and digital
communication in movements.

Tufekci uses a variety of sources, data, and evidence to support her main points. A piece
of evidence that Tufekci uses to illustrate censorship is on page 228 when she describes the
Barbara Streisand effect. Streisand attempted to control the media from showing her Malibu villa
from being showed in a project showing coastal erosion. Her attempts to control it just drew
more attention to it. It was then coined by Mike Masnick, as the Streisand Effect. This effect can
be applied to the government attempting to shut down communications during a movement. She
also addresses China as a major power of censorship, through their use of selective censorship
and distraction. China for example has a firewall put in place named “The Great Firewall” that
blocks information from leaving and entering the country. The first major confrontation between
the Chinese government and the people was called “Occupy Central” (2014). The use of tear gas
outraged the people especially the youth voices in China.

The author’s arguments get repetitive throughout the novel, especially the use of Tahrir
Square as an example. Although one argument I found interesting was the distinctions between
protest and focus group. Huge numbers of people don’t make a change there has to be a set
narrative, affect electoral and institutional changes, and disrupt the status quo. It was incredibly
interesting to hear the distinction and how some people argue that movements are just a specific
niche of people that have issues with the status quo. I found these chapters helpful in
understanding, the aftermath of a protest and understanding the actions the government and
others in power take to control society.

Denov,Myriam and Maclure,Richard ““I Didn't Want to Die So I Joined Them”: Structuration
and the Process of Becoming Boy Soldiers in Sierra Leone” Terrorism and Political Violence,
vol.18, 2006, p119–135. [16 pages]
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The article examines the personal accounts of a handful of former boy soldiers who
worked for the Revolutionary United Front (RUF), the rebel force that fought against the Sierra
Leonean government during the Sierra Leone civil war. The child soldiers terrorized a great deal
of the country’s population, the goal of the article is to show how “the exercise of free will, often
manifested in extraordinary violence, but occasionally as well in subtle resistance, was bound up
with the unique historical and sociocultural forces in which these boys grew up.”(121) Analyzing
each narrative of the boys involved it the article looks past the traditional perspectives of the
creation of children soldiers and focuses on capacities of individual will, instead of discounting
historical and socioeconomic contexts. In this paper, through the lens of structuration theory that
proposes the interconnectedness of structure and agency, it is examined how boys were
transformed organized soldiers. The authors conclude that when “governance function to serve
the interests of a privileged few, and when family and community structures are weakened as a
result of impoverishment and civil strife, children can be easily attracted or co-opted to join
forces of social disruption and violence that ostensibly aim to transform the status quo.” (130)
The goal is to get the reader to understand that there are social forces that lead children to be
easily palpable in times of poverty, violence, and social disruption. At the end of the article the
authors highlight there is no rehabilitation back into society for children involved in wars such as
these, and encourages people to encourage young people to make their own decisions. Overall
this article was interesting to read, especially the personal anecdotes given by former child
soldiers involved in the war.
Huisman, K. (2010). Developing a Sociological Imagination by Doing Sociology: A Methods-
based Service-learning Course on Women and Immigration. Teaching Sociology, 38(2), 106-118.
Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/25677740 [12 pages]
The article focuses on developing a sociological imagination by doing focusing
specifically on a service learning course for undergraduate college students that empowers
students to listen to the stories of people that have a different sociological perspective being
immigrants. The author uses C. Wright Mills theory of sociological imagination, which is the
idea that people should be able to step outside their own societal perspective and see the world
from a different view. This article focus on letting the students to connect the theory of
sociological imagination, research and their own life experience. The service learning class
allows students to create relationships with immigrants in their community by documenting their
experiences and creating a portfolio. The author uses post-class surveys to evaluate the extent to
which students feel they understood the concept of sociological imagination through the service
learning work. The author makes it clear that service learning is important for students because it
expands their perspective, while giving them experience in oral history interviewing. The author
supported her argument by using Mill’s theory as a measure of growth on her student's
perspective. Although I find the article interesting, I believe more research on multiple classes
should be done before concluding that service learning is beneficial to the growth of a student.
Jung, Moon-Kie. “Symbolic and Physical Violence: Legitimate State Coercion of Filipino
Workers on Prewar Hawai'i.” American Studies, vol. 45, no. 3, 2004, p. 107. [31 pages]

The article describes the Hanapçpç Massacre which was the most violent labor based
conflict in Hawaii’s history. The main question in the article proposed by the author was, “How
was the massacre of Filipino strikers possible, and how did it not raise public expressions of
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doubts of legitimacy?”( Jung 114) After outlining the theory of symbolic violence the author
states that because of the racial and gender symbolic violence Filipino men in Hawaii have been
subject to it legitimizes fatal violence used against them. Jung analyzes how racial, and
gendered, symbolic violence made it possible and legitimate to use deadly physical violence
against Filipino working-class men. To do so he defines symbolic violence using Pierre
Bourdieu’s definition as the kind of invisible, common violence that is exercised through
cognition and misrecognition, knowledge and sentiment, often with the unwitting consent of the
dominated. He challenges Bourdieu’s theoretical framework and calls it an overextension of
violence. Jung elaborates that violence is synonymous with domination and tied to oppression
which ties to the example of the Filipino workers being discriminated against. He explains the
analysis justifiable use of violence as doxic asymmetry something not addressed by Bourdieu.
By outlining the history of unfair labor conditions for laborers on sugar plantations he establishes
the history of oppression focusing on the lense of race and gender on the Hawaiian islands. Jung
cites other studies and theories that serve as evidence of the symbolic violence that lead up to the
use of deadly violence “A survey study of Hawaii's Japanese later showed similar antipathy
toward Filipinos - similar both in intensity and in kind (Masuoka 193 1 ). Suggesting a general
pattern for Hawaii, the Chinese also held Filipinos in the lowest regard (Masuoka 193 1).”(119)
This historical bias supports Jung’s theories throughout this article. The author supported his
main arguments through historical evidence, established theories, and many surveys showing
that he had credible evidence to create the claims that he had.
Donde, S. s. (2017). College Women's Attributions of Blame for Experiences of Sexual Assault.
Journal Of Interpersonal Violence, 32(22), 3520-3538. [18 pages]
The article is about a research study conducted on college women that have experienced a
rape, the goal of this study was to discover what externals sources are blamed and the amount of
self blame experienced after an assault. Out of 129 participants the results show that “rape
survivors attributed the most blame to themselves and to society, some blame to the situation,
and the least blame to the male involved.” (page 3520) The author uses a variety of studies and
theories to establish a strong background knowledge in the studied attributions of blame after a
rape. The study focuses on social psychology, by studying the individuals affected and the
societal reaction to rape. In a broad societal perspective there is a common perspective that
blaming a survivor after a sexual assault is linked to situational components of the rape. Some of
these components have to do with level of intoxication, clothing, and race of the person
assaulted. The study concluded that around 52% of women reported that the male involved was
“not at all” to blame for what happened and instead a majority of women reported engaging in
self-blame (62%) and societal blame (65.9%). The author concludes the article with a summary
of all the findings, and a hope to inspire more research on the topic. The author supported her
research well, by the plethora of other work cited throughout the article, although she could have
supported her analysis further using prominent social psychological theories. Although women
are predominantly the victims of sexual assault, men could have been included in this study to
show the differences and similarities in reactions after a sexual assault.
Kafer, Alison. Feminist, Queer, Crip, Indiana University Press, 2013. ProQuest Ebook Central,
https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/csumb/detail.action?docID=1189107. [259 pages]

The topic of this book is disability and the future of disabled people in the United States.
The main perspective is the, future of disabled people is a political decision and not an individual
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affliction of being a disabled person. Kafer is critical of the assumptions on disability in

American culture, stating that futures of disability are undervalued and undesirable.Throughout
the book she outlines her attitude towards the different models of disability; political,medical,
individual, and relational model, and addresses her own form of viewing disability as a
political/relational model. Kafer’s model is built on extending social and minority model
structures but uses her own identity as a feminist and crip.

Chapter one, focuses on the importance of education of disability and the future of crips.
She defines “crip time” as a flexible amount of time, based on the abilities individual capabilities
they have. It is the way in which people see the world and the recognition of ableist barriers
which may cause disabled people to need more time to navigate the world. She also defines
“curative time” as the mindset that sees disability and anticipates medical intervention.

Chapter two, is centered on medical intervention as a means of creating more time for
people with disabilities. Medical interventions are using more advanced technology to weed out
disabilities in the U.S. and are praised by society for medical movements to rid society of
disabilities. The main focus of chapter two is the case of Ashley X’s medical treatment which her
parents dictated and she had no say over due to her disability. Her parents had doctors remove
her uterus and breast and kept her at the developmental age of a five year old. There was a choice
between institutionalizing her potentially in the future, or her getting the treatment in hopes of
staying with her family. The case of Ashley X shows the lack of feminist intervention in the case
of Ashley and the extent to which people go to get rid of disabilities.

Chapter three, concentrates on Marge Piercy’s version of utopia, which although it

includes people of every color, gender, and sexuality it eliminates disability and afflictions.
Kafer then examines the case of a deaf lesbian couple, who had a child through a family friend,
not a sperm bank because sperm banks don’t allow people with disabilities to donate sperm. This
became an international news story, and the women were ridiculed for their hopes of having a
deaf child. Kafer also states in the chapter that reproductive technologies are biased against
disabled women, women of color, and women that are not heterosexual. Often these groups of
women are discouraged from convincing by doctors, friends, and society as a whole.

Chapter four, also focuses on reproduction, but on a societal level in the United States
through the organization Foundation for a Better Life, which aims to create a community of
shared values, constructed of model citizens. They use billboards to spread their message,
showing images of strength, wholesomeness, and goal values for all citizens defined by the FBL.
Although they do include disabled people in their campaigns they do so in a way that goes
against Kafer’s theoretical framework. The campaigns show individuals overcoming, and
triumphing over their disability. That view on disability goes against Kafer’s message throughout
the book.

Chapter five, alters its focus from reproduction to the relation of cyborg and the crip.
Throughout the chapter Kafer mentions theorist like Anne Balsamo, and Jennifer Gonzalez but
her main focus is on Donna Haraway's. Kafer is critical of Haraway’s feminist theory work
which is ecofeminism. Haraway views disability and the cyborg as an individual medical issue
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which is contradictory to Kafer. Haraway’s perspective removes disabled people from the
political sphere of influence, Kafer is encouraging people to be more active in the politics.

Chapter six, follows along the path of cyborg theory, but focuses on ecofeminism. Kafer
states that it is a biased movement, because it has assumptions on what a body is supposed to
look like, and what a body should be able to do in the environment. She argues that being
disabled or having an affliction makes individuals see the world a different way in relation to the
access of a physical environment. She states three different theoretical frameworks for seeing the
future, environmentalism, genetic utopianism, and cyborg theory and is critical of all three
because of their normalization of the disabled body.

Chapter seven, is the final chapter in the book where Kafer offers her solution to a more
politically active future of disability. She uses queer theorist, feminist theories, and disability
academics to reinforce her own theories on the participation of disabled people in policies. The
lack of space and accessibility for people with disabilities leads to a lack of participation and
voice for the future of people. In this chapter she includes “disability narratives, trans and
gendered narratives”(Kafer 218) which show common accessibilities to labeled spaces apparent.

Kafer uses a variety of sources, data, and evidence to support her main points. These
include her own personal anecdotes to demonstrate the prejudices disabled people face in
academics, social situations, politically, and in person attempts to have a future. She also uses
other theorist, artists, and activist that agree with her perspective and have the opposite views of
her. Her use of opposing theories allow her to state the other side of the argument and destroy it
through her theoretical framework. She uses countless numbers of other theorist, works, and
modern cases to supply evidence for her political/relational hybrid theory. For example, Ashley
X’s case in chapter two shows the lack of rights disabled children have in our current system,
and in further research I found that there are many children like Ashley receiving similar
treatments known as Pillow Angels. In chapter six Kafer approaches disability in environment
and uses Tom Shakespeare to begin her discussion on it. Shakespeare says that natural
environments can not blamed for the lack of accessibility and states, “ “people with impairments
will always be disadvantaged by their bodies”.129) Kafer concludes that he does have a valid
point but then goes on to point out that trials that access environment are built by humans, and
questions why it is not equal access for all.

The author’s argument is convincing to me because the use of factual evidence and
supporting theories used by the author. She also shares her personal experience that show her
living out her theories which allows me to further understand her perspective of a feminist,
queer, crip in the modern day United States political sphere and in general society. Due to the
fact I am an abled person, I never truly thought of what it is like to live as a disabled person in
the United States, this book was incredibly thought provoking for me as an individual.

I found these chapters helpful in understanding the political reality of disabled people in
America, and how some may see their existence as an unwanted part of society that may not
have a future due to genetic scans of fetuses. For example, down's syndrome can now be tested
for in the uterus, and the parents have the ability to abort the fetus if they chose due to the results
of the test. This action discounts the lives of people that have down syndrome in the United
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States today that should not have to justify their existence just because they have a disability.
James Watson is a geneticist apart of this discovery that Kafer discusses and outlines two
assumptions that are at the heart of the book. First that having a disability means the lack of a
good future, the second that no one would a disabled child. This one example is a micro-example
of the broader issue in the book. I found this book overall incredibly interesting although Kafer’s
way of writing can be very convoluted with her use of questions to illustrate points. The notes se
included on every chapter in the back of the book were helpful to further understand her use of
narratives and her perspective of living in the U.S. as a disabled woman.

Thomas, Gareth M, and Barbara Katz Rothman. “Keeping the Backdoor to Eugenics Ajar?:
Disability and the Future of Prenatal Screening.” AMA Journal of Ethics, vol. 18, no. 4, 2016, p.
406., doi:10.1001/journalofethics.2016.18.4.stas1-1604. [9 pages]

The author's main points are that prenatal screenings that give the parents the options to
abort a “defective” fetus are a modern version of eugenics. In the article eugenics is defined as
the elimination of undesirable traits through reproductive aversion practices and technologies.
Noninvasive prenatal testing is used on the fetus to detect abnormalities, disorders, and diseases
the fetus has or has the potential to have. These test have been seen through the eyes of disabled
rights groups as a valuing system, devaluing the lives of some depending on the results of the
test. The article also address the choice an expecting mother has in taking the test, and their
choices after the results. In the eyes of the author there is a limited amount of choice the mother
actually has due to the societal pressures of wanting a standard able baby. Around the end of the
article the authors make it clear that not all NIPT is a negative process, and it can't all be tied to
eugenics, but in the cases of Down Syndrome and other genetic disorders it is.
They uses a variety of sources, data, and evidence to support their main points. These
include referencing empirical studies, autobiographies and social movements. The author’s show
that there are groups fighting against NIPT like the “Don’t Screen us Out” campaign which
states that testing as such will be a form of eugenics that could eradicate people that have Down
Syndrome before they are born. The authors also referenced a study conducted in England in
Wales in 2012, which stated that “90 percent of 1,259 fetuses diagnosed prenatally with Down
syndrome were terminated” (Gareth and Rothman 410). The article has a list of sixty references
after the conclusion which shows the reader the amount of research and analysis that concluded
in the writing of the article.
The author’s argument is convincing to me because of the amount and variety of
evidence referenced throughout the article. The authors also took an entire paragraph to outline
that not all NIPT is equivalent to eugenics, and calling it that with all the connotations to Nazi
Germany that word has is unfair and offensive to medicine and mothers. This paragraph on page
410 illustrated to the reader that there are opposing views, and this article was not meant to
disavow all medical practices that deal with NIPT.
I found this article helpful in understanding the contemporary wave of eugenics and the
division between positive NIPT and the negative that undermines human life.

Childress, Kelly. "Genetics, disability, and ethics: could applied technologies lead to a new
eugenics?" Journal of Women and Religion, vol. 20, 2002, p. 157+. Academic OneFile,
http://link.galegroup.com. Accessed 10 Dec. 2017. [17 pages]
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The topic of this article is to outline the risk factors and ethical dilemmas in genetic
testing and prenatal testing.
The author’s main points are that there are that there are societal prejudices against
having disabled children through lack of federal funding, social programs for children with
disabilities, and general acceptance by other children.Society has been set on a shared set of
norms and values which help construct reality, having people that avert from the foundation and
expectations causes them to become strangers in society, and undervalued in the eyes of others.
Although parents have the ability to choose whether or not an action is taken against the fetus
there is a certain amount of coercion by physicians and accessibility to the test are restricted by
who has enough money to pay for them. In the conclusion of the article the author summarizes
that she challenges the thought that disabled individuals live a “bad” life. Her final statement is
that advancements in genetics and testing will further lead to the oppression and stigmatization
of people with disabilities.
The author uses a variety of sources, data, and evidence to support her main points. These
include other theorist, many studies, and a wide range of statistics. One source she used to
convey her point was an example of a “1996 article in USA Today reported that an insurance
company cancelled an entire family's coverage when they discovered one of the children had a
genetic disorder that causes mental retardation.” (Childress) This old news article shows that
even then there were major consequences to the results of these test that affect the entire family
unit. She also references theology professor Ted Peters who cautions there is a difference
between compassion and convenience when it comes to the life quality expected.
The author’s argument is convincing to me because it is more prevalent in our society
today, and truly makes the audience question, how are we supposed to keep from accepting
killing fetuses due to the fact they are unfit for society. She also references a perspective called
“the perfect child syndrome” in which parents have expecting the picture perfect child which
undermines the value of children that are born with disabilities who don’t fill that mold.
I found these chapters helpful in understanding the weight the advancement of
technology will have on the disabled people in modern society.

Lopez, Brandi J., "German People and the Holocaust" (2016). Capstone Projects and Master's
Theses. 12. https://digitalcommons.csumb.edu/caps_thes_all/12 [20 pages]
The article outlines the state Germany as a nation, and German individuals were in before
the Holocaust, and how that influenced the Holocaust. The author uses primary and secondary
sources as well as historical findings to demonstrate her knowledge on the anti-semitic
perception in Germany during that time. Her use of many pieces of literature throughout her
article institute her credibility on the theorization of the rise of Hitler. In summary, the author
uses popular historical knowledge of Germany’s history as well as past anti-semitic histories
such as the Romans conquering Jerusalem to establish the timeline of events that lead up to the
Holocaust. She states a theoretical point that the Nazi’s lost their individual sense of self and
became a sole group mind, which follows the theory proposed by Gustave Le Bon. The Herd
Mentality, fueled by the propaganda against Jewish people, the national blame put on Jewish
Germans by Hitler, and the oppression in individuals communities is what lead to the
concentration camps to be created. The author also states that Hitler’s success was due to his use
of emotional appeal to the prideful Germans, who loved their country, although their nationalist
ideals ended up being their pressure point that allowed him to reign. Finally, the author states
that fear itself is what controlled the nation, and that Hitler controlled fear. This article
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demonstrates a deep analysis of the historical events that lead to the Holocaust through historical
research, and literature.
SBS 338 Social Psychology
Cooley, Charles Horton. “The Self as Sentiment and Reflection” in Human Nature and the
Social Order, pp.152-155. 1983 Transaction Publishers. [3 pages]

Theorist is Charles Horton Cooley, was an economist who is influential in the

development in sociological psychology. His observation watching his daughter,known as M.
and her interactions with R. as infants and their development in society are key to his
understandings of self. His theory on self and the influences that affect an individual illuminate
his idea that identity comes from society not from solo thought or emotion. He proposes the self
is influenced by individuals’ emotional responsiveness to each other and believes that sentiment
is a core aspect of the human self and is central to development. His main theory in the article is
the Looking Glass theory, which suggest that individuals can only reflect upon and form images
of themselves through the imaginary acceptance of someone else’s perspective. In the article
Cooley outlines three self idea principles: the imagination our our appearance to others, the
imagination of the judgement on that appearance from others, and the emotional response to that
perceived judgement. The individual either feels pride or shame after imaging who they are in
the eyes of another. There is no sense of “I” in pride or shame because it is dictated by social
norms, and those surrounding individuals that keep others aligned with the norms of society.
From socially reflected images we construct our self, and react to our self through emotion.His
daughter M. helped inspire his theory, by his observation of her and use of “mine” and “my”. At
age two M had learned the different use of “my” and “I” in context of social interactions, Cooley
states“What we call, “me”, “mine” or “myself” is, then, not something separate from the general
life.” (152 Cooley). This means that even at the age of two other people are involved in the sense
of self and in psychological development of a child.Me and my are learned in the same way as
the meaning of hope,regret and other emotional term, it is by having the feelings imputing it to
others in connection with some expression and hearing the word.While some people believe that
an individual can be detached from the reach of society,and its pressures the looking glass theory
proves that uneducated perspective to be false. Social psychology is the universal perspective
that the individual and society are interdependent on each other, no matter the culture.

SBS 328: Social Science Theory Module

Wilson, E. O. (1998). Consilience the unity of knowledge. (pp.181-209).New York: Vintage
Books. [28 pages]

E.O. Wilson says that natural sciences have a “consilience” because they have a shared
foundation of knowledge built on “molecular and cell biology” (182). In comparison to the
ideological differences within the social sciences. There are various approaches to social science
that often conflict with each other in ideology. Wilson argues that social sciences are shackled by
tribal loyalty and instead of progressing they stick with original theories of grand masters.
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The level of analysis in SBS differs because SBS is split into independent groups, “they stress
precision in words within their specialty but seldom speak the same technical language from one
specialty to the next” (182). There is no consilience in SBS.Each concentration of SBS sticks to
their own tribe of ideology, and hinders the progress of the development in social science. Simon
Blackburn is cited on page 183, and his idea of strong headed people bounded by the shared
foundation is a perfect example of SBS. Folk psychology defined by Einstein is the grasp of
human nature by common sense. Wilson states that there is a major error caused by “folk
psychology” because advanced social theorist are accepting of folk psychology. These theorist,
“ignore the findings of scientific psychology and biology.”(183) Wilson blames the founders
such as Emile Durkheim, Karl Marx, Franz Boas, and Sigmund Freud for ignoring natural
sciences by design.
We have all been directed towards cultural relativism and away from ethnocentrism. We
believe it’s important to take into account the background of others, but at the same time it’s ok
to have personal beliefs as long as they don’t affect others. Cultures are not all equal. No, not all
cultural practices are equal.Anthropology is currently split into two cultures of its own,
biological and cultural anthropology. Biological anthropologist increasingly focus on hereditary
and reconstructions of human evolution, while cultural anthropologists drift further away from
science.Sociology stands even farther apart from the natural sciences than anthropology.
Sociology is the anthropology of complex societies, meaning that it looks at society through a
much broader lens.

Dugger, W. Sociobiology for Social Scientist. (1981) (pp. 220-223) [13 pages]

This article claims that patriarchy can be attributed to the historical size differences of
men and women. Men, being slightly larger, can assert their dominance over the smaller
female.Carefully planned societies can reinforce behaviors and get rid of others. Although there
are benefits to the engineering of cultures, there are fearful effects like the character of humans
changing remarkable ways. Wilson states words of caution, “ we do not know many of the most
valued qualities are linked to the more obsolete destructive ones” (page 222) due to our lack of
understanding of the human brain. He urges that we could lose our humanity through social
planning. One social trend that affects culture is family type and the genetic engineering of a
child. By routing out unwanted traits in a fetus it is changing the dynamic of a natural,
unengineered family. The impact of the mass production of cell phones on humans. Selection of
the fittest occurs at four different levels, each level representing a higher degree of aggregation:
selection of the fittest individual, of the fittest kin groups, of the fittest social groups, and of the
fittest species.Sociobiology is the evolutionary and comparative study on social animals and
humans. Sociobiology is based on Darwinism which focuses on evolution.Humans social
behavior can be imputed into both genetic and cultural factors.There are four hypotheses used by
sociobiology; hypertrophy of behavior, the multiplier effect, the threshold effect, and behavior
scaling.Evolutionary Economics complements Marx in that they both look out for the best
interest of the individual, but Marx’s concept was fixed. Evolutionary Economics is an ongoing
process that adapts and changes to the needs of individuals and society over time.
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Global Studies 370 & 362

Knowles, C. (2014). Flip-flop: A journey through globalisation's backroads. (1-232) London:
Pluto Press. [232 pages]
Knowles develops three directions of theory summarized in Chapter 11 that are used
throughout her book to understand globalisation and offer a new vantage point on a dominant
perspective in global studies. She defines theory as a reflection of various processes and the links
between them. Throughout the novel she follows the production of flip-flops into different
countries around the globe and analyzes the extent of connectivity between individuals. The
second avenue Knowles distinguishes is her believe that theory is always subconsciously apart of
a person’s thought process. Theory is theoretical framework and affects how an individual sees
the world, “it can never be post-empirical; instead it provokes a dialogue between analysis and
investigation, between reflection and discovery.”(Knowles 188) Finally she clarifies that theory
can not comprise of entire paradigms when it comes to globalisation, instead theory should be
limited and focused on understanding a specific scope of concepts. All three directions are the
basis for Knowles theoretical explanations of globalisation in the novel. She focuses her research
on the migration flows and circulation of objects and the social forces that lie behind those
objects. Knowles chose flip-flops because they are a commonly used items consumed by people
no matter to social class, gender, or location geographically. Although flip-flops range in quality
and value this basic product allows the reader to understand the impact of globalisation.
Essentially Caroline Knowles is investigating and challenging the common perspective of
globalisation by focusing on the people behind the product and social fabric. An example of her
theoretical perspective is seen in Chapter 2, when her official request to enter Kuwait to explore
the oil industry was denied, she had to search for personal connections. Using a student’s family
to assist her in entering her research she meets Abdullah and details not only his career, but his
personal life throughout the chapter. Al Hammadi is the community in which Abdullah grew up
in which is controlled by the KOC, “Al Hammadi housing is an architectural version of the
company’s hierarchical structure. It is divided by size into ‘senior’, ‘middle’ and ‘junior’ staff
housing. The KOC owns the leisure facilities and the hospitals.”(26) this shows the extent in
which the oil company affect the local community structure.
Knowles fixates on the ordinary streams of international commerce and translocal
associations to dispute traditional globalisation theory which states that global patterns of
international connectivity are rooted and stable. Her perspective that this novel illustrates
contradict that thought and state that “social relations, in which the local is shaped by, and in turn
shapes, distant social forms, 40 is an important interjection in globalisation studies dominated by
economic and business thinking.” (12) This is illustrated through the Mercato in Africa explained
in Chapter 8. The Mercato is several square miles of business trading varieties of goods in the
African informal economy this place serves as a diverse commercial outlet for locals. Flip-flops
reveal the social structure in community and can determine how some products are held in higher
regard based on where they are made. In the Mercato Chinese and Ethiopian flip-flops are traded
but there “is a badge of quality and addresses the local view that Ethiopian-made flip-flops are
more robust, and therefore last longer than Chinese flip-flops, qualities that justify their more
expensive price.” (141) There is a dominant bias in the local’s perspective that is unaccounted
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for in traditional globalisation theory, and begs the reader to question are other products chosen
over others based on the location it was made in that are used in everyday American life.
Similar to Karl Marx, Knowles objects to the normal societal perspectives that objects are
simply commodities that merely exist without any knowledge on the background and work that
is put into making the items. Marx believed that without recognizing the lives behind the product
society feeds into capitalism and dissociates morality in consumerism. By acknowledging a
commodities timeline of creation, it recognizes the hundreds of lives affected by products in the
global economy. The importance of this is laid throughout the novel through the narratives
Knowles writes about. Although in Chapter 5, the village of Fuzhou is introduced, and labeled
the plastic village, a key character on the trail. The village is given the title the plastic village,
because, “the physical and social landscapes of The Village are made of plastics, by plastics and
through plastics.” (83) The plastic factories that make the flip-flops define the village in every
since, and cause mass migration from rural communities into factory villages. It displaces
farming, and agriculture families by taking their livelihood and land. Flip-flops are not a singular
product brought into this world by man,and machine they are products that form societies, alter
people’s lives, and destroy and create cultures. As an international society people must start to
see objects as a story of those who worked to create it, and the journey the object has made to get
to them. If as a society the perspective is changed then, emphasis on human life will be more
important on the global economy, and it will be understood as a force that is volatile in nature.
The entire novel is the author presenting evidence to illustrate that it is necessary to challenge the
myth of a networked monolith of globalization. To summarize her appeal to the reader Chapter 1
does the best to elaborate her hopes for the audience. It is not to propose a globalisation theory,
but instead challenge the mainstream way of thinking and add on to an ethnographic study of
globalisation being researched by others like herself, that are standing from a different
perspective such as, Deborah Barndt, James Marriott and others. The purpose of the novel is to
give a voice to the people that live on the backroads of production and show the
interconnectedness of societies through objects.On the trail the official and non-official routes
flip-flops are brought to market are outlined, which challenge dominant way of thought because
of the informal trade occurring. When the flip-flops arrive from Somalia to Ethiopia via sea-fare
they are transported through official and unofficial systems although each system uses
components of the other. The author states that following the non-official channels are harder
because they are essentially invisible, unless a person is physically there to witness the process
take place, and “seeing is also a matter of knowing.” (113) The flip-flop trail challenges the myth
of a networked monolith of globalization because it is, “messy, stitched together, improvised,
rigged together from whatever is at hand, made and remade as the trail develops.” (14) The
novel illustrates this thought through the narratives of the people Knowles interviews along the
back-roads and her reflection of the journey.

Lewis, O. (2011). The Children of Sánchez: Autobiography of a Mexican family. New York:
Vintage Books.[560 pages]
The Children of Sanchez tells the story of four children growing up in a house without the
love of their father in a town of the poor. The ethnography begins with the father Jesus
explaining his battles as a man, husband, and father who must provide for his family and keep
Santina 14

good honor. Then it is followed by his children’s perspectives and life stories, of the main
children are Manuel, Roberto, Consuelo, and Marta. The ethnography encompasses their entire
life story and at points when there is many conflicts in all the characters lives it feels like the
ethnography is a reality television show. The perspectives of all the children on their childhood
can be contradicting in their stories of one another, but it is clear to the reader that all of them felt
unhappy in their house after the death of their mother. I believe that more financial pressure was
put on Jesus after his wife passed which encouraged him to see value in his hard work more than
putting in work to show his kids love and nurturement. Due to poverty there had to be a focus on
providing basic necessities for the kids, such as shelter and beans and tortillas instead of focusing
on love. Although I can at some points in the book understand Jesus’s toughness there were
several times where his harshness seemed unnecessary, for example his dislike towards his son,
“My papa never did like very dark people and it was probably on account of Roberto’s dark skin
that my father disliked him” (Lewis, 2011, p.24). Even though Jesus’s voice was only heard
directly to the reader at the beginning and conclusion of the book his presences is constant in all
the children’s stories.
Due to the ethnographies popularity a film and song were written and helped bring the
story of the Sanchez family across different mediums.Overall the film, The Children of Sanchez,
I felt wasn’t an accurate representation of the book, the setting isn’t what I imagined it to be and
seeing the film took away from the way the characters had looked in my head.The low quality of
the film made it difficult to watch it was very slow and most acting came from reacting to other
characters lines. There was very clear anti-feminist ideology throughout the film that can be seen
through the dialogue that wasn’t as prevalent in the book. For example a quote taken from the
movie is when Consuelo says “As long as my belly is flat I’m independent”. The standard of
women in the community was consistent with the book’s because women were forced by
societies structure to run the house and become mothers at a young age. Gender roles for both
men and women were addressed in the film and in the book which was good to see that at least
the underlying pressures of society to the children were consistent.
The book was an interesting read, even though going between the children’s perspectives could
be confusing I thought this book allowed me to hear voices that I would not have heard if I
hadn’t taken this course. Overall I would rate this book a three out of five stars because at times
the drama described seemed unrealistic to me but it kept me entertained throughout the book.

Menchu, R., & Burgos-Debray, E. (1992). I, Rigoberta Menchu: An Indian woman in

Guatemala. New York: Verso. [320 pages]
The following review is on the novel I Rigoberta Menchú: An Indian Woman in
Guatemala. Rigoberta is the voice for all Indians in Guatemala and reminds the reader that we
are all on stolen land and have no grasp of the damage that has been caused through the
colonization of native lands. It is important to note that Rigoberta’s story was translated from
Spanish to English by Ann Wright and the final product was edited and introduced by Elisabeth
Burgos-Debray. This is important because it acknowledges the different people that had
influence of the contents of this book and the amount of work it took to tell her story. Language
is a crucial part of identity and translation can take away from the original voice behind the story.
The book is not a chronological account of her life and her perceptions of the community she
lived in, but instead is broken up into chapters that were based around themes. This thematic
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break down can be confusing to some readers that are looking for a orderly account of her life,
but I enjoyed the way it was organized because it is different.
In the introduction the author describes the relationship she and Rigoberta have which is
important to understand as a reader. The author says, “Rigoberta has chosen words as her
weapon and I have tried to give her words the permanency of print.”(pp.xviii) The author is so
honest and knows that it is not about her personal voice but it is being an accessory to getting
Rigoberta’s story out in the open.I advise all readers to read the introduction because it gives
insight on the close relationship established between Rigoberta and the author. Understanding
their relationship intrigued me to continue reading the novel and hear her story. Her community
shows a culture of resilience throughout the hardships they faced.
I thoroughly enjoyed this reading because of the education on a different religion that
isn’t commonly practiced in the states. Her community focuses on the honoring of ancestors
which allows for a shared strong moral compass to control community behavior. As a Social and
Behavioral Sciences major with a concentration in sociology their community is incredibly
interesting to learn about because they have such a strong structure. Rigoberta says that, “prayers
and ceremonies are for the whole community.”(pp.57) I believe their peaceful and respectful
community is due to their shared religion which is centered towards respect for nature. The
cultural insight throughout this novel makes it a fascinating read for every level of readers.
Overall I would rate this book four stars out of five, Rigoberta’s story of resilience,
culture, and identity will inspire and educated you. This has been my favorite novel in this course
because of her unique voice and the structure of the book itself. If it hadn’t been for this class I
would never have been exposed to a story of an Indian women living in Guatemala.
Ethnographies give voice to “the other” and allow “us” to understand different perspectives from
across the globe.

SBS 379:Tattoos, Make-up and Burkas

Barrett, M. (Producer), & Rubin, J. (Director).(2009) What Darwin Never Knew [Motion
Picture]. United States: NOVA. (114 Minutes) (57 Pages)

How does the evolutionary process take place? The NOVA video focuses on the research
of Charles Darwin and aims to answer the question Darwin could not answer due to the lack of
scientific technology. This question helps explains the evolution of the 2,000,000 living species
(and counting) on Earth and the connections between species. Darwin’s voyage on the Beagle
lead him to the Galapagos island, where his most important research occured. By examining the
embryos of snakes he found that snakes and humans are descended from fish. This fish is called
a Tiktaalik which share the Hox gene in common with humans.This lead Darwin to question how
species are connected and have evolved. He later outlined a process of how one creature
transformed into something completely different called the “descent with modification “process.
He eventually published his master work, On the Origin of Species which outlined his theory of
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natural selection. An example of natural selection can be seen by observing mice, the color of
mice’s fur affect how easily predators can see them. If they are in an environment with dark
colored rocks and soil and they also have dark fur it is easy for them to blend in with the natural
landscape. The video also illuminated startling scientific statistics for example, there are 23,000
genes in the human genome which is the same as a chicken. Also, humans and chimps share 99%
of their DNA although human brains are three times bigger than chimps. I have read bits and
pieces of Darwin’s work but only at the beginning of my SBS courses, it is never a constant
piece of literature to reference throughout any course I have taken so far. Although sociology is
affected biology it is often a concept left behind after the first week of courses.

Sanders, C., & Vail, D. A. (2008). Customizing the body: the art and culture of tattooing. (1-34)
Temple University Press. [34 pages]

The topic of the chapter taken from Sander’s book is a broad introduction to the differing cultural
perspectives of tattoos, and the rich history tattoos have across cultures. This chapter underlines
the battles tattoo artist have taken to have society view tattoos as an art form instead of a form of
deviance. The chapter’s main points are that body alteration is meant to show deviance to
cultural norms, status, and have a decorative function in societies. There is a main focus on the
body modification and tattoos in ancient cultures, even going back to Egypt.This shares the same
subject as “Covered in Ink” although “Covered in Ink” provides a deeper historical insight
because of the break down of subject matter by chapter. The combination of Sander’s and Yeun
Thompson allow for missing spaces in both works to be completed by the other. Sander’s is
more detailed oriented and Thompson focuses on individuals that are related to a bigger picture
and experience of tattoos in modern society. I enjoyed the use of primary and secondary sources
that were used to support Sanders credibility on the historical aspects of tattoos, and body
modification. I particularly enjoyed learning where the term tattoo came from which was from a
Western European voyager Captain James Cook in 1769 who took a Tahitian word “ta-tu” and
introduced it to the world. If it hadn’t been for his journey to Tahiti tattooing could still be called
pricking. The only section of the reading is disliked was on the explanation of production
structure which focused on the artist and economic influences on tattoo culture. I found this part
dull in comparison to the rich, vibrant history that filled the previous pages of the chapter. I
thoroughly enjoyed this reading and I got a lot of information out of it, and will be referencing
back to it throughout this module.

Buckner, N. (Producer), & Whittlesey, R. (Director). (2001). Show 5: Why Sex? [Motion
Picture]. United States: WGBH Educational Foundation and Clear Blue Sky Productions, Inc.
[28 pages]

This documentary examines the need for sexual reproduction in all living species
societies. The video begins by making a firm statement that sex is more important than life itself
and offers several species that die in effort to mate. Thinking humans are above this sentiment I
was challenged when the documentary compared others species actions to die for sex with
Santina 17

humans willingness to die for their children (or genetic lineage). An important part of the video
was the all female lizard species which has no need for sexual reproduction and made a vital
point, do we need males? The documentary eventually answered this question with an
affirmative yes, due to the fact males provide a chance for genetic mutations,and are a social
insurance policy. If a species simply clones itself it will stop evolving and make itself more
susceptible to predators which was demonstrated through the video’s research on a clone and
sexual reproduced fish population. On the human side of sex, monogamy threatens evolution due
because of less sexual partners and less genetic variation in the gene pool. A modern theorist,
Jeffrey Miller, who was interviewed in the documentary, created the controversial theory that the
human brain evolved to help attract mates. In society thoughts, feelings, and emotions are crucial
to attraction which I agree with but I believe it becomes more important has the individual gets
older and is looking for a lifelong mate. I believe teens and young adults are less focused on the
brain and more on the physical appearance. I am unsure if Miller has age as a factor in his theory
because the video didn’t cover his theory deeply. It is similar to other documentary previously
assigned in class which focused on Darwin. Darwin’s hatred for peacocks was even mentioned in
this video. He hated male peacocks because he couldn’t explain the evolutionary processes that
lead male peacocks to have such lavish, large tales that made them more prone to predator but
more available to mates. Some see sex as dirty and culture as clean, but sex is the creator of
culture without sex we would not exist or evolve.

Neutral, Grace. [screen name]. (2016, May 3). Exploring Korea’s Illegal Tattooing Scene[Video
file]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tEUWBlUuUHU [4 pages]

This video is titled, “Exploring Korea’s Illegal Tattoo Scene” and was posted on Youtube
one year ago. The video investigates the illegal tattoo scene in South Korea and I chose this
documentary because it is the most viewed tattoo documentary on Youtube. Grace Neutral is a
tattoo artist and activist, who went to South Korea to investigate the underground scene. In
Korea is it is illegal to tattoo without a doctor’s license. Grace believes every form of the human
body is beautiful and has made many body modifications to herself including tattooing her eyes.
South Korea has made tattoos illegal, Grace interviews with Apro Lee a illegal practicing tattoo
artist. Adult’s and older people view people with tattoos as bad. He does not use public transport
due to others opinions on his tattoos. An elderly person said Grace was pretty but ruined her
appearance with her tattoos. Another tattooed man named McCoy told Grace about his parents
reactions to him getting tattoos, his mom couldn’t stop crying and his dad hasn’t spoken to him
in 5 years. In South Korea tattooing is a form of youth rebellion, and form a subculture of
alternative beauty. In comparison to the United States tattoos do not hold the same social
significance of rebellion and going against the social norms. I would definitely recommend this
video because it is short, informative and the interviewer has a very interesting story herself
which makes the video more interesting.
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Thompson, Beverly Yuen, and Ebooks Corporation. Covered in Ink: Tattoos, Women, and the
Politics of the Body. New York : New York University Press, 2015. [244 pages]

In the novel “Covered in Ink” Beverly Thompson addresses the social judgement tattoos
have in american society. Thompson views the subject of tattoos through a feminist theory lense
and focuses her novel on the experience of a heavily tattooed women.Through interviewing sixty
five participants and exploring her own perspective as a heavily tattooed mixed racial woman she
establishes the constant viewer impression management and judgement women with tattoos face
in modern America. Women are supposed to keep their tattoos small, intimate, and sweet in the
eyes of society but many women in tattooed culture aspire to be completely covered with any
artwork they fall in love with. One critique I have on the novel is the choice of photographs used,
I think some of them should have not been included because they didn’t encompass the narrative.
On page 59 she uses a semi unflattering photo of Jennifer Muniz, which could have been taken
better and included more of a background of her custom dolls which reflect in her tattooing style.
In Chapter One Thompson concentrates on the connection between tattoos and perceived
societal deviance. Tattoos have been historically tied to sailors, criminals, human abnormalities,
and the sexual deviant. The chapter outlines each of these categories, the human oddities section
stood out amongst the other categories because people forget those who were put on display due
to their artwork in circuses. I personally relate to this labelling of deviance in tattoo culture
because when I revealed my tattoo to my father the first thing he said was that I could now go
join the circus. My experience relates to the book and shows that even in 2018 there is judgement
against a tattoo. She also dedicates an entire chapter toward the discrimination of tattooed
women in careers, but her study comprised of 31 out of 59 working in the tattoo industry which
skews her data slightly because women in the tattoo industry are held to a different appearance
standard than a traditional workplace.
In the conclusion to the novel Thompson shares her opinion that tattoos are not
something to be asked about in a social setting and encourages a tattoo etiquette that does not
address a tattooed person. She does not want to be asked about her tattoos because she feels that
questions are a form of judgement, and I agree that some are, but I believe that if a question is
asked respectfully and without malice or judgement then non-tattooed people should be able to
have conversations or compliment a person’s work. No one should ever be touched without their
consent and when people touch a person’s artwork I think that is unacceptable unless consent is
given.Although I need to make it clear I only have one fresh tattoo so my perspective on tattoo
etiquette has less participation in the tattoo culture. An interesting study which could be an added
chapter to this novel could be the differing perspectives in tattoo etiquette between heavily
tattooed women and lightly tattooed women. I theorize that there would be a difference in how
tattoos can be talked about and touched by others in society between these two groups.

Jones, G. (2008). Blonde and Blue-eyed? Globalizing Beauty,c. 1945-c. 1980. (125-154).
Economic History Review. [29 pages]

This article focuses on the growth of the international beauty industry from 1945-1980. It
Santina 19

focuses on all products that men and women use as toiletries, and personal care products. The
article focuses on two main aspects of the beauty movement, first the obstacles the beauty
industry had to overcome to sell products internationally, and the effect of Americanization in
beauty standards across the globe.Beauty is all about money and corporations gaining income
from the pockets of women and men across the globe who are sold an image of what they have
to be to be considered attractive. One aspect of the article I found interesting was the impact men
had on the industry, the clean shaven look came into effect at the end of the nineteenth century.
This clean shaven era came after a long time of masculinity being tied to facial hair and created a
boom in the shaving cream industry. Many of the industries and products brought up through this
article I take for granted and they take me for granted as a consumer, I didn’t realize how much
money I give to this industry.
I find this article interesting because people of color have less representation in make-up
than people with white complexions do.This is something in today’s media that is starting an
outcry because of the lack representation of color in makeup. Even makeup lines that say include
all shades of women leave out darker shades. For example the new Kim Kardashian line is facing
increased scrutiny because of her release of concealer that was supposed to encompass many
ranges of skin color. With 16 shades of concealer to choose from there are only four that are
applicable to consumers with darker skin tones.
Power, C. (2010). Cosmetics, Identity and Consciousness. (73-94). Journal of Consciousness
Studies. [21 Pages]

The author broadly looks at the use of cosmetics in society focusing on the historical
component, the influence on identity,and the overall influence in society. There are three main
points in the article that are divided into different sections. The author states that once the body is
decorated with makeup or other altering products then that person becomes a work of art. This
specific point relates to Thompson’s novel and the perception that tattoos are an expression of
self and are therefore art. The second point is more closely related to theorist such as Durkheim
and Mauss who hav theories on the self vs. society. The author believes that cosmetics are a
ritualistic physical force that enforce cultural norms. Cosmetics create and define the self and the
group mind at the same time. The final point of the article is to focuses on the archaeological site
and the history of makeup as a social force. Power questions whether cosmetics has a symbolic
meaning in relationships and the fake identity that can be applied through make-up. This is a
highly theoretical work and makes the reader assess the deeper influences of cosmetics on
relationships and identity. Power uses the Darwin perspective to understand makeup in society
starting that according to Darwin the use of makeup is to attract sex and reproduce. To have it so
clearly stated it truly hit me the extent to which makeup is tied to sex. In ad campaigns sex and
nudity is used to sell makeup, women with cosmetic enhances are sometimes prized over women
that are all natural in appearance. The entire point of cosmetics is to appear a more prettier
version of yourself that makes you closer to society's beauty standards.
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Priyadharshini. (20016). Chapter 6: From Prom Queen to Zombie Barbie:A tutorial in Make Up,
Gender, and Living Death. In Generation Z. (72-84). Singapore. [12 Pages]

In Chapter 6 of Generation Z, Esther Priyadharshini focuses on a video by a Youtube

makeup artist Michelle Phan. Phan’s video is a tutorial on how to complete the perfect Barbie
look, but she adds a twist midway through the video, she changes her perfect Barbie face into a
grotesque zombie. The author comments on modern beauty standards, and the unrealistic image
the Barbie portrays to people. The first look is a hyperfeminie, “plastic non-human”(pp.80) look,
which is a Barbie then comes the It, the zombie that is neither dead or alive. Becoming ugly
exposes a person’s identity, because they are still opening their identity to being in between
human and monster and between the two established genders. The author describes this video as
a resistance to traditional views of femininity and beauty. With the millions of views the video
has it shows that there are women that want to challenge the common view of beauty and want to
be seen as more than just a pretty face.
One critical comment of this chapter was the difficulty in understanding the applied
theories used to analyze this video. Many of the ideas that were addressed in the chapter were
never discussed in class which made it difficult for me to understand. I would have benefited
from a more in-depth discussion on the material and theories. I find this chapter fascinating
because analysis is being done on Youtube videos, which many would just cast aside as a
makeup tutorial it shows there is much to be learned about the current state of our society by
digging deeper into the subject content of Youtube videos.

Eicher, J.(2000). The Anthropology of Dress.(59-70). United States: University of Minnesota [11

There is a significant meaning in dress through art, history, economics and many other
disciplines. The author states her surprise that she is one of the few to analyzing this wide
reaching influence dress has on society and individuality. In the article there are four aspects of
anthropology focused that have been influential in the study of clothes, they are; holism, culture,
field work, and women’s involvement. Holism is the view that dress plays a role in social
situations,and can factor into the nuts and bolts of society like politics and economy. Culture is
influential because it modifies the advancement of dress in society. People learn what is socially
acceptable and can often weed out diversity depending on the culture. The author highlights
fieldwork as crucial to understanding the deeper and complex use of dress in cultures around the
world. The final contribution is women’s involvement because more women than men have
focused on understanding the effect of clothing. The author uses many different works and
includes images throughout the entire article to illustrate the concepts.
This article made me think of the MET Gala where art meets dress for celebrities. I
believe this would be an interesting presentation for this unit if I could analyze the use of
costume and dress like it is outlined in this article. Or the subject of museums and clothing which
is addressed towards the end of this article. It also relates to the Make-Up module because
physical appearance and the way we dress ourselves is all about how we see beauty in ourselves
and in society. Our everyday dress establishes our status in society and there are societal
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reactions to dress of every individual.

Miller, D.(2010). “Anthropology in Blue Jeans.” (pp. 415–428.) United State: American
Anthropological Association. [13 Pages]

Anthropology studies and defines the ordinary in this article the focus is on blue jean
dress in North London. Blue jeans are classified as normal wear internationally, and they “are
what more than half the people are wearing on any given day”(415) The author believes that
people wear jeans to struggle to fit society's norms, and relates it to the broader struggle of
anthropologist. In anthropology the normal was established by a philosopher named Immanuel
Kant who sees it as something that there is a ruling principle in all cultures. Using cultural
relativism as the basis for an anthropological study is exemplified by Clifford Geertz. Cultural
relativism is the belief that other cultures should be looked at through the lense of the person's
own cultural norms. Blue jeans are objects that are universal that don’t express cultural
relativism and are a linkage between individual and society.
In the conclusion the author states that the use of blue jeans is so widely used is because
they are comfortable, affordable, and fashionable. I agree with this perspective because good
jeans can last through a lot and they are protective and easy to access. The author ends by
celebrating the universal of jeans and critiques himself and other anthropologist for analyzing
cultures through the “normativity” lense. In my opinion this article was interesting because jeans
are an everyday item, but I believe it could have been more compacted. This article made me
consider the universality of yoga pants, although they aren’t as durable as jeans they are
becoming widely used by women, but not by men.

Guindi, F. E. (1999). Veil: Modesty, privacy and resistance. Oxford, UK: Berg. (1-262) [262

The veil, some see it as apart of their everyday wardrobe, others view it as a cloth of
oppression, some see it as a symbol for pride in culture, and others see it as another being that
they don’t understand. One piece of cloth is interpreted in many different ways depending on the
individual's perspective. The author describes the veil as a encompassing garment that represents
dress, culture, and body. The book is broken into three different sections, Part 1: Veiling in
Perspective, Part 2: Dress, “Libas” and “Hijab”, Part 3: The Resistance of the Veil. The author
uses a strategic break down of topics to organize the main themes associated with each part:
modesty, privacy and resistance. Guindi establishes her credibility to the reader through her
utilization of outside scholars, historical research, and various sociological perspectives to
understand the adoption of the veil. Although the use of outside literature can be confusing, it is
beneficial to the reader to because it helps them understand the vast analysis done on the
anthropology of dress.
The veil is a gendered piece of dress that has been disapproved of by the feminist
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perspective but is currently getting reclaimed by women especially in higher education. “Veiling
by college women, which many had dismissed as a temporary fad, turned out to be a strong
resilient social, and political movement.” (pp. 168) The power of dress stems from people
acknowledging the social controls and history behind the clothing, and then making a statement
by choosing to wear it or not. Many women chose to wear the veil as a recognition and respect
towards their religion and traditions while others refuse due to current political stances on
women’s rights.
The book is similar to the other unit topics because it emphasizes the ability of choice in
how to physically represent yourself. Tattoos have a turbulent history and are still viewed
negatively by many just like hijabs or other head coverings. But there are people that make the
choice to get inked, or wear a hijab daily because they want to for personal reasons. Tattoos were
used in Nazi Germany to assign camp assignments to prisoners in Auschwitz, and the burqa was
used by the Taliban to control the appearance of women up until 2001. Both tattoos and veils
have been used to oppress specific populations but currently people are using both to reclaim
their identity and use them as a form of dress. “They symbolize a renewal of traditional cultural
identity.” (pp. 145) and applies to both tattoos and veils around the world.
I enjoyed the use of photography throughout the book because it allowed me to see the
topic in action. The image on page twenty four shows how sexualized Muslim women were by
the French, and the determining attitude attached by Euro-Christian attitudes. The image really
shocked me but was helpful for me to see the actual belittlement of culture. Many scholarly
works do not utilize images to get their points across but it would be beneficial in many ways.

Baginski, Caren (2011). Selling Beauty:Strategies to Selling Nutricosmetics. Pages 28-29.[1


The article focuses on strategies to selling skin care which helps women and men achieve
the youthful and healthy looking beauty standards every country has. The products used for skin
care are nutricosmetics which help the skin by making it healthier from the inside out. Some
products that the article addresses are BORBA skin balancing water, Life Extension supplement
with Lipowheat, and Eminence VitaSkin Vitamin Solutions Collection.
Although the article praises the products many view them as not credible, which makes it
difficult for it to sell. Other countries such as Japan, and some in Europe are mass believers in
nutricosmetics, but the US population is more critical of the beauty science. An interesting
section of the article was the importance of scientific evidence that consumers need to believe in
their products. Especially with more expensive products consumers want to know that their
money is going to something that is a guarantee to make them prettier. The main tactics used by
sellers, are give endorsement, lead with science, and play up nature.
The article stresses the importance of selling the idea that “beauty comes from within”
which I personally is a great message but it is hard to see when mainstream media is selling only
outward beauty images. With the projects covered in class this semester make-up focused mostly
on the painted face, foundation, mascaras, contouring, the differences in Ulta and Sephora, none
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focused on the importance of a healthy inner beauty. Potentially adding nutricosmetics as a

potential project topic would widen the topics discussed in the Make Up unit.

Major Learning Outcome III: SOC 333 Crime and Deviance

Travis,C. (1982). Anger: The Misunderstood Emotion.(pp. 3-13). New York:Simon & Schuster.
[10 Pages]
In chapter one Silberman uses Travis’s work to establish that anger is a social construct
and not an individual feeling. Judgement leads us to feel angry when we someone breaking the
cultural rules and often we believe we can control the person that is making us angry. Travis uses
many examples of different societies that deal with anger in many different forms of social
control. The !Kung hunter and gathers that are located in the Kalahari Desert and rely on each
other for survival, so any animosity between individuals can threaten the lives of the entire
community. Because anger affects all there is no hiding a disagreement and the entire tribe will
become involved to find a resolution. This community also uses verbal squabbles to remind each
other of the responsibilities each one has to provide the tribe with resources. Instead of using
physical attacks to release anger they use verbal to remind one another of the social norms and
the standard everyone is held to. Travis list ways in which small tribes use different coping
mechanisms to deal with anger which include ridicule, witchcraft and public discussion. This
entire section of the article was incredibly interesting because living where I was raised I didn’t
have to rely on anyone except for my parents for survival and I lived in the urbanized city of San
Jose. The United States normalizes anger in many ways through media, and the values that the
U.S. holds to be important.

Stearns, P. & Stearns, C. (1986).The Struggle for Emotional Control in America’s History. (pp.
15-27) Chicago:The University of Chicago Press. [12 Pages]
Chapter two focuses on the gendered socialization of anger in current America. Anger
when properly expressed by men can be seen as masculine and attractive to women and can win
the respect of other men. During the change from the 1800’s to the 1900’s there was a change in
child rearing that allowed the expression of anger. There was a strict discipline against anger in
children and in the general family setting due to the Victorian beliefs of women and children
mostly being chess pieces that were not supposed to have much a personality in the home. Men
were the vocal pieces of Victorian home life and the children were used to carry on the family
name and status. The emotionology of anger changed in two major ways after the end of the 19th
century. First, children were seen to express anger, and anger could be allowed if it was
harnessed properly in specific jobs. This reading challenged me into thinking current professions
in which anger is beneficial, mainly I think of physical labor and safety service like construction
workers, cops and potentially policy lobbyist. I am not saying people in these professions are
mainly angry, I just mean to say that anger could provide passion to complete task, and resilience
to achieve their policies. In the end Stearns and Stearns concluded that there was a change in
child rearing when it comes to angry behavior but it is convoluted and has outside effects such as
schooling to account for.
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Retzinger, S. & Scheff, T. (1991). Emotions and Violence: Shame and Rage in Destructive
Conflicts. (pp. 30-45) Maryland:Lexington Books. [15 Pages]
In the final chapter of Part One of Silberman the spotlight shines on Adolf Hitler and the
individual anger and rage that lead him to become one of the world’s strongest leaders and
creator one of the most horrific mass killings in recent history. The author focuses on the
childhood experiences that lead to anger in adulthood. In many ways Hitler used shame and
historical humiliations of Germany to enlist many Germans to his madman way of thinking.
Hitler needed a scapegoat for the plummeting economy, and the lack of respect from the
international community he chose the Jews. Hitler used emotional appeal to the German
population letting them know that their shame and grief was not their fault which allowed the
population to place their own anger and rage on someone else. It is much easier to blame others
than blame yourself.The piece investigates Hitler’s personality and the isolation and abuse he
faced as a child from his family. He carried this isolation into adulthood and was known to have
a bond with no one. He used his person knowledge of isolation, shame, and the promise of
revenge to justify the Holocaust, control the population and take part in World War II. The
author’s point out their own flaws in their theory, call for more evidence and different viewpoints
from different nations on the time leading up to World War II. This specific example of
individual anger was interesting but I still do not understand how members of the Nazi party
personally killed so many people at their own hand under his reign.

Webster, D. (2016). Epidemiologic Evidence to Guide the Understanding and Prevention of Gun
Violence. (pp.1-4) England:Oxford University Press. [4 Pages]

Webster establishes the concept that firearms are a public health issue through the
comparison of data of firearm deaths globally the United States stands different from the rest.
Although other countries also suffer the epidemic of gun killings they are usually countries that
have still developing or dealing with major destabilizing events. In 2013 the U.S. firearm
homicide rate was 3.55 per 100,000 people which ranks with other high rated countries like
Palestine, South Africa and Uganda. The other three countries have many political and social
issues occuring, and a unstable government. Webster focus on the homicide rate, suicide
connection, substance usage, and individuals environment to understand epidemic of gun
Firearm access and suicide risk with the use of a firearm is an important research topic in
the United States because more suicides are committed with firearms than homicides. This was
published in 2016, and with the recent number of mass shooting I theorize that there are more
homicides than suicides with the use of a firearm. The third association of firearms and violence
in the United states is the influence of substances and gun ownership. Webster implies that
limiting known substance users access to firearms could potentially help reduce the amount of
Santina 25

deaths. Data is limited when it comes to interventions that could be beneficial to society although
there has been research into social networking that can predict violence.
Several approaches to intervention are stated throughout this article. First is using social
networking to identify future criminals and using prevention techniques to stop what is bound to
occur. Another is prohibiting people with domestic violence records the ability to purchase guns
which would also reduce the rate of spousal homicide. Although the research on the topic is little
it is clear that there are social causes of gun violence that could be reduced through intervention
and reducing unfit people the ability to buy guns. This approach will have to come from a
national level because states have the power to not do background checks, reduce the cooling off
period, and sell to unfit owners.

Walker, J. (2009). Social Disorganization Theory. (pp. 312-323) Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
Publications, Inc. [11 Pages]
● Social Disorganization Theory is hard to analyze because of the lack of literature on or
using the theory
● Plant biology helped begin social disorganization research
● First ecological studied used to show the geographical distribution of homes of child
delinquency in Chicago (1912)
● Shaw & McKay used human ecology to study urban ecological traits and juvenile
● They used three sets of variables: Physical Status, Economic Status, Population Status
● Shaw and McKay theorized that high delinquency was correlated with physical
deterioration of communities
● They studied population change, when population increased so did juvenile delinquency
● There was a relationship between industry and crime
● Economic status was also studied and the result was that low economic status
communities had high delinquency rates
● Affluent environments have more social control which lessens the crime
● Although in areas with high delinquency there were still conventional norms,
delinquency was a way of life and there were positive reinforcement for actions of
● Shaw and Mckay (1942) became one of the pillars of theory and are still relevant in
● Lander (1954) replicated their theories, found they were correct in identifying areas close
to the center of the city as the highest delinquency rate
● Lander condraticated with their studies when it came to population and delinquency
● Home ownership was an indirect effect on crime in communities and was the most highly
correlated variable in Lander’s study
● Bordua (1959) replica red part of Lander’s study, he used data from Detroit in juvenile
court from 1948-1950 and tract census data from the 1950 census
● Bordua found a weaker significance to higher population and higher crime which Shaw
and McKay found
● Bordua pretty much supported Lander
● Bordua found that foreign birth had a significant effect on delinquency
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● Chilton (1964) used court data from Indianapolis from 1948-1950 and confirmed the
other findings from the previous replications
● Chilton found a correlation between overcrowding in houses to delinquency
● Foreign birth and being black were not found to be related to crime
● Because the replications didn’t support many parts of the original theory social
disorganization theory went quiet in the 1970’s
● Collective efficiency: the ability for members of a community to control individuals
behaviors within the community
● There was a resurgence of theory in the 1990s because of the decline of American cities
● Many of the research was only focusing on fragments of the theory
● By the 20th century Social Disorganization theory had been replaced by: straying from its
original intent, focused on collective efficacy, and research focused on neighborhood
● Sampson and Raudenbush (2001) proposed that neighborhood structure influenced the
level of disorder
● Social control between residents is important
● The og theory is rarely studied now, and current studies now focus on collective efficacy

Correll, J. & Wittenbrink, S.(2007). The Thin Blue Line :Police Officers and Racial Bias in the
Decision to Shoot. (pp.1006-1023).United States:American Psychological Association. [17
● Police officers and community members were compared in terms of the speed and
accuracy they made simulated decisions to shoot (or not shoot) Black and White targets.
● In both the police and community members there was proof of racial bias.
● Due to the results the researchers say that the speed may not be changed with training but
the decision to shoot is altered by the training received by police officers.
● Police shootings deeply affected the community
● There are social implications that police are racist towards minority communities which
creates an upheaval in minority communities and respect towards police
● The sociological research studies real cases of police and race shootings
● Participants are more accurate with shooting an armed black man than an armed white
● Race plays an important role in decisions regarding physical danger
● Most studies are done on college students and there is little known research with police
● “In our literature review, we discovered only two papers that examine officers in
experimental studies of racial bias. Eberhardt,Goff, Purdie, and Davies (2004) and Plant
and Peruche(2005)”. Both showed racial bias in crime related stimuli
● Extensive training is incredibly important
● Community samples create a baseline to compare the police
● Police showed minimal bias in SDT analysis, and were similar to the community in the
speed to make shoot decisions which was influenced by the targets race
● Reaction times show stereotypic interference in all studies
● There were a total of three studies conducted by authors on college students, police
officers, and community members
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Druckman, D. (1994). Nationalism, Patriotism, and Group Loyalty: A Social Psychological

Perspective. Mershon International Studies Review,38(1), 43. doi:10.2307/222610 [25 Pages]
● Loyalty can lead to hostile reactions to certain groups
● Nationalism is political,economic, and sociological
● It can shape collective behavior
● Can help differentiate between groups and define politics
● Define self on nationalistic ideals
● Groups fulfill human needs
● Social behavior is motivated by achievement and power
● People see nation as security and safety as well as status and power in return for their
loyalty and commitment to the cause
● American students see nations more as symbols for sentiment attachment
● Piaget’s theory (1965) children identify with their surroundings and build attachments
● They turn away their individuality and give into the group mind
● Cooperative behavior promotes survival (sociobiology)
● Patriotism-Involves emotion towards nation, “I am proud to be an American”
● Nationalism-Feelings of national superiority and national power and dominance, “Other
countries should make governments like ours.”
● Individual aggressive attitudes lead to nationalism
● Nationalist are for stronger support of military and are eager towards war
● Patriots show the willingness to fight for their country, but are more cooperative and
● Children experience good feelings about their countries before they can rationally
understand their emotions
● Duckitt (1989) ethnocentric patriotism is associated with insecure group identity
● When people are divided in group it increases their self esteem scores (Oakes & Turner)
● Ingroup bias (Turner 1987) is a self-categorization theory
● People react based to their loyalties and defend groups that are important to them and
help define who they are
● Images help define nations, Cottams use of negative terms like “barbarian” and
“degenerate” shows the manipulation governments and people use of perceptions
● Silverstein and Holt systems of theory of war is more complex way of organizing
individual images that establish the relationship between them and their country
● Loyalty is an emotional and cognitive aspect which is related to image making
● Inner loyalty is tied with high outward animosity
● The author encourages interdiscipline analyzation

Straus, M. & Gelles, R. & Steinmetz S.(1980).The Marriage License as a Hitting License. (pp
31-50.) New York:Anchor Books [19 Pages]
● Wife beating is a universal
● The home is the man’s kingdom
● The woman is pushed out of the home if she decides to step up to abuse
● “Implies freedom from outsiders”-behind closed doors
● In the study of 2,143 married couples (1 out of 6 couples) commits violence against the
● 28% American couples will hit their partner
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● “Pushing and shoving, or grabbing during an argument are highest of the eight things we
asked about” (13%) in the year. And one out of four in the marriage.
● Wives and husbands can pull knife or gun on eachother
● 1.7 million Americans have faced their counterpart wielding a knife or gun
● 2 million had been beaten up by their spouse
● Errors in the study: Underreported amounts of violence,fail to admit violence, omits
divorced couples who broke up due to violence
● Questions were limited to couples that live together and are currently married
● 49% both sides were violent
● Wives and husbands are equally violent
● Wives are more likely to throw things and use objects to hit and kick higher than men
● Husbands had higher rate of using hand, beating up, and actually using gun or a knife
● “Wife beating is a political” not scientific term
● Certain amount of the violence in a family is normalized
● Wife beating is categorized extent of violence
● “2 million” wives that attack their husbands violently
● 47% of husband beat their wives three or more times during the year, 53% of wives beat
their husbands 3 or more times
● Why should this be studied? It debases human life, physical danger is involved, shows
power struggle in homes
● Violent acts committed by husbands does more damage, and happens more often
● A large number of attacks of husband happen when the wife is pregnant

Straus, M. & Gelles, R. & Steinmetz S.(1980) Spare the Rod? (pp.51-75) New York: Anchor
● Stubborn child laws-right to kill a problem child [24 Pages]
● Culture reminds that parents have the right to act on violence on children (fairy tales,
folklore, nursery rhymes)
● Many believe a slap is necessary tool for discipline
● There is no single and acceptable line of what is child abuse and what is discipline
● Spanking of children was premitted by the school and no parent protected their child
from it
● Spanking and slaps are normalized, authors see them as violent acts against children
● “Child get hits hard enough so the “hurt” outweighs the desire to continue” page 137.
● 12 year old was the child’s age in question in the study
● Most Americans viewed slapping or spanking a 12 year old as good
● 77% said it was normal, 71% said it was good (1986)
● 86% in national sample said young people needed “strong” discipline
● Men were slightly inclined to view them as necessary and good
● Both genders saw the actions as normal
● Younger Americans saw that slapping and spanking are good and normal
● As parents grow older they see no need for physical violence as discipline
● Younger respondents are less likely to have kids, so they don’t know what it is actually
● Attitudes change as people grow and have their own kids
● Culture (war, conservative ideology, media) all effect ideas towards slap and spank
Santina 29

● 73% of a sample of 1,146 families said they used some form of violence on the child
● 58% slapping and spanking of child
● Most dangerous types of violence were less likely to occur
● Approximately 3 parents out of 100 kicked,bit or punched their child in 1975
● One child in 1,000 faced a parent who threatened them with a gun or knife
● Between 3.1 and 4 million children have been beaten, kicked or punched.
● Between 1.4 and 2.3 million kids have been beaten up
● 1.8 million kids have had use a gun or knife on them (ages 3-17)
● “Child abuse is a chronic condition”
● Mothers are more violent than fathers (76% of mothers and 71% of fathers)
● Mothers beat up their kid 7.2 times a year
● Male children are more likely to be victims of parental violence (66% are boys, and 61%
are girls)
● Younger children are more vulnerable to wide range of violent acts

Gillespie, C.(1989) Reasonableness and the Battered Woman (pp.123-156) in, Justifiable
Homicide: The Battered Women, Self Defense, and the Law. Ohio State University Press [33
● Fear is the battered woman’s companion
● Battered woman carry their past and will kill in self-defense
● Battered woman, “lives with a man who repeatedly demonstrated both his willingness to
inflict pain on her and his ability to do so.”
● Horrible, horrible torture of a life
● 1983 Dr. Angela Browne compared 42 battered women who killed their mates with 205
women who didn’t
● Women that killed their partner were serious attacked often once a week
● They were severely attacked and sexually attacked (76% were raped)
● 59% of the non-homicide group were raped
● This treatment ruins the women's sense of self and self esteem
● Reinforcement by isolation, psychological abuse is high
● The more dependent the easier it is to be violent
● Battering followed by: tension building, major explosion of violence, and then an attempt
at reconciliation
● Battering is constant is a cycle
● Tension building stage: minor, makes threats, calls names, accuses
● Batterer will rationalize his action
● Violent men are tormented by sexual jealousy and image them cheating
● Women can’t withdraw from violent situations because they usually happen at the home
and late at night so she doesn’t have anywhere to go
● The more woman resist the higher the violence will be against them
● Woman have no doubt that their partner will kill them
● Lack of protection of woman through the court system
● Two consequences are restraining orders and peace bonds (money)

Pleck, E. (1989).Criminal Approaches to Family Violence (pp. 19-57) Chicago: University of

Chicago Press [38 Pages]
Santina 30

● Enforcement of the law against perpetrators outways the rights of a husbands role
● The conditions that impede criminalization of family violence are increased respect for
family privacy and the control moving out of the states hand to control family structure
● Family murder and murder of infant homicide have historically been punished
● Wife abuse is most likely to appear in court
● Sibling violence is seen as normal behavior
● Puritans established that violence in the family is a sin
● Positive virtues were ingrained in society and conformity was wanted
● “Law against family violence in 1639.” (162) in New Haven
● The law punished inscent by death, if the union was voluntary both would be put to death
● There was no one who was prosecuted under the law but it was a symbol
● The Puritans were highly peaceful and had established a very humanitarian law
● During the 1830-1874 the focus changed from family values to the changing government
● Courts were easy to be active in because courts were local
● Some consequences for wife beatings: fine, city jail
● “Rule of thumb” a husband could hit his wife with a stick no thicker than a thumb
● In North Carolina and Mississippi there were court rulings that allowed wife beating
● Child abuse fell into parental right and in many ways still does
● Even teachers were allowed to hit kids in many cases
● In 1874 a new emergence of protecting children from abuse came
● “Dangerous classes” enemies of social order (blocks, immigrants, rural)
● SPCC concerned about children, wanted social stability,
● Decline in Calvinism and rise in Romantic ideology added to greater concern about
● 1890’s family violence focus began to fade
● Battered Child Syndrome in 1962 by Henry Kempe landmark publication, rediscovery of
child abuse
● Paulsen saw rehabilitation for child abusers as irrelevant
● Cases of child abuse relied on civil not criminal procedures
● Medical and social work professionals defined child battering as a psychological illness
that could be treated
● Wife beating and marital rape were considered crimes of mental illnesses
● 1979 Family Protection Act eliminated federal money designated for child abuse
prevention and gave it to the state.

Pate, A. & Hamilton, E.(1992). Formal & Informal Deterrents to Domestic Violence: The Dade
County Spousal Assault Experiment (pp.691-697). American Sociological Association [6 Pages]
● Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment examined effectiveness of police responses
to misdemeanour spouse assault
● Three standard methods of police reaction: arrest, attempting to console both parties, and
sending the suspect away from home for a few hours.
● Results showed cases that had an arrest had the lowest recidivism
● Hypothesis is that arrest is a deterrent
● Scholars suggest that police should make an arrest in support of deterrence
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● Critics of experiment argues that further studies needed to occur before making policy
● The National Institute of Justice funded replications in six cities: Atlanta, Georgia,
Charlotte, North Carolina, Colorado Springs, Colorado, Miami, Milwaukee, Wisconsin,
Omaha, Nebraska
● In three of the six cities there was no support of an arrest effect
● “More socially bonded people are more deterrable”
● Employed and married people are more likely to be deterred by arrest
● Rest on the idea that human behavior is somewhat rational
● Zimring and Hawkins (1971) deterrent effect can be enhanced if the sanctions are
associated with informal sanctions
● Two measures of informal control-employment and status
● Formal control-arrest of spousal assault
● Deterrent effect for arrest hypothesis: 1. The effect is greater among suspects who are
employed 2. The effect is greater among suspects who are married 3. The effect is
greatest among suspects with the highest level of commitment
● The study ran from August 24, 1987-July 16, 1989
● There were three models test in reaction
● Arrest are a deterrent with people that have something to lose

Babcock, J. Green, C. & Robie, C. (2002) Does batterers’ treatment work? A meta-analytic
review of domestic violence treatment. (pp. 1023-1053) Texas: University of Houston [30 Pages]
● Reviews 22 studies that looked at treatment for abusive men
● Treatment has little impact on men and does not persuade them to not offend again
● Treatment last from 12-52 weeks
● Treatment has empirically shown that treatment will reduce recidivism slightly
● Most prominent type of clinical intervention is the feminist psychoeducational approach
● In this ideology, domestic violence is a patriarchal ideology and allows men to use power
to control women
● Duluth model “Power and Control Wheel” illustrates violence as a part of behavior
including isolation, intimidation
● Duluth model is supposed to change male behavior
● CBT-Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
● Group therapy is used so men can learn to confront one another
● There are no controlled studies yet that have focused on data testing individual therapy
for abusers
● Recidivism took forms in two: police report and partner report
● Recidivism- report of physical violence by victim during a follow up period
● Very male centered for criminal, and female centered for victim
● Treated batters have a 40% chance of being successful
● Men have a 35% chance of maintaining non violence
● 5% increase in success rate attributed to treatment
● Battering intervention is like behavior rehab for the men
● I can see this as a positive and negative because more women are willing to get back with
abusive partners
● Quasi-experiments have their issues because participants can just drop out
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● Only 1 in 5 domestic violence assaults are reported to the authorities

● Authors encourage not leaving behind the current intervention programs
● No treatment model reigns superior over the others
● Treatments need to be tailored to individual cases of relationships and families

Gershoff, E. & Sexton, H. & Lansford, J. Kean, P.(2012)Longitudinal Links between Spanking
and Children’s Externalizing Behaviors in a National Sample of White, Black, Hispanic, and
Asian American Families (pp.838-843) Georgia:Child Development [5 Pages]
● Sample size of 11,044 of White, Black and Asian American families
● Studied the links between a mother’s use of spanking and a child's behaviors
● Spanking is used to discipline children for external behaviors
● Proposed that the cultural context of spanking will determine positive or negative results
● Between white and black parents, Black parents believe “spanking to be appropriate and
● Hispanic parents share similar spanking rates to white parents
● The question, does ethnicity moderate the effect of spanking
● Study hypothesis: Black parents use spanking the most, and that there will not be a
difference between mean rates in groups
● Study is built on previous literature (Sameroff, 2009)
● “We restricted the sample to children who: (a) were uniquely identified as being in one of
the four main race and ethnic groups of the study, (b) had mothers as the parent
respondents for the study, (c) did not have a twin in the sample, and (d) had a third-grade
school identifier for clustering purposes.” (pp.839)
● The mean age of the child was 6 years and 2 months
● 64% of the kids were white, 19% were Hispanic, 12% were Black, 5% were Asian
● Teachers responded to questions about children's behaviors in school
● 18% of the families income needs fell below the 1998 poverty line
● Education level of the mothers was also accounted for during this study
● 80% of all mothers said they had spanked their children
● 27% said they spanked their children a week before the interview
● Children negatively react to mothers spanking
● Creates a cycle of coercive parenting that is happening cross culturally
● Study is limited because spanking severity depends on the mind of the mother
● “Spanking children is not associated with better behavior over time.”(843) in all racial

Logan, T. (2010). Research on partner stalking: Putting the pieces together. Lexington, KY:
University of Kentucky, Department of Behavioral Science & Center on Drug and Alcohol
Research. [26 Pages]
● Between 4.8% and 14.5% of women 18+ report being stalked by an intimate partner
● .6% of men 18+ report being stalked by an intimate partner
● College women are a high target because schedules are easy to know, you are exposed to
a lot of people, and on campus housing situates everyone in the same living community
● Stalking is more likely to happen by a partner or ex partner than by a stranger
● Tjaden and Thoennes (1998) 81% of women stalked by partner had been in the
relationship physically assaulted
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● There is a significant association between stalking and sexual assault

● Length of partner stalking is 2.2 years
● 57% of stalking victims were stalked during their relationship
● 63%-69% had expierenced attempted “femicide”
● Partner stalking is common during periods of separation
● There is a dependency factor is all partner violence
● Physical surveillance is the most frequently cited tactic
● Property invasion (like Baldwin was saying in class)
● Proxies:friends, family,fellow classmates, and workers
● Cell Phone calls are made countless times to stalk the victim
● GPS:through social media (snapchat, instagram, facebook, and Iphone GPS sharing)
● Partner stalkers are more violent than non-partner stalkers
● Partner stalkers are more likely to assault third parties, they see their victims more often.
● Partner stalkers are more detrimental because they have a close relationship with victim
● 90% of actual or attempted homicide victims had experienced a physical assault and were
also stalked
● Even with protective orders from court there is a high relationship between post court
● Victims suffer from PTSD, depression, and anxiety
● Being stalked puts victims in specific psychological distress
● Employed stalking victims experienced twice as many ways of stalking and were stalked
three times more than unemployed victims
● Lost time from work can be a consequence of stalking and can lead victims to lose their
● Economic plays a role because property damage often happens in stalking and that can
add up quick
● Children are used as weapons to control the victim
● If there is a shared child the stalker has easier access to the victim
● Child custody could be threatened
● Women being stalked disconnect from their media, and limit social interactions
● Estimated partner stalking cost of $342 million in 2003 in loss of productivity and mental
● Can cost one small state about $9 million in legal cost to the state
● Article was well formatted and easy to read
● Many people don’t report because they feel no one will believe them
● Only 17% are reported to police
● Police need evidence of stalking to help, which allows it to go on for longer than

Research Methodology: SBS 362

Mason, J.(2001) Qualitative Researching. (pp. 82-106) Sage Publications [24 pages]

Chapter 5 of Mason focuses on selecting the ideal sample for qualitative researching. The
author aims to emphasize the importance of systematic sampling and prove the common concept
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that qualitative sampling doesn’t need a system as an incorrect notion. The author constructs the
chapter around various questions regarding sampling, one question that I found essential to the
chapter was about establishing a relationship between the sample and a wider population. An
important factor of social researching was discussed in the chapter which is the issue that
sampling frames aren’t always available in social research. This is an issue many students in SBS
have when attempting to conduct social research and can be helped by snowball sampling. One
sampling unit in snowball sampling is usually one person who the research can use as a base for
asking for more “units” or people to sample.

Groleau, D. (2007). A mix-method approach to the cultural understanding of distress and the
non-use of mental health services.Journal of Mental Health, Vol. 16. (pp. 731-741) [10 pages]

The article topic is on the implementation of mixed-method research used to study mental
health and behavioral problems in a diverse community through the project Pathway and Barriers
to Mental Health. The researchers formatted their study to follow a Sequential Transformative
Design using both quantitative and qualitative analysis. The results of the study shows that
immigrants that show symptoms of distress underuse mental health services within the
community. The use of mixed-methods to gather data was beneficial in four avenues: identifying
the mental health issues and behaviors in the community; understanding the relationships
between individual and environmental factors; outlining avenues to develop and personalize
mental health; and evaluating the effectiveness of the services. The article emphasizes the
importance of collaborating both positivist and constructivist approaches to understanding the
social world. By using mixed-methods to understand distress in community members and their
ability to use mental health services shows the importance of using mixed methods. There is
more data being collected which allows for a deeper understanding of all factors that affect an
individual's mental health.

Golafshani, N. (2003) Understanding Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research. The

Qualitative Report. Vol 8, N. 4. (pp.597-607) [10 pages]

Quantitative research is used in experimental research to quantitatively measure variables

to test and measure hypotheses. There are four key aspects of implementing this paradigm:
emphasis on causes of behavior, variable can be quantified, use of mathematical process, and
finally the results are illustrated in statistical terms. Any quantitative research needs to have
internal reliability and validity so that the experiment can be re tested and applied to other
experiments in different domains. Reliability means that the measurement can be repeated over
time and validity determines the truth of the measures. Quantitative research is one tool to
analyze phenomenon, but there is also qualitative research.“Unlike quantitative researchers who
seek causal determination, prediction, and generalization of findings, qualitative researchers seek
instead illumination, understanding, and extrapolation to similar situations (Hoepfl, 1997)”.
(pp.600). Qualitative research uses the naturalistic approach to understand phenomenons in real
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world settings. Reliability in qualitative research examines the trustworthiness of the research
report, and validity in qualitative research is a flexible concept that is central to truth. Both
concepts are operationalized as trust, rigor, and quality in a qualitative paradigm.

Bloor, Michael.(2001) Focus Groups in Social Research. (pp. 19-36) Sage Publications [17

Bloor begins the article with focusing on the importance of selecting a perfectly
composed focus group by stressing the fact that he himself has struggled with the ideal group.
One example given in the text was the issue of a participant groups that have people with two
opposing viewpoints that may encourage distressing situations to both groups involved. In the
specific example there was a focus on the AIDs epidemic but was shut down do to homophobic
participants. Focus groups can be made from pre-existing social groups whether that is formal or
informal groups, or stranger groups. An interesting point brought up that I hadn’t thought about
of as a researcher was that individuals participating in research can’t be too knowledgeable about
the topic because it can sway the results. Focus group size depends on what is being studied but
usually smaller groups are better because they are more intaint and deeper discussions can be had
about the research.

Stichter, J. (2004) An Analysis of Trends Regarding Proactive and Ecologically Valid

Interventions in Applied Research . Education and Treatment of Children. Vol 27, N. 2. (pp.86-

The study focused on in the article was designed to decide what degree the research
literature is reflecting interest in assessments. The results showed that there has been an increase
in assessment and antecedent based interventions over the past 22 years in research. The research
investigated a database of 1380 articles from 10 journals over the past 22 years that discussed
behavioral disabilities. The article outlined the procedure of the study and the importance of
coding used to analyze the database of articles. Two codes of the research used to separate the
data was assessment-based interventions and antecedent based interventions, which helped the
researcher categorize the data. Overall this article mainly just confused me the research question
asked and studied I didn’t understand which made it difficult to understand the article.

SBS 400: Senior Capstone Seminar I

Bień, B., & Bień-Barkowska, K. (2016). Objective drivers of subjective well-being in geriatric
inpatients: Mobility function and level of education are general predictors of self-evaluated
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health, feeling of loneliness, and severity of depression symptoms. Quality of Life Research,
25(12), 3047-3056.

Positive emotions can help prolong an individual’s life and reduce the risk of stroke and
other medical conditions, but “even geriatricians very rarely reach beyond the standard
diagnostics of depression” (Bień,& Bień-Barkowska 2016) The purpose of the research was to
identify different factors of subjective well-being among 555 geriatric patients in the hospital.
Patients were given a self-evaluated health status (SEH), a feeling of loneliness test (FoL) and
rated their severity of depression symptoms (SoDS). Following the patients self-evaluations they
were given the Timed Up and Go Test (TUG), which is used to assess mobility. The evaluators
look for the individual’s posture, stability, gait, stride length and sway which can show signs for
neurological issues. The results of this study showed that mobility affects the mental status of the
patients, and higher mobility and education level resulted in improved scores on all three
predictors. In the discussion section the authors discussed other studies that correlated to their
findings, for example, that high BMI leads to a lower self-evaluated health status later in life.
Weight was a factor I hadn’t thought of looking at as a predictor for lower scores on the SEH so
this article was very interesting and helpful to me.

Wang, J.-J., Lin, Y.-H., & Hsieh, L.-Y. (2011). Effects of gerotranscendence support group on
gerotranscendence perspective, depression, and life satisfaction of institutionalized elders. Aging
& Mental Health, 15(5), 580–586.

The researchers completed a clinical research test using gerotranscendence (GT) theory
to understand its influence on perspective, depression and life satisfaction on institutionalized
elders in China. “Tornstam defines GT as ‘‘a shift in meta perspective, from a materialistic and
rational vision to a more cosmic and transcendent one, normally followed by an increase in life
satisfaction’’ (Tornstam, 1994, p. 203).” (Wang, Lin, Hsieh p. 580) Essentially according to
Tornstam as humans age they become less materialistic and more holistic in worldviews.
The elders were separated into two groups the experimental group and the control group. The
experimental group, which had 35 subjects, attended a support group for eight weeks an hour
session each week then were tested on the Geriatric Depression Scale and the Life Satisfaction
scale. Subjects were taken from two assisted living facilities and one nursing home, all were over
65 years or older and had to be able to verbally communicate. Subjects were required to have
been in the facility for at least six months and have established normal cognitive function. The
control group, which consisted of 41 subjects, did not partake in the senior support group and
were tested on the same scales. The results showed that elders that took part in the experimental
group had higher scores is GT perspective and life satisfaction which suggest that partaking in
support groups elderly will have a higher life satisfaction rate and lower depression symptoms.
In a recent survey a sample of 1771 Swedish elders, was taken and Tornstam (2003) found that
there was a positive relationship between life satisfaction and universe and social transcendence.
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In comparison to a negative correlation between life satisfaction and the want to be alone. In
conclusion the authors encourage the concept of GT being put into practice by facilities, and
health practitioners.

Bekhet, Abir., & Zauszniewski, J. (2012) Mental Health of Elders in Retirement Communities: Is
Loneliness a Key Factor? Archives of Psychiatric Nursing. Vol. 26, No. 3 (pp 214–224)

Loneliness is examined as the main dictator of mental wellness for seniors in the United
States. Since the baby boomer generation is aging there are many more resources getting used by
elders and there has to be a focus on senior overall health because there are so many of them
within the population. The authors define loneliness as a term that can be broken up into three
categories. The first category is a state of loneliness that changes and is transient and reactive to
social situations. The second is a personality or character of loneliness, and the third is the view
that loneliness is an inevitable condition. Some life aspects that contribute to loneliness is poor
health status, and physical and mental decline. Not being able to physically engage in society and
get out in the world deeply affects the mind of any individual, especially those who are older.
The theoretical framework used to analyze the data was proposed by Hawkley and Cacioppo,
who stated that loneliness is a mechanism with consequences. Some consequences, according to
the theory is chronic diseases, depressive and anxiety symptoms, functional limitations. The
research that was conducted focused on gender differences and the associations between
loneliness and physical and mental health consequences. The sample was of 314 residents, 250
women and 64 men, “overall that the most commonly reported negative emotions in the 314
elders were sadness (29.0%), loneliness (28.7%), nervousness (26.4%), worry (24.5%), and
anxiousness (23.9%).” (pp. 217) There were three age categories established in the study, young
old (65-74) reported sadness most frequently, middle-old (75-84) reported nervousness and the
old-old reported loneliness most frequently. Elders that reported loneliness had higher anxiety
scores in comparison to those who didn’t and gender played no role.

Hartmann, J. A. S., Fernandes, A. L. A. de F., de Medeiros, A. G. A. P., de Vasconcelos, C. A.

C., Pinheiro, K. S. C. B., de Amorim, L. L. L., … Neto, M. L. R. (2018). Hope as a behavior and
cognitive process: A new clinical strategy about mental health’s prevention. Medicine, 97(36),

Aging is a unavoidable individual process that everyone is experiencing and is influenced

by family, personality, and socioeconomic conditions. The aging population has to deal with
many negative and stressful situations, such as losing their spouse or being forced to go into
assisted living. Many of these situations put strain on the mental health of the elderly, but now
positive psychology is being researched to discover the qualities that will assist in avoiding
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mental illness as one ages. Hope, optimism, resilience, ethics, and courage are all qualities
postove psychologist, such as Seligman use to promote healthy abilities, and personal growth.
The clinical study reported in the article aims to, “evaluate cognitive and behavioral performance
among the elderly through hope training, as a clinical strategy for the prevention of mental
illness.” (pp. 2) Hope is the central quality studied in the clinical study because it is a cognitive
process that comes from goal setting, and achieving successful paths. Hope can be learned and
can be applied in stressful situations, like mentioned earlier to result in the maximum benefits for
the person during that situation. During the study the 51 participants attended lectures for several
months to understand the effect of cognitive stimulation on older people. The results showed that
hope training encouraged greater neuroplasticity.In conclusion hope training can be useful to
overall mental health of seniors according to the study.

Gattuso, S. (2003). Promoting mental health in rural elders: a pilot program. Australasian
Journal on Ageing, Vo122 (No 2). (pp. 76-79)

The development of mental health programs focused on senior citizens is vital to a

healthy ageing community especially those rural populations. Rural populations have less access
to modern technology, major senior care facilities, or even senior specific health resources, such
as hospice for end of life care. According to the study people in rural communities are at the
highest risk for a misdiagnosis and overall failure to properly treat mental health illness. The
program was called Healthy and Wise and was put to trial in rural north-east Victoria. It was an
eight session program that ran for six weeks each lasting for about 2 and a half hours. The
program focused on four avenues of health, physical, mind, social and self esteem health. The
103 participants before engaging in the group meetings took the GDS to report their depression
and life satisfaction levels. Out of the participants 50 reported experiencing mental health
problems, and 61 had a chronic diseases. The intake depression rating was 64 not depressed in
comparison to the 24 with mild depression symptoms. At the end of the program the participants
retook the GDS and there was a positive effect, the “Mean score at intake was 3.5 (sd 3.1) and
post intervention it was 2.3 (sd 2.8), t = 4.57 (df = 74, p <. 001)” (pp.78) which shows lower
depression. Overall the study showed the necessity for mental health promotion in seniors and
that the Healthy and Wise program was successful in promoting a positive outlook.

Aw, S., Koh, G., Oh, Y.,...Hildon, Z. (2017) Explaining the continuum of social participation
among older adults in Singapore: from 'closed doors' to active ageing in multi-ethnic community
settings. Journal of Aging Studies. Vol. 42. (pp.46-55)

The study focuses on the older people in Singapore and the extent to which they
participate within their communities and social participation of the aging individual. The
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research was conducted through an ethnographic approach using focus groups of a 109 residents
in Singapore. Each participant took 50 photos that explained their lives as seniors, and allowed
the researchers to visually see the socio-ecological context that influences social participation.
The photos showed the role ethnicity played in caretaking of elders cross culturally older women
are expected to take on the role as a caretaker. Since across a women’s life time they are the
main caretaker of the house, it is seen as wasteful to spend time outside of the house which
reduces women’s social interaction with the outside world overtime. This reduction of
socialization carries into senior activities and leaves women isolated and sticking to familiarity
instead of creating a new social environment with others their age. An encouraging family is key
to elders social engagement because family members will constantly be pushing and supporting
the elder to get out of their comfort zone.

Hoogland, A. (2015) Continuity of change: The dynamic of beliefs, values, and the aging
experience. Journal of Aging Studies, Vol. 32, (pp. 32-39)

Hoogland examines the evolution of age perception by using 18 participants ages 62-85
breaking them into age groups and providing a six question discussion template to activate
conversation regarding beliefs and values affected by aging. The theory of gerotranscendence is
used to analyze the changing world perspectives of older adults, but Hoogland critiques the
theory for not being able to operationalize the theory. The researcher moderated each focus
group and recorded the participants discussion on evolving worldviews affected by age. One
result of the focus groups was that all participants showed an increased protection over the time
they had left in life. They wanted to focus on what mattered which from the quotes of the
subjects seemed to be focusing on people and emotions that were positive. Participants stated
they had become more altruistic as they aged, focusing on the welfare of their family members
instead of themselves. An interesting focus in the study was the perception of death and
willingness to accept death. The results showed that in the oldest age group people were less
afraid of death in comparison to when they were younger. The notion that a person’s
foundational self remains intact over time is consistent with the results but their worldview can
be influenced with age. Several limitations of the study are lack of massive sampling, since the
sample size was relatively small there could be a lack of accurate representation in worldviews
especially including those with different socioeconomic status and other social classifications.

Liang, J. & Luo, B.(2012) Toward a discourse shift in social gerontology: From successful aging
to harmonious aging. Journal of Aging Studies Vol.26 (pp.327–334).

The aim of the authors is to critique the conceptual framework of social gerontology.
They begin by establish four avenues in which successful aging is problematic which are: that it
is ageist, overlooks individual quality life experience, under addressed issues of capitalisms
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influence on aging and finally sole focus on Western values not on global values of aging.
Successful aging is categorized as a Western approach to define and understand aging because it
is incredibly individualistic. In comparison to the framework of aging the authors encourage
which is harmonious aging which focus on the relationship of self and the universe.The authors
aim to replace successful aging theories with harmonious aging frameworks which is defined in
the literature is the balance outlook as one ages. This is seen through the integration of global
perspectives of aging, taking a holistic view of self and social forces, and focusing on both body
and mind health during aging. Aging is not apart of life to view as problematic but is seen as
such in Western cultures, instead it should be viewed as a phenomenon of challenges and
opportunities to grow.

Plenda, M. (2017). Aging Population, and Lack of Mental Health Services Spur Hospital
Investments. Business NH Magazine, 34(6), 22. Retrieved from

The healthcare system in America is under investigation in this article specifically

hospitals in New Hampshire. Since New Hampshire’s population is one of the oldest in America,
according to the census, it is important to look at the current resources for seniors because NH’s
population above 65 is going to rise to 20% by next year. More hospitals are filling up to service
the aging population but there is less funding to go to hospitals. Behavioral and mental health
are categorized as one in the article and in the Cheshire Medical Center the emergency room has
seen a 50% increase in behavioral health patients. This is due to lack of outpatient services to
prevent mental health crises from happening through behavioral intervention. Since the
population of 65 and older is only going to increase over the next ten years there is going to be a
need for geriatric specific resources for all Americans.

Kelley, S. D. M. (2003). Prevalent Mental Health Disorders in the Aging Population: Issues of
Comorbidity and Functional Disability. Journal of Rehabilitation, 69(2), 19. Retrieved from

The main issue the article is drawing attention too is that older adults are at the same risk
for mental health issues as younger populations but there is less research. For example by 2040 it
is projected that people with dementia will rise to around 14 million and although it is a growing
field of research there are still many people suffering without knowing it. Other than dementias
the American Psychiatric Association stated that most mental health disorders do not increase in
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elderly populations, although suicide rates are highest among elderly white males. A factor that
changes with age is the association between mental wellness and physical functionality. There is
empirical data that illustrates the complex relationship between the two in older populations and
lacking physical functionality can increase depression and anxiety. Rehabilitation professionals
are urged in this article to work on healing not only the physical injuries but also the mental and
emotional health of their patients. It is important to have an integrated health care system for the
aging population with mental and physical health check ins and programs for elders.

Menkin, J. A., Guan, S.-S. A., Araiza, D., Reyes, C. E., Trejo, L., Choi, S. E., … Sarkisian, C. A.
(2017). Racial/Ethnic Differences in Expectations Regarding Aging Among Older Adults. The
Gerontologist, 57(Suppl 2), S138–S148. http://doi.org/10.1093/geront/gnx078

The purpose of the study was to identify the differences in age-expectations of minority
aging populations in the United States. It is an important perspective on aging to look at because
the population is just getting older and understanding the ways in which different races and
ethnicities perceive aging will help service providers relate to their patients based on their
perceptions of aging. Essentially understanding different perspectives will result in better care
for seniors in America. Many age expectations are delivered through media and everyday culture
because exposure to media differs on many factors age expectations can be very personal.
Overall the results showed that African American participants expected the least age related
decline in comparison to the Chinese American participants who assumed the most. Assimilating
to American culture was correlated with a higher overall age-expectations independent of
ethnicity. Mental health expectations were different between all the groups except for Chinese
and Korean Americans.This article was the most confusing for me to understand out of the ten
articles researched because of the results section that dealt with acculturation and had the break
down of the statistics.

SBS 404S: Service Learning Capstone

Johnson, A. (2005). Privilege, Power, and Difference. New York, NY: McGraw Hill. (pp.1-67)
67 pages
It all begins with the famous question said by Rodney King after a racially charged police
beating, “Can’t we all just get along?”. As the article states the simple answer is no there is too
much segregation, prejudice, and inequality between people of different races that the answer
even in 2019 is still no. But this question isn’t held only by the bounds of race it encompasses
gender, abilities, education, income and other social determinants of an individual. Johnson
encourages the reader throughout the four chapters to view themselves as a “problem of
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privilege” in order to gain insight into a future solution for privilege. An incredibly interesting
concept the reading brought to light is the creation of “real” which was addressed by James
Baldwin who discussed the idea that our reality is made up of a cultural creation. His example of
a black woman experiencing that label in the U.S. has accurate criticism of privileges
organization according to race. Using the term privilege is now seen as an accusation and a
heavily weighted term to some people, especially males or whites. Johnson addresses this
perspective and encourages people to analyze their emotions before they get defensive of being
labeled as privileged. Denying privilege just continues the cycle of “unearned advantages” and
“conferred dominance” which creates competitive edge to certain groups while marginalizing or
silencing others. The four chapters helped me access my own privilege and complete number one
of the service learning pillar analysis.

Rodriguez, A. (1999). The boy without a flag: Tales of the South Bronx. Minneapolis, MN:
Milkweed Editions. (pp. 16-28) 12 pages

This is unlike any article I have read for an SBS course so far and discusses the conflict
of self identity and parental relationships. The incident he describes about not saluting the
American flag is something I believe is common at that age regardless of nationality or not. The
self is being challenged and the blind allegiance to a flag that the author is describing is a
common experience. Once a child starts to analyze the social interactions that affect their identity
as an individual they question the social interactions that affect them, which follows Mead’s
theory of self. His discussion with his father about the morals behind saluting the flag has
Marxist undertones. When his father’s reasoning behind supporting the flag is “because we are
owned like cattle” it reminds me of the oppressive system Marx describes society as. Overall this
article was very insightful into a perspective of a Puerto Rican American child growing up with
the strugglers of identity and nationality.

Kretzmann, J. (1984). Community Organizing in the Eighties: Toward A Post-Alinsky Agenda.

National Emergency Training Center. (pp. 153-172) 19 pages

This article challenges Saul Alinsky’s methods of community organization on two basic
ideas. The first is the author states that the poor and working-class urban neighborhoods has
changed and due to this change the Alinsky approach for building the community need to be
revised and redeveloped to encompass the changes. Conditions that are changing the community
come from the lack of political participation of residents, the decrease in labor unions, the
housing market, and job security and availability within communities. The concept of social
mapping was first addressed to me in Dr.A’s class and I had forgotten about it until this article
because I often don’t analyze city planning and assessment resources and services that build a
community. The struggle between institutions and people occur everyday in every capacity but
we as a society rarely investigate the forces at work when we are living each day.
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Sjoberg,G. And Schenkman, E. (1967) Ethics, Politics, and Social Research. Chapter 3.
Cambridge, MA: Volume 162. (pp. 62-83) 21 Pages

This chapter addresses three main concepts within the realm of ethical social research:
ethical issues in social research, two ethical controversies and the politics of social research.
Social research that use human subjects can only be conducted on populations that are not at risk,
for example children are not allowed to be used for human subject research without special
permission from the board and their parent. When conducting social research anonymity and
confidentiality in participants answers must be considered a high priority to the research to
protect not only the participants but the data from being skewed due to deception. Although this
ethical compass has not always been valued in social research in America, for example the
Zimbardo prison experiment which was highly unethical and put the participants completely at
risk occurred not to long ago in American history. Although no one can remain entirely objective
from their self identity and their own ideologies social researchers must be able to remain
objective when using human subjects or the data and results can be skewed and inconclusive.

Remen, R. (1999). Helping, Fixing or Serving?.Shambhala Sun.(pp. 1-3) 3 pages

In the article Helping, Fixing or Serving written by Naomi Remen she establishes the
different mindsets that people have when it comes to service. Remen states “When we help, we
may inadvertently take away more than we give, diminishing the person's sense of self-worth and
self-esteem.” in the first section of the article. This quotation made me reevaluate the different
service projects and my mindset during each of them. In my head during many projects I saw
myself as helping instead of servicing because the people I was doing a project for were at a
higher need level than I was. I believe that is due to my age,my privilege, and the lack of
education at the time I took part in the service projects. I started volunteering at a young age
(around ten or younger)because of my mother, she loves being involved and servicing the
community in the ways she knows how to. It felt good to help people, but having that mindset,
according to the article, isn’t a positive thing because it allows the inequality to continue between
the people being serviced and the server. This leads me into my own acknowledgement of my
privilege, due to limited life experiences and lack of education on other populations as a kid I
thought my life was the normality. I knew that I had certain privileges that others don’t but I
didn’t realize the extent. I grew up in Willow Glen which is a upper middle class suburb in San
Jose California everyone my age had the same backstory, there was no major difference in
privilege between us.Fixing is Remen’s concept I relate to the most because her statement is
valid, people are not projects. Age and education have a huge impact on the mindsets that people
have when they take part in service. This article was helpful to me, because she clearly
distinguishes the aspects of all three ways of thinking and how they affect the community/people
that is being served.

Tutu, D. (2009). No Future Without Forgiveness. Crown Publishing. (pp. 390-397) 7 Pages
Santina 44

Tutu describes his trip to Rwanda after the massacres and witnessing the aftermath of a
terrible human tragedy. Instead of remaining angry and vengeful the community of Rwanda
formed the Truth and Reconciliation Commission which spoke about the atrocities while offering
messages of hope and forgiveness. This action of growth instead of regression into anger
surprised Tutu but also the world which had expected South Africa to fall after the Rwandan
genocide. Tutu acknowledges God as the catalyst for the change in attitudes but religion or not
the people that took the steps to overcome the violence and instead set the precedents of
progressive national relations and identity are the real effectors of change. I believe this piece
will be influential to consider during the 2020 elections and the result of the coming elections
due to the divisions of hate in the US.

White House Conference on Aging. (2015). Final Report. Retrieved from

https://www.ccoa.ca.gov/docs/WHCoA/2015-WHCOA-Final-Report.pdf. (1-87) 87 Pages

The White House Conference on Aging (WHCoA) began in 1961 and is held at the end
of every decade. The most recent was hosted by President Obama in the White House on July 13,
2015. Less than 200 persons received personal invitations to attend the conference but many
more watch. The conference covers many different avenues but it is broken down into three
major sections in the report. The first outlines the public and private supports currently being
utilized to support older Americans, second covers the general public’s input, and finally the
report addresses the needed actions for future services and policies. Behavioral health is a factor
that greatly influences adults for example suicide, disproportionately affects older Americans.
“According to the CDC, although people 65 and older represent 13.7 percent of the population,
they accounted for 16.2 percent of suicide deaths in 2013.”(pg.4) Substance abuse affects up to
17% of older adults but health care providers fail to recognize the symptoms and it often goes
untreated. Because of age related changes in physiology and drug tolerance aging adults are
extremely vulnerable. This is an incredibly important aspect of aging that all healthcare providers
need to be conscious of because pain relieving drugs that are known to be addictive, like Vicodin
can affect the elder’s mental health. Strong steroids have been proven to affect an individuals
mental health especially when having chronic conditions that are treated with medication. These
two major issues are explained in different sources in the literature review on this topic.
Continuous social engagement of elders promotes individual wellbeing while also assisting to
change the perspective of elders as a tool instead of a determinant to society.
The public input section of the report addressed the need for increased age friendly
communities.This was a new term but essentially includes available housing for seniors,
promoting accessible safe transportation options. Age-friendly communities aim to serve all
people and stop discrimination, lack of access to healthcare, and language/accessibility barriers.
This is especially important for the LGBTQ who as a whole encounter incredible amounts of
discrimination and judgement throughout the aging system. The seniors that belong to the
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LGBTQ community that are placed in assisted living homes for example have to go through a
different placement process if applying as a homosexual couple. There is still prejudice against
gays in the aging community by other elders because of the society they grew up in even if it’s
2019. Overall this report was incredibly insightful to my understanding of aging issues in
America because it outlined the issues that have been brought to light in 2015 and creates a
timeline for me to understand how long these issues have been prevalent. Understanding the
timeline of aging issues is incredibly important because it addresses the issues that haven’t been
solved by policies or advocacy that need to be in the future because they have been occurring for
a long period of time.

Chiva, A., & Stears, D. (Eds.). (2001). Promoting the Health of Older People. Philadelphia, PA:
Open University Press. [151 Pages]
This book analyzes several factors that influence health and well-being in older people
from lifestyle factors, psychological well being, to grief and sexuality. The book is composed of
different articles from different scholars and professionals in the field of geriatrics.There are two
main sections of the book, Part 1:Principles to Practice and Part 2: Practical issues in health
promotion with older people. For the research Part 1 most helpful in providing background
information and new concepts to further analyze. One new concept addressed in the last article of
part one was the theory of holism, which refers to the ageless self, meaning people are aging
chronologically and there are internal and external factors that affect holistic health. In America
people define old from a range of 60 and upward, but it is important to understand that age is in
fact just a number and there are other factors that influence the actual age of the person not just
the age label.
Health related behaviors are socially structured to increase longevity of older adults
means focusing promoting health, wellbeing and independence.Health related behaviors are
influenced by income, class, gender, ethnicity and social networks. Socio-economic factors
influence health behaviors for example access to recreational activities that promote a healthy
aging timeline.Recreational Activities that promote physical activist such as aerobics or
swimming incur cost which means some don’t have access to due financial restrictions. There is
also a gender factor to physical health, women’s diets are more healthier than men’s in a 1991
study done (pg.25). Although the study is from 1991 women are projected to live longer than
men in the United States by several years even today. Acknowledging the systematic inequality
to different aging populations is essential to the growth of future services and programs that will
be inclusive to all aging adults. Health related behaviors such as diet and exercise can prevent
individuals with chronic illnesses from acquiring another in some cases, and with the rise of
memory diseases projected to affect the Baby Boomers access to alternative pain medication can
reduce the numbers. Being admitted to the hospital due to physical health can have serious
traumatic effects on mental health in older adults because of the stress induced during the visits
they are more likely to suffer short term memory loss. A preventative measure for this would be
living a healthier lifestyle, preparing the home for an older limited mobility body, and fueling
oneself with a healthy diet.

Pruchno, R., & Smyer, M. A. (2007). Challenges of an aging society: Ethical dilemmas, political
issues. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. (1-464) [464 pages]
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The book is divided into four parts. The first focuses on ethical dilemmas and legal
restrictions when it comes to autonomy and end of life decisions. The second delves into the role
the family plays as caretakers and decision makers for the elderly loved one. The third section is
solely on policy and addresses the ministry elders being underserved and discriminated against
through public policy. Finally the book closes on the highly charged topic of social security and
provides criticism of the current state of social security while also outlining an action plan for
bettering the situation.
Shockingly the data projects that by 2030 70 million people in the US will be 65+. This
statistic can be attributed to technological advances in medicine and societal shift into healthier
living by increasing life expectancies.Longer life expectancies include two important
implications for society. The first being compressed morbidity meaning functional decline won’t
occur until older ages and more people will experience dementias such as Alzheimer’s. The
predicted amount of people going to be diagnosed with Alzheimer’s once baby boomers retire is
between 11.3 million and 16 million by the year 2050 (Hebert et al., 2003).These two
implications also imply that adults will obtain multiple chronically illnesses which means the
healthcare system and social services available to seniors needs to be prepared for this impact.
There are many ethical dilemmas when handling the senior population, and seniors with
Alzheimer’s experience choice limitations when diagnosed with even just early Alzheimer's.
Medical professions deem patients with Alzheimer’s lacking the clear consciousness to make
medical decisions or plans.
The need for caregiving is set for an all time high but it reports a decrease in caregiving
from 1987-1997. This projection does not account for the family caregivers that don’t formally
label themselves as caregivers and are often not paid for their time dedicated to the care of a
loved one. Elderly often are unaware that they have the power to make end of life decisions and
plan for their care because of the stigma and perceptions of Western aging. In American culture
people aren’t comfortable with the notion they are aging and will eventually die so it limits the
planning and the future decisions that will be made in regards to their health care.
In the final sections of this book policy and social programs are addressed by outlining
the predicted impact to the systems. For example the book addresses the impact of longer life
expectancies and the decrease in fertility rates plays on Social Security. Social Security benefits
are being depleted by the current retiring population which will negatively affect the future
generations. The author offers a potential solution that is a common thought, which is to increase
the retirement age to 65 which can be beneficial because there would be more benefits available
to the individual. In comparison a higher retirement age can affect the workers body and wear a
senior down more than a younger worker in a physically demanding environment.

Prohaska, T. R., Anderson, L. A., & Binstock, R. H. (2012). Public health for an aging society.
Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. (1-404) [404 Pages]
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This is the second volume of a book that was published in 1997 that explored various
strategies to promote healthy aging populations and inform policy makers. Some of the earlier
strategies and ideas are reviewed after application in this publication of the text. Which is
important and empowering to see an example of research taking the needed steps forward after
being examined and analyze by past theorist and scholars.
The book is broken down into five major sections the first is Fundamentals, which
focuses on the major issues facing aging public health and viewing the rising population as a tool
not a problem. Another aspect examined in part one is the access to medicare and medical which
are government funded assistance for care of elders. Due to the recent eligibility requirements for
Medicare changing many seniors had to re enroll in Part D insurance which I saw at my service
site. Many didn’t understand the policy change and without the service learning site I worked at
may not have re enrolled and had health coverage. I have personally seen the issues in
government and policy that negatively affect the population certain social programs are aiming
to aid.
The second section of the book is Social and Behavioral Factors, health inequalities
determined by social factors are outlined by Wallace. Varying individual mobilities are also
addressed as well as behavioral risk factors towards the end of this section. To summarize this
section of the book there are many preventative actions an individual and our society needs to
make to push forward with a healthy aging blueprint. Increasing the amount of senior eligible for
medicare can assist in financial planning for medical cost and assisted living treatment.
Preventative suggestions include: routine check ups of mental and physical health, medicating
chronic health conditions, and healthy overall lifestyle. Although preventative measures offer
hope, it is important to analyze accessibility through the perspectives brought to light at the
beginning of this section.
The third and fourth section were two large for the author to combine but for this analysis
combining the two offers greater analysis. Even in 2012 “there are relatively few feasible,
generalizable, effective, and sustainable health promotion interventions for use in applied health
and community settings” (p. 162) which is a call to all current researchers and activist to focus
on achieving a blueprint that is accessible to all communities. This concept from part three ties
into one of the major themes in part four because of the advancements in technology that can
benefit this community. An example in the literature that parallels my own experience in serving
the senior community is the use of cell phones as a form of communication but also as a
wellbeing tracker. For instance clients can download apps that help them with taking medications
at specific times through phone reminders, but in a broader since cell phones limit isolation
which negatively affects seniors health.
The final section of this book addresses Emerging issues with subcategories on built
environments for seniors, genomics role on physical aging issues, resources available and
international perspectives on aging. This is an incredibly important and enlighten section because
it looks at aging from a global perspective which many earth literature I have read does not chose
to include because of the differing social norms on aging in different countries. It should be
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noted that America has its own very specialized set of aging issues because of the varying social
determinant and identities that make up America citizens.