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Beni Iyaka Automated Car Parking System

Research Report

Automated Car Parking System

Author: Beni Iyaka


Reg. Number: H00181266
Supervisor: Dr. Mohamed Abdelshafy

A Research Report
Submitted to the school of Mathematical and Computer Science
Of Heriot Watt University
In partial fulfillment of the requirements of the
Degree of Masters of Science in Software Engineering

April 2017

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Beni Iyaka Automated Car Parking System

Declaration

I, Beni Iyaka, confirm that the work submitted for the following
assessment is my own and is written in my own words. Any words,
figure or table from other authors are properly referenced and
acknowledged. A page of references which were used to write this
work is included.

Name: Beni Iyaka

Date:

Signature:

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“This piece of work is dedicated to my lovely family and everyone who


have been of help and also inspirational to me throughout my academic
life.”

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Acknowledgements

First, I would like to thank God the almighty to whom I give all the glory for his
endless blessings that he has given me. I would like to express my sincerer gratitude
to everyone who has been of help during the development of this work of which I am
particularly grateful to my one and only supervisor Dr. Mohamed Abdelshafy, whose
advice, support, encouragement and guidance assisted me throughout the writing of
this paper.

I would like to thank my parents to whom I dedicate this piece of work for their great
support and also their effort and endless encouragement to help achieve my ambition
regardless of the distance. Also a big thank to my brothers and sister for their
prayers and advices they have provided so as to help me achieve this work.

I am also grateful to all the staff, students and works of Heriot-Watt University
Dubai Campus who provided me with great suggestions and helpful information.

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Abstract

In our days, finding an available parking space can be considered as time and fuel
consuming. Therefore, it may cause drivers to be frustrated; which will lead to
inappropriate parking. This will lead to bad traffic around the parking space and may
also lead to accident. That is why this project proposes an Intelligent Parking System
that uses various sensors which will be based on Arduino Uno and also an Android
Application as interface to help book or view available spaces.

This project will help solve problems mentioned by allowing users to view and select
available space in the parking; which will prevent users from driving around the
parking for long. In this project, the Arduino Ethernet Shield W5100 Card slot will be
used as the link between the Arduino and the android application. By transferring
data collected from the Arduino to an online server so as to enable the android
application to access those data.

As a conclusion, this project will help in reducing the amount of time a driver has to
spend around the parking just to find an available spot, reducing the amount of
traffic around the parking and also reducing the bad parking around the parking
space.

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Table of Contents
Declaration .................................................................................................................................... 2
Acknowledgements ........................................................................................................................ 4
Abstract ......................................................................................................................................... 5
Chapter 1 ..................................................................................................................................... 10
1. Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 10
1.1. Outline ....................................................................................................................... 10
1.2. Research topic ............................................................................................................ 10
1.3. Scope of research........................................................................................................ 10
Chapter 2 ..................................................................................................................................... 11
2. Literature Review ............................................................................................................. 11
2.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................... 11
2.2. Context ....................................................................................................................... 11
2.3. Car Parking System................................................................................................... 12
2.4. Conclusion .................................................................................................................. 27
Chapter 3 ..................................................................................................................................... 28
3. System Analysis ................................................................................................................ 28
3.1. Hypothesis.................................................................................................................. 28
3.2. Approach .................................................................................................................... 28
3.3. System Architecture .................................................................................................. 28
3.4. Methodology ............................................................................................................... 38
Chapter 4 ..................................................................................................................................... 39
4. Professional, Legal, Ethical and Social Issues ................................................................. 39
4.1. Professional Issues ..................................................................................................... 39
4.2. Legal Issues................................................................................................................ 39
4.3. Ethical Issues ............................................................................................................. 39
4.4. Social Issues ............................................................................................................... 39
Chapter 5 ..................................................................................................................................... 40
5. Organization ..................................................................................................................... 40
7.1. Objectives ................................................................................................................... 40
7.2. Requirements Analysis .............................................................................................. 40
7.3. Research Plan ............................................................................................................ 43
7.4. Performance Assessment ........................................................................................... 47

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7.5. Risk Analysis ............................................................................................................. 48


Chapter 6 ..................................................................................................................................... 51
6. Conclusion ......................................................................................................................... 51
6.1. Future Application ..................................................................................................... 51
6.2. Conclusion .................................................................................................................. 52
References .................................................................................................................................... 53

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List of Figures
Figure 1: Weymouth town [8] ...................................................................................................... 14
Figure 2: Sensor Detection [10] ................................................................................................... 15
Figure 3: Transit Based Information System [3] ........................................................................ 16
Figure 4: Smart Payment System [9].......................................................................................... 17
Figure 5: Online Parking Reservation [2] ................................................................................... 17
Figure 6: Counter Based Parking [11] ........................................................................................ 18
Figure 7: Image Based System [12] ............................................................................................ 18
Figure 8: Wired Sensor [13] ........................................................................................................ 19
Figure 9: Wireless Sensor [14] .................................................................................................... 19
Figure 10: Conveyor Belt Parking [15] ....................................................................................... 20
Figure 11: Pallet Parking System [19] ........................................................................................ 21
Figure 12: Tower parking [21]..................................................................................................... 22
Figure 13: Magnetic Sensor on Freeway [4] ............................................................................... 22
Figure 14: Rode Tube [22] ........................................................................................................... 23
Figure 15: Magnetic Sensors [23] ................................................................................................ 23
Figure 16: Weigh in motion [5].................................................................................................... 24
Figure 17: Ultrasonic Sensor [24] ............................................................................................... 25
Figure 18: Microwave Radar ceiling [25] .................................................................................... 25
Figure 19: Active Infrared Sensor [26]........................................................................................ 25
Figure 20: Cheap microcontroller [27] ........................................................................................ 26
Figure 21: Breadboard Arduino with Wireless Module [28]....................................................... 26
Figure 22: Parking System Architecture .................................................................................... 29
Figure 23: Arduino Set [29] ......................................................................................................... 30
Figure 24: Arduino Uno [30] ....................................................................................................... 31
Figure 25: Arduino Ethernet Shield [31] ................................................................................... 31
Figure 26: Photocell Sensor [32] ................................................................................................. 32
Figure 27: Ultrasonic Distance Sensor [7] .................................................................................. 32
Figure 28: DuPont Cable Wires [7] ............................................................................................. 33
Figure 29: SG90 Micro Servo [6] ................................................................................................. 33
Figure 30: Android [20] ............................................................................................................... 34
Figure 31: Programming Languages [33] ................................................................................... 35
Figure 32: Android Studio [34] .................................................................................................... 35
Figure 33: Reservation flowchart ................................................................................................ 36
Figure 34: Arduino Intel [35] ...................................................................................................... 37
Figure 35: PHP Sample ............................................................................................................... 37
Figure 36: MySQL IDE [36] ........................................................................................................ 38
Figure 37: Gant Chart ................................................................................................................. 44

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List of Tables
Table 1: Requirements Listing .................................................................................................... 41
Table 2: Task difficulty level ....................................................................................................... 45
Table 3: Project Tasks ................................................................................................................. 46
Table 4: Prototype Assessment ................................................................................................... 47
Table 5:: Risks Occurrence Probabilities .................................................................................... 48

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Chapter 1
1. Introduction

With the great increase in cars, finding a parking around have been a major problem
in our days. Therefore people make use of two different sort of parking managements
systems namely: The automatic parking system and the Marshaling Parking System.
The Marshaling Parking System is a type of parking whereby an officer or officers are
required to be on ground so as to indicate to drivers where there is a slot available.
The automatic car parking system is a type of parking that is designed to help the
driver and administrators of the parking status which is either putting screens to
notify drivers of the number of space available.

1.1. Outline

This report starts by introducing the automated car parking system and also how
it is a huge benefit to drivers and administrators. The report also provides an
overview an available literature in the automation field. After which it will then
propose a hypothesis and also justify all the aspects of the hypothesis. A scenario
has been put together so as to provide a clearer understanding on what the
project is all about. Later on in the report, the Arduino platform is explained and
that will be used as the core component for this project. Depending on the stage of
the project, the methodologies that will be implemented will be mentioned.
For this project, I will also present the aim and objectives of the project, analyze
the requirements, propose the project plan, outline potential risks, propose
evaluation approaches and also outline potential resolution plans. By the end of
the report, a small discussion on possible future works and how it can still
improve the parking system discussion.

1.2. Research topic

The aim of this research is to implement an automated car parking management


system at Heriot-Watt University; so as to allow students to easily park their cars
and also to book for a parking before reaching the campus.

1.3. Scope of research

Parking spaces are hard to find in the university. Most of the time, students will
have to roam around for sometimes before they can be able to find an available
space. Therefore with this research, students can easily know if there is an
available parking and also where the space is. An Arduino Uno equipped with
sensors will be used as the backbone to successfully build the automated car
parking system.

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Chapter 2
2. Literature Review

2.1. Introduction

This chapter will look at various topics relevant to the proposed system. Three
different types of parking systems will be discussed which are: Automated
Parking System, Semi-Automated Parking System and Parking Marshal System.
The topics will be discussed in the particular order that it has been mentioned.

2.2. Context

Intelligent Transportation Systems are advanced applications which are


developed to improve the quality of transportation and also successfully reach
other outcomes based on the transportation system. Intelligent Transportation
Systems provides ways to manage traffic and also car parking by using various
advanced technologies. Looking at our world today, a lot of advanced systems are
developed and also implemented. The use of sensors in addition to their
implementation will thoroughly analyzed so as to get a better understanding.
That’s why the focus is more on the fully-automated parking.

Different car parking systems will be presented and also its usefulness when it
comes to space reservation will be clarified and also an introduction to the fully
automated car parking will be analyzed together with different features that may
be used to implement it will also be mentioned. A little discussion will be made on
the automated parking since it is mostly used around

Automated Car Parking Systems is widely known to be more complex and


computer based. That’s why the Semi-Automated Car Parking which is not that
complex will be also analyzed.

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2.3. Car Parking System

2.3.1. Smart Car Parking System

Parking facilities have always been important by allowing drivers to


safely leave their car while they can go on to their daily activities. Mostly
the information provided together with guidance implemented by the
smart parking system has been extremely useful by assisting drivers to
find an available space [1].

The payment of the parking has also been made easier with the
implementation of the new technology. Sensors are used to help detect
the presence of the car. This is absolutely necessary when it comes to the
development of the smart parking system because information of the
parked vehicle is required. From the sensor, the information can easily
be gathered so as the system can use it and the same information will
also be sent to the driver.

2.3.2. Advantages of Implementing Smart Car Parking System

While implementing the Smart Parking System, the car owner, the
parking operator and also the environment benefits from it. When
looking at the parking operator, the future parking pattern can easily be
predicted from the information gathered from the Smart Parking System
[2]. The parking price can also be based on the information obtain so as
to improve the organization profits. When looking at the environment,
the level of pollution can be reduced by decreasing the air pollution in
the air. The amount of time spent to find a parking is reduced resulting
to the time saving and also fuel consumption. The car owners also benefit
from the System because the system automatically indicates parking
space available which directly reduces the amount of vehicle travel and
the time to search for an available spot. With information provided by
the system, car drivers can easily avoid parking that is full and locate
the parking which is vacant [3]. The number of illegal parked cars is also
reduced. Also the traffic congestion is reduced. Other advantages that
come with the Smart Parking System is that it provides safety, security.
These advantages make it easy for the users. Some more advantages can
be economical and efficiency in space and friendly environment in the
parking [4].

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2.3.3. Safety and Security

While making use of a car parking system, drivers don’t have to spend
time searching around searching for an available spot instead they can
directly move to an available space which is either shown on the board,
indicated by the sensor or shown in their mobile depending on the type of
parking system being implemented. Driving around searching for
parking can be dangerous because drivers do not have a full
concentration on the road because their focus is on seeing an available
spot. Therefore reaching a parking slot definitely makes it easy for
drivers and also removes tension and frustration which increases safety
around the car parking. The parking system also monitors the driver's’
vehicles which also increases safety [5].

2.3.4. Space efficiency and Economical space

In some parking system such as the conveyor belt parking, client do not
have to be worried about how to park or where to park. All they have to
do is to leave the car at a certain spot and the car will be carried through
the conveyor belt to a free space. This system can contain more at least
40% more cars than what a normal car parking would contain. This
system removes the need of car owners to move around the parking
looking for space to park and climbing stairs or the exercise of
remembering where they parked their car. Even though this system is
known to be costly in term of maintenance, and other expenses, this
system just provides efficient space around. This type of system will be
discussed further in Chapter 3.

2.3.5. Types of Automated Parking System

The automated parking system can mostly be divided into five different
types namely: Parking Guidance and Information System (PGIS),
Electronic Parking, Automated Parking, Smart Payment System, Transit
Based Information System. Looking at the names, different types have
different functionalities of which they address various issues related to
the car parking facilities. Later on, the report will explain the
implementation and characteristic mixed with examples that can be
found around the world.

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2.3.5.1. Parking Guidance Information System

PGIS can be categories into two different aspect. This can be


implemented to monitor an entire city or just a specific parking. The
mentioned categories are mostly implemented in big cities around the
world such as Japan, UK and USA. PGIS offers basically the same
benefit as the Smart Parking System which was mentioned previously.
The major similarity comes in decision making. The information which
is provided by the system helps the drivers to make decisions on how to
reach their intended destinations and also in locating available parking
space in the parking facility [6].

PGIS can be broken down into four different aspects namely:


Information Disseminating Mechanism, Information Gathering
Mechanism, Control Center and Telecommunication Networks. In PGIS,
Variable Message Signs are used so as to provide drivers with ways to
take when looking for an empty spot. An example will be the system in
Weymouth England, the town parking are labeled with number of
available spaces and also the direction of the parking slot as shown in
figure one [7].

Figure 1: Weymouth town [8]

Looking at this town, various sensors are placed at the entrance, exit
and also in the individual parking space so as to detect the presence of
the car. LED lights are linked together with the sensors which are then
placed in every parking space within the parking. This is the used to
give the occupancy status [9]. Depending on the sensors, the occupancy
of each spot is then counted before giving an output of available spots.
From the information obtained, the process implemented will then
analyze the information so as to display accurate information for drivers
to see; whereby the telecommunication network enables the transfer of

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the processed data to other modules.

Figure 2: Sensor Detection [10]

2.3.5.2. Transit Based Information System

Transit Based Information System in the type of parking which is mostly


implemented in the UK, France, USA, Germany and Japan. It
functionality is similar to the PGIS [3]. But the difference is that Transit
Based Information System focuses more on facilitating drivers to easily
park and drive by providing real time information on the parking slot,
schedules of public transportation and also road traffic condition. Those
additional information is used to provide drivers with better road
planning by eliminating inconveniences. Looking at Transit Based
Information System, it other benefits are:

 It increases the use of public transport,


 Facilitates the transaction to public transportation by using
the park and ride method.
 Increase in the revenue of transits.

When it comes to the implementation the transit Based Information


System, thorough planning needs to be done. Because many aspect needs
to be taken into consideration such as:

 The geographical location


 Network
 Time to travel from the point of demand to the park and ride
facilities

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Figure 3: Transit Based Information System [3]

2.3.5.3. Smart Payment System

This is a type of parking system that helps overcome limitation of the


usual payment method which is done via parking meter and replacing it
a more technological approach. This method is seen to be better because
the usual payment method causes delays and problems for drivers
because they have to deal with cash [9]. Looking at the new payment
system, when it comes to maintenance and staff requirements for
handling payments, and also controlling traffic is reduced [17]. The
Smart Payment System is mostly used in countries such as: Italy, UK,
USA and Finland. This system involves different methods such as:

 Contact Method: This is one of the method that involves the


use of smart cards, debit cards and credit cards. This
requires a direct contact of the card with the meter placed at
the parking.

 Contactless Method: This is one of the method that does not


require any card to do the parking transaction.

 Mobile devices: This is one of the method that all the


transaction is done using mobile devices.

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Figure 4: Smart Payment System [9]

The main problem with the Smart Payment System is the doubt on the
privacy and security issues. This is mostly because the driver’s private
information is being exposed. But with numerous threats arising in our
days, it is really understandable for one to be worried about their
information. But these problems are usually handled by the use of
cryptographic, fault detection and evasion.

2.3.5.4. Electronic Parking

This is the type of parking system that allows drivers to select or enquire
about the availability of a parking slot. And if a spot is available, then
they can reserve for the space as they wish so as to make sure that they
do not have problems parking when they arrive at their destination [2].
The Electronic Parking System enables drivers to book for a spot in
various ways such as: Sending SMS, Phone call and online. This system
is mostly used in Airports (Airport Parking Reservation Systems).

The benefit of using the Electronic Parking System is that Drivers are
free from all the hassles of finding a spot.

Figure 5: Online Parking Reservation [2]

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2.3.5.5. Counter Based Parking

This is one of parking types whereby sensors are placed at the entrance
and at the exit of the parking so as to count the number of cars that are
entering and exiting the parking [11]. This type of parking calculates the
number of available parking slot by subtracting the number of cars that
are registered every time by the sensor placed at the entrance to the
total number of space registered in the system.

Figure 6: Counter Based Parking [11]

2.3.5.6. Image based parking

This is the type of parking that uses cameras to register images of the
parking. This system is mostly used around. When a car arrives at the
gate, the sensor automatically registers the car number plate and then
stores it in the database. This automatically updates the status of the
parking. Once the car comes to exit the parking, the sensor registers the
number plate and then deletes it from the database which automatically
updates the availability of the parking. [8] [5]

Figure 7: Image Based System [12]

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2.3.5.7. Wired Sensor based parking

This is the type of parking that uses ultrasonic sensors at each point of
the parking which are connected with wires to carry their signal to the
server. This system is commonly used to retrieve data about the parking
from each individual parking slot. [1] [2]But this type is known to be
expensive.

Figure 8: Wired Sensor [13]

2.3.5.8. Wireless based parking

This type of parking is similar to the wired based parking but the only
difference is nodes are communicating wirelessly. [14] [4] the advantage
of such system is that it reduces the installation and maintenance cost
which therefore makes the system more flexible. An example of such
system is shown in figure 9. This system uses component such as
temperature sensor, light and acoustic to send data to an online server
which processes the data and also to the parking users to check
availability of the parking online.

Figure 9: Wireless Sensor [14]

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2.3.5.9. Conveyor belt parking

This is a more advanced and sophisticated type of parking system that


make use of that makes use of conveyor belt to carry a vehicle to it
allocated parking slot.

This was first introduced in the 1800. Of which some are made out of
leather, canvas and rubber. [15]. Then in 1970, the largest conveyor belt
system was introduced in the Sahara Desert. This is used to move cars
horizontally without the need of a driver and at the same time, the car
engine is also off, the gear in parking mode and all the doors are locked.
[16]. This system is pretty simple; the car tires are connect to two
conveyor belts which are narrower so that they should fit under the tires
to facilitate the movement of the car while being pulled forward.

When comparing the conveyor belt parking system to other parking


systems around, it is clear that the conveyor belt parking is simpler and
straightforward. This system has the facility to move many vehicles at
the time. [17].The image below illustrate the conveyor belt parking from
Gylet.

Figure 10: Conveyor Belt Parking [15]

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2.3.5.10. Pallet Parking System

This is similar to the conveyor belt parking system but the difference is
that the driver parks the car in a pallet cabin and then the car will
automatically be transported to a lift which will take the car to an
available slot via roller conveyors. The main advantage of using this type
of parking system is that the use of space within the parking is flexible.
It is highly recommended for office buildings and residential areas. [18]

Figure 11: Pallet Parking System [19]

2.3.5.11. Tower type Parking System

This is the type of parking that also uses the conveyor belt to store
vehicles but this parks cars one on top of the other. This type of parking
saves a lot of space and time because cars are dropped to the conveyor
belt and then a spot is automatically assigned to the car. Then it will be
carried to the spot. [20]

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Figure 12: Tower parking [21]

2.3.6. Technologies to detect vehicles

Car parks are widely used in our days and for automation of those car
parks, there are two types of sensors that can be used to help detect
vehicles entering or exiting the parking. These are: Intrusive and Non-
Intrusive sensors. With the intrusive sensors, cars vehicles are detected one
at the time and then they are placed below the vehicle. While the non-
intrusive sensors can detect more than one vehicle at the time then the
detected cars can be placed where many cars can be seen.

2.3.6.1. Intrusive sensors

These are the type of sensors that requires a certain type of modification
to the road so as it should be able to detect cars. The type of modification
that the intrusive sensor requires can be making a hole in the road,
creating a tunnel under the road or making a certain attachment beside
the road. The main problem about this type of sensor is that since it has
to be placed by the road, it is prone to be damaged by cars. Some of the
intrusive sensors will be discussed later in the paper such as:
Magnetometer, rode tube, Magnetic System sensors and Weigh in
motion.

➢ Magnetometer Sensor

This is a type of sensor that generate signal that is proportional to


the magnetic field strength around it.

Figure 13: Magnetic Sensor on Freeway [4]

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➢ Rode tube Sensor

This is the type of sensor which know to be inexpensive. The road


tube sensor is designed to be placed in the middle of the road and
every time a car passes over it, depending on the use of the sensor,
a certain function will be called to perform a certain task. The main
disadvantage of this type of system is that the sensor is sensitive to
temperature which will cause the system to produce inaccurate
results. And it can also be easily vandalized.

Figure 14: Rode Tube [22]

➢ Magnetic System Sensor

With this type of sensor, cars are detected using their own magnetic
field which is generated by the disturbance.

Figure 15: Magnetic Sensors [23]

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➢ Weigh in motion

This is the type of sensor that makes use of a piezoelectric sensor


which is then laid across the road; mostly in a specific location for
access control. To use this type of sensor accurately, it has to be
combined with either another non-intrusive or intrusive sensor so
as to provide additional cross-checks while collecting data.

Figure 16: Weigh in motion [5]

2.3.6.2. Non-intrusive sensors

These are the type of sensors that does not require any type of modification
to the road before it could be operational. This can easily be placed without
disrupting the flow of traffic. This is commonly used around because it
doesn’t require extraordinary component before it should be placed. Some
of the non-intrusive sensors which will be discussed later in this report
are: Ultrasonic Sensors, Microwave Radar and Active Infrared sensors.

➢ Ultrasonic Sensors

This is similar to the microwave infrared sensor and it frequency is


known to be above the human hearing range.

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Figure 17: Ultrasonic Sensor [24]

➢ Microwave Radar

This is the type of sensor that is known to be better than other


sensors. It can easily detect cars travelling across multiple lines and
then calculate their speed. This is done by emit electromagnetic
signals and then detect object through the reflection of the signal.
The disadvantage of this system is that stationary cars cannot be
detected without the aid of additional sensors.

Figure 18: Microwave Radar ceiling [25]

➢ Active infrared Sensors

This is one type of sensor commonly used around to help detect


vehicles. They have a lower frequency compared to the microwave
radar sensor. They are very sensitive to the environmental conditions
like fog, snow and heavy wind. This type of sensor is good because it
can emit multiple beams so as to detect the position and velocity of
the passing vehicle.

Figure 19: Active Infrared Sensor [26]

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2.3.6.3. Signal Processing Devices

These are devices which are used to convert signals that are being emitted
by sensor in a digital form so that computers should be able to process
them. The main difference with digital processing devices is that signal
processing devices convert data so that they should be readable to the
computer while the data processing device converts data to be readable to
the user. In our days, most sensors are equipped with components that
handle the process of converting data into readable data for the computer.
But for those that are not equipped with those devices, the sensors are
connected to a microcontroller; which is a mini-computer that is used to
take the data sent by the sensor and then process it and transfer to the
computer.

Figure 20: Cheap microcontroller [27]

2.3.6.4. Data Processing Devices

These are devices which act as a central computer. They are used to collect
data sent by sensors and then process and convert them into data that is
readable to the user. This data can be used to display the parking
availability to the client or to guide the car to the slot available within the
parking.

Figure 21: Breadboard Arduino with Wireless Module [28]

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2.4. Conclusion

As seen, we have various methods of parking implementation which is then


combined with different technologies to make them efficient and accurate. With
the reservation system, various approaches can be observed in a way that when
booking for a parking slot, drivers do not usually have to state the exit time which
means they can park for an unlimited amount of time. With all the electronic
system, when it comes to accessing the parking, the driver is required to produce a
receipt which proves that they have a spot reserved. Some more sophisticated
methods can be implemented such as making use of smart cards and Bluetooth
devices so as to gain access to the parking slot.

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Chapter 3
3.System Analysis

3.1. Hypothesis

Combining Artificial Intelligence with existing car parking systems is expected to


improve the flow of traffic together with saving time of drivers while parking their
cars. This technique will be used in this project because I have personal interest
in the use of Artificial Intelligent in various applications. Besides having interest,
it is important to experience some intelligent component within the real-time
systems.
From the different parking systems mentioned earlier, it is interesting to have a
parking system that has technologies which performs some human tasks. More
justification for such interest is to help parking users to improve their time
management.

3.2. Approach

For this project the appropriate approach is the demonstration approach using
one Arduino Uno combined with the Arduino Ethernet Shield W5100 Card slot,
LED Sensors, two Ultrasonic Distance Measuring Sensors, DuPont cable wires
and SG90 Micro Servo.

Arduino Uno will be the heart of the application which means it will link those
entire component together so as to they should communicate together. The
communication is considered to be receiving signal from sensors and relaying that
to the server based on those signals. The type of signals will be when to open or
close the parking based on the signal coming from the distance sensor and
indicate whether the parking is taken or available based on the LED Sensors.

3.3. System Architecture

This is a conceptual model which shows the design, behavior and the overview of
the system. In various components that will be used to make this parking system
possible will be discussed starting from the hardware to the software and data
modeling.
The diagram below show how the components which will be used for the
development of the parking system are interlinked with one another.

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Figure 22: Parking System Architecture

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3.3.1. Hardware

Figure 23: Arduino Set [29]

This section will talk about different hardware that will be used so as to
make this project successful. In this section, hardware such as Arduino Uno
which is the backbone of the project, the Arduino Ethernet which is used to
connect the project to the internet, Photocell sensors which will be used to
state the status of the parking lot, Ultrasonic distance sensor to either open
or close the parking gate, DuPont wires to connect all the component within
the project, the SG900 which will be used as the gate of the parking, the
Bread Board which will be used to connect all the hardware devices and an
Android mobile phone which will be used as a user interface to allow user to
book for available space.

The mentioned hardware will be elaborated in details below.

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3.3.1.1. Arduino Uno

Figure 24: Arduino Uno [30]

This is a microcontroller board that is based on the ATmega328P. This


device has fourteen digital inputs and outputs pins. This is one of the best
device to use when dealing with robotics or artificial intelligence because
it provides us with facilities on how to link different other component
together and also make them communicate.

3.3.1.2. Arduino Ethernet Shield W5100 Card slot

Figure 25: Arduino Ethernet Shield [31]

This is a device that helps connect the Arduino to the internet in a


matter of minutes by plugging the device on of the Arduino board and
then use the RJ45 cable to connect to the server.

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3.3.1.3. Photocell Sensors

Figure 26: Photocell Sensor [32]

This is type of sensor that is controlled by light. When there is an increase in


the light density, there is a decrease in the resistance of the photo resistor
and when there is a decrease on the light, there is an increase on the
resistance of the photo resistor. For this project, the photocell sensors will be
used to indicate whether a parking is available or not.

3.3.1.4. Ultrasonic Distance Measuring Sensor

Figure 27: Ultrasonic Distance Sensor [7]

This is a type of sensors that uses piezoelectric transducer to detect sound


waves. The ultrasonic proximity sensor generates frequency sound waves
and then evaluates the echo received based on a certain detector. For this
project, this will be used to detect the proximity of the car and then open
the parking gate based on the parking availability

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3.3.1.5. DuPont Cable Wires

Figure 28: DuPont Cable Wires [7]

These are wires with pin at each end. They are used to interconnect different
components on the breadboard without needing to solder them. For this
project, they will be used to transfer data from one parking component to the
other.

3.3.1.6. SG90 Micro Servo

Figure 29: SG90 Micro Servo [6]

These are wires mixed with a component that act as the engine. They are
connected to the Arduino so that they can used as the gate controller. For
this project, their main function will be to receive information from the
Arduino so as the gate should be open or closed depending on the status
they get.

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3.3.1.7. Android hardware

Figure 30: Android [20]

This hardware will be used to run the application. As the project will be
based on Arduino, the user should be able to also book for a parking prior
to their arrivals or also check for available slots around the parking.
Therefore to make this possible, an android application will be
developed.

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3.3.2. Programming Language & IDE

Figure 31: Programming Languages [33]

This section will talk about different programming languages that will be
used so as to make this project successful. For the car parking project,
different programming languages will be used such as Arduino Studio,
Android Studio, PHP and MySQL. The mentioned programming
languages will be explained in details below.

3.3.2.1. Android Studio

Figure 32: Android Studio [34]

As a programming language, android will be used to develop the mobile


application which will enable users to book for the parking before
reaching the parking. The main role is to develop the parking user
interface. For this programming language, Android Visual Studio will be
used as the IDE so as to help in the programming and design of the
application.

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3.3.2.2. Android integration with the system

The following flowchart shows how the android application will be


useful for the car parking. At the start, the user book for a spot by
executing the correct command and after which the signal will be
sent to the sensor which will reserve the selected slot for a specific
time. If the user arrives before the time expires, then they will
have access to the parking and use the reserved slot. If the user
arrives after the reservation time, then they will have to get
allocated to a parking slot from the gate.

Figure 33: Reservation flowchart

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3.3.2.3. Arduino

Figure 34: Arduino Intel [35]

As a programming language, Arduino will be used to for the


programming of all the Arduino hardware that will be used in this
project. As the project involves the programming of various robotic
components which needs to communicate together. For this
programming language, Arduino Ink will be used as the IDE so as to
help in the programming of the components.

3.3.2.4. PHP

Figure 35: PHP Sample

As a programming language, PHP will be used to provide a second user


interface apart from the Android application. Alternatively for users that do
not have access to the android application.

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3.3.2.5. SQL

Figure 36: MySQL IDE [36]

As a programming language, MySQL will be used to help store and


model data. Users’ personal details and the parking will be saved in
there.

3.4. Methodology

3.4.1. System Design

For the car parking system, the system design will be more based on the previous
parking designs using evolutionary approaches. The evolution will start from
class parking system to adding some technological models to it.

3.4.2. Development

During the development process, prototypes should be developed at every stage so


as to ensure that the project requirements are met.

3.4.3. Evaluation

In this phase, as described previously, the evaluation on how the mentioned


components are communicating between them. Communication such as when to
open and not to open the parking gate. What should happen when the parking is
full, as the system needs to be able to handle various scenarios that can be thrown
at it.
Various techniques will be used for the evaluation process so as to ensure that the
non-functional requirements and the functional requirements are met. This stage
will include testing the prototypes and also analyzing quantitative and qualitative
data. Qualitative data will be used to see how reliable the system can be. This will
also correct results by looking at how the parking system operates. Quantitative
data will be used to how many times the system successfully responded to
commands. After collecting the qualitative and quantitative data, statistical
analysis will be perform to measure the sufficiency of the system developed.

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Chapter 4
4.Professional, Legal, Ethical and Social Issues

4.1. Professional Issues

For this project, every single code that will be written will be test and
commented so as to ensure that it is clear enough. The project will have
a good documentation and any external library, code or product will be
used only if permitted by their providers. In the documentation, all the
external information will be referenced.

4.2. Legal Issues

For this project, thorough checking of false statements and libelous so as to


ensure that no false data are being shared. The online server that will be used
for this project will be specifically only for this project and not for other
purposes.

4.3. Ethical Issues

These are the type of issues that raises conflicts between the moral of the
system and it principles. Looking at this project, no ethical issues will be
raised.

4.4. Social Issues

These are known to be influential problems that affect many individuals


around the society. Looking this project, no social issues will be raised.

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Chapter 5
5.Organization
As it was mentioned previously, the aim of this project is to implement an
automated car parking management system which will help the university manage
the flow of traffic within the university. This section will elaborate further on what
is needed to successfully achieve the aim.

7.1. Objectives

For this project, the objectives are:


a. Arduino programming
b. Android programming
c. Data Modeling
d. Parking Booking System

As mentioned in the fourth section, Arduino Uno is not designed to directly


connect to the internet. Therefore a link needs to be added so as to help the
application be accessible from the web.
Having the information from the Arduino saved on a web storage will facilitate
the application to be accessible from any application that will be connected to
the server. Therefore it will be an advantage because there is a plan to have an
Android application that will be linked to the Arduino application.

7.2. Requirements Analysis

7.2.1. Purpose

This section investigates the user requirements for the Car Park System in
much understanding and consistent manner as asked by the client. The
system will have an android application which will enable users to book for
an available parking from anywhere for a certain period of time. The Android
application should be able to collect information on the parking from the
Arduino component and also send the booking report to the Arduino so as to
confirm the parking reservation.
In the table below, every requirement will be link to their objective discussed
in the objectives section and also determine their priorities of which H
represent High, M represent Medium and L represent Low.

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No Requirements Objective Priority

Functional Requirements

1. Design the parking A H


2 Develop automated parking System A H
3 Connect the parking system to a web server A H
4 Send parking status to the server A H
5 Update server every time data is received C H
6 Develop an android application B H
7 Book a parking from Mobile application B H
8 Set time limitation for slot booked B M
9 Check parking availability from the android application B H

10 Android application send parking status to the server B M


11 Give booking acknowledgement B M

Non Functional Requirements

12 No delays in the application D L


13 Fast data processing C H
14 Simple booking process D M
15 Consistent features D H
16 Fast system training D M
17 Easy to use D L

Table 1: Requirements Listing

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The requirements are divided into two different types namely functional and
non-Functional requirements. The functional requirements represent what the
system should do therefore their priorities are mostly high. The non-functional
requirements represent the look and feel of the system. Even though the speed
and stability of the system are quiet important, these requirement are
considered to be lower because the system is still in the design stage.

7.2.2. Functional requirements

These are the type of requirements that defines the functionalities of the
system.
Looking at the parking system, the parking should be automated. Automated
which means include artificial intelligent aspect to it so that it should
perform most of the tasks without the aid of the human being. These include
recording status of the parking and also indicate to the user when the
parking is full. Allow the user to book for the parking using the android
application from anywhere around the city but the parking should allow the
user a minimum time to reach the parking slot before the reservation should
be cancelled.

7.2.3. Non-Functional requirements

These are requirements that illustrate aspects that can be used to


analyse the operation of a system. Looking the parking system, the
features added within the parking should be clear and easy to use so that
users should not waste their time trying to use the system. Unnecessary
features should be avoided so that the system should not be slow while
processing data. Features such as parking booking should be simple to
utilise and also effective so as to minimize the data processing speed.

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7.3. Research Plan

This section will elaborate further on how each task of the project will be
managed depending on their size. Looking at the Car Parking System, This
section will be used to break down in details various steps to follow so as to
successfully meet the requirements.

7.3.1. Purpose

The purpose of the research plan is to show how the research will be outlined
and how long it will take. This will be done by identifying tasks that’s
required to accomplish the research and also point out various problems that
may arise during the development of the project so as it could help in
managing the risks.

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Figure 37: Gant Chart

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This project is divided into four main tasks which are represented in green.
Each of them has subtasks which are represented in blue and the last one which
is the report.
The project is set to run from April to August 2017 of which each task has a
certain timeframe depending on their priorities and also importance in the
system.
As shown, the first aspect in the project plan is the Arduino programming
because the project is based on it and it is also seen as the backbone of the
project and then comes the android application. To facilitate the use of the
parking to users, the use of an android application will be important because
users can know the parking status and also book the parking prior to their
arrival to the parking. After that, then the evaluation of the system will take
place to see whether all the requirements are met or if they can be any new
ideas to implement.

7.3.2. Project Registry

To describe the priority of each task within the project, the following terms
will be used:

➢ High: These are considered to be the top most tasks which are known to
be very important for the project.

➢ Moderate: These are considered to be fair tasks which are known to be


not really important.

➢ Low: These are considered to be tasks with very less priorities. They can
be ignored if running out of time.

The following table represents the priority of a task. A value is being associated
to it. The value will define the likelihood of it occurrence. For this project, the
priorities are being rated from 3 to 7 of which: 3 describes the least priority of a
task. 7 describe the task with the most priority.

Task Difficulty table

Difficulty level Definition Value

This word represents the tasks that are very difficult


Difficult 7
to complete.

This word represents the tasks that are not so difficult


Moderate 5
to achieve

Easy This word represents tasks that are easy to achieve. 3


Table 2: Task difficulty level

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7.3.3. Project Tasks

No. Task name Level Duration Priority


1 Setting up the parking model 7 April - July High
Arduino programming
2 Get open and close 5 April High
3 Proximity sensor 5 April High
4 LED Sensor 5 April High
5 Internet Data Storage 7 April High
Android Programming
6 Setting interface 5 May High
7 Registration for parking 3 May Moderate
8 Book parking 7 May High
9 Internet communication with Arduino 7 May High
10 Set time limitation for parking booking 7 May High
11 Testing 3 May Low
PHP Development
12 User interface 5 June Low
13 Registration for parking 5 June Low
14 Book parking from website 5 June Low
15 Set time limitation for parking booking 5 June Low
16 Testing 5 June Low
Documentation
17 Report 7 April- August High
Table 3: Project Tasks

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7.4. Performance Assessment

In this section, the parking prototype will be assessed to ensure that the
requirements are being met throughout the development process of the
application. The table below will illustrate the date of which a certain prototype
will be tested to analyse if it requirement is met.

No
Prototype Date Requirements Assessment
.

Design the parking which show


1. Parking design 29th May 1
various spaces and access points.

Parking automated with the use of an online Parking sends and gets updates
2. 20th June 3, 4, 5
server from the server.

Android application designed relatively to the Design an android application that


3. 25th June 6
parking. gives options to utilise the parking.

The android application is sending


4. Android application connected to the server 18th July 7, 8, 9, 10, 14
and receiving data from the server

Demonstrate the use of the parking


Automated Parking System with Android
5. 30th July 1-17 system linked to the android
Application
application

Table 4: Prototype Assessment

Parking design will be assessed by showing the layout of the parking without
any functionality. The purpose of this prototype is to ensure that the required
designed is met and also to explain what the future prototype will contain and
also if they are new requirements to add or change.
Parking automated with the use of online server will be assessed by showing
that the parking as sensors that detect the presence of the car and also react to
it. By doing so, it automatically sending data to the server. The data can be
deducting the number of parking by the number of vehicles entering the parking
and getting the grant total of remaining spaces.
Android application designed relatively to the parking will be assessed by showing that
the android application developed matches the design of the parking. The number of
parking slots should be reflected in the android application.
Android application connected to the server will assessed by showing that the
android application is able to get the live data from the parking and also send
data to the parking based on the booking.
Then the final one which is the Automated Parking System with Android Application
will be assessed by showing that the parking is well designed and the live data
collected on the ground are well sent to the server and the android application is
able to update the server and also get updates from the server.

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7.5. Risk Analysis

This section will evaluate the possible risks that this project may encounter
while developing. The purpose of this is to identify potential risks and the
evaluate them so as to know their likelihood and their impacts. Then plan on
how to mitigate or eliminate them.

7.5.1. Risk Registry

To describe the likelihood of a risk, the following terms will be used:

➢ Catastrophic: This is considered to be the top most impact of which


something tragic may happen with the project.

➢ Moderate: This is considered to be fair risk which can be manageable on


it occurrence.

➢ Negligible: This is considered to be a risk with very less impact on the


project. It can be ignored on it occurrence.

The following table represent the probabilities of a risk occurring. A value is


being associated to it. The value will define the likelihood of it occurrence.
For this project, the risks are being rated from 1 to 3 of which: 1 describes
the least occurrence of a risk. 3 describe the most occurrence of a risk.

Risk Occurrence Probability

Probability Definition Value

Highly certainly This word represents the risk that have the probability 7
of occurring most of the times and it will continue to
occur until an action to prevent it is taken.

Occasionally This word represents the risk that have the probability 5
of occurring most of the times. It can be every now and
then.

Rare This word represent the type of risk that has a close to 3
zero chance of it occurrence.

Table 5:: Risks Occurrence Probabilities

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7.5.2. Impact and probabilities

The below table shows the severity values which defines the severity level of
a risk based on it probability of occurrence.

Probability

Impact 3 5 7

Rare Occasionally High Certainly

5. Catastrophic 15 25 35

3. Moderate 9 15 21

1. Rare 3 5 7

Table 4: Risk impact vs probabilities

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7.5.3. Project risks

No Risk Type Impact Probability Severity Risk plan Pre Strategy

1 Unrealistic schedules Project Catastrophic High Certainly 35 Plan ahead and always Set a time frame to
risk (5) (7) keep track of the progress project patterns.
rate.

2 No relations between Product Catastrophic Occasionally 25 Make use of the rapid Make use of System
the requirements and risk (5) (5) development methodology Development Life
the developed so as to have a better Cycle.
application understanding of what is
expected from the project.

3 System Product Moderate (3) Occasionally 15 Create multiple Research on


incompatibility risk (5) compatibility possibilities. capabilities
requirements.

4 Lack of time to meet Project Moderate (3) Occasionally 15 Make sure every Use less scenarios
the requirement risk (5) requirement is well and use some existing
understood and build solutions.
models to simplify the
requirements.

5 Legacy problems Product Catastrophic Occasionally 15 Make use of the Rapid Make use of
risk (3) (5) Development Application prototypes for the
Design. system.

6 hardware breaks or Project Catastrophic Rare (3) 15 Have a backup hardware Request a new
does not work risk (5) hardware

7 Slow response from Product Moderate (3) Rare (3) 9 Keep modifying the Simplify the model or
the parking risk software so as it should make use of
reach to perfection. additional resources.

8 Android application Product Moderate (3) Rare (3) 9 Build prototypes to test Make use of test
not responding to the risk the scenarios cases.
Arduino

Table 5: Project Risks

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Chapter 6
6.Conclusion

6.1. Future Application

Software based on Artificial Intelligent is becoming applied all over as technology


is being improved on a daily basis. Methods to use real-time leaning are being
used all around. Algorithms that helps in real time data processing together with
learning processes are being use and when it comes to parking related
technologies, self-park vehicles, speech parking; sensor based parking and robotic
parking are being used so as to improve our lives on a daily basis.

Successful development and findings of the proposed project will be utilised to


further car parking studies on which the focus will be more on self-parking
vehicles based on the location of the vehicle. The main aim of the further study be
to have a deeper understanding on how technology can improve the life style of
human beings even with the cars we drive on a daily basis. So far, some research
done in the literature review indicates that due to limited space within the
parking, most parking may have the tendency of expanding their space which will
result to a setup of small parking slots just to accommodate enough cars.
Therefore drivers may have difficulties to getting down the vehicle once they have
parked. An implementation of a self-parking vehicle will make their lives easy by
allocating an available slot and just going to park there without the aid of a
driver.

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6.2. Conclusion

This report showed the evolution of technology within our society and community.
The main focused was on a subset of the work related to it of which it focuses on
the implementation of an advanced parking system which utilises sensors and
different latest technologies. This report highlighted the hypothesis together with
the aims and objectives of the project along with methods to be used for the
development of the project. The justification of the project choice was either made
on personal preferences, solution on the state of the art or just a basic interest in
the particular approach. Work that should be done in the current project had been
elaborated along with plans on the future work which also have been briefly
explained.

The expectation of this research is to show some ways in which automated


parking system may help improve the life style of many car owners and also save
their time while needing a parking around a certain area such as mall, school, or
any way around.

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