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TW-ASIA Consultants
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Concrete Work
Specification

1.0 STANDARDS AND CODES OF PRACTICE

1.1 Unless otherwise specified herein, all concrete work shall be executed in
accordance with the requirements and recommendations of the Engineering
Institution of Thailand Standard that are current at the date of the tender. Where
these standards are in conflict, the more severe of either the equivalent Thailand
Standards or these specifications shall take precedence:

ASTM American Society for the Testing of Materials


ACI American Concrete Institute
AISC American Institute of Steel Construction
SS 26 Specification for ordinary and rapid-hardening Portland cement

AWS D1.1 American Welding Standard

2.0 MATERIALS

2.1 General

2.1.1 Concrete shall be made with cement, aggregate and water. No other constituent
material shall be used without the approval of the Engineer.

2.1.2 All materials used in the Works shall comply in all respects with the specified
standards, unless specifically excluded or modified hereafter.

2.2 Cement

2.2.1 The cement used shall be Portland cement complying with SS 26 or Portland
blastfurnace cement complying with BS 146 : Part 2 unless otherwise specified.

2.2.2 The manufacturer's test certificates will in general be accepted as proof of


soundness. If the quality of cement is suspect in any way, the Engineer will
instruct the Contractor to send selected samples for testing by an approved and
accredited laboratory in accordance with BS 4550 and will reject any cement
which does not comply with these specifications. All such rejected cement shall
be removed from Site and replaced entirely at the Contractor's own expense. The
Engineer may, without tests being made, order that any bag of cement, a portion
of the contents of which has hardened, or which appears to be defective in any
other way, be removed from the Site.

2.2.3 Cement shall be transported to the Site in covered vehicles adequately protected
against water and weather. Cement shall be stored at least 300 mm above the
natural ground level, not more than 10 bags high and in a waterproof store with
ample under floor ventilation, all to the approval of the Engineer. Cement shall be
used in the order of its delivery to the Site.

2.2.4 All cement shall be obtained from a single specified source, unless otherwise
approved by the Engineer.

2.2.5 Notwithstanding the above provisions, the Contractor may at his option receive
supplies of cement in bulk and store in silos of approved type and size. The
capacity of the silos shall be such that not more than one week's supply can be
stored at any time.

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Specification

2.2.6 A record of the amount of cement used each day in the construction of the works
shall be kept by the Contractor. This record shall be open to inspection by the
Engineer, and copies be submitted to him upon request.

2.2.7 The use of cement other than Portland cement or Portland blastfurnace cement
will not be permitted in any part of the works without the approval of the Engineer.
If such approval is given, the extra cost which may be incurred by using an
alternative shall be borne by the Contractor, unless the use of the alternative has
been specially instructed by the Engineer in writing. Such alternative cement shall
be subject to the provisions of the relevant British Standard, and to the provisions
as stipulated above for Portland cement and Portland blastfurnace cement.

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Specification

2.0 MATERIALS -

2.3 Aggregate

2.3.1 Coarse and fine aggregates for concrete shall comply with the standards and
requirements of SS 31.

2.3.2 Coarse aggregate shall be crushed granite. Fine aggregate shall be as described
in the following provisions of SS 31:

Section 2.3.1 Uncrushed and partially crushed sand


Section 2.3.2 Crushed gravel fines
Section 2.3.3 Crushed rock fines
Section 2.3.4 Blended fine aggregate

2.3.3 The grading of the coarse aggregate shall comply with Table 4 and section 5.2 of
SS 31. The grading of fine aggregate shall comply with Table 6 and section 5.3 of
SS 31.

2.3.4 -
with Table 7 and -
such a way as to ensure thorough mixing of the various component materials and
care shall be taken that the proportions are as consistent as possible from
consignment to consignment.

2.3.5 For structural concrete grades, the maximum size of coarse aggregate shall be 20
mm and the maximum size of fine aggregate shall be 7 mm.

2.3.6 Aggregates shall be naturally occurring and shall be obtained from a source
known to produce aggregate suitable for concreting.

2.3.7 The aggregates shall be hard, durable and clean, and shall not contain
deleterious materials in such a form or in sufficient quantity to affect adversely the
strength at any age or the durability of the concrete. Examples of such materials
are clay, particularly as an adherent coating, flaking or elongated particles, mica,
shale and other laminated materials, coal and other organic impurities, iron pyrites
and soluble sulphate or chloride salts such as those of calcium, magnesium and
sodium.

2.3.8 Aggregates shall be stored in properly constructed open bins with hard, clean and
adequately drained floors. Each size of aggregate shall be stored in a separate
bin. If bins are not provided, the different sizes of aggregate shall be separated
by means to be approved by the Engineer.

2.4 Water

2.4.1 All water used in the concrete works shall be from the public mains and shall be
fresh, clean and free from all harmful matter in suspension or solution and in
accordance with the standards and requirements of BS 3148. Storage tanks of
sufficient size shall be maintained on the Site to ensure an abundant service
under pressure at all times.

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2.0 MATERIALS -

2.5 Admixtures

2.5.1 The Contractor shall propose and use only approved admixtures strictly in
accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and recommendations,
particularly with regard to the dosage requirements of the admixture. Admixtures
shall comply with BS 5075 but for admixtures for which there is no British
Standard, the performance of concrete made with such materials and their
suitability for the intended purpose shall be established by previous data,
experience or tests which the Contractor shall make available to the Engineer as
required.

2.5.2 Before use, the Contractor shall verify the suitability and effectiveness of any
admixture by trial mixes with the cements, aggregates and other materials to be
adopted in the Works. If two or more admixtures are to be used simultaneously in
the same concrete mix, the Contractor shall provide data to assess their
interaction and to ensure their compatibility. He shall perform and bear all costs
for compatibility and chloride content tests on representative samples of the
admixture(s) to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

2.5.3 The admixture shall not be a material which can adversely impair the strength,
durability or appearance of the finished concrete works. It shall not combine with
the ingredients of concrete to form harmful compounds nor increase the risk of
corrosion of embedded reinforcement.

2.5.4 The chloride content of admixtures shall not exceed 2% by mass of the admixture
or 0.03% by mass of cement in the mix.

2.5.5 Information to be provided by the Contractor on admixtures shall include but not
limited to :

(a) The typical dosage and details of the detrimental effects of under-dosage
and over-dosage.
(b) The chemical names of the main active ingredients in the admixtures.
(c) Whether the admixture contains chlorides and, if so, the chloride ion
content of the admixture expressed as a percentage mass of cement in
the mix.
(d) Whether the admixture leads to the entrainment of air when used at the
manufacturer's recommended dosage.
(e) Where more than one admixture is used, the compatibility of the
admixtures.

2.6 Waterproof Concrete

2.6.1 Waterproof concrete, where shown in drawings, shall mean concrete mixed with
'Sika-1' or other equal and approved integral waterproofing admixture.

2.6.2 The Contractor shall provide information on the admixture for the Engineer's
review as required under the sub-
specification. The use of the admixture shall be in strict adherence to the
manufacturer's instructions and recommendations.

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Specification

3.0 CONCRETE MIXES

3.1 Definitions

3.1.1 The terms concrete grade, maximum free water/cement ratio, minimum and
maximum cement content as specified herein are as defined in SS 289.

3.1.2 A test specimen shall mean a concrete test cube made for compressive strength
determination in accordance with SS 78.

3.1.3 The 7-day concrete strength shall mean the compressive strength of test
specimens made from concrete used in the Works and cured for 7 days before
testing in accordance with SS 78.

3.2 Designed Mixes

3.2.1 Concrete mixes shall be designed by the Contractor for each grade of concrete as
shown in the table below:

CONCRETE GRADE 30 35 40 45 50
N/mm2
MIN. 7-DAY STRENGTH 20 24 28 32 36
N/mm2
MIN. CEMENT CONTENT 325 350 375 400 425
kg/m3
MAX. CEMENT CONTENT 550 550 550 550 550
kg/m3
MAX. WATER/CEMENT 0.60 0.55 0.50 0.45 0.40
RATIO
MAX. NOMINAL SIZE OF 20 20 20 20 20
COARSE AGGREGATE mm

3.2.2 A mix design for a specified concrete grade shall conform to the foregoing
requirements in all respects. In particular, the Contractor shall price his concrete
rates for full compliance with the minimum cement content specified for each
concrete grade to meet durability requirements. A mix design which does not
comply with the minimum cement content shall not be approved for use in the
Works, notwithstanding its compressive strength results.

3.3 Requirements for Designed Mixes

3.3.1 Prior to the use of concrete in the permanent works, the Contractor shall submit to
the Engineer for approval the design mix proportions to be used for the Works
and shall carry out trial mixes according to the proposed mix designs. The test
procedure and rate of sampling shall be in accordance with the subsection
headed 'Trial Mixes' in this specification.

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3.0 CONCRETE MIXES -

3.3 Requirements for Designed Mixes

3.3.2 The concrete mix shall be designed to have a target mean strength greater than
the specified characteristic strength by at least the current margin. The current
margin for each particular type of concrete shall be determined from trial mixes, or
may be taken as 1.64 times the standard deviation of cube tests obtained from at
least 40 batches of concrete of nominally similar proportions of similar materials
and produced over a period not less than 5 days but not exceeding 6 months by
the same plant under similar supervision, subject to a minimum of 7.50 N/mm 2.

3.3.3 Evidence should be submitted to the Engineer showing that at the intended
workability, the proposed mix proportions for each grade of concrete and the
manufacturing method will produce concrete of the required quality.

3.3.4 If adequate data for 'target mean strength' is not available, trial mixes shall be
prepared. The current margin for the initial mix design shall be taken as not less
than 7.50 N/mm 2.

3.3.5 The following information shall be provided before any designed mix is supplied
for use in the Works:

(a) Nature and source of each material.

(b) EITHER appropriate existing data as evidence of satisfactory previous


performance for target mean strength, current margin, workability and
water/cement ratio OR full details of test on trial mixes.

(c) Proposed quantities of each ingredient per cubic meter of fully compacted
concrete.

3.3.6 Should there be any subsequent change in the sources of materials or any
change in cement content, the Contractor shall submit to the Engineer the new
mix design data.

3.3.7 Concrete shall not be placed in the Works prior to approval by the Engineer of test
results of the proposed design mix.

3.4 Trial Mixes

3.4.1 The mix design shall be finalised by trial in the presence of the Engineer or his
representative well in advance of the start of concrete placement in the
permanent works. Results of all trial tests shall be submitted as soon as
available, and before any concrete work starts on Site.

3.4.2 Where trial mixes are required, three separate batches of concrete shall be
prepared using materials likely to be typical of the proposed supply. Sampling
and testing should be in accordance with SS 78.

3.4.3 The workability of each trial batch shall be measured in accordance with the sub-
section headed 'Workability' in this specification, and recorded.

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3.0 CONCRETE MIXES -

3.4 Trial Mixes

3.4.4 Nine test specimens shall be made from each batch. Three specimens shall be
tested at 7 days and three at 28 days. The remaining three specimens shall be
tested at 90 days unless otherwise directed by the Engineer. The trial mix
proportions shall be approved if all three individual cube results tested at 28 days
exceed the characteristic strength by the current margin less 3.5 N/mm 2, subject
to satisfactory strength increments recorded in tests at 7 and 90 days.

3.4.5 If the trial mixes are required to demonstrate that the maximum free water/cement
ratio is not exceeded, two batches shall be made in a laboratory using cement
and surface dry aggregates known to be typical from past records of the suppliers
of the material. The proposed mix proportions shall not be accepted unless both
batches have the correct cement content and a free water/cement ratio below the
maximum specified value at the proposed degree of workability. For this purpose,
existing laboratory test reports may be accepted in place of trial mixes but only if
the Engineer is satisfied that the materials to be used in the structural concrete
works are likely to be similar to those used in the tests.

3.5 Adjustments to Mix Proportions

3.5.1 Subject to the approval of the Engineer, adjustments to mix proportions may be
made during production in order to minimise variability of strength and to achieve
the target mean strength. Such adjustments are regarded as part of proper
production control but the specified limits of minimum cement content and
maximum water/cement ratio shall be maintained. Changes in cement content
must be declared. Such adjustments to mix proportions should not be taken to
imply any change to the current margin.

4.0 READY MIXED CONCRETE

4.1 The Engineer may permit the use of ready mixed concrete from an approved
source provided that the Contractor complies with the requirements for concrete
mixes as previously described. Such permission shall only be given for as long
as the Engineer is satisfied that the concrete supplied complies with the
requirements of this specification and the recommendations of SS 289.

4.2 In order to determine compliance with these specifications, the Engineer may call
for tests to establish the cement content and the water/cement ratio of the ready
mixed concrete delivered to Site, and the Contractor shall allow for such tests.

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4.0 READY MIXED CONCRETE -

4.3 Each batch of concrete delivered to the Site shall be accompanied by a delivery
ticket, a copy of which shall be handed to the Engineer's representative at the
time the delivery is made. The following minimum information shall be printed,
stamped or written on the delivery ticket:

(a) Name or number of ready-mixed concrete depot


(b) Serial number of ticket
(c) Date
(d Truck number
(e) Name of location of site
(f) Grade or mix description of concrete, including minimum cement content.
(g) Specified workability
(h) Type of cement
(i) Nominal maximum size of aggregate
(j) Type or name of admixture, if included, and the dosage quantity
(k) Quantity of concrete in cubic metres
(l) Time of loading, defined as the time of contact between cement and
aggregates, or when these are surface dry, between cement and added
water

4.4 The Contractor shall complete the following items of information on the delivery
ticket after the discharge of each batch of concrete:

(a) Arrival and departure times of the truck


(b) Time of completion of discharge
(c) Details of extra water or any other materials added on site
(d) Position in the Works where concrete is placed

4.5 In the case of truck mixed concrete, the water may be added either at the
concrete supplier's plant or under the Contractor's supervision after arrival at Site,
but NOT in transit.

4.6 The concrete is to be agitated continuously by rotation of the mixer drum during
transport to the Site and while awaiting discharge. Concrete shall be discharged
from the delivery vehicle within 2 hours after the time of loading.

4.7 The concrete is to be compacted in its final position in as short a time as possible
after discharge from the delivery vehicle.

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5.0 MEASURES TO AVOID CRACKING IN FRESH CONCRETE

5.1 Generally, the Contractor shall allow for all necessary measures to monitor and
avoid cracking in fresh hydrating concrete, regardless of the size or volume of the
pour. Such measures shall be to the satisfaction of the Engineer and shall be
such that the maximum surface crack width on hardened concrete measured
immediately after the pour does not exceed 0.004 times the nominal cover of the
main reinforcement.

5.2 If the surface exhibits cracking after compaction, it shall be retamped to close the
cracks while the concrete is still in the plastic state.

5.3 The Contractor shall allow for and provide approved instrumentation for the
measurement of internal temperature changes in large pours. The maximum
concrete temperature at the point of delivery shall not in general exceed the lower
of either 37 degrees C, or 6 degrees C above the prevailing shade temperature in
accordance with the recommendations of SS 289. The limiting internal
temperature differential measured across the extreme faces of the concrete mass
shall not exceed 25 degrees C at any time.

5.4 Curing of hardened concrete shall be executed in accordance with the sub-

not be cooled to dissipate heat from the concrete. Curing methods, such as the
wetting of heated concrete elements exposed to prolonged and direct radiation,
which induce temperature gradients within the concrete mass are strictly
prohibited.

5.5 For large pours, the Contractor shall allow for and take extra precautions to
reduce concrete temperature gradient and to prevent the loss of surface moisture.
Such measures include but are not limited to:

(a) Keeping all mix constituents shaded where possible to reduce their
temperatures in the stockpile.
(b) Cooling of mixing water and/or replacing part or whole of the added water
with ice.
(c) Reducing the cement content by the use of admixtures (but not below that
required for durability).
(d) Using a cement with a lower heat of hydration.
(e) Injecting liquid nitrogen after mixing of concrete.
(f) Restricting the time between mixing and placing of the concrete to not
more than 2 hours.
(g) Providing approved surface insulation continuously over all exposed
surfaces to prevent draughts and to maintain uniform temperature
through the concrete mass.
(h) Initiating curing immediately after final tamping and continue until the
approved surface insulation system is fully in place.
(i) Providing shade to the concrete surface to prevent heat gain from direct
radiation.

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6.0 FORMWORK

6.1 General

6.1.1 Before erecting formwork, the Contractor shall submit details to the Engineer of
the systems of formwork he proposes to use for all main structural members.

6.1.2 If, in the opinion of the Engineer, the proposed system is in any way
unsatisfactory, he will instruct the Contractor to have it modified and the
Contractor shall bear the cost of any such modifications. The review of the
formwork design shall not relieve the Contractor in any way from his responsibility
of providing a system which is safe and adequate for the intended use.

6.1.3 No metallic part of any device used for maintaining formwork in the correct
location shall remain permanently within the specified concrete cover to
reinforcement.

6.1.4 In watertight construction, methods of fixing formwork that leave openings through
the concrete section when the formwork is removed shall not be used. All wall
ties shall have water baffles and wall kickers shall be cast monolithically with the
base slab.

6.1.5 Where the support of formwork is provided by the permanent structure, the
adequacy of the structure for this temporary role shall be checked and approved
by the Engineer before work commences.

6.2 Holes, Inserts and Fixings

6.2.1 Approval for the size, type and position of any hole, insert or fixing required by the
Contractor or any subcontractor shall be obtained before work proceeds.

6.2.2 Unless otherwise specified or approved, all holes shall be formed and all inserts
cast in at the time of pouring. No part of the concrete works shall be
subsequently drilled, chipped or cut away without prior approval from the
Engineer.

6.3 Release Agents

6.3.1 The internal faces of formwork shall be coated with an approved release agent.

6.3.2 Release agents shall be materials marketed as such, and shall be of one of the
following types:

(a) Cream emulsion


(b) Neat oil with surfactant added
(c) Chemical release agent

6.3.3 Release agents shall be stored and used strictly in accordance with the
manufacturer's printed instructions.

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6.0 FORMWORK -

6.3 Release Agents

6.3.4 The Contractor shall be responsible for ensuring that the release agent is
chemically and physically compatible with the finishes to be applied later. Where
there are no applied finishes, the Contractor shall be responsible for ensuring that
the release agent will not stain the surface of the finished concrete.

6.3.5 Release agents shall be applied evenly and care shall be taken to ensure that the
release agents do not come into contact with the reinforcement.

6.4 Cambers

6.4.1 Unless otherwise directed, all formwork to suspended beams and slabs shall be
constructed with the following upward cambers:

Location % of Span
Midspan between supports of span at centre 0.3%
Cantilever at free end of span 0.5%

6.5 Flying Forms

6.5.1 Where flying forms or similar type of forms are used, they shall be designed
sufficiently rigid and stable to support the weight of concrete and construction
loads, and to maintain the finished work within the specified tolerances. The
method of moving the flying form from one floor to the next shall be carefully
planned to ensure the operation can be carried out with full assurance of safety.
Before flying forms are brought out into the open, they shall be cleaned of loose
materials that may dislodge during transit.

6.6 Formwork Design

6.6.1 Formwork panels shall be rigid enough to prevent damage to the concrete surface
by excessive movements of the panel during vibration of the concrete.

6.6.2 The design and construction of formwork shall be carried out by competent
personnel, taking due account of the surface finish required. The formwork shall
be made sufficiently rigid and tight at the joints by appropriate methods to prevent
loss of grout or mortar from the concrete during the placing and compacting of
concrete.

6.6.3 Formwork (including supports) shall be sufficiently rigid to maintain the forms in
correct positions and to correct shape and profile so that the final concrete
structure is within the limits of the dimensional tolerances and deviations
specified. The supports shall be designed to withstand the worst combination of
self weight, formwork weight, formwork forces, reinforcement weight, wet
concrete weight and construction loads, together with all incidental dynamic
effects caused by placing, vibrating and compacting the concrete.

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6.0 FORMWORK -

6.6 Formwork Design

6.6.4 The formwork shall be so arranged as to be readily dismantled and removed


without causing shock, disturbance or damage to the cast concrete. Where
necessary, the arrangement should be such that the soffit form, properly
supported on props, can be retained in position for such period as may be
required by maturing conditions or this specification. If the concrete member is to
be prestressed whilst still resting on the soffit form, provision shall be made to
allow for elastic deformation and any variation in mass distribution.

6.7 Repair of Formwork

6.7.1 Damaged formwork shall not be used. Repaired formwork will be rejected if, in
the opinion of Engineer, the repair may impair the surface appearance of the
finished concrete. Formwork judged by the Engineer to unsuitable for the Works
shall be removed forthwith from the Site to prevent accidental re-use.

6.8 Formwork Props

6.8.1 If formwork props are to be left in place when soffit forms are removed, the props
shall not be disturbed during or after the removal process without approval from
the Engineer.

6.8.2 Formwork props shall be positioned between permanent supports so that all
members are supported at not more than 1.00m centres in both directions. Re-
propping shall be supported at not more than 2.00m centres in both directions.

6.9 Prop Details

6.9.1 The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer, not less than two weeks prior to the
start of any concrete pour which require props, shopdrawings indicating the props
he proposes to use, a detailed programme of the fixing and striking sequences,
and an estimate of the loads to be carried by the props.

6.9.2 All propping shall be done with steel props. The use of 'bakau' props is not
permitted. Sawn timber props may be used only if specifically approved in writing
by the Engineer. If timber props are used, they shall be straight, clear of knots
and cracks, and shall not be spliced.

6.10 Stability during Construction

6.10.1 Temporary supports to the structure may be required to resist loading conditions
imposed by construction. These shall be provided at the Contractor's own cost.

6.11 Temporary Works - Safety Precautions

6.11.1 The Contractor shall be responsible for the provision of all necessary temporary
works and safety measures in accordance with the local regulations and bye-laws.

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6.0 FORMWORK -

6.11 Temporary Works - Safety Precautions

6.11.2 The Contractor shall employ a Professional Engineer who shall be fully
responsible for the design and supervision of all temporary works to ensure
complete safety for both temporary and permanent construction.

7.0 STRIKING OF FORMWORK

7.1 General

7.1.1 Before any formwork is removed, the Contractor shall ensure that the concrete
has attained sufficient strength and that the structure will be stable and not
adversely affected when formwork is struck. Materials and plant shall not be
placed on any new construction in such a manner as to cause damage.

7.1.2 The responsibility for the safe removal of any part of the formwork or props rests
entirely with the Contractor.

7.2 Minimum Forming Period

7.2.1 The minimum period before removing formwork to structural members, shall be
as follows:

Location Period
Sides of beams, walls and columns 1 day
Slab soffits (formwork props left-in-place) 3 days
Formwork props to slabs 7 days
Beam soffits (formwork props left-in-place) 7 days
Formwork props to beams 9 days

7.2.2 The above striking times are subject to review by the Engineer where accelerated
curing methods or sliding forms are used.

7.2.3 Earlier striking of forms (but not props) may be approved if the Contractor can
show that this will not cause damage to the concrete, especially to arises and
features, or to the structure, especially if it results in unacceptable deflection. The
Contractor shall make good any such damage at his expense should it occur.

7.2.4 The making and testing of cubes to establish the period before striking shall be at
the Contractor's own expense. These cubes shall be stored and cured in a
manner that simulates the curing of the concrete used in the Works.

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7.0 STRIKING OF FORMWORK -

7.2 Minimum Forming Period

7.2.5 Permission to strike formwork on the basis of the strength of specially cast cubes
shall be withdrawn if the Engineer is not satisfied that the strength of the cubes is
representative of the strength of the cast concrete.

7.2.6 Vertical propping to all formwork shall be carried down sufficiently far in the
structure to provide the necessary support, without damage or overstress or
displacement of any part of the construction.

7.2.7 Structural props shall be retained in position until new construction is sufficiently
strong to be self supporting as well as carry all other additional loads to be placed
thereon during the construction period. In no case shall props provided for this
purpose be spaced at more than 1.00m centres, in either direction.

7.2.8 All formwork to soffits shall be constructed such that formwork can be removed
without disturbing the structural props.

8.0 CONSTRUCTION JOINTS

8.1 General

8.1.1 The locations of construction joints are normally proposed by the Contractor to
suit his preferred method and sequence of construction unless otherwise dictated
by engineering considerations. The number of construction joints shall be kept to
the minimum necessary for the proper execution of the Works. Such joints
should generally be at right angles to the general direction of the member being
cast and positioned at the point of inflexion along the member span. Construction
joints shall not be permitted across areas designated for wet usage, as in toilets.

8.1.2 Where construction joints are not shown on the contract drawings but are
necessary for construction purposes, the Contractor shall obtain approval from
the Engineer for their locations before work commences. The Contractor shall
allow in his rates for the provision of all construction joints required by him
whether or not they are shown on the contract drawings. At all construction joints,
the surface against which new concrete is cast shall be free from laitance and
shall be roughened so that the larger aggregate is exposed but not dislodged.

8.2 Preparation of Construction Joints

8.2.1 Unless otherwise instructed, the Contractor shall form and prepare construction
joints in accordance with the requirements and methods recommended in sub-
section 6.12 of BS 8110 : Part 1. He shall provide shop drawings showing all
necessary joint details for approval by the Engineer.

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8.0 CONSTRUCTION JOINTS -

8.2 Preparation of Construction Joints

8.2.2 Where the position of construction joints desired by the Contractor will result in
alterations to the design, the Contractor shall be responsible for providing
complete revised details for approval by the Engineer prior to commencing work.

8.2.3 Unless otherwise instructed, the following engineering considerations shall dictate
the positions of construction joints:

(a) The length : breadth aspect ratio of any floor or wall panel enclosed by
construction joints and formed in a single casting operation shall not
exceed 2 : 1 without the Engineer's written approval.

(b) Construction joints shall be laid along positions of least stress which will
be determined by the structural system adopted in the design.

(b) Large pours of floor or wall panels to be connected to previously cast rigid
members (shear walls, etc) shall be avoided in order to minimise cracking
due to thermal and shrinkage restraint.

(d) The Contractor shall be required to revise his layout of construction joints
to the satisfaction of the Engineer if surface cracks occur in excessive
amounts or if measured crack widths exceed the permissible limits given
in the sub-section headed 'Measures To Avoid Cracking in Fresh
Concrete' in this specification.

8.3 Movement Joints

8.3.1 Movement joints shall be formed in accordance with the requirements of sub-
section 6.13 of BS 8110 : Part 1 unless otherwise directed by the Engineer.

8.3.2 Movement joints shall be left unconcreted until all expected movement of the
structure has occurred.

9.0 KICKERS

9.1 Kickers shall be 150 mm high unless otherwise shown. Kickers shall be cast and
compacted in accordance with these specifications, using concrete of the same
grade as the adjacent concrete.

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10.0 REINFORCEMENT

10.1 Materials

10.1.1 The types of reinforcement bars will be identified on the contract drawings as a
prefix to the bar diameter. The prefixes have the following meaning:

R: Round mild steel bars complying with BS : 4449


T: High yield deformed Type 2 bars to BS : 4449
BRC: Steel fabric complying with BS : 4483

10.1.2 The sources of supply for all materials shall be approved by the Engineer before
these materials are delivered on the Site.

10.1.3 Reinforcement shall be stored clear of working areas and supported above the
surface of the ground, and shall be protected from damage and from deterioration
due to exposure.

10.1.4 Reinforcement hooks and bends shall comply with the requirements of BS 4466.
The Contractor shall prepare bar bending schedules, copies of which will be made
available to the Quantity Surveyor for his assistance during any re-measurement
of reinforcement.

10.1.5 Reinforcement not readily identifiable as to the required quality will be liable to
rejection.

10.2 Test Certificates

10.2.1 The Contractor shall supply the Engineer with a test certificate from the steel
manufacturer showing compliance with specified requirements.

10.2.2 One tension test and one bend test shall be made for each incremental lot of 50
tonnes (bar size distinction not necessary) supplied for the works, or as frequently
as required by the Engineer. In addition, one rebend test shall be conducted for
each incremental lot of 100 tonnes delivered to Site.

10.2.3 The Engineer may consider a reduced rate of sampling when consistent high
quality of the material has been well established. Conversely, if for any reason
the Engineer is not satisfied with the quality of material, he may instruct the
Contractor to further increase the rate of sampling.

10.3 Reinforcement Cutting and Bending

10.3.1 Reinforcement details are provided in the contract drawings. The Contractor shall
determine from these drawings the required dimensions of the bars, and shall cut
and bend the reinforcement in accordance with BS 4466 to meet the
requirements of cover, lap length, etc., as indicated on the drawings.

10.3.2 On no account shall reinforcement be heated to facilitate bending.

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10.0 REINFORCEMENT -

10.3 Reinforcement Cutting and Bending

10.3.3 Reinforcement shall not be re-bent unless approved by the Engineer. Any bar
that shows signs of fracture shall be replaced. Any estimated remedial work that
is consequential to bar damage and considered necessary by the Engineer shall
be carried out entirely at the Contractor's cost.

10.3.4 The rates for bar and fabric reinforcement shall include checking, sorting, storing,
fabricating, wastage, cleaning, hoisting in position, and provision of all necessary
spacers, hangers, stools, and chair supports, whether or not shown on the
contract drawings.

10.3.5 Rates for fabric reinforcement shall include minimum 250 mm overlaps between
adjacent sheets and for notching around obstructions.

10.4 Reinforcement Fixing

10.4.1 All reinforcement shall be accurately placed with correct cover and securely fixed
in the positions shown on the contract drawings by an approved method. Tying
wire, etc. shall be fixed such that it does not encroach into the concrete cover.

10.4.2 The concrete cover to the reinforcement shall be within + 5 mm of that specified.

10.4.3 Unless otherwise instructed, concrete cover to reinforcement shall be in


accordance with BS 8110.

10.4.4 Spacers, where used to maintain concrete cover to reinforcement, may be of


either concrete or plastic construction unless otherwise specified. Plastic spacers
shall be of approved design and are not to be used to support heavy loads.

10.4.5 The Contractor shall supply and fix all chairs required to maintain the
reinforcement in the correct positions.

10.4.6 If not detailed in the contract drawings, the Contractor shall propose and obtain
approval for the size and spacing of chairs.

10.4.7 Spacer blocks shall be made of cement, sand and fine aggregate, and shall
match the mix proportions of the surrounding concrete, being similar in strength,
durability and appearance.

10.5 Rust Staining

10.5.1 Concrete surfaces which will be exposed to view in the finished works shall be
protected from the rust stains of projecting reinforcement by coating the
reinforcement with cement grout or by other approved means.

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11.0 CONCRETING

11.1 Final Preparation and Inspection

11.1.1 No concrete shall be poured without the Engineer's permission. The Engineer
shall be notified of any concrete pour 24 hours in advance, exclusive of Sundays
and Public Holidays, for an inspection to be made of the formwork, reinforcement,
expansion joints, anchors and other items that are to be embedded in the
concrete.

11.1.2 The Contractor is to allow for such inspections and for making any required or
instructed corrections.

11.1.3 No claims for extra costs or extension of time will be considered for delay due to
failure to give notification or to make the allowances described above. Neither
inspection nor approval by the Engineer shall relieve the Contractor of his
responsibility for the proper execution of the Works.

11.1.4 Immediately before the concrete is placed in any section of the formwork, the
interior of that section shall be completely cleared of all extraneous material,
including water, by means of compressed air or other approved method.

11.1.5 Each section of formwork for structural members shall be inspected by the
Engineer immediately before concrete is placed in that section, and the
Contractor shall carry out any adjustments to formwork, reinforcement or levels,
as instructed by the Engineer, prior to placing of any concrete.

11.1.6 All reinforcement shall be free from mud, paint, oil, retarders, rust, loose mill
scale, grease or any other substance which may adversely affect the steel or
concrete chemically, or reduce the bond. The Engineer may instruct the
Contractor to clean off thoroughly any such substance by wire brushing or other
approved method and the Contractor shall allow in his rates for any such cleaning.

11.2 Mixing

11.2.1 The volume of mixed materials in each batch shall comply with the mixer
manufacturer's written recommendations.

11.2.2 The quantity of cement, fine aggregate and the various sizes of coarse aggregate,
shall be measured by weight.

11.2.3 A separate weighing device shall be provided for weighing the cement.
Alternatively, the cement may be measured by using a whole number of bags in
each batch.

11.2.4 The amount of water shall be measured either by volume or by weight. The batch
weights of aggregate shall be adjusted to allow for a moisture content typical of
the aggregates being used.

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11.0 CONCRETING -

11.2 Mixing

11.2.5 The accuracy of the measuring equipment shall be within + 3% of the quantity of
cement, water or total aggregates being measured, and within + 5% of the
quantity of any admixture being used. All measuring equipment shall be
maintained in a clean, serviceable condition.

11.2.6 The accuracy of all measuring equipment over the entire range of the scale shall
be checked when set up at each site, and thereafter at least once per month. The
accuracy of each scale shall be checked and adjusted daily to read zero when not
loaded. Checking shall be done using proper certified weights.

11.2.7 The mixer shall comply with the requirements of BS 1305 or BS 4215, where
applicable. Mixing time shall be not less than that used by the manufacturer in
assessing mixer performance.

11.2.8 The water content of each batch of concrete shall be adjusted to produce a
concrete that has the workability of the trial mixes.

11.3 Transporting and Placing

11.3.1 Concrete shall be transported and placed by approved methods that ensure
segregation or loss of material will not occur.

11.3.2 Concrete drop during vertical placement shall not exceed 2.50m. For heights
greater than 2.50m, the Contractor shall pour concrete through enclosed chutes
or access hatches, details of which shall be approved by the Engineer.

11.3.3 Concrete shall be transported as quickly as possible from mixer to its final
position, and in no case shall the time interval between the addition of water and
placing exceed 30 minutes.

11.3.4 All placing and compacting shall be carried out by experienced workmen and
under the direct supervision of a competent staff.

11.3.5 Gangways for concrete transporter and foot traffic, shall not be permitted to bear
on the fixed reinforcement. They shall be supported clear of the reinforcement on
chairs or stools designed for the purpose.

11.3.6 Concrete shall remain in sufficiently plastic condition for adequate compaction
when placed. Concrete shall be placed as near as possible to its final position,
and shall be placed square against the forms. Concrete shall not be moved into
position by means of vibrators.

11.3.7 In walls, the concrete shall be placed in approximately horizontal layers. The
concrete shall be placed in one continuous operation, rising uniformly in the
formwork at a rate not less than 2.00m per hour. The concrete shall not be
handled in any manner that may cause segregation.

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11.0 CONCRETING -

11.3 Transporting and Placing

11.3.8 A competent steel fixer shall be in continuous attendance during concreting to


adjust and correct the position of any reinforcement which may be displaced.

11.3.9 Concreting operation must cease during rain and the Engineer will decide whether
work can be done under light drizzle. The Contractor shall carry out concreting in
such sequence as to minimise the effects on the permanent works of temporary
stoppage of concreting due to rain. The Contractor shall also provide adequate
cover and protection from inclement weather for the permanent works.

11.4 Compacting

11.4.1 Unless otherwise specified, all structural concrete shall be compacted by


mechanical vibrators of an appropriate type.

11.4.2 The Contractor shall submit details of the type, size and number of vibrators to be
used in the Works. whenever concrete is being vibrated, at least one spare
vibrator of each type in use shall be available in case of breakdowns.

11.4.3 The minimum number of vibrators to be provided by the Contractor shall be based
on the assumption that one vibrator in proper working condition can compact 5 - 8
m3 of concrete per hour, unless otherwise instructed.

11.4.4 Compaction shall commence as soon as there is sufficient concrete within the
formwork to immerse the vibrator. Vibration shall continue during the placing
operation so that at no time shall there be a large volume of uncompacted
concrete in the formwork.

11.5 Cleaning

11.5.1 All equipment used for mixing, transporting, placing and compacting concrete
shall be thoroughly cleaned before changing from one type of aggregate or
cement to another, and whenever mixing ceases.

11.6 Records of Placing

11.6.1 The Contractor shall submit weekly a complete record of concrete work
completed during the week, including details of the time and date of each pour.

11.7 Curing

11.7.1 If the surface exhibits cracking while the concrete is still plastic, it shall be
retamped to close the cracks. Curing shall be initiated immediately after final
tamping. Initial curing shall be by means of the continuous application of water to
the concrete surface.

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11.0 CONCRETING -

11.7 Curing

11.7.2 The surface of all concrete shall be adequately and continuously cured for a
minimum total period of 7 days from the time of placing unless otherwise
instructed.

11.7.3 For large pours or for elements with section dimensions exceeding 600 mm, an
approved surface insulation system shall be provided comprising jointed sheets of
an impervious material which is suitably pigmented to reflect radiation. The
sheets shall be sealed and fastened at the edges to prevent draughts from
removing surface moisture. If the finished surface is to be exposed to view, the
sheets shall be supported away from the concrete surface.

11.7.4 Sand or hessian layers shall not be used for curing large pours. Sand or hessian
layers shall be kept wet by the continuous or frequent applications of water for the
full duration of the specified curing period.

11.7.5 Alternate wetting and drying, and the application of cold water to warm concrete
surfaces during curing shall be strictly prohibited to prevent the occurrence of
adverse temperature gradients. In particular, concrete elements with section
dimensions exceeding 600 mm shall be shaded and allowed to cool to the
temperature of its surroundings before the application of water.

11.7.6 Liquid curing membranes may alter the surface appearance of concrete and shall
not be used without prior approval. Where the use of a liquid curing membrane
has been allowed, the concrete surface shall be prepared and the membrane
applied strictly in accordance with the manufacturer's written instructions. Such
approval will be withdrawn if the curing system is found unsatisfactory in any way.

11.7.7 Any formwork made of metal, concrete or other material of high thermal capacity
shall be cooled with water before it comes in contact with poured concrete.

11.8 Treatment of Cast Concrete

11.8.1 Unless otherwise directed, no treatment of any kind, other than that required for
curing the concrete, shall be applied to the concrete after removal of the forms
until the concrete has been inspected by the Engineer.

11.8.2 The Contractor's methods of making good any defects are subject to the approval
of the Engineer in each case, and the remedial measures shall be carried out
immediately after inspection by the Engineer or when directed by the Engineer.
Making good will only be permitted on the basis that, if the results are not
satisfactory, demolition may be required.

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12.0 PUMPED CONCRETE

12.1 Concrete may be pumped subject to the approval of the Engineer. All pumping
machinery shall be of an approved type. Complete standby equipment shall be
provided in order to maintain a continuous concrete supply in the event of a
breakdown. All machinery and pipes shall be kept clean and shall be thoroughly
washed out when placing is completed. All pipework shall be laid out so that a
continuous `wet edge' is maintained during concrete placing. Aluminium pipes
are not permitted.

13.0 CONCRETE FINISH

13.1 The concrete shall be uniformly levelled and tamped. When hardened sufficiently,
the surface shall be wood floated by hand to produce a uniform surface.

13.2 Alternatively, where required, the surface shall be steel-floated by hand or


machine to produce a dense, smooth, uniform surface free form trowel marks.

14.0 PROTECTION OF FINISHED WORKS

14.1 Surfaces which are exposed to view in the finished works shall be protected from
spillage, stains and any other damage.

15.0 SALTS IN CONCRETE

15.1 Chloride Content

15.1.1 The use of calcium chloride as a constituent in reinforced, prestressed or


sulphate-resisting concrete shall be strictly prohibited.

15.1.2 The total chloride content of the concrete mix arising from the aggregate together
with that from any admixtures and any other source shall not exceed 0.1% of
chloride ion by mass of cement in the mix.

15.1.3 The total chloride content shall be determined either from the mix proportions and
the measured chloride contents of each of the constituents, or from compacted
fresh or hardened concrete.

15.2 Sulphate Content

15.2.1 The total water-soluble sulphate content of the concrete mix shall not exceed 4%
SO3 by mass of the cement in the mix.

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SALTS IN CONCRETE -

15.2 Sulphate Content

15.2.2 The sulphate content shall be determined as the total measured either from the
various constituents of the mix, or from compacted fresh or hardened concrete.

16.0 ENTRAINED AIR IN FRESH COMPACTED CONCRETE

16.1 The average air content by volume of the fresh concrete at the time of placing
shall not exceed 5%.

17.0 TESTING REQUIREMENTS

17.1 General

17.1.1 The Contractor shall allow for and be responsible for carrying out all sampling and
testings required by these specifications. He shall arrange for copies of test
results to be supplied direct to the Engineer immediately they become available.

17.1.2 The Contractor will not be reimbursed for any special tests called for by the
Engineer in consequence of any failure by the Contractor to comply with these
specifications.

17.1.3 All tests and checks on Site shall be carried out in the presence of, or as directed
by, the Engineer.

17.1.4 For all cement and reinforcement delivered to the Site, the Contractor shall obtain
and keep on the Site a copy of the manufacturer's certificate of tests carried out at
the frequency and using the methods specified in the relevant British Standards or
equivalent Singapore Standards. For reinforcement, this shall include the rebend
tests and shall be accompanied by details of manufacturer's identification marks
rolled into each brand of bar supplied.

17.2 Testing Facilities

17.2.1 Before concreting commences, the Contractor shall engage a testing agency
accredited under the Singapore Laboratory Accreditation Scheme (SINGLAS) and
approved by the Engineer. The approved agency shall be responsible for the
proper conduct of all laboratory tests required by these specifications.

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17.0 TESTING REQUIREMENTS -

17.2 Testing Facilities

17.2.2 Unless otherwise directed, the Contractor shall maintain on Site the following
apparatus which shall be kept in good condition throughout the Contract and
which shall remain the property of the Contractor:

(a) Apparatus for carrying out the tests on aggregates as described in SS 73.
(b) Syphon can, Gammon, Morgan or Speedy apparatus or other approved
method for measuring the moisture content of aggregates.
(c) Apparatus for assessing workability in accordance with SS 78 : Part A2.
(d) Apparatus for making and curing the concrete test cubes required by
these specifications, all in accordance with SS 78, except that the cubes
shall be stored in a tank containing water at ambient temperature and
protected from the sun. The test cubes shall be weighed and tested by
the testing agency in accordance with SS 78.

17.2.3 In case of ready mixed concrete, the apparatus described in (a) and (b) above
may be maintained at the depot of the ready mixed concrete supplier.

18.0 TESTING AGGREGATES

18.1 General

18.1.1 Samples of the fine and coarse aggregates approved by the Engineer shall be
kept on the Site and shall give a fair indication of the approved quality of the
aggregates for comparison with the aggregate delivered during the course of the
Works.

18.1.2 Should a sample fail to comply with any of the tests, the Engineer may at his own
discretion reject the batch from which the sample was taken, or order it to be
washed and/or screened, or permit such to be used with variations in the
proportions of the concrete mixes specified, all at the Contractor's expense. Any
batch of aggregate rejected by the Engineer shall be removed from the Site
forthwith and replaced entirely at the Contractor's expense.

18.1.3 All sampling and testing of aggregates shall be carried out in accordance with SS
73.

18.2 Preliminary Aggregate Tests

18.2.1 As soon as the sources of supply of aggregate have been approved, the
Contractor shall instruct the testing agency to carry out the following tests for
compliance with SS 31:

(a) Sieve analysis


(b) Tests for clay, silt and dust content
(c) Tests for organic impurities
(d) Tests for salt content (chloride and sulphate ions)

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18.0 TESTING AGGREGATES -

18.2 Preliminary Aggregate Tests

18.2.2 The results of these tests shall be submitted for approval as soon as available.

18.2.3 Tests (a) and (b) with tests for the moisture content of each aggregate shall be
carried out on the samples used for each trial mix.

18.3 Test Sampling Of Aggregates

18.3.1 The Contractor shall carry out such tests on aggregate samples as are necessary
for the production of the specified concrete. The minimum incremental frequency
of tests on each type of aggregate used for the Works shall be:

Type of Test One sample


Sieve analysis at least once weekly
Moisture content at least once weekly
Clay, silt and dust content at least once fortnightly
Organic impurities at least once monthly
Salt content for every 500 m3 of concrete placed,
or part thereof

18.3.2 If for any reason the Engineer is not satisfied with the works concrete, he may
instruct the Contractor to further increase the rate of sampling. Conversely, the
rate of sampling may be reduced by the Engineer when consistent high quality
has been well established.

19.0 TESTING OF WORKS CONCRETE

19.1 General

19.1.1 All sampling, curing and testing of the concrete in the fresh and hardened state
shall be carried out in accordance with SS 78.

19.2 Test Sampling

19.2.1 The rate of sampling of each grade of concrete for testing shall mean the
incremental volume of concrete in cubic metres from which, on the average, one
sample shall be taken.

19 2.2 For The Analysis of Fresh Concrete: The minimum sampling rate of freshly mixed
concrete for analysis shall be one sample for every 250 m 3 of concrete placed
unless otherwise directed by the Engineer.

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19.0 TESTING OF WORKS CONCRETE -

19.2 Test Sampling

19.2.3 For Strength And Workability Compliance : At least one sample of concrete of a
particular grade shall be taken on each day for which concrete of that grade is
used. The minimum sampling rates of concrete for each type of structure shall be
as follows unless otherwise directed by the Engineer:

Type of structure One sample from


Critical structures every 10 m3
as in load transfer systems, or part thereof
columns, walls, cantilevers, etc
Intermediate structures every 20 m3
as in beams, slabs, etc or part thereof
Heavy concrete construction every 50 m3
as in solid rafts, etc or part thereof

19.2.4 If for any reason the Engineer is not satisfied with the works concrete, he may
instruct the Contractor to further increase the rate of sampling. Conversely, the
rate of sampling may be reduced by the Engineer when consistent high quality
has been well established.

19.2.5 The samples shall be taken at the point of discharge from the mixer, or in the
case of ready mixed concrete, at the point of discharge from the vehicle or the
point of casting as directed by the Engineer.

19.3 Workability

19.3.1 The required workability for any part of the work shall be determined by the
Contractor, subject to agreement by the Engineer. The mix design shall ensure
that this workability is achievable.

19.3.2 Test samples shall be taken at the rates specified in the sub-section headed `Test
Sampling' in this specification. Concrete workability shall checked by means of a
slump test prescribed in SS 78. The slump shall be within +25 mm of the required
value. If the slump is not within these limits, or if the slump tests show likelihood
of segregation, the Engineer will reject the mix.

19.4 Temperature of Fresh Concrete

19.4.1 Within 2 minutes of taking the sampling, a type A 100 mm immersion


thermometer having a range of - 5 degrees C to + 110 degrees C, graduated at
each 1 degree C and complying with the requirements of BS 1704, shall be
inserted in the sample to a depth of at least 100 mm. When steady conditions
have been maintained for 1 minute, the temperature shall be recorded to the
nearest 1 degree C.

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19.0 TESTING OF WORKS CONCRETE -

19.5 Analysis of Fresh Concrete

19.5.1 The Contractor shall carry out analyses of fresh fully compacted concrete in
accordance with the methods recommended in SS 78 and BS 1881. The
methods used to estimate cement content or the mix proportions shall be capable
of determining the mix proportions to an accuracy of + 10% of the true value with
a confidence of 95%. This error shall include any errors due to sampling.

19.5.2 Test samples shall be taken at the discretion of the Engineer either at the point of
delivery or the concrete batching depot.

19.5.3 In the case of ready mixed concrete, the Engineer or his representative shall have
unrestricted access to the concrete supplier's batching plant(s) whenever
concrete is being produced for the project and shall be provided with the facility to
inspect and take fresh samples for analysis.

19.5.4 Unless otherwise instructed, the minimum frequency of tests based on the
incremental volume of concrete placed (all grades inclusive) shall be:

Type of Test One test for


Density of fully compacted concrete every 250 m3 or part thereof
Air content every 1000 m3 or part thereof
Salt content (sulphate and chloride ions) every 1000 m3 or part thereof
Cement content every 1000 m3 or part thereof
Free-water/cement ratio every 1000 m3 or part thereof

19.6 Tests For The Assessment of Compressive Strength

19.6.1 The minimum number of test specimens (concrete cubes) to be prepared from
each sample and the regime of curing prior to testing shall be as follows:

Material Type Minimum Number Pre-Test Curing Period (days)


of Specimens 3d 7d 28d
Reinforced Concrete 4 - 2 2
Prestressed Concrete 6 2 2 2

19.6.2 On completion of the curing, the specimens shall be tested and the average
strength of two specimens shall be taken as the individual test result to judge
compliance in accordance with the sub-

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19.0 TESTING OF WORKS CONCRETE -

19.6 Tests For The Assessment of Compressive Strength

19.6.3 In the case of prestressed concrete, the specimens reserved for the 3-day test
may, with the consent of the Engineer, be crushed at an agreed date after mixing
to verify compliance with the specified transfer strength of the concrete.

19.7 Making of Test Cubes

19.7.1 The methods for making test cubes from fresh concrete shall be in accordance
with SS 78 : Part A8. Half of all cubes made shall be compacted using a vibrator
and the rest with a compacting bar.

19.8 Storage of Test Cubes

19.8.1 A secure storage shed or room shall be provided by the Contractor for the storage
of test specimens during curing. The shed shall contain sufficient space to
accommodate all necessary facilities and all of the cubes being cured.

19.8.2 The Contractor shall submit details of the storage shed or room to the Engineer
for approval.

19.8.3 The shed shall be fitted with a strong door and a good quality lock. Access to the
room shall be restricted to the Engineer and persons specifically authorised by the
Engineer.

20.0 TEST COMPLIANCE OF WORKS CONCRETE

20.1 General

20.1.1 The constituent materials shall comply with and the concrete shall be produced in
accordance with the requirements in these specifications.

20.2 Compliance With Characteristic Compressive Strength

20.2.1 Compliance with the characteristic strength shall be based on groups of four (4)
consecutive test results for the grade of concrete tested.

20.2.2 The concrete shall be accepted as complying with the specified characteristic
strength requirement if the average strength determined from any group of four
consecutive test results and if each individual test result complies with the
appropriate limits given in this sub-section. When there are less than four results,
that is at the start of the work, the average of the first 2 or first 3 results, and the
individual results shall comply with the appropriate limits given herein. The first
result alone shall not be used to judge compliance with the specified characteristic
strength.

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20.0 TEST COMPLIANCE OF WORKS CONCRETE -

20.2 Compliance With Characteristic Compressive Strength

20.2.3 Compressive strength compliance limits:

Average of first 2, or first 3,


Any individual test result
or of 4 consecutive test
shall not be less than the
Test Results results shall exceed the
specified 28-day
specified 28-day
characteristic strength
characteristic strength
minus
by at least
First 2 1 N/mm2 3 N/mm2
First 3 2 N/mm2 3 N/mm2
Consecutive 4 3 N/mm2 3 N/mm2

20.2.4 The quantity of concrete represented by any group of four consecutive strength
test results shall include the batches from which the first and last samples were
taken together with all interviewing batches. The quantity of concrete represented
by a test result shall be established by the Engineer from site records.

20.2.5 If both the average strength AND individual test results fail to comply with the
specified acceptance requirements, the quantity of sub-standard concrete
represented by the failed tests shall be removed and replaced by concrete
meeting this specification. Alternatively, the Contractor may propose suitable
remedial works for the approval of the Engineer. The Engineer shall have the
right to accept or reject or modify the Contractor's proposals and require any test
to be carried out on the work after rectification. The cost of any remedial works
and tests shall be borne by the Contractor and no extension of time will be
allowed on this account.

20.2.6 If EITHER the average strength OR the individual test results fail to meet the
specified acceptance requirements, the Contractor shall be required to take
immediate steps to increase the current margin and the target mean strength of
subsequent batches to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

20.2.7 If ONLY the average strength but NOT the individual test results fail to comply
with the specified acceptance requirements, the Contractor shall be required to
take steps to the satisfaction of the Engineer to assure that load-carrying capacity
and other specified requirements for the structure are not jeopardized.

20.2.8 For a test result, the difference between the strength of two specimens prepared
from the same sample shall not exceed 5 N/mm 2. When the specified limit on the
difference in specimen strength is exceeded, the Contractor shall be required to
take steps at his own expense to determine the validity of the individual specimen
strength to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

SC/29
TW-ASIA
TW-ASIA Consultants
Consultants Pte Ltd Pte Ltd
Concrete Work
Specification

20.0 TEST COMPLIANCE OF WORKS CONCRETE -

20.2 Compliance With Characteristic Compressive Strength

20.2.9 If the finished work, in the opinion of the Engineer, is defective or if the Engineer
has doubts about the quality of the insitu concrete, he may order the taking of
cored samples. The taking of cored samples and testing shall be carried out
according to the provisions of BS 8110, BS 1881, BS 6089 or the equivalent
Singapore Standards by an approved and accredited testing agency and in the
locations designated by the Engineer. The equivalent cube strength of the cored
specimens shall not be less than the specified strength or the concrete will be
assumed to have failed to comply with the specified characteristic strength. In
such cases the concrete in that part of the work represented by the failed sample
will be considered defective and removed or rectified, and all testing and remedial
works shall be at the Contractor's expense.

20.2.10 If, on the basis of 7-day test results, the Engineer considers that the 28-day test
results may fail to comply with the specified characteristic strength, he may
instruct the Contractor to discontinue work in the vicinity of the suspect concrete.

20.3 Change of Current Margin

20.3.1 A change in the current margin used to determine the target mean strength of
concrete becomes appropriate when the results of a sufficiently large number of
tests show that the previously established margin is significantly too large or too
small. Re-calculation of the margin should be carried out in accordance with the
sub-section headed `Requirements for Designed Mixes' in this specification.

20.3.2 On adoption of a re-calculated margin, it becomes the current margin and the
basis to determine the target mean strength of the concrete produced subsequent
to the change.

21.0 SETTING OUT AND TOLERANCES

21.1 General

21.1.1 Before work commences on Site, the Contractor shall submit for approval his
methods of dimensional setting out, construction and checking which must be
such that the tolerances achieved in the Works will comply with the specification.

21.1.2 The Contractor shall provide all reasonable facilities to the Architect to allow him
to carry out dimensional checks on the accuracy of construction, including the
provision of equipment such as levels, theodolites, plumbs, tapes, etc., and the
provision of skilled labour needed for survey work. Any such checks carried out by
the Architect will in no way relieve the Contractor of his responsibility for setting
out the Works.

SC/30
TW-ASIA
TW-ASIA Consultants
Consultants Pte Ltd Pte Ltd
Concrete Work
Specification

21.0 SETTING OUT AND TOLERANCES -

21.2 References

21.2.1 At the beginning of the Works, the Contractor shall establish an approved Site
datum and horizontal reference grid on which all subsequent setting out on the
Site shall be based.

21.2.2 The reference points shall be checked and certified by an independent licensed
surveyor, approved by the Architect. The reference points shall be established on
a steel post driven deep into the ground and adequately protected by a mass
concrete surround which shall not be disturbed, buried or removed during the
course of the Works.

21.2.3 During the course of the Works, profile boards shall be set up on stakes
concreted into the ground at grid line positions.

21.3 Measuring Equipment

21.3.1 An approved reference tape shall be kept to check the accuracy of all working
tapes. The Contractor shall ensure that all other setting out and measuring
equipment is adequate to achieve the accuracies required by this specification.

21.4 Dimensions of Completed Work

21.4.1 The Contractor shall keep records in an approved form of the dimensions of all
work as constructed. These records shall be available for inspection at any time
and shall be submitted immediately after completion of each section as directed.

21.5 Maximum Allowable Deviations of Structural Works

21.5.1 Architectural Tolerances For Concrete Finishes

21.5.1.1 Tolerances specified under this section shall be checked against the tolerances
for surface finish of structural members specified by the Architect. The Contractor
shall follow the more stringent of the two requirements in the construction of the
works.

21.5.2 Reference Grids

ON PLAN

21.5.2.1 At every structural level the Contractor shall set out a horizontal reference grid as
detailed on the Architect's drawings, or offset from them and in a form agreed with
the Architect.

21.5.2.2 The dimensions between intersections of the reference grids shall be within + 5
mm of dimensions given or computed from the drawings.

SC/31
TW-ASIA
TW-ASIA Consultants
Consultants Pte Ltd Pte Ltd
Concrete Work
Specification

21.0 SETTING OUT AND TOLERANCES -

21.5 Maximum Allowable Deviations of Structural Works

21.5.2 Reference Grids

ON PLAN

21.5.2.3 The reference grid at each level shall be:

(a) Vertically above the corresponding grid on the level immediately below,
with maximum deviation + 5 mm

(b) Vertically above the corresponding grid on the lowest level, with maximum
deviation + 10 mm

LEVELS

21.5.2.4 The deviation of height from floor to floor shall not exceed the following:

(a) Height of structural level above the datum


on the level immediately below + 5 mm

(b) The height deviation of any structural level


from the control bench mark + 10 mm

21.5.3 Foundation

21.5.3.1 Maximum deviations of concrete works in foundation shall be as follows:

(a) Position in plan - maximum deviations


measured in any horizontal directions
from the nearest reference grid line + 25 mm

(b) Dimensions on plan - maximum deviation per 300m + 10 mm


(except retaining wall thickness which shall be + 5 mm)

(c) Maximum deviation in any horizontal dimension of


a structure (except for retaining wall thickness which + 25 mm
shall be + 5 mm)

(d) The deviation of the level of foundation surface


from nearest transferred bench mark + 20 mm

SC/32
TW-ASIA
TW-ASIA Consultants
Consultants Pte Ltd Pte Ltd
Concrete Work
Specification

21.0 SETTING OUT AND TOLERANCES -

21.5 Maximum Allowable Deviations of Structural Works

21.5.4 Elements or Components above Foundations

21.5.4.1 Maximum deviations of concrete works above foundation shall be as follows:

(a) Maximum deviation in plan of any point measured from


the nearest reference grid line + 10 mm

(b) Maximum deviation in verticality.


Plumbness in height of:

Up to and including 0.5m + 3 mm


Over 0.5m up to and including 1.5m + 5 mm
Over 1.5m up to and including 15m + 10 mm
Over 15m up to and including 150m + 15 mm
Over 150m + 15 mm

21.5.4.2 Notwithstanding the dimension tolerance mentioned above, the Contractor shall
take all measures to ensure that all walls of all lifts shafts are not more than +12
mm out of verticality at any point between the top to bottom for the entire height.
Failure of the Contractor to maintain the required tolerance will render him liable
for all rectification work that may be required by the Architect and/or the lift sub-
contractor.

(a) Cross section, linear dimensions and openings.

Maximum deviations from dimensions of beams, slabs, columns and


walls:

Up to and including 300 mm + 5 mm


Over 300 mm up to and including 600 mm + 10 mm
Over 600 mm up to and including 1.5m + 15 mm
Over 1.5m + 20 mm (max)

SC/33
TW-ASIA
TW-ASIA Consultants
Consultants Pte Ltd Pte Ltd
Concrete Work
Specification

21.0 SETTING OUT AND TOLERANCES -

21.5 Maximum Allowable Deviations of Structural Works

21.5.5 Bow or Camber (other than designed Camber)

21.5.5.1 Maximum deviation of any point on the surface from a straight line joining the
extremities of the surface:

(a) Up to and including 3m apart + 10 mm


(b) Over 3m up to and including 9m apart + 15 mm
(c) Over 9m apart + 20 mm (max)

21.5.6 Twist

21.5.6.1 Maximum deviation of any one corner from the plane containing the other 3
corners:

(a) For diagonal up to and including 3m + 5 mm


(b) For diagonal over 3m up to and including 8m + 10 mm
(c) For diagonal over 8m + 15 mm (max)

21.5.7 Squareness of Corner

21.5.7.1 The longer of the two adjacent sides should be taken as the base line and the
maximum deviation of the shorter side from a perpendicular to the base line is to
be related to the length of the shorter side:

(a) Short side up to and including 0.5m + 5 mm


(b) Over 0.5m up to and including 2m + 15 mm
(c) Over 2m + 20 mm (max)

21.5.8 Level

21.5.8.1 Maximum deviation from the designed level with reference to the nearest
transferred bench mark:

(a) Length up to and including 8m + 5 mm


(b) Over 8m up to and including 15m + 10 mm
(c) Over 15m + 15 mm (max)

SC/34
TW-ASIA
TW-ASIA Consultants
Consultants Pte Ltd Pte Ltd
Concrete Work
Specification

21.0 SETTING OUT AND TOLERANCES -

21.5 Maximum Allowable Deviations of Structural Works

21.5.9 The foregoing permissible deviations exclude the specific tolerance for tower
windows and floor levels which shall be as follows:

Windows

21.5.9.1 The required structural openings of the tower windows are indicated on the
relative drawings.

21.5.9.2 Tolerances both vertically and horizontally, including any in-built camber and
subsequent deflection is restricted to + 5 mm per side as measured from the
centre line of the opening. Sides, soffit and sill of openings shall be true both
vertically and horizontally.

21.5.9.3 This tolerance is not progressive over the height of the tower. Hacking of
undersized openings will only be permitted with the approval of the Architect in
writing.

Floor Levels

21.5.9.4 The structural level on any one tower is to be + 3 mm. However, the Contractor's
attention is drawn to the under floor ducting and especially to the junction boxes
where there is no tolerance.

21.6 Survey of Verticality

21.6.1 The Contractor is to employ the same independent licensed surveyor responsible
for setting the reference points to check the vertical alignment of all core walls and
columns at each third floor height of the building immediately that level is
constructed.

21.6.2 The Contractor shall submit the survey results to the Architect within seven days
from the date of completion of the site survey.

22.0 SLIPFORM SYSTEM AND EQUIPMENT

22.1 This section covers a recommended procedure for a slipform system using an
electro-hydraulic system controlled from a centre pump unit. If the Contractor
proposes an alternative slipform system, he is to submit full details and
specification of the system offered.

22.2 The entire formwork shall be capable of being raised in small adjustable
increments of 12 - 25 mm. The rate of rise of the formwork shall be faster than
the setting rate of the concrete in the formwork and shall not be less than 200 mm
per hour.

SC/35
TW-ASIA
TW-ASIA Consultants
Consultants Pte Ltd Pte Ltd
Concrete Work
Specification

22.0 SLIPFORM SYSTEM AND EQUIPMENT -

22.3 Under no circumstances will the slipforming of the core walls progress more than
six floor levels above the construction of the suspended floor slabs on the outer
face of the core, nor three floor levels above the construction of the suspended
floor slabs within the core area. (This is a firm requirement irrespective of the
system to be used).

22.4 The slipform system shall consist of jacks which can be adjusted precisely for
maintaining and controlling the level and verticality of the entire formwork. The
formwork shall incorporate a system of preventing spiralling or twisting of part or
all of the entire formwork throughout the slipforming of the core.

22.5 All jack rods shall be 25 mm diameter mild steel reinforcing bars of 4 metres
length with 16 mm male and female tapped and threaded screw connections. The
jack rods shall be straight, clean and free of all defects and irregularities.

22.6 The steel formwork shall be 1067 mm in height and shall be made of steel panels
of sufficient thickness and rigidity to withstand all concrete pressures so as to
produce concrete walls of flat even surfaces free from all distortions and defects.
To reduce frictional force during the rising of the formwork all internal and external
corners will be rounded to a radius of 25 mm. The panels shall be fully secured
through the waler frames against vertical and horizontal deflection. All panels shall
be coated with an approved form oil before erection and the coating shall be
renewed as necessary during the work.

22.7 The plant and facilities provided shall be capable of providing a rate of progress of
the slipform of not less than 200 mm rise per hour.

22.8 The Contractor shall provide all standby plant, spare parts, cutting and welding
equipment, compressors, water and power supply and all other items necessary
for carrying out the work during the period of slipforming.

22.9 The Contractor shall provide adequate communication during the slipforming
operation between the slipform, site office and mixing plant to ensure that the
proper concrete mix is provided, at any time during and for controlling the
concrete mix instantly.

22.10 The Contractor is to ensure that an experienced foreman is available to co-


ordinate the various activities of slipforming, concreting, steel fixing, fixing of
blockouts and all other related operations.

22.11 The slipform equipment and system shall be designed and controlled so as to
ensure that the work is executed in accordance with the requirements of the
secti

22.12 To control the verticality of the slipforming, the jacks of the slipform work shall be
adjusted and a water levelling system provided for this purpose.

22.13 At every second yoke, level indicators shall be provided to indicate the level of the
slipform work as it progresses upwards.

SC/36
TW-ASIA
TW-ASIA Consultants
Consultants Pte Ltd Pte Ltd
Concrete Work
Specification

22.0 SLIPFORM SYSTEM AND EQUIPMENT -

22.14 An approved means of checking and recording verticality of the slipform work
shall be provided at regular and frequent intervals. The slipform work shall be
adjusted immediately should any deviation from verticality be found. This
adjustment can only be done during slipforming.

22.15 Six plumb bobs shall be provided at corners of slipformed walls to check their
verticality as the slipform progresses. The plumb bobs shall be approximately 8 kg
in weight and held from the slipform to a permanent point at the base by `welding'
wires which are fed from a winch mounted on the slipform. It is advisable not to
use an optical instrument for checking the walls for verticality to avoid instrument
errors. However as a means of double checking, optical instruments can be
employed.

22.16 Concrete that has been brought up to the slipform shall be discharged onto timber
decks provided at the slipform. The concrete shall be placed into the formwork by
means of shovels in continuous layer 150 to 225 mm high and vibrated without
damage to the previously placed concrete.

22.17 No concrete shall be permitted to be poured directly to the formwork. It is a


requirement that a time of not more than half an hour shall lapse from the initial
mixing to the final placing of the concrete in the formwork. If this time cannot be
maintained the Contractor should propose to the Architect his alternative method
for placing concrete (no claim for additional payment will be entertained in respect
of any alternative method).

22.18 Slipforming will be carried out on a discontinuous basis to allow door and other
blockouts and reinforcement to floors etc. to be positioned in time.

22.19 After each concreting operation on the slipform, the formwork surface and the
working platform shall be cleaned of loose materials and rubbish before the next
concreting operation is carried out.

22.20 Before fresh concrete is poured into the formwork all loose material shall be
removed from the top of the concrete surfaces. A layer of cement and sand grout
in the same proportions as the concrete mix should be placed on the previously
poured concrete to provide a good joint for the fresh concrete. This shall be done
to the approval of the Engineer. The layer of fresh concrete to be poured into the
formwork shall be placed approximately 225 mm thick and shall be thoroughly
vibrated to ensure a good joint, care being taken to avoid segregation. The joint
between each concreting operation should be properly touched up so as not to be
shown on the exposed surface.

22.21 Concreting during heavy rainy days will not be permitted and work is to be
stopped under such circumstances until the conditions permit.

22.22 The Engineer will use his discretion to decide whether work can be carried out
under light drizzle. It is therefore very important that concrete is placed in even
layers so that in the case of stoppage due to rain, water will not collect on the
lowest point and cause damage to the concrete.

SC/37
TW-ASIA
TW-ASIA Consultants
Consultants Pte Ltd Pte Ltd
Concrete Work
Specification

22.0 SLIPFORM SYSTEM AND EQUIPMENT -

22.23 Notwithstanding the requirements of the two paragraphs above, the Contractor is
to provide adequate cover to protect the Works against inclement weather.

22.24 Concrete surfaces shall be touched up immediately after being exposed from the
slipform work and rubbed down with a timber or steel float to ensure a smooth
surface. Any loose grout or ripples or the surfaces due to vibration shall be made
good.

22.25 The surfaces can only be touched up during slipforming and at the slipform level
before it hardens to a final set.

22.26 All blockouts shall be provided in the walls at the positions and to the dimensions
shown on the drawings or as required. Sufficient sets of blockouts should be
employed to ensure that the slipforming can be carried out smoothly and thereby
not causing any delay to the programme.

22.27 The width of all blockouts shall be 12 mm narrower than the wall thickness to
allow their easy passage from the formworking during slipforming.

22.28 All jack rods passing through blockouts shall be rigidly braced to keep them from
buckling during slipforming.

22.29 The new concrete walls shall be adequately protected from the harmful effects of
the sun, wind and rain by providing screens and curing by continuously watering
the surfaces. An adequate water supply is required for this purpose.

22.30 The Contractor is to ensure that all structural connections required in walls
slipformed are accurately placed and sufficient for the purpose required.

22.31 The Contractor shall make adequate provision within the design for any temporary
works associated with such items as the location of tower cranes etc.

22.32 The Contractor shall submit shop drawing indicating all relevant details of the
slipform system, showing all methods of jacking, adjustments of levels and wall
thicknesses, verticality and detailed methods of operating procedures.

23.0 DEFECTIVE WORK

23.1 Where in the opinion of the Engineer any of the finished works, or the materials or
workmanship in any part of the Works, do not comply with all the relevant
requirements of these specifications, that part of the Works shall be classified as
defective work.

23.2 All work classified as defective work shall be cut out and removed from the Works
and replaced to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

SC/38
TW-ASIA
TW-ASIA Consultants
Consultants Pte Ltd Pte Ltd
Concrete Work
Specification

23.0 DEFECTIVE WORK -

23.3 The extent of the work to be removed and the methods to be used in the removal
and replacement of this work shall be in accordance with Engineer's directions.
In all cases, cutting out of defective concrete work shall be carried back to a
satisfactory construction joint before the replacement of the defective work and
any other work thereby affected is commenced.

23.4 All removal and replacement of defective work and all costs or charges arising
from such removal or replacement shall be at the Contractor's expense and no
extension of time will be allowed on this account.

24.0 LABOUR

24.1 The description of each item of all types of concrete beds and slabs will be held to
include for laying on any type of sub-base and for preparing and leaving surfaces
of concrete to receive screeds or paving.

24.2 The description of each item of all types of concrete will be held to include for
cutting and/or forming grooves, chases, rebates, mortices, holes and making
good and any other sundry item of a like nature.

24.3 The description of each item of all types of concrete will be held to include for all
construction joints, other than those shown on the drawings.

24.4 The description of each item of precast concrete will be held to include for all
moulds, handling, lifting, hoisting and building in.

24.5 The description of each item of reinforcement will be held to include for binding
reinforcement and spacers, for cutting to lengths and forming bends, cranks, etc.
The weight of all reinforcement is exclusive of rolling margin.

24.6 The description of each item of formwork will be held to include for erection,
raking and/or circular cutting, splayed edges, notchings, allowance for overlaps
and waste, passings at angles, battens, filleting to form chamfered edges not
exceeding 50 mm wide, strutting (including strutting exceeding 3.50m high to
walls, columns, etc.), bolting, wedging, easing striking and removal, and for all
modification, re-erection, easing, striking, etc., and removal for further use.

SC/39