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# Problems

## Section 2-2 Engineering and Linear Models

P2.2-1
The element is not linear. For example, doubling the current from 2 A to 4 A does not double the
voltage. Hence, the property of homogeneity is not satisfied.

P2.2-2
(a) The data points do indeed lie on a straight line. The slope of the line is 0.12 V/A and
the line passes through the origin so the equation of the line is v = 0.12 i . The element is indeed
linear.
(b) When i = 40 mA, v = (0.12 V/A)×(40 mA) = (0.12 V/A)×(0.04 A) = 4.8 mV
4
(c) When v = 4 V, i = = 33.3 A
0.12

P2.2-3
(a) The data points do indeed lie on a straight line. The slope of the line is 256.5 V/A and
the line passes through the origin so the equation of the line is v = 256.5 i . The element is indeed
linear.
(b) When i = 4 mA, v = (256.5 V/A)×(4 mA) = (256.5 V/A)×(0.004 A) = 1.026 V
12
(c) When v = 12 V, i = = 0.04678 A = 46.78 mA.
256.5

P2.2-4
Let i = 1 A , then v = 3i + 5 = 8 V. Next 2i = 2A but 16 = 2v ≠ 3(2i) + 5 = 11.. Hence,
the property of homogeneity is not satisfied. The element is not linear.

P2.2-5
v v v
(a) 0.4 = + = ⇒ v = 3.2 V
10 40 8
v
i= = 0.08 A
40
v v2 v
0.4 = + ⇒ v 2 + − 0.8 = 0
(b) 10 2 5

−0.2 ± 1.8
Using the quadratic formula v= = 0.8, − 1.0 V
2
( −1) = 0.5 A .
2
0.82
When v = 0.8 V then i = = 0.32 A . When v = -1.0 V then i =
2 2
v v2 v
(c) 0.4 = + 0.8 + ⇒ v 2 + + 0.8 = 0
10 2 5

## −0.2 ± 0.04 − 3.2

Using the quadratic formula v=
2
So there is no real solution to the equation.
Section 2-4 Resistors

P2.4-1
i = is = 3 A and v = Ri = 7 × 3 = 21 V
v and i adhere to the passive convention
∴ P = v i = 21 × 3 = 63 W
is the power absorbed by the resistor.

P2.4-2
i = is = 3 mA and v = 24 V
v 24
R = = = 8000 = 8 kΩ
i .003
P = (3×10 −3 )× 24 = 72×10 −3 = 72 mW

P2.4-3
v = vs =10 V and R = 5 Ω
v 10
i = = =2 A
R 5
v and i adhere to the passive convention
∴ p = v i = 2⋅10 = 20 W
is the power absorbed by the resistor

P2.4-4
v = vs = 24 V and i = 2 A
v 24
R= = = 12 Ω
i 2
p = vi = 24⋅2 = 48 W

P2.4-5
v1 = v 2 = vs = 150 V;
R1 = 50 Ω; R2 = 25 Ω
v 1 and i1 adhere to the passive convention so
v 1 150
i1 = = =3 A
R 1 50
v 150
v2 and i 2 do not adhere to the passive convention so i 2 = − 2 = − = −6 A
R2 25
The power absorbed by R1 is P1 = v1 i1 = 150 ⋅ 3 = 450 W

## The power absorbed by R 2 is P 2 = − v 2i 2 = −150(−6) = 900 W

P2.4-6
i1 = i 2 = is = 2 A ;
R1 =4 Ω and R2 = 8 Ω
v 1 and i 1 do not adhere to the passive convention so
v 1 =− R 1 i 1 =−4⋅2 =−8 V.
The power absorbed by R 1 is
P1 =−v 1i 1 =−(−8)(2) = 16 W.

## v2 and i 2 do adhere to the passive convention so v2 = R 2 i 2 = 8 ⋅ 2 = 16 V .

The power absorbed by R 2 is P 2 = v 2i 2 = 16 ⋅ 2 = 32 W.

P2.4-7
Model the heater as a resistor, then
v2 v2 (250) 2
with a 250 V source: P = ⇒ R = = = 62.5 Ω
R P 1000
v 2 (210) 2
with a 210 V source: P = = = 705.6 W
R 62.5

P2.4-8
P 5000 125
The current required by the mine lights is: i = = = A
v 120 3
Power loss in the wire is : i 2 R
Thus the maximum resistance of the copper wire allowed is
0.05P 0.05×5000
R= = = 0.144 Ω
i2 (125/3) 2
now since the length of the wire is L = 2×100 = 200 m = 20,000 cm
thus R = ρ L / A with ρ = 1.7×10−6Ω⋅ cm from Table 2.5−1
ρL 1.7×10−6 ×20,000
A= = = 0.236 cm 2
R 0.144
*P2.4-9
380 420
0.7884 = ≤ gain ≤ = 0.8108
102 + 380 98 + 420

0.7884 + 0.8108
nominal gain = = 0.7996
2

## 0.7996 − 0.7884 0.8108 − 0.7996

gain tolerance = × 100 = × 100 = 1.40%
0.7996 0.7996
So
gain = 0.7996 ± 1.40%

P2.4-10
Label the current i as shown. That current is
the element current in both resistors. First

va
i=
40
Next
va vb
vb = R i = R ⇒ R = 40
40 va
For example,
7.05
R = 40 = 24 Ω
11.75
Section 2-5 Independent Sources

P2.5-1
v s 15
(a) i = = = 3 A and P = R i 2 = 5 ( 3 ) = 45 W
2

R 5
(b) i and P do not depend on is .
The values of i and P are 3 A and 45 W, both when i s = 3 A and when i s = 5 A.

P2.5-2
v 2 102
(a) v = R i s = 5 ⋅ 2 = 10 V and P = = = 20 W
R 5
(b) v and P do not depend on v s .
The values of v and P are 10V and 20 W both when v s = 10 V and when v s = 5 V

P2.5-3
Consider the current source:
i s and v s do not adhere to the passive convention,
so Pcs =i s v s =3⋅12 = 36 W
is the power supplied by the current source.

## Consider the voltage source:

i s and v s do adhere to the passive convention,
so Pvs = i s vs =3 ⋅12 = 36 W
is the power absorbed by the voltage source.
∴ The voltage source supplies −36 W.

P2.5-4
Consider the current source:
i s and vs adhere to the passive convention
so Pcs = i s vs =3 ⋅12 = 36 W
is the power absorbed by the current source.
Current source supplies − 36 W.

## Consider the voltage source:

i s and vs do not adhere to the passive convention
so Pvs = i s vs = 3 ⋅12 =36 W
is the power supplied by the voltage source.
P2.5-5
(a) P = v i = (2 cos t ) (10 cos t ) = 20 cos 2 t mW
1
⎛1 1 ⎞
(b) w = ∫ P dt = ∫0 20 cos t dt = 20⎜⎝ 2 t + 4 sin 2t ⎟⎠
1 1

0
2
= 10 + 5 sin 2 mJ
0

P2.5-6
capacity 800 mAh
(a) time to discharge = = = 16 hours
current 50 mA
Section 2-6 Voltmeters and Ammeters

P2.6-1
v 5
(a) R = = = 10 Ω
i 0.5

## (b) The voltage, 12 V, and the

current, 0.5 A, of the voltage
source adhere to the passive
convention so the power

P = 12 (0.5) = 6 W

## is the power received by the

source. The voltage source
delivers -6 W.

P2.6-2
The voltmeter current is zero
so the ammeter current is
equal to the current source
current except for the
reference direction:

i = -2 A

## The voltage v is the voltage of

the current source. The power
supplied by the current source
is 40 W so

40 = 2 v ⇒ v = 20 V
P2.6-3
(a)
⎛ 900 ⎞
vm = ⎜ ⎟12 = 10.8 V
⎝ 900 + 100 ⎠

12 − 10.8
= 0.1 = 10%
12
(b) We require
⎛ Rm ⎞
12 − ⎜
⎜ R m + 100 ⎟⎟
12
0.02 ≥ ⎝ ⎠ ⇒
Rm
≥ 0.98 ⇒ R m ≥ 4900 Ω
12 R m + 100

## (checked: LNAP 6/16/04)

P2.6-4
(a)
⎛ 1000 ⎞
im = ⎜ ⎟ 2 = 1.98 A
⎝ 1000 + 10 ⎠

2 − 1.98
% error = ×100 = 0.99%
2
(b)
⎛ 1000 ⎞
2−⎜
⎜ 1000 + R m ⎟⎟
2
0.05 ≥ ⎝ ⎠ ⇒
1000
≥ 0.95 ⇒ R m ≤ 52.63 Ω
2 1000 + R m

## (checked: LNAP 6/17/04)

P2.6-5
a.)
v R = 25 i R = 25 ( −2 ) = −50 V

v m = 12 − v R = 12 − ( −50 ) = 62 V

b.)
Element Power supplied
voltage source ( )
−12 i s = −12 ( 2 ) = −24 W
current source 62 ( 2 ) = 124 W
resistor −v R × i R = − ( −50 )( −2 ) = −100 W
total 0

P2.6-6
a.)
vR 12
iR = = = 0.48 A
25 25

i m = i R − 2 = 0.48 − 2 = −1.52 A

b.)
Element Power supplied
voltage source ( )
12 i m = 12 ( −1.52 ) = −18.24 W
current source v s ( 2 ) = 12 ( 2 ) =24 W
resistor −v R × i R = − (12 )( 0.48 ) = −5.76 W
total 0
Section 2-7 Dependent Sources

P2.7-1

vb 8
r = = =4 Ω
ia 2

P2.7-2
ia 2 A
vb = 8 V ; g v b = i a = 2 A ; g = = = 0.25
vb 8 V

P2.7-3
i a 32 A
i b = 8 A ; d i b = i a = 32A ; d = = =4
ib 8 A

P2.7-4
vb 8 V
va = 2 V ; b va = vb = 8 V ; b = = =4
va 2 V

P2.7-5
4 2 V
R=− = 2 Ω and A = = −4
−2 −0.5 A

## (checked: LNAP 6/6/04)

P2.7-6

vc = −2 V, id = 4 vc = −8 A and vd = 2.2 V
id and vd adhere to the passive convention so
P = vd id = (2.2) (−8) = −17.6 W
is the power received by the dependent source. The power supplied by the
dependent source is 17.6 W.

P2.7-7

## ic = 1.25 A, vd = 2 ic = 2.5 V and id = 1.75 A

id and vd adhere to the passive convention so
P = vd id = (2.5) (1.75) = 4.375 W
is the power received by the dependent source.
Section 2-8 Transducers

P2.8-1
θ 360 vm
a= , θ =
360 Rp I
(360)(23V)
θ = = 75.27°
(100 kΩ)(1.1 mA)

P2.8-2
μA
AD590 : k =1 °
,
K
v =20 V (voltage condition satisfied)

4 μ A < i < 13 μ A ⎫

i ⎬ ⇒ 4 ° K< T <13° K
T = ⎪⎭
k
Section 2-9 Switches

P2.9-1
At t = 1 s the left switch is open and the
right switch is closed so the voltage
across the resistor is 10 V.

v 10
i= = = 2 mA
R 5×103

At t = 4 s the left switch is closed and the right switch is open so the voltage across the resistor is
15 V.
v 15
i= = = 3 mA
R 5×103

P2.9-2
At t = 1 s the current in the resistor
is 3 mA so v = 15 V.

## At t = 4 s the current in the resistor

is 0 A so v = 0 V.

P2.9-3
(a) v = 12 V
⎛ 100 ⎞
(b) v = ⎜ ⎟ 12 = 11.43 V
⎝ 105 ⎠
(c) v = 0 V
⎛ 100 ⎞
(d) v = ⎜ ⎟12 = 0.1188  0.12 V
⎝ 10100 ⎠
Section 2-10 How Can We Check…?

P2.10-1
vo =40 V and i s = − (−2) = 2 A. (Notice that the ammeter measures − i s rather than i s .)
vo 40 V
So = = 20
is 2 A
Your lab partner is wrong.

P2.10-2
vs 12
We expect the resistor current to be i = = = 0.48 A. The power absorbed by
R 25
this resistor will be P = i vs = (0.48) (12) = 5.76 W.
A half watt resistor can't absorb this much power. You should not try another resistor.