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12 Angry Men the killing still stands as solid evidence.

Juror 12 then reverts his vote,


In a New York County Courthouse, the judge is instructing a jury who making the vote 8–4.
are to deliberate the case of an 18-year-old male from a slumwho is on Juror 9, seeing Juror 4 rub his nose (which is being irritated by his
trial for allegedly stabbing his father to death. If there is any reasonable glasses), realizes that the woman who allegedly saw the murder had
doubt, they are to return a verdict of not guilty. If found guilty, he will impressions in the sides of her nose, indicating that she probably wears
receive a death sentence.[11] glasses, but did not wear them in court out of vanity. Other jurors,
In a preliminary vote, all jurors vote "guilty" except Juror 8, who argues including Juror 4, confirm that they saw the same thing. Juror 8 adds
that the accused deserves some deliberation. This irritates some of the that she would not have been wearing them while trying to sleep, and
other jurors, who are impatient for a quick deliberation, especially Juror points out that, on her own evidence, the attack happened so swiftly
7 who has tickets to the evening's Yankeesgame, and Juror 10 who that she wouldn't have had time to put them on. Jurors 12, 10 and 4
demonstrates blatant prejudice against people from slums. Juror 8 then change their vote to "not guilty", leaving only Juror 3.
questions the accuracy and reliability of the only two witnesses, and Juror 3 gives a long and increasingly tortured string of arguments,
the prosecution's claim that the murder weapon, a common building on earlier remarks that his relationship with his own son is
switchblade of which he possesses an identical copy, was "rare". Juror deeply strained, which is ultimately why he wants the accused to be
8 argues that he cannot vote "guilty" because reasonable doubt exists. guilty. He finally loses his temper and tears up a photograph of him and
Conceding that he has merely hung the jury, Juror 8 suggests a secret his son. Breaking down, sobbing, he mutters "not guilty", making the
ballot, from which he will abstain. He states that if all others are still vote unanimous. As the jurors leave, Juror 8 helps the distraught Juror
agreed, he will acquiesce to their decision. The ballot reveals one "not 3 with his coat. Outside, Jurors 8 (Davis) and 9 (McCardle) exchange
guilty" vote. Juror 3 accuses Juror 5, who grew up in a slum, of names, and all of the jurors descend the courthouse steps to return to
changing his vote out of sympathy towards slum children. However, their individual lives.
Juror 9 reveals it was he that changed his vote, agreeing there should Cast[edit]
be some discussion.  Martin Balsam as Juror 1, the jury foreman, an assistant high
Juror 8 argues that the noise of a passing train would have obscured school American football coach
the verbal threat that one witness claimed to have heard the accused  John Fiedler as Juror 2, a meek and unpretentious bank worker
tell his father: "I'm going to kill you". Juror 5 then changes his vote. Juror who is at first dominated by others
11 also changes his vote, believing the defendant would not likely have  Lee J. Cobb as Juror 3, the main antagonist and most passionate
tried to retrieve the murder weapon from the scene if it had been advocate of a guilty verdict throughout the film, the owner of his
cleaned of fingerprints. Juror 8 also points out that people who say "I'm own messenger service
going to kill you" do not often literally mean it.  E. G. Marshall as Juror 4, a rational, unflappable, self-assured and
Jurors 5, 6 and 8 question the witness's claim to have seen the analytical stock broker
defendant fleeing 15 seconds after hearing the father's body hit the  Jack Klugman as Juror 5, a man who grew up in a violent slum,
floor since he was physically incapable of reaching an appropriate and does not take kindly to insults about his upbringing
vantage point in time, having once suffered a stroke. An angry Juror 3  Edward Binns as Juror 6, a tough but principled house painter
shouts that they are "letting him slip through our fingers" and that "he's  Jack Warden as Juror 7, a wisecracking salesman
got to burn". Juror 8 accuses him of being a sadistic public avenger. and Yankees fan
Juror 3 then tries to attack Juror 8, shouting "I'll kill him!" but is  Henry Fonda as Davis, Juror 8; an architect who initially is the only
restrained by Jurors 5, 6 and 7. Juror 8 then calmly replies "You don't one to vote "not guilty" and openly questions nearly all of the
really mean you'll kill me, do you?" proving his previous point. Jurors 2 seemingly clear evidence presented against the defendant
and 6 then change their votes, tying the vote at 6–6. When  Joseph Sweeney as McCardle, Juror 9; an observant senior
a thunderstorm begins, it is likely that Juror 7's baseball game will be  Ed Begley as Juror 10, a pushy, loud-mouthed, and bigoted
cancelled. garage owner
Juror 4 doubts the alibi of being at the movies, because the accused  George Voskovec as Juror 11, a European watchmaker and
could not recall it in much detail. Juror 8 tests how well Juror 4 naturalized American citizen who demonstrates strong patriotism
remembers previous days, which he does, with difficulty. Juror 2  Robert Webber as Juror 12, an easily distracted, indecisive
questions the likelihood that the accused, who was almost a foot advertising executive
shorter than his father, could have inflicted the downward stab wound
found in the body. Jurors 3 and 8 then conduct an experiment to see TO KILL A MOCKINGBIRD
whether a shorter person could stab downwards on a taller person. The The story, told by the six-year-old Jean Louise Finch, takes place
experiment proves the possibility, but Juror 5, drawing on his during three years (1933–35) of the Great Depression in the fictional
experience growing up in a slum, then steps up and demonstrates the "tired old town" of Maycomb, Alabama, the seat of Maycomb County.
correct way to hold and use a switchblade, revealing that anyone skilled Jean Louise Finch, nicknamed Scout, lives with her older brother
with a switchblade (as the boy would be) would always stab Jeremy, nicknamed Jem, and their widowed father Atticus, a middle-
underhanded at an upwards angle against an opponent who was taller aged lawyer. Jem and Scout befriend a boy named Dill, who visits
than them, as the grip of stabbing downwards would be too awkward Maycomb to stay with his aunt each summer. The three children are
and the act of changing hands too time consuming. terrified, yet fascinated by their neighbor, the reclusive Arthur "Boo"
Increasingly impatient, Juror 7 changes his vote to hasten the Radley. The adults of Maycomb are hesitant to talk about Boo, and few
deliberation, which earns him the ire of other jurors (especially 11) for of them have seen him for many years. The children feed one another's
voting frivolously; still he insists, unconvincingly, that he actually thinks imagination with rumors about his appearance and reasons for
the defendant is not guilty. Jurors 12 and 1 then change their votes, remaining hidden, and they fantasize about how to get him out of his
leaving only three dissenters: Jurors 3, 4 and 10. Juror 10 then vents a house. After two summers of friendship with Dill, Scout and Jem find
torrent of condemnation of slum people, claiming they are no better that someone is leaving them small gifts in a tree outside the Radley
than animals who kill for fun. Most of the others turn their backs to him, place. Several times the mysterious Boo makes gestures of affection
with Juror 4, the only one still facing him, telling him "sit down and don't to the children, but, to their disappointment, he never appears in
open your mouth again". Juror 10 then goes and sits in the corner by person.
himself. Juror 8 reminds the rest that personal prejudice can cloud
judgments as they retake their seats. When the remaining "guilty" Judge Taylor appoints Atticus to defend Tom Robinson, a black man
voters are pressed to explain themselves, Juror 4 states that, despite who has been accused of raping a young white woman, Mayella Ewell.
all the previous evidence, the woman from across the street who saw Although many of Maycomb's citizens disapprove, Atticus agrees to
defend Tom to the best of his ability. Other children taunt Jem and
Scout for Atticus's actions, calling him a "nigger-lover". Scout is take the case, Vinny is a personal injury lawyer from Brooklyn, newly
tempted to stand up for her father's honor by fighting, even though he admitted to the bar, and with no trial experience.
has told her not to. One night, Atticus faces a group of men intent on
lynching Tom. This crisis is averted in an unexpected manner. Scout, Vinny manages to fool the trial judge, Chamberlain Haller, about being
Jem, and Dill show up, and Scout inadvertently breaks the mob experienced enough for the case. His ignorance of basic courtroom
mentality by recognizing and talking to a classmate's father, and the procedures, dress code, and his abrasive attitude cause the judge to
would-be lynchers disperse. repeatedly hold him in contempt. Much to his clients' consternation,
Vinny does not cross-examine any of the witnesses in the preliminary
Atticus does not want Jem and Scout to be present at Tom Robinson's hearing. Except for lack of a murder weapon, it appears that the district
trial. No seat is available on the main floor, but the Rev. Sykes invites attorney, Jim Trotter III, has a strong case that will lead to convictions.
Jem, Scout, and Dill to watch from the colored balcony. Atticus After Vinny's poor showing at the hearing, Stan fires him and uses the
establishes that the accusers—Mayella and her father, Bob Ewell, the public defender, John Gibbons, and nearly convinces Bill to do the
town drunk—are lying. It also becomes clear that the friendless Mayella same. However, in questioning the first witness, the public defender
made sexual advances toward Tom, and that her father caught her and actually ends up bolstering the prosecution's case, something that Stan
beat her. Everyone knows that the white trash Ewells are not to be feared Vinny might do.
trusted, but the jury convicts Tom anyway. Jem's faith in justice is badly
shaken. Atticus is hopeful that he can get the verdict overturned, but Despite his missteps, Vinny shows that he is able to make up for his
Tom is shot and killed while trying to escape from prison. inexperience with an aggressive and perceptive questioning style.
Vinny quickly discredits the testimony of the first witness, and Bill and
Despite Tom's conviction, Bob Ewell is humiliated by the events of the Stan's faith is restored. Stan fires the public defender and re-hires
trial, Atticus explaining that he "destroyed [Ewell's] last shred of Vinny, who then proceeds to utterly discredit the testimony of the next
credibility at that trial."[12] Ewell vows revenge, spitting in Atticus' face, two witnesses in cross-examination.
trying to break into the judge's house, and menacing Tom Robinson's
widow. Finally, he attacks Jem and Scout while they are walking home On the trial's third day, Trotter produces a surprise witness, FBI analyst
on a dark night after the school Halloween pageant. Jem suffers a George Wilbur. Vinny immediately objects to the witness as Mr. Trotter
broken arm in the struggle, but amid the confusion someone comes to failed to properly inform him ahead of time, but his argument is
the children's rescue. The mysterious man carries Jem home, where overruled. Mr. Wilbur testifies that the pattern and chemical analysis of
Scout realizes that he is Boo Radley. the tire marks left at the crime scene are identical to the tires on Bill's
Buick. Judge Haller orders a lunch recess immediately after the direct
Sheriff Tate arrives and discovers Ewell dead from a knife wound. examination of Mr. Wilbur. Vinny asks for a full day's continuance to
Atticus believes that Jem was responsible, but Tate is certain it was properly prepare for cross-examination, but Judge Haller denies the
Boo. The sheriff decides that, to protect Boo's privacy, he will report request. With only the lunch recess to prepare and unable to come up
that Ewell simply fell on his own knife during the attack. Boo asks Scout with a strong line of questioning, Vinny lashes out at Lisa. However,
to walk him home. After she says goodbye to him at his front door, he Vinny realizes that one of Lisa's photos holds the key to the case: the
disappears again, never to be seen again by Scout. While standing on flat and even tire marks going over the curb reveal that Bill's car could
the Radley porch, Scout imagines life from Boo's perspective. not have been used for the getaway.

Cast (in credits order) verified as complete After requesting a records search from the local sheriff, Vinny drags an
Gregory Peck ... Atticus Finch angry Lisa into court to testify as an expert witness. During Vinny's
John Megna ... Dill Harris questioning, Lisa testifies that only a car with an independent rear
Frank Overton ... Sheriff Heck Tate suspension and positraction could have made the tire marks, which
Rosemary Murphy ... Maudie Atkinson rules out Bill's 1964 Buick Skylark. However, one model of car with
Ruth White ... Mrs. Dubose these features is the similar-looking metallic, mint green 1963 Pontiac
Brock Peters ... Tom Robinson Tempest. Vinny recalls George Wilbur, who confirms this. Vinny then
Estelle Evans ... Calpurnia recalls the local sheriff, who testifies that two men who fit Bill and Stan's
Paul Fix Paul Fix ... Judge Taylor descriptions were just arrested in Georgia for driving a stolen green
Collin Wilcox Paxton ... Mayella Violet Ewell (as Collin Pontiac Tempest, and were in possession of a gun of the same caliber
Wilcox) as that which was used to kill the clerk. Trotter moves to dismiss all
James Anderson ... Bob Ewell charges. The judge congratulates Vinny and, as they drive away, Vinny
Alice Ghostley ... Aunt Stephanie Crawford and Lisa bicker about their wedding plans.
Robert Duvall ... Boo Radley
William Windom ... Mr. Gilmer – Prosecutor Cast
Crahan Denton ... Walter Cunningham Sr. Joe Pesci as Vincent LaGuardia "Vinny" Gambini
Richard Hale ... Nathan Radley Marisa Tomei as Mona Lisa Vito
Mary Badham ... Scout Ralph Macchio as Bill Gambini
Phillip Alford ... Jem Mitchell Whitfield as Stan Rothenstein
Fred Gwynne as Judge Chamberlain Haller
MY COUSIN VINNY Lane Smith as Jim Trotter III
Driving through Alabama in their metallic, mint green 1964 Buick Bruce McGill as Sheriff Dean Farley
Skylark convertible, Bill Gambini and Stan Rothenstein, college Austin Pendleton as John Gibbons
students from New York who just got scholarships to UCLA, shop at a Chris Ellis as J.T.
Sac-O-Suds convenience store and accidentally shoplift a tin of tuna. James Rebhorn as George Wilbur
After they leave, the store clerk is robbed and killed, and Bill and Stan Maury Chaykin as Sam Tipton
are arrested for the murder. Due to circumstantial evidence and a Paulene Myers as Constance Riley
confession to the shoplifting that is misconstrued as one to the Raynor Scheine as Ernie Crane
shooting, Bill is charged with first-degree murder, and Stan as an Michael Simpson as Neckbrace
accessory. Bill's mother reminds him there is an attorney in the family: Lou Walker as Grits Cook
his cousin Vinny. Vincent LaGuardia "Vinny" Gambini travels there, Kenny Jones as Jimmy Willis
accompanied by his fiancée, Mona Lisa Vito. Although he is willing to
EXORCISM OF EMILY ROSE momentarily shocked by the suggestion, she ultimately accepts it, and
Emily Rose, a 19-year old American teenager, dies of self-inflicted Father Moore is free to go. Bruner is offered the position she wanted,
wounds and malnutrition following an attempted exorcism. Father but declines. Later, Moore and Bruner pay a visit to Emily's grave
Richard Moore, the Catholic diocesan priest who attempted the wherein the former states that the time will come wherein Emily will be
exorcism is arrested and sent to court. While the archdiocese want declared a saint.
Moore to plead guilty to minimize the crime's public attention, Moore
instead plans to plead not guilty. Erin Bruner, an ambitious lawyer Cast
hoping to use the trial to become a senior partner in her law firm, takes Laura Linney as Erin Christine Bruner
on the case. Moore agrees to let her defend him if he can tell the truth Tom Wilkinson as Father Richard Moore
behind Emily's story. Campbell Scott as Ethan Thomas
Jennifer Carpenter as Emily Rose (based on Anneliese Michel)
During the trial, Emily's past is told through flashbacks and the Colm Feore as Karl Gunderson
evidence provided by witnesses. Presiding over the trial is Judge Joshua Close as Jason
Brewster, with Ethan Thomas, a practicing Methodist, serving as Kenneth Welsh as Dr. Mueller
prosecutor. The prosecution claims Emily suffered from epilepsy and Duncan Fraser as Dr. Cartwright
psychosis to explain her behavior. Emily received a scholarship to J. R. Bourne as Ray
study for a bachelor's degree but displayed signs of demonic Mary Beth Hurt as Judge Brewster
possession after she began attending classes, experiencing visions Henry Czerny as Dr. Briggs
and physical contortions. Diagnosed with epilepsy, Emily received anti- Shohreh Aghdashloo as Dr. Sadira Adani
seizure medication but the treatment failed to cure her. A friend named
Jason took Emily back home to her family, where she continued PHILADELPHIA
displaying traits of possession until Moore was summoned to attempt Andrew "Andy" Beckett is a senior associate at the largest corporate
an exorcism. law firm in Philadelphia. He hides his homosexuality and his status as
an AIDS patient from the other members of the firm. A partner in the
Bruner begins experiencing supernatural phenomena at home, waking firm notices a lesion on Andy's forehead. Although Andy attributes the
up at 3:00 a.m. to the smell of burning material. Moore warns her she lesion to a racquetball injury, it indicates Kaposi's sarcoma, an AIDS-
may be a target for the demons, revealing he too has experienced defining condition.
similar phenomena on the night he was preparing the exorcism. With
the prosecution building a strong case, Bruner steps up her own by Shortly thereafter, Andy stays home from work for several days to try
trying to legitimize Emily's possession. She summons anthropologist to find a way to hide his lesions. While at home, he finishes the
Sadira Adani to testify about the beliefs about spiritual possession from paperwork for a case he has been assigned and then brings it to his
various cultures, but Thomas dismisses her claims as nonsense. office, leaving instructions for his assistants to file the paperwork the
Graham Cartwright, a medical doctor who attended the exorcism, gives following day, which marks the end of the statute of limitations for the
Bruner a cassette tape on which the exorcism was recorded. case. Later that morning, he receives a call asking for the paperwork,
as the paper copy cannot be found and there are no copies on the
Moore is called to the stand where he plays the tape. As seen in a computer's hard drive. The paperwork is finally discovered in an
flashback, Moore, Emily's father, Jason, and Dr. Cartwright participate alternate location and is filed with the court at the last possible moment.
in the exorcism while her mother and sisters pray in the living room. The following day, Andy is dismissed by the firm's partners.
During the Lord's Prayer, Emily attacks, causing the family cats to
become agitated and attack Moore. As Jason and Cartwright help Andy believes that someone deliberately hid his paperwork to give the
Moore, Emily escapes from her restraints, leaps out of a window, and firm an excuse to fire him, and that the dismissal is actually as a result
flees to the family barn. The others give chase, Moore continuing the of his diagnosis with AIDS as well as his sexuality. He asks several
exorcism and demanding to know the demon's name. It responds by attorneys to take his case, including African-American personal injury
revealing there are six demons – those who possessed Cain, Nero, and lawyer Joe Miller. The homophobic Joe appears to be worried that he
Judas Iscariot, a member of Legion, Belial, and Lucifer himself. The could contract Andy's illness. After declining to take the case, Joe
exorcism abruptly ends when the men render aid to Emily's father, immediately visits his doctor to find out if he could have contracted the
injured by runaway horses. Thomas reasons that Emily's behavior can disease. The doctor explains that the routes of HIV infection do not
be explained by learning ancient languages at school and her epilepsy. include casual contact.

Cartwright agrees to testify to authenticate the exorcism and refute the Unable to find a lawyer willing to represent him, Andy is compelled to
prosecution's medical care. However, he fails to appear at his allotted act as his own attorney. While researching a case at a law library, Joe
time, and Bruner goes looking for him. Seconds after finding Cartwright, sees Andy at a nearby table. A librarian approaches Andy and
the doctor is fatally struck by a car. A distraught Bruner retreats to her announces that he has found a book on AIDS discrimination for him.
office wherein her boss threatens her with termination if she allows As others in the library begin to first stare uneasily, the librarian
Moore to testify again. Bruner visits Moore in his jail cell, where he suggests Andy to go to a private room. Feeling discouraged by the
convinces her to allow him to tell the rest of Emily's story despite her other people's behavior and seeing the parallels in how he himself has
boss's threat. faced discrimination due to his race, Joe approaches Andy, reviews the
material he has gathered, and takes the case.
The next day, Moore takes the witness stand again and reads a letter
that Emily wrote before she died. A flashback reveals that on the As the case goes before the court, the partners of the firm take the
morning after the exorcism, Emily was visited by the Virgin Mary in a stand, each claiming that Andy was incompetent and that he had
field near her house. Offered a choice between ascending to Heaven deliberately tried to hide his condition. The defense repeatedly
or remaining to become a martyr but prove the existence of God and suggests that Andy brought AIDS upon himself by having gay sex, and
demons, Emily chose the latter. Moore explains she then received is therefore not a victim. In the course of testimony, it is revealed that
stigmata on her hands, but Thomas claims she gained the markings the partner who had noticed Andy's lesion, Walter Kenton, had
from grabbing a barbed wire fence surrounding the Rose family farm. previously worked with a woman who had contracted AIDS after a
blood transfusion and so should have recognized the lesion as relating
The jury ultimately reaches a verdict of guilty but surprise the court by to AIDS. According to Walter, the woman was an innocent victim, unlike
asking Judge Brewster to give a sentence of time served. Although Andy, and further testified that he did not recognize Andy's lesions. To
prove that the lesions would have been visible, Joe asks Andy to attorney. Kennedy's defense is less than competent, which terrifies
unbutton his shirt while on the witness stand, revealing that his lesions Hank.
are indeed visible and recognizable as such.
Out of dread, Hank is inclined to defend his father and he finds out that
Andy eventually collapses during the trial and is hospitalized. After this, Joseph was undergoing chemotherapy. He is dying of terminal cancer
another partner, Bob Seidman, who noticed Andy's lesions confesses and Judge Palmer's inability to remember either the accident or his
that he suspected Andy had AIDS but never told anyone and never bailiff's name is one side effect of the chemotherapy treatments.
gave him the opportunity to explain himself, which he regretted very
much. During his hospitalization, the jury votes in Andy's favor, At the trial, Judge Palmer insists on testifying, out of his own sense of
awarding him back pay, damages for pain and suffering and punitive ethical responsibility, and scuttles the defense by testifying that he
damages, totaling over $5 million. Joe visits the visibly failing Andy in cannot remember the accident, but believes that he probably did kill
the hospital after the verdict and overcomes his fear enough to touch Blackwell intentionally. Judge Palmer is convicted and sentenced to
Andy's face. After the family leaves the room, Andy tells his partner four years confinement by Judge Warren (Ken Howard). The sentence
Miguel that he is ready. At the Miller home, Joe and his wife are to be served in Indiana State Prison. Hank breaks down, reduced to
awakened by a phone call from Miguel, who tells them that Andy has tears.
died. A memorial is held at Andy's home following the funeral, where
many mourners, including Joe, view home movies of Andy as a happy Seven months later, Hank is called back from Chicago once again, to
child. Carlinville. The prosecuting attorney, Dwight Dickham, has signed off
on a petition for compassionate release, so that Judge Palmer can go
Cast home to die as he is losing his battle to cancer.
Tom Hanks as Andrew Beckett
Denzel Washington as Joe Miller Hank and Judge Palmer go fishing in a rowboat on a lake where it
Jason Robards as Charles Wheeler appears that the old animosity is gone. The judge finally dies, at peace,
Mary Steenburgen as Belinda Conine after complimenting Hank on his craft. The flag over the courthouse
Antonio Banderas as Miguel Álvarez flies at half-mast in honor of Judge Joseph Palmer.
Joanne Woodward as Sarah Beckett
Robert W. Castle as Bud Beckett Cast
Ann Dowd as Jill Beckett Robert Downey Jr. as Henry "Hank" Palmer, the Chicago lawyer
Charles Napier as Judge Lucas Garnett Robert Duvall as Judge Joseph Palmer, the judge, Hank's father
Roberta Maxwell as Judge Tate Vera Farmiga as Samantha "Sam" Powell, Hank’s ex-girlfriend
Daniel von Bargen as Jury Foreman Vincent D'Onofrio as Glen Palmer, Hank's older brother
Karen Finley as Dr. Gillman Jeremy Strong as Dale Palmer, Hank's younger brother
Robert Ridgely as Walter Kenton Billy Bob Thornton as Dwight Dickham, the Prosecutor
Bradley Whitford as Jamey Collins Sarah Lancaster as Lisa Palmer, Hank's wife
Ron Vawter as Bob Seidman David Krumholtz as Mike Kattan
Anna Deavere Smith as Anthea Burton Emma Tremblay as Lauren Palmer
Adrian Connon-McDonald as Himself Ken Howard as Judge Warren
Leighton Meester as Carla Powell, Samantha's illegitimate daughter
THE JUDGE Dax Shepard as Attorney C.P. Kennedy
Hank Palmer (Robert Downey Jr.) is an attorney in Chicago. His Denis O'Hare as Doc Morris
hometown is a small town in Indiana, named Carlinville. His mother has Frank L. Ridley as Jury Foreman
died and Hank himself is being sued for divorce by his adulterous wife. Mark Kiely as Mark Blackwell
He returns to Carlinville for his mother's funeral. Jeremy Holm as Redneck

In Carlinville, Hank reunites with his older brother Glen (Vincent WITNESS FOR THE PROSECUTION
D'Onofrio), owner of a tire shop, and his younger brother Dale (Jeremy Sir Wilfrid Robarts, a master barrister in ill health, takes on Leonard
Strong), who has autism. Hank's father, Joseph Palmer (Robert Duvall) Vole as a client, despite the objections of his private nurse, Miss
is the judge of the criminal court in town. He is losing his faculties which
Plimsoll, who says the doctor warns him against taking on any criminal
is demonstrated by the fact that he doesn't remember his own bailiff's cases. Vole is accused of murdering Mrs Emily French, a rich, older
name. widow who had become enamoured with him, going so far as to make
him the main beneficiary of her will. Strong circumstantial evidence
Hank sees his father, Judge Palmer for the first time in many years, points to Vole as the killer, but Sir Wilfrid believes Vole is innocent.
presiding in court, from the court gallery, the day before the funeral.
The morning after the funeral, Hank finds damage on his father's When Sir Wilfrid speaks with Vole's German wife Christine, he finds her
Cadillac, with the right front headlight and fender ruined. Joseph rather cold and self-possessed, but she does provide an alibi, although
remembers no accident. Hank speculates his father was drinking and by no means an entirely convincing one. Therefore, he is greatly
driving, and accuses him. Joseph reacts defensively and Hank leaves, surprised when, at the end of the trial, she is summoned as a witness
promising never to return. by the prosecuting barrister. While a wife can not be compelled to testify
against her husband, Christine was in fact still married to a German
Before the airliner can lift off, Hank learns that Joseph is a suspect man when she wed Leonard (who was in the Royal Air Force and part
regarding a fatal hit and run accident. The victim is Mark Blackwell of the occupation forces in Germany). She testifies that Leonard
(Mark Kiely), an ex-convict and had served a twenty year sentence for admitted to her that he had killed Mrs French, and that her conscience
murder and was sentenced by Joseph himself. forced her to finally tell the truth.

Blackwell's blood is confirmed by forensics on the Cadillac and Joseph During the trial in the Old Bailey, Sir Wilfrid is contacted by a mysterious
is indicted. Dwight Dickham (Billy Bob Thornton) is the prosecuting woman who, for a fee, provides him with letters written by Christine
attorney and Joseph is charged with first-degree murder. Hank and herself to a mysterious lover named Max. The affair revealed by this
Judge Palmer hire C.P. Kennedy (Dax Shepard) as their defense correspondence gives Christine such a strong motive to have lied that
the jury finds Leonard not guilty.
helicopter, Childers returns to the embassy to retrieve the American
However, Sir Wilfrid is troubled by the verdict. His instincts tell him that flag; meanwhile three Marines are killed by snipers on nearby rooftops.
it was "...too neat, too tidy, and altogether too symmetrical!" His belief Childers then orders his men to open fire on the crowd and "waste the
proves correct when Christine, left alone with him by chance in the motherfuckers", resulting in the deaths of 83 irregular Yemeni soldiers,
courtroom, informs him that he had help in winning the case. Sir Wilfrid most of whom were unarmed, and injuries to over 100 more, saving the
had told her before the trial that "...no jury would believe an alibi given lives of the remaining US Marines and Embassy staff.
by a loving wife". So, she had instead given testimony implicating her
husband, had then forged the letters to the non-existent Max, and had Back in the U.S., the U.S. National Security Advisor, Bill Sokal (Bruce
herself in disguise played the mysterious woman handing over the Greenwood), pressures the military to proceed with a court-martial to
letters which then discredited her own testimony and led to the try to deflect negative public opinion about the United States and
acquittal. She furthermore admits that she saved Leonard even though salvage American relations in the Middle East, placing all the blame for
she knew he was guilty because she loves him. the incident onto Childers.

Leonard has overheard Christine's admission and, now protected by Childers subsequently approaches Hodges and asks him to be his
double jeopardy, cheerfully confirms to Sir Wilfred that he had indeed defense attorney at the upcoming court-martial. Hodges is reluctant to
killed Mrs French. Sir Wilfrid is infuriated at being had by them both. accept, knowing that his record as a JAG officer is less than impressive
Christine also suffers a major shock when she finds Leonard has met and Childers needs a better lawyer. But Childers is adamant because
a younger woman and is now going abroad with her. In a jealous rage, he wants an attorney who has served in combat.
Christine grabs a knife earlier used as evidence (and subtly highlighted
by Sir Wilfrid's monocle light-reflection), and stabs Leonard to death. With little time to prepare a defense, Hodges visits Yemen, only to find
After she is taken away by the police, Sir Wilfrid, urged on by Miss an uncooperative government and firsthand account of the serious
Plimsoll, declares that he will take on Christine's defence. injuries the crowd members endured. Most of the evidence is stacked
against Childers, particularly the fact that no one else in his team can
Cast testify to having seen gunfire coming from the crowd, in particular
Credited cast Captain Lee (Blair Underwood), who hesitated to follow Childers' order.
Tyrone Power as Leonard Vole, the accused
Marlene Dietrich as Christine Vole/Helm, the accused's wife Sokal is determined for him to be convicted and is met by the
Charles Laughton as Sir Wilfrid Robarts Q.C., senior counsel for Vole overzealous prosecutor, Major Biggs (Guy Pearce), who believes
Elsa Lanchester as Miss Plimsoll, Sir Wilfrid's private nurse Childers to be absolutely guilty. Sokal at one point burns a videotape
John Williams as Mr. Brogan-Moore, Sir Wilfrid's junior counsel in the of security camera footage revealing that the crowd were indeed armed
trial and firing at the Marines, evidence that would potentially exonerate
Henry Daniell as Mr. Mayhew, Vole's solicitor who instructs Sir Wilfrid Childers. He also blackmails Ambassador Mourain into lying on the
on the case stand and saying both that the crowd had been peaceful and that
Ian Wolfe as H. A. Carter, Sir Wilfrid's chief clerk and office manager Childers had been violent towards him and his family during the
Torin Thatcher as Mr. Myers Q.C., the Crown prosecutor evacuation.
Norma Varden as Mrs. Emily Jane French, the elderly woman who was
murdered Colonel Hodges meets with Mourain's wife after the ambassador's
Una O'Connor as Janet McKenzie, Mrs. French's housekeeper and a testimony to hear her side of the story. Although she admits Childers
prosecution witness had been valiant, she refuses to testify and destroy her marriage.
Francis Compton as Mr. Justice Wainwright, the judge
Philip Tonge as Chief Inspector Hearne, the arresting officer During the trial, Hodges presents a shipping manifest proving that a
Ruta Lee as Diana, a young woman watching the trial, waiting for tape from an undamaged camera which had been looking directly into
Leonard to be freed the crowd—the tape Sokal had burned—had been delivered to Sokal's
office, but failed to show up at the trial, arguing that this tape would not
RULES OF ENGAGEMENT have been damning evidence against Childers if it had, in fact, shown
In 1968, a disastrous American advance in the Vietnam War has the crowd was armed.
Lieutenant Terry Childers (Samuel L. Jackson) executing an unarmed
prisoner in order to intimidate a captive North Vietnamese army officer Captain Lee is grilled on the witness stand by Major Biggs and despite
into calling off an ambush of U.S. Marines. His act thereby saves the trying to give favorable testimony, leaves doubt of Childers' innocence.
life of the wounded Lieutenant Hayes Hodges (Tommy Lee Jones),
though many of Hodges' men die in the battle. Childers himself eventually takes the stand and engages in a fierce
verbal battle with Biggs. Biggs produces a tape which contains the
In 1996, now a colonel, Hodges is about to retire from the Marine Corps recording of Childers' poor choice of words when giving his order. While
and is reminiscing about his years in uniform. As a result of wounds he defending his actions, Childers loses his temper while stating that he
sustained during Operation Kingfisher, he was no longer able to would not sacrifice the lives of his men to appease the likes of Biggs.
continue serving as an infantry officer, so the Marine Corps sent him to Hodges is left at a loss for words, knowing that this could easily doom
law school and he continued his career as a JAG officer. He Childers because they do not have any credible evidence to defend
subsequently enters the Camp Lejeune Officers Club, where numerous Childers's claims that the crowd was armed and his poor choice of
Marine officers wait to honor his service at a pre-retirement party. words can be interpreted by the jury as being prejudiced towards
Hosting the event is his old friend, Colonel Terry Childers, who is now Yemenis or having a gung-ho/cowboy attitude.
the commanding officer of a Marine Expeditionary Unit (MEU).
Already at an advantage, the prosecution presents the Vietnamese
Subsequently deployed to Southwest Asia as part of an Amphibious colonel who witnessed Childers execute a POW in Vietnam, Colonel
Readiness Group, Childers and his embarked MEU are called to Cao, as a rebuttal witness, trying to drive home the idea that Childers
evacuate the U.S. Ambassador to Yemen from the embassy grounds is malicious. Hodges cross-examines him and gets him to testify that
as a routine demonstration against American influence on the Arabian had the circumstances been reversed, Cao would have done the same
peninsula and in the Persian Gulf turns into rock-throwing and sporadic thing. After the trial, Hodges visits Sokal and asks him what happened
automatic-rifle fire by snipers from nearby rooftops. After escorting to the tape; Sokal denies its existence.
Ambassador Mourain (Ben Kingsley) and his family to a waiting
Childers is found guilty of the minor charge of breach of the peace (for from her desk. She is then informed by Brenda, Mr. Masry's secretary,
having disobeyed his order to just show his Marines), but not guilty of that she has been fired for missing a week of work.
the more serious charges of conduct unbecoming an officer and
murder. A final title card reveals that no further charges were brought Later, Ed visits Erin because he needs the documents she found while
against Childers and that he retired honorably from the Marine Corps. investigating, and she takes the chance to request her job back in
The title card also explains that both Sokal and Mourain lost their jobs return. Rehired, she continues her research, and over time, visits many
after being convicted of destruction of evidence and perjury, Hinkley residents and wins their trust. She finds many cases of tumors
respectively. and other medical problems in Hinkley. Everyone has been treated by
PG&E's doctors and thinks the cluster of cases is just a coincidence,
Cast unrelated to the "safe" chromium. The Jensens' claim for compensation
Tommy Lee Jones as Col Hayes Lawrence "Hodge" Hodges II, USMC grows into a major class action lawsuit. Unfortunately, all direct
Samuel L. Jackson as Col Terry L. Childers, USMC evidence is linked solely to PG&E Hinkley and not to PG&E corporate
Guy Pearce as Maj Mark Biggs, USMC in San Francisco.
Ben Kingsley as Ambassador Mourain
Bruce Greenwood as U.S. National Security Advisor Bill Sokal Knowing that PG&E could slow any settlement for years through delays
Anne Archer as Mrs. Mourain and appeals, Ed decides to arrange for disposition by binding
Blair Underwood as Capt Lee, USMC arbitration, but a large majority of the plaintiffs must agree to this. Erin
Philip Baker Hall as Gen Hayes Lawrence Hodges, USMC (Ret) returns to Hinkley and persuades all 634 plaintiffs to go along. While
she is there, a man named Charles Embry approaches her to say that
REVESAL OF FORTUNE he and his cousin were PG&E employees, but his cousin recently died
The story is narrated by Sunny von Bülow, who is in a coma after falling from the poison. The man says he was tasked with destroying
into diabetic shock after a Christmas party. Her husband, the dissolute documents at PG&E, but, "as it turns out, [he] wasn't a very good
European aristocrat Claus von Bülow, is charged with attempting to employee".
murder the hypoglycemic Sunny by giving her an overdose of insulin.
Claus' strained relationship with his wife and his cold and haughty Embry gives Erin the documents, which include a 1966 memo proving
personal demeanor led most people to conclude that he is guilty. In corporate headquarters knew the water was contaminated with
need of an innovative defense, Claus turns to law professor Alan hexavalent chromium, did nothing about it, and advised the Hinkley
Dershowitz. Dershowitz is initially convinced of Claus' guilt, but takes operation to keep this secret. The judge orders PG&E to pay a
the case because von Bülow agrees to fund Dershowitz' defense of two settlement amount of $333 million to be distributed among the plaintiffs,
poor black teenagers accused of capital murder. Employing his law five million of which goes to the Jensens.
students as workers, Dershowitz proceeds to defend Claus, wrestling
with his client's unnerving personal style and questions of von Bülow's In the aftermath, Ed hands Erin her bonus payment for the case but
guilt or innocence. warns her he has changed the amount. She states that she deserves
more respect, but is astonished to find that he has increased it—to $2
Cast million.
Glenn Close as Sunny von Bülow
Jeremy Irons as Claus von Bülow Cast
Ron Silver as Alan Dershowitz Julia Roberts as Erin Brockovich
Uta Hagen as Maria Albert Finney as Edward L. Masry
Annabella Sciorra as Sarah Aaron Eckhart as George
Fisher Stevens as David Marriott Marg Helgenberger as Donna Jensen
Jack Gilpin as Peter MacIntosh Tracey Walter as Charles Embry
Christine Baranski as Andrea Reynolds Peter Coyote as Kurt Potter
Stephen Mailer as Elon Dershowitz Cherry Jones as Pamela Duncan
Felicity Huffman as Minnie Scarlett Pomers as Shanna Jensen
Conchata Ferrell as Brenda
ERIN BROCKOVICH Erin Brockovich as Waitress Julia
In 1993, Erin Brockovich is an unemployed single mother of three
children who has recently been injured in a traffic accident with a doctor SEPARATE BUT EQUAL
and is suing him. Her lawyer, Ed Masry, expects to win, but Erin's The issue before the United States Supreme Court is whether the equal
confrontational courtroom behavior under cross-examination loses her protection clause of the 14th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution
the case, and Ed will not return her phone calls afterwards. One day, mandates the individual states to desegregate public schools; that is,
he arrives at work to find her in the office, apparently working. She says whether the nation's "separate but equal" policy heretofore upheld
that he told her things would work out and they did not, and that she under the law, is unconstitutional. The issue is placed before the Court
needed a job. She asks Ed for a job, which he reluctantly gives her. by Brown v. Board of Education and its companion case, Briggs v.
Elliott. Many of the justices personally believe segregation is morally
Erin is given files for a real estate case where the Pacific Gas and unacceptable, but have difficulty justifying the idea legally under the
Electric Company (PG&E) is offering to purchase the home of Donna 14th Amendment. Marshall and Davis argue their respective cases.
Jensen, a resident of Hinkley, California. Erin is surprised to see Marshall argues the equal protection clause extends far enough to the
medical records in the file and visits Donna, who explains that she had states to prohibit segregated schools. Davis counters that control of
simply kept all her PG&E correspondence together. Donna appreciates public schools is a "states' rights" issue that Congress never intended
PG&E's help: she has had several tumors and her husband has to be covered by the 14th Amendment when it was passed.
Hodgkin's lymphoma, but PG&E has always supplied a doctor at their
own expense. Erin asks why they would do that, and Donna replies, Taking the case under advisement, the stalemated justices agree to
"because of the chromium". Erin begins digging into the case and finds allow Marshall and Davis an opportunity to re-argue their respective
evidence that the groundwater in Hinkley is seriously contaminated with cases as to whether the equal protection clause specifically extends to
carcinogenic hexavalent chromium, but PG&E has been telling Hinkley the desegregation of schools. In the interim, Chief Justice Fred M.
residents that they use a safer form of chromium. After several days Vinson dies and is replaced by a non-jurist, Governor Earl Warren of
away from the office investigating, she finds her possessions missing California.
a more sympathetic judge, Tyrone Kipler, takes over when Hale
Meanwhile, Marshall and his staff are fruitless in finding any research suffers a fatal heart attack. Kipler, a former civil rights attorney,
showing the Civil-War era crafters of the 14th Amendment in 1866 immediately denies the insurance company's petition for dismissal.
intended for schools to be desegregated. On the other hand, Davis and While seeking new clients, Rudy meets Kelly Riker, a battered wife
his Ivy League-educated staff find several examples of segregated whose husband Cliff's beatings have put her in the hospital. Rudy
schools having existed ever since the passage of the equal protection persuades Kelly to file for divorce, which leads to a confrontation with
clause. Finally, the NAACP staffers discover a quote by Thaddeus Cliff that results in the abusive husband's death. To keep Rudy from
Stevens delivered on the floor of the Senate during the debate over the being implicated, Kelly tells the police she killed her husband in self-
Amendment, which directly states segregation is constitutionally and defense. The district attorney declines to prosecute.
morally wrong. They place it at the front of their brief. Marshall's Donny Ray dies, but not before giving a video deposition at his home.
argument is compelling. The case goes to trial, where Drummond gets the vital testimony of
Rudy's key witness, Jackie Lemanczyk, stricken from the record.
As the case is taken under advisement a second time, new Chief Nevertheless, thanks to Rudy's determination and skillful cross-
Justice Warren is taken on a tour of Gettysburg by his black chauffeur. examination of Great Benefit's president, Wilfred Keeley, the jury finds
He also realizes that his chauffeur must sleep in the car because there for the plaintiff.
are no lodging places available for him because of his race. Warren It is a great triumph for Rudy and Deck, until the insurance company
discovers a majority of the Court agrees to strike down the "separate declares bankruptcy, allowing it to avoid paying punitive damages.
but equal" laws; however, it is important to him that the Court be There is no payout for the grieving parents and no fee for Rudy.
unanimous. He writes an opinion and takes copies to all of the Deciding that this success will create unrealistic expectations for
dissenting justices trying to convince each one of the significance of future clients, Rudy decides to abandon his new practice and teach
unanimity. They finally all agree. Warren reads his opinion which states law. He and Kelly leave town together.
that segregation "has no place" in American society. Even opposing Cast[edit]
counsel, John W. Davis, privately agrees it is time for society to change.  Matt Damon as Rudy Baylor
 Claire Danes as Kelly Riker
The film closing acknowledges Thurgood Marshall's own ascent to the  Jon Voight as Leo F. Drummond
Supreme Court in 1967 and explains that the plaintiff in the companion  Mary Kay Place as Dot Black
case, a black student named Briggs, never attended an integrated  Mickey Rourke as J. Lyman "Bruiser" Stone
school.  Danny DeVito as Deck Shifflet
 Dean Stockwell as Judge Harvey Hale
Cast  Virginia Madsen as Jackie Lemanczyk
Sidney Poitier as Thurgood Marshall
Burt Lancaster as attorney John W. Davis Rudy Baylor is a graduate of the University of Memphis Law School.
Richard Kiley as Chief Justice Earl Warren Unlike most of his fellow grads, he has no high-paying job lined up and
Cleavon Little as NAACP attorney Robert L. 'Bob' Carter is forced to apply for part-time positions while serving drinks at a
Gloria Foster as Buster Marshall Memphis bar.
John McMartin as Governor James F. Byrnes
Graham Beckel as Josiah C. Tulley Desperate for a job, he is introduced to J. Lyman "Bruiser" Stone, a
Jeffrey Wright as William Coleman ruthless but successful ambulance-chasing lawyer, who makes him an
Ed Hall as Rev. J.A. Delaine associate. To earn his fee, Rudy is required to hunt for potential clients
Lynne Thigpen as Ruth Alice Stovall at a local hospital. He meets Deck Shifflet, a less-than-ethical former
Macon McCalman as W.B. Springer insurance assessor-turned-paralegal who has failed the bar exam six
Randle Mell as Charles L. Black Jr. times. However, Deck is resourceful in gathering information and an
Cheryl Lynn Bruce as Gladys Hampton expert on insurance lawsuits.

RAINMAKER Rudy has a case of insurance bad faith which could be worth several
Rudy Baylor is a graduate of the University of Memphis Law School. million dollars in damages. When Stone is raided by the FBI, Rudy and
Unlike most of his fellow grads, he has no high-paying job lined up Deck set up a practice themselves. They file suit on behalf of a middle-
and is forced to apply for part-time positions while serving drinks at a aged couple, Dot and Buddy Black, whose 22-year-old son, Donny
Memphis bar. Ray, is dying of leukemia, but could have been saved with a bone
Desperate for a job, he is introduced to J. Lyman "Bruiser" Stone, a marrow transplant, denied by their insurance carrier Great Benefit.
ruthless but successful ambulance-chasing lawyer, who makes him
an associate. To earn his fee, Rudy is required to hunt for potential Rudy passes the Tennessee bar exam but has never argued a case
clients at a local hospital. He meets Deck Shifflet, a less-than-ethical before a judge and jury. Now he finds himself up against a group of
former insurance assessor-turned-paralegal who has failed the bar experienced lawyers from a large firm, headed by Leo F. Drummond,
exam six times. However, Deck is resourceful in gathering information an attorney who uses unscrupulous tactics to win his cases.
and an expert on insurance lawsuits.
Rudy has a case of insurance bad faith which could be worth several The original judge, Harvey Hale, is set to dismiss because he sees it
million dollars in damages. When Stone is raided by the FBI, Rudy as a so-called "lottery" case that slows down the judicial process. But
and Deck set up a practice themselves. They file suit on behalf of a a more sympathetic judge, Tyrone Kipler, takes over when Hale suffers
middle-aged couple, Dot and Buddy Black, whose 22-year-old son, a fatal heart attack. Kipler, a former civil rights attorney, immediately
Donny Ray, is dying of leukemia, but could have been saved with a denies the insurance company's petition for dismissal.
bone marrow transplant, denied by their insurance carrier Great
Benefit. While seeking new clients, Rudy meets Kelly Riker, a battered wife
Rudy passes the Tennessee bar exam but has never argued a case whose husband Cliff's beatings have put her in the hospital. Rudy
before a judge and jury. Now he finds himself up against a group of persuades Kelly to file for divorce, which leads to a confrontation with
experienced lawyers from a large firm, headed by Leo F. Drummond, Cliff that results in the abusive husband's death. To keep Rudy from
an attorney who uses unscrupulous tactics to win his cases. being implicated, Kelly tells the police she killed her husband in self-
The original judge, Harvey Hale, is set to dismiss because he sees it defense. The district attorney declines to prosecute.
as a so-called "lottery" case that slows down the judicial process. But
Donny Ray dies, but not before giving a video deposition at his home.Cast
The case goes to trial, where Drummond gets the vital testimony of Susan Sarandon as Regina "Reggie" Love
Rudy's key witness, Jackie Lemanczyk, stricken from the record. Tommy Lee Jones as "Reverend" Roy Foltrigg
Nevertheless, thanks to Rudy's determination and skillful cross- Brad Renfro as Mark Sway
examination of Great Benefit's president, Wilfred Keeley, the jury finds
Mary-Louise Parker as Dianne Sway
for the plaintiff. David Speck as Ricky Sway
Anthony LaPaglia as Barry "The Blade" Muldano
It is a great triumph for Rudy and Deck, until the insurance company J. T. Walsh as Jason McThune
declares bankruptcy, allowing it to avoid paying punitive damages. Anthony Heald as Larry Trumann
There is no payout for the grieving parents and no fee for Rudy. Bradley Whitford as Thomas Fink

Deciding that this success will create unrealistic expectations for future A TIME TO KILL
clients, Rudy decides to abandon his new practice and teach law. He In the town of Canton, Mississippi, ten-year-old African American
and Kelly leave town together. Tonya Hailey (Rae'Ven Larrymore Kelly) is abducted, raped, and
beaten by two local men, Billy Ray Cobb (Nicky Katt) and Pete Willard
Cast (Doug Hutchison). The duo dump her in a nearby river after a failed
Matt Damon as Rudy Baylor attempt to hang her. Tonya survives, and the two men are arrested by
Claire Danes as Kelly Riker Sheriff Ozzie Walls (Charles S. Dutton).
Jon Voight as Leo F. Drummond
Mary Kay Place as Dot Black Tonya's father, Carl Lee Hailey (Samuel L. Jackson), contacts Jake
Mickey Rourke as J. Lyman "Bruiser" Stone Brigance (Matthew McConaughey), a white lawyer who previously
Danny DeVito as Deck Shifflet defended his brother. Brigance admits the possibility that the rapists
Dean Stockwell as Judge Harvey Hale will walk free. Carl Lee goes to the county courthouse and opens fire
Virginia Madsen as Jackie Lemanczyk with an automatic rifle, killing both rapists and unintentionally injuring
Deputy Dwayne Looney (Chris Cooper) with a ricochet, whose leg is
THE CLIENT later amputated. Carl Lee is arrested and Brigance agrees to defend
Eleven-year-old Mark Sway and his little brother, Ricky, are smoking him.
cigarettes in the woods near their home when they encounter mob
lawyer W. Jerome Clifford. Clifford tells Mark that he is about to kill The rape and subsequent revenge killing gain national media attention.
himself to avoid being murdered by Barry "The Blade" Muldano, the The district attorney, Rufus Buckley (Kevin Spacey), decides to seek
nephew of notorious mob kingpin Johnny Sulari. Ricky becomes the death penalty, and presiding Judge Omar Noose (Patrick
catatonic after witnessing the suicide and is hospitalized at Saint Peter McGoohan) denies Brigance a change of venue to a more ethnically-
Charity Hospital. Authorities – and the Mob – realize that Clifford may diverse county, meaning that Carl Lee will have an all-white jury.
have told Mark where a Louisiana senator who was murdered by Brigance seeks help from his defense team: law student Ellen Roark
Muldano is buried. (Sandra Bullock), close friend Harry Rex Vonner (Oliver Platt), and
former mentor and longtime activist Lucien Wilbanks (Donald
Mark meets Regina "Reggie" Love, a lawyer and recovering alcoholic, Sutherland), a once-great civil rights lawyer. Meanwhile, Billy Ray's
who agrees to represent him. They quickly run afoul of "Reverend" Roy brother, Freddie Lee Cobb (Kiefer Sutherland), plans to avenge his
Foltrigg, a celebrated and vain US Attorney who is using the case as a brother's death by joining and enlisting the help of the Mississippi
springboard for his political ambitions. In the meantime, it is revealed branch of the Ku Klux Klan and its Grand Dragon, Stump Sisson
that Sulari never authorized Muldano to kill the senator and wants (Kurtwood Smith).
Muldano to uncover how much the boys know. Muldano is also ordered
to move the body, but currently he is unable to because it is buried in On the first day of the trial, the Klan rallies, only to be outnumbered by
Clifford's boathouse, and police are still on the property investigating counter-protesters consisting of the area's black and multiracial
his suicide. residents, as well as whites who support Carl Lee. The protest erupts
into a violent riot that results in dozens of injuries and the death of
Foltrigg continues to use legal means to get Mark to reveal where the Stump Sisson. The Klan also begins to target Brigance, assaulting his
body is hidden, while Sulari orders Muldano to kill the children and elderly secretary and her husband, who ends up dying of a fatal heart
Reggie. He also orders the body to be moved once the investigation at attack brought on by the assault. They also burn a cross on his lawn
Clifford's home is concluded. Mark is threatened in a hospital elevator and threaten his wife and daughter. When Brigance refuses to back
by Mafia member Paul Gronke, and is unable to talk to Foltrigg. down, Cobb kidnaps and assaults Roark. The Klan then increases their
attacks, including burning Brigance's house.
Mark and Reggie go to New Orleans to confirm that the body is on
Clifford's property. Reggie intends to use this information to broker a Dispirited, Brigance tells Carl Lee that there is little hope for an
deal with Foltrigg to get Ricky specialized medical care and place the acquittal. Carl Lee replies that he had chosen him as an attorney
family in the witness protection program. Reggie and Mark arrive at because even a racist jury would listen to a white man; as "one of the
Clifford's house the same night as Muldano and his accomplices. They bad guys," he has an influence that a black man will never have. During
are digging up the body, but a melee follows when Mark and Reggie closing arguments, a deeply-shaken Brigance tells the jury to close
are discovered. Muldano and the others flee after Reggie trips the their eyes and listen to a story. He describes, in slow and painful detail,
neighbors' alarm. the entire ordeal of Tonya. Brigance then asks the jury, in his final
comment, to "now imagine she's white."
Foltrigg agrees to Reggie's demands in exchange for information about
the body's location. Before the Sway family leaves to restart their lives After deliberation, a black child runs out of the courthouse and
under new identities, Mark and Reggie share a heartfelt goodbye. screams, "He's innocent!" Jubilation ensues amongst the supporters
While Muldano gets angry at his fellow mob members for messing up, outside. The Klan members, enraged, begin yelling in anger.
Sulari becomes fed up with Muldano and plans to deal with him. With Meanwhile, Sheriff Walls arrests Freddie Lee for his crimes, as well as
the body recovered, Foltrigg is a lock-in for the media headlines he a corrupt deputy who is also a member of the Klan and is standing next
craves, and mentions that he intends to run for governor. to the sheriff.
Brigance brings his wife and daughter to a family cookout at Carl Lee's
house to celebrate his freedom. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help
improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced
Cast material may be challenged and removed.
Samuel L. Jackson as Carl Lee Hailey Find sources: "A Civil Action" film – news · newspapers · books ·
Matthew McConaughey as Jake Brigance scholar · JSTOR (August 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this
Kevin Spacey as Rufus Buckley template message)
Sandra Bullock as Ellen Roark The plotline has been greatly simplified from the book, e.g. later
Brenda Fricker as Ethel Twitty findings by the Environmental Protection Agency and its potential
Oliver Platt as Harry Rex Vonner consequences that might have allowed the plaintiffs another trial
Charles S. Dutton as Ozzie Walls against Beatrice, and which did ultimately lead to a conviction of perjury
Ashley Judd as Carla Brigance against John Riley, and improper conduct for Mary Ryan, are referred
Patrick McGoohan as Judge Omar Noose to only briefly in the epilogue.
Kiefer Sutherland as Freddie Lee Cobb
Donald Sutherland as Lucien Wilbanks The characters Charles Nesson, Mark Phillips, Rikki Klieman, Teresa
Padro and others have been removed from the film version, as well as
A CIVIL ACTION the plot points that they contribute.
Environmental toxins in the city of Woburn, Massachusetts
contaminate the area's water supply, and become linked to a number Cast
of deaths of neighboring children. Jan Schlichtmann (John Travolta), a John Travolta as Jan Schlichtmann
cocky and successful Boston attorney who zips around town in his Tony Shalhoub as Kevin Conway
Porsche, and his small firm of personal injury lawyers are asked by William H. Macy as James Gordon
Woburn resident Anne Anderson (Kathleen Quinlan) to take legal Željko Ivanek as Bill Crowley
action against those responsible. Kathleen Quinlan as Anne Anderson
Mary Mara as Kathy Boyer
After originally rejecting a seemingly unprofitable case, Jan finds a Robert Duvall as Jerry Facher
major environmental issue involving groundwater contamination that Bruce Norris as William Cheeseman
has great legal potential and a couple of defendants with deep pockets.
The local tanneries could be responsible for several deadly cases of PRIMAL FEAR
leukemia, but also are the main employers for the area. Jan decides to Martin Vail (Richard Gere) is a Chicago defense attorney who loves the
go forward against two giant corporations (real-life companies Beatrice spotlight and does everything he can to get his high-profile clients
Foods and W. R. Grace and Company) with links to the tanneries, acquitted on legal technicalities. One day, he sees a news report about
thinking that the case could possibly earn him millions, as well as the arrest of Aaron Stampler (Edward Norton), a 19-year-old altar boy
enhancing him and his firm's already considerable reputation. from Kentucky with a severe stutter, who is accused of brutally
murdering the beloved Archbishop Rushman (Stanley Anderson). Vail
Bringing a class action lawsuit in federal court, Jan represents families jumps at the chance to represent the young man, pro bono. During his
who demand a clean-up of contaminated areas and an apology. meetings at the County jail with Stampler, Vail comes to believe that
However, the case develops a life of its own and takes over the lives of his client is innocent, much to the chagrin of the prosecutor (and Vail's
Jan and his firm. The lawyers for the tanneries' parent corporations are former lover), Janet Venable (Laura Linney).
not easy to intimidate, a judge (John Lithgow) makes a key ruling
against the plaintiffs, and soon Jan and his partners find themselves in As the trial begins, Vail discovers that powerful civic leaders, including
a position where their professional and financial survival has been the corrupt state's attorney John Shaughnessy (John Mahoney),
staked on the outcome of the case. recently lost millions of dollars in real estate investments due to a
decision by the Archbishop not to develop on certain church-owned
Jan stubbornly declines settlement offers, gradually coming to believe lands. The Archbishop secretly received numerous death threats as a
that the case is about more than just the money. He allows his pride to result. Following a tip from a former altar boy about a videotape
take over, making outrageous demands and deciding that he must win involving Stampler, Vail makes a search of the Archbishop's apartment
at all costs. Pressures take their toll, with Jan and his partners going and finds a VHS tape shot by Rushman that shows Stampler being
deeply into debt. After a lengthy trial, the case is dismissed in favor of forced to have sex with another teenage altar boy and a teenage girl
Beatrice, Jan having turned down an offer of $20 million from Beatrice named Linda Forbes. Vail is now in a dilemma: introducing this
attorney Jerry Facher (Robert Duvall) while the jury was deliberating. evidence would make Stampler more sympathetic to the jury; but it
The plaintiffs are forced to accept a settlement with Grace that barely would also give him a motive for the murder, which Venable is unable
covers the expense involved in trying the case, leaving Jan and his to establish.
partners broke. The families are deeply disappointed, and Jan's
partners dissolve their partnership, effectively breaking up the firm. Jan When Vail confronts his client and accuses him of having lied, Stampler
ends up alone, living in a small apartment and running a small-time law breaks down crying and suddenly transforms into a new persona: a
practice. He manages to find the last key witness to the case, but lacks violent, foul-mouthed sociopath who calls himself “Roy”. "Roy"
resources and courage to appeal the judgement. The files are archived confesses to the murder of the Archbishop and assaults and slightly
while Jan later files for bankruptcy. wounds Vail. When this incident is over, Stampler once again becomes
passive and shy, and appears to have no recollection of the personality
In a postscript, a montage of short scenes involving the key characters switch - what he calls having "lost time." Molly Arrington (Frances
in the film, combined with on-screen captions, reveals that the McDormand), the psychiatrist examining Stampler and who witnessed
Environmental Protection Agency, building on Jan's work on the case, the entire event, is convinced that he has dissociative identity disorder
later brought its own enforcement action against the offending caused by years of abuse at the hands of his father which resurfaced
companies, forcing them to pay millions to clean up the land and the following the sexual abuse that Stampler received by Rushman. Vail
groundwater. It takes Jan several years to settle his debts, and he now does not want to hear this, because he knows that he cannot enter an
practices environmental law in Toms River, New Jersey. insanity plea during an ongoing trial.

Differences from the book


Vail slowly sets up a confrontation in court by dropping hints about the plea bargain with the prosecutor, Dawson and Downey refuse to go
Archbishop's abusive tendencies, as well as Stampler's multiple along, insisting that Kendrick had indeed given them the "code red"
personalities. He also has the sex tape delivered to Venable, knowing order and that they never intended Santiago to die. When Kaffee and
she will realize who sent it—since she is under intense pressure from Galloway question Jessup, he claims Santiago was set to be
both Shaughnessy and her boss Bud Yancy (Terry O'Quinn) to deliver transferred.
a guilty verdict at any cost—and will use it as proof of motive.
Galloway convinces Kaffee to take the case to court. The defense
At the climax, Vail puts Stampler on the witness stand and gently manages to establish the existence of "code red" orders at
questions him about the sexual abuse he suffered at the pedophile Guantanamo, and that Dawson specifically had learned not to disobey
Archbishop's hands. After Venable questions him harshly during cross- any order after Kendrick denied him a promotion for helping out a
examination, Stampler turns into "Roy" in open court and attacks her, Marine that was apparently given a "code red". However, they suffer
threatening to snap her neck if anyone comes near him. He is subdued two major setbacks: Downey, under cross-examination, reveals he was
by courthouse marshals and rushed back to his holding cell. The judge not actually present when Dawson received the supposed "code red"
dismisses the jury in favor of a bench trial and then finds Stampler not order, and Markinson, ashamed that he failed to protect a Marine under
guilty by reason of insanity, remanding him to a maximum security his command, tells Kaffee that Jessup never ordered the transfer, but
mental hospital. Venable is fired for losing the case and for allowing the commits suicide rather than testifying.
Archbishop's crimes (which Shaughnessey, the mayor, the Catholic
Church and the entire city council had been trying to hide for the past Without Markinson's testimony, Kaffee believes the case lost,
ten years) to come to public light. lamenting that he fought the case instead of taking a deal. Galloway
encourages Kaffee to call Jessup as a witness, despite the risk of being
Vail visits Stampler in his cell to tell him of the dismissal. Stampler court-martialed for smearing a high-ranking officer. Jessup spars
claims to have no recollection of what happened in the courtroom, evenly with Kaffee's questioning, but is unnerved when Kaffee points
having again "lost time". However, as Vail is leaving, Stampler asks him out a contradiction in his testimony: Jessup stated his Marines never
to "tell Miss Venable I hope her neck is okay", which he could not have disobey orders and that Santiago was to be transferred for his own
been able to remember if he had "lost time". When Vail confronts him, safety, but, having ordered his men to leave Santiago alone, then
Stampler reveals that he had faked multiple personality disorder. No Santiago was in no danger. Irate at being caught in a lie and disgusted
longer stuttering, he brags about having murdered Archbishop by what he sees as Kaffee's impudence towards the Marines, Jessup
Rushman, as well as Linda Forbes. When Vail asks if there ever was a extols the military's importance, and his own, to national security. When
"Roy", Stampler replies that "there never was an Aaron". Stunned and asked point-blank if he ordered the "code red", Jessup bellows with
disillusioned at how he was so easily manipulated by his own client, contempt that he did and is arrested.
Vail walks away and leaves the courthouse as the manipulative and
murderous Stampler taunts him from his cell. Dawson and Downey are cleared of the murder charge, but found guilty
of "conduct unbecoming" and ordered to be dishonorably discharged.
Cast Dawson accepts the verdict, but Downey does not understand what
Richard Gere as Martin Vail they did wrong. Dawson explains that they had failed to defend those
Laura Linney as Janet Venable too weak to fight for themselves, like Santiago. As the two are leaving,
John Mahoney as John Shaughnessy Kaffee tells Dawson that he does not need to wear a patch on his arm
Alfre Woodard as Judge Shoat to have honor. Dawson sheds his previous contempt for Kaffee,
Frances McDormand as Dr. Molly Arrington acknowledges him as an officer, and renders a salute. The film ends
Edward Norton as Roy/Aaron Stampler with Kaffee and Ross exchanging kudos before Ross departs to arrest
Reg Rogers as Jack Connerman Kendrick.
Terry O'Quinn as Bud Yancy
Cast
A FEW GOOD MEN Tom Cruise as Lieutenant (junior grade) Daniel Alastair Kaffee, USN,
U.S. Marines Lance Corporal Harold Dawson and Private First Class JAG Corps
Louden Downey are facing a general court-martial, accused of Jack Nicholson as Colonel Nathan R. Jessup, USMC
murdering fellow Marine Private First Class William Santiago at the Demi Moore as Lieutenant Commander JoAnne Galloway, USN, JAG
Guantanamo Bay Naval Base in Cuba. Santiago had poor relations Corps
with his fellow Marines, compared unfavorably to them, and broke the Kevin Bacon as Captain Jack Ross, USMC, Judge Advocate Division
chain of command in an attempt to get transferred out of Guantanamo. Kiefer Sutherland as Lieutenant Jonathan James Kendrick, USMC
Base Commander Colonel Nathan Jessup (Jack Nicholson) and his Kevin Pollak as Lieutenant (junior grade) Sam Weinberg, USN, JAG
officers argue about the best course of action: while Jessup's executive Corps
officer, Lieutenant Colonel Matthew Markinson (J.T. Walsh), advocates Wolfgang Bodison as Lance Corporal Harold Dawson, USMC
that Santiago be transferred, Jessup dismisses the option and instead James Marshall as Private First Class Louden Downey, USMC
orders Santiago's commanding officer, Lieutenant Jonathan James J. T. Walsh as Lieutenant Colonel Matthew Andrew Markinson, USMC
Kendrick (Kiefer Sutherland), to 'train' Santiago to become a better J. A. Preston as Judge (Colonel) Julius Alexander Randolph, USMC
Marine.
AMISTAD
While it is believed that Santiago's death was retribution for him naming La Amistad is the name of a slave ship traveling from Cuba to the
Dawson in a fenceline shooting, Naval investigator and lawyer United States in 1839. It is carrying African slaves as its cargo. As the
Lieutenant Commander JoAnne Galloway (Demi Moore) largely ship is crossing from Cuba to the United States, Cinqué, a leader of the
suspects Dawson and Downey carried out a "code red" order: a violent Africans, leads a mutiny and takes over the ship. The mutineers spare
extrajudicial punishment. Galloway wants to defend them, but the case the lives of two Spanish navigators to help them sail the ship back to
is given to Lieutenant (Junior Grade) Daniel Kaffee (Tom Cruise), an Africa. Instead, the navigators misdirect the Africans and sail north to
inexperienced and unenthusiastic lawyer with a penchant for plea the east coast of the United States, where the ship is stopped by the
bargains. Initially, friction exists between Galloway, who resents American Navy, and the living Africans imprisoned as runaway slaves.
Kaffee's apparent laziness, and Kaffee, who resents Galloway's
interference. Dawson shows outright contempt for Kaffee, refusing to In an unfamiliar country and not speaking a single word of English, the
salute or acknowledge him as an officer. When Kaffee negotiates a Africans find themselves in a legal battle. United States Attorney
William S. Holabird brings charges of piracy and murder. Secretary of Razaaq Adoti as Yamba
State John Forsyth, on behalf of President Martin Van Buren (who is Abu Bakaar Fofanah as Fala
campaigning for re-election), represents the claim of Queen Isabella II Anna Paquin as Queen Isabella II of Spain
of Spain that the Africans are slaves and are property of Spain based Tomas Milian as Ángel Calderón de la Barca y Belgrano
on a treaty. Two Naval officers, Thomas R. Gedney, and Richard W. Chiwetel Ejiofor as Ens. James Covey
Meade, claim them as salvage while the two Spanish navigators, Pedro Derrick Ashong as Buakei
Montez and Jose Ruiz, produce proof of purchase. A lawyer named
Roger Sherman Baldwin, hired by the abolitionist Lewis Tappan and THE ACCUSED
his black associate Theodore Joadson, decides to defend the Africans. On April 18, 1987 at a local bar called "The Mill," 24-year-old working-
class woman Sarah Tobias (Jodie Foster) is brutally gang raped by
Baldwin argues that the Africans had been captured in Africa to be sold three drunk bar patrons, while onlookers cheer them on. Assistant
in the Americas illegally. Baldwin proves through documents found district attorney Kathryn Murphy (Kelly McGillis) is assigned to the rape
hidden aboard La Amistad that the African people were initially cargo case. Her superior instructs Murphy to offer a plea bargain with the rape
belonging to a Portuguese slave ship, the Tecora. Therefore, the defendants that requires some jail time. They make a plea bargain to
Africans were free citizens of another country and not slaves at all. In charges of reckless endangerment, and are sentenced to prison. Sarah
light of this evidence, the staff of President Van Buren has the judge is enraged by the deal, as there is no acknowledgment on the record
presiding over the case replaced by Judge Coglin, who is younger and that the men raped her.
believed to be impressionable and easily influenced. Consequently,
seeking to make the case more personal, on the advice of former Sarah rams a pickup truck after recognizing its driver as one of the
American president (and lawyer) John Quincy Adams, Baldwin and patrons from the bar who had been cheering during the rape, and being
Joadson find James Covey, a former slave who speaks both Mende outraged by his crude proposition of her. Her injuries require
and English. Cinque tells his story at trial: Cinque was kidnapped by hospitalization, during which Murphy visits her. Sarah emotionally tells
slave traders outside his village, and held in the slave fortress of her that she feels betrayed due to not being able to tell her side of the
Lomboko, where thousands of captives were held under heavy guard. story and feeling Murphy didn't represent her interests. After this,
Cinque and many others were then sold to the Tecora, where they were Murphy decides to prosecute the men who cheered the rape for
held in the brig of the ship. The captives were beaten and whipped, and criminal solicitation. Sarah's friend Sally, a waitress at the bar where
at times, were given so little food that they had to eat the food from the rape took place, picks three men out of a line-up as those who
each other's faces. One day, 50 captives were thrown overboard. Later encouraged the attackers. They get three different defense attorneys
on, the ship arrived in Havana, Cuba. Those captives that were not sold for the ensuing trial.
at auction were handed over to La Amistad.
Sarah testifies that she was raped. College student Kenneth Joyce
United States Attorney Holabird attacks Cinqué's "tale" of being (Bernie Coulson), a friend of one of the rapists, testifies to watching the
captured and kept in the slave fortress, and especially questions the rape before he made a 911 call to notify police. After Murphy's closing
throwing of precious cargo overboard. However, the Royal Navy's statement and a single summation from the three defense lawyers, the
fervent abolitionist Captain Fitzgerald of the West Africa Squadron jury deliberates for a long time. They ask several times for Joyce's
backs up Cinqué's account. Baldwin shows from the Tecora's inventory testimony to be reread to them.
that the number of African people taken as slaves was reduced by 50.
Fitzgerald explains that some slave ships when interdicted do this to In the end, the jury convicts the three defendants. As the trial provides
get rid of the evidence for their crime. But in the Tecora's case, they testimony and evidence that the men raped Sarah, the three men
had underestimated the amount of provisions necessary for their already serving prison time for reckless endangerment are unlikely to
journey. As the tension rises, Cinqué stands up from his seat and be granted parole.
repeatedly cries, "Give us, us free!"
Cast
Judge Coglin rules in favor of the Africans. After pressure from Senator Jodie Foster as Sarah Tobias
John C. Calhoun of South Carolina on President Van Buren, the case Kelly McGillis as Assistant District Attorney Kathryn Murphy
is appealed to the Supreme Court. Despite refusing to help when the Bernie Coulson as Kenneth Joyce
case was initially presented, Adams agrees to assist with the case. At Leo Rossi as Cliff "Scorpion" Albrect
the Supreme Court, he makes an impassioned and eloquent plea for Ann Hearn as Sally Fraser
their release, and is successful. Carmen Argenziano as District Attorney Paul Rudolph
Steve Antin as Bob Joiner
The Lomboko slave fortress is liberated by the Royal Marines under Tom O'Brien as Larry
the command of Captain Fitzgerald. After all the slaves were hurried
out of the fortress, Fitzgerald orders the ship's cannon to destroy it. He PRESUMED INNOCENT
then dictates a letter to Forsyth saying that he was right—the slave Rozat "Rusty" Sabich is a prosecutor and the right-hand man of district
fortress doesn't exist. attorney Raymond Horgan. When his colleague Carolyn Polhemus is
found raped and murdered in her apartment, Raymond insists that
Because of the release of the Africans, Van Buren loses his re-election Rusty take charge of the investigation. With the election for District
campaign, and tension builds between the North and the South, which Attorney approaching, Tommy Molto, the acting head of the homicide
would eventually culminate in the Civil War. division, has left to join the rival campaign of Nico Della Guardia. Rusty,
a married man, faces a conflict of interest since he had a brief sexual
Cast affair with Carolyn. As he had shown little ambition and would have
Djimon Hounsou as Sengbe Pieh / Joseph Cinqué therefore been of little use in advancing her career, Carolyn abruptly
Matthew McConaughey as Roger Sherman Baldwin dumped him. Rusty has since reconciled with his wife Barbara, but is
Anthony Hopkins as John Quincy Adams still obsessed with Carolyn.
Morgan Freeman as Theodore Joadson
Nigel Hawthorne as President Martin Van Buren Detective Harold Greer is initially in charge of the murder investigation,
David Paymer as Secretary of State John Forsyth but Rusty has him replaced with his friend Detective Dan Lipranzer,
Pete Postlethwaite as William S. Holabird whom he persuades to narrow the inquiry so that his relationship with
Stellan Skarsgård as Lewis Tappan Carolyn is left out. Rusty soon discovers that Molto is making his own
inquiries. Aspects of the crime suggest that the killer knew police hear and decide the case against the defendants. Haywood begins his
evidence-gathering procedures and covered up clues accordingly. examination by trying to learn how the defendant Ernst Janning (Burt
Semen found in the victim's body contains only dead sperm. The killer's Lancaster) could have sentenced so many people to death. Janning, it
blood is type A, the same as Rusty's. When Della Guardia wins the is revealed, is a well-educated and internationally respected jurist and
election, he and Molto accuse Rusty of the murder and push to get legal scholar. Haywood seeks to understand how the German people
evidence against him. Rusty's fingerprints are found on a beer glass could have turned blind eyes and deaf ears to the crimes of the Nazi
from Carolyn's apartment, and fibers from his carpet at home match regime. In doing so, he befriends the widow (Marlene Dietrich) of a
those found on her body. Lipranzer is removed from the case, and German general who had been executed by the Allies. He talks with a
Greer's inquiries uncover the affair. number of Germans who have different perspectives on the war. Other
characters the judge meets are US Army Captain Byers (William
Raymond grows furious with Rusty's handling of the case, but admits Shatner), who is assigned to the American party hearing the cases, and
that he had also been romantically involved with Carolyn at one time. Irene Hoffmann (Judy Garland), who is afraid to provide testimony that
Rusty calls on Sandy Stern, a top defense attorney. At trial, it is may bolster the prosecution's case against the judges.
revealed that the beer glass is missing, and Stern persuades Judge
Larren Lyttle to keep this from the jury. Raymond testifies and perjures German defense attorney Hans Rolfe (Maximilian Schell) argues that
himself, claiming that Rusty insisted on handling the investigation, thus the defendants were not the only ones to aid, or at least turn blind eyes
confirming the defense's claim of a frame-up. Rusty discovers that to, the Nazi regime. He also suggests that the United States has
Carolyn had acquired a file for a bribery case involving a man named committed acts just as bad or worse as those the Nazis perpetrated.
Leon Wells. Upon being confronted by Rusty and Lipranzer, Wells He raises several points in these arguments, such as: US Supreme
confesses that he paid Judge Lyttle $1,500 to have criminal charges Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr.'s support for the first eugenics
against him dropped, with Carolyn acting as a facilitator. practices (see Buck v. Bell ); the German-Vatican Reichskonkordat of
1933, which the Nazi-dominated German government exploited as an
The thrust of Stern's defense is that Della Guardia and Molto have implicit early foreign recognition of Nazi leadership; Joseph Stalin's part
framed Rusty in order to cover up the bribery case. During the cross- in the Nazi-Soviet Pact of 1939, which removed the last major obstacle
examination of the coroner, it is revealed that Carolyn underwent a to Germany's invasion and occupation of western Poland, initiating
tubal ligation, thus having no reason to use the spermicidal World War II; and the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in
contraceptive which was found on her. Stern asserts that the only the final stage of the war in August 1945.[7]
explanation for this discrepancy is that the fluid sample was not actually
taken from Carolyn's body. Based on the disappearance of the beer Janning, meanwhile, decides to take the stand for the prosecution,
glass, the lack of motive and the fact that the fluid sample was rendered stating that he is guilty of the crime he is accused of: condemning to
meaningless, Judge Lyttle dismisses the charges. Rusty confronts death a Jewish man of "blood defilement" charges—namely, that the
Stern for bringing up the bribery file in the case. Stern swears him to man slept with a 16-year-old Gentile girl—when he knew there was no
secrecy, revealing that Lyttle had a brief sexual encounter with Carolyn. evidence to support such a verdict. During his testimony, he explains
Stern also confesses that he and Raymond knew that Lyttle was taking that well-meaning people like himself went along with Hitler's anti-
bribes, and although Lyttle had offered his resignation, Raymond felt Semitic racism policies out of a sense of patriotism, even though they
that he was a brilliant judge and deserved another chance. Lipranzer knew it was wrong, because of the effects of the post-World War I
meets with Rusty and reveals the missing beer glass, explaining that Versailles Treaty.
he never returned it to evidence when the investigation was turned over
to Della Guardia and Molto. Rusty throws it into a river. Haywood must weigh considerations of geopolitical expediency and
ideals of justice. The trial takes place against the background of the
At his home, Rusty discovers a small hatchet covered with Carolyn's Berlin Blockade, and there is pressure to let the German defendants off
blood and hair on it. As he washes the tool, Barbara admits that she lightly so as to gain German support in the then-early and growing Cold
murdered Carolyn, her motive being Rusty's adulterous affair. She War against the Soviet Union.[8] In the course of the movie, it becomes
expresses that she had left enough evidence for Rusty to know that she apparent as to why the three other defendants supported the Nazi
committed the crime, but did not anticipate him being charged with the regime: one was afraid, one was following orders, and one actually
murder. In a voice-over, Rusty explains that Carolyn's murder has been believed in Nazism. All four defendants are found guilty and sentenced
written off as unsolved, since trying two people for the same crime is "a to life in prison.
practical impossibility" and he cannot leave his son without a mother
even if she could be tried. Rusty regrets that it was his own lust that Haywood visits Janning in his cell. Janning affirms to Haywood that,
caused his wife to commit murder. "By all that is right in this world, your verdict was a just one," but asks
him to believe that, regarding the mass murder of innocents, "I never
Cast knew that it would come to that." Judge Haywood replies, "Herr
Harrison Ford as Rozat K. "Rusty" Sabich Janning, it came to that the first time you sentenced a man to death
Brian Dennehy as Raymond Horgan you knew to be innocent." Haywood departs; a title card informs the
Raúl Juliá as Alejandro "Sandy" Stern audience that, of 99 defendants sentenced to prison terms in
Bonnie Bedelia as Barbara Sabich Nuremberg trials that took place in the American Zone, none were still
Paul Winfield as Judge Larren L. Lyttle serving their sentences as of the film's 1961 release.[9][a]
Greta Scacchi as Carolyn Polhemus
John Spencer as Det. Dan Lipranzer Cast
Joe Grifasi as Tommy Molto Spencer Tracy as Chief Judge Dan Haywood
Tom Mardirosian as Nico Della Guardia Burt Lancaster as defendant Dr. Ernst Janning
Anna Maria Horsford as Eugenia Richard Widmark as prosecutor Col. Tad Lawson
Maximilian Schell as defense counsel Hans Rolfe
JUDGMENT AT NUREMBERG Werner Klemperer as defendant Emil Hahn
Judgment at Nuremberg centers on a military tribunal convened in Marlene Dietrich as Frau Bertholt
Nuremberg, Germany, in which four German judges and prosecutors Montgomery Clift as Rudolph Peterson
stand accused of crimes against humanity for their involvement in Judy Garland as Irene Hoffmann-Wallner
atrocities committed under the Nazi regime. Judge Dan Haywood Howard Caine as Hugo Wallner - Irene's husband
(Spencer Tracy) is the Chief Trial Judge of a three-judge panel that will William Shatner as Capt. Harrison Byers
John Wengraf as His Honour Herr Justizrat Dr. Karl Wieck - former has retained him to execute Quill's estate; McCarthy says that working
Minister of Justice in Weimar Germany for her will be "poetic justice".
Karl Swenson as Dr. Heinrich Geuter - Feldenstein's lawyer
ANATOMY OF A MURDER Inspiration
In the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, small-town lawyer Paul Biegler On July 31, 1952, Lt. Coleman A. Peterson shot and killed Maurice
(Stewart), a former district attorney who lost his re-election bid, spends Chenoweth in Big Bay, Michigan.[5] Voelker was retained as defense
most of his time fishing, playing the piano, and hanging out with his attorney a few days later.[6] The trial started on September 15, 1952,[7]
alcoholic friend and colleague Parnell McCarthy (O'Connell) and and Assistant Attorney General Irving Beattie assisted Marquette
sardonic secretary Maida Rutledge (Arden). County Prosecuting Attorney Edward Thomas.[8] Voelker used a rare
version of the insanity defense called irresistible impulse that had not
One day, Biegler is contacted by Laura Manion (Remick), to defend her been used in Michigan since 1886.[9] The jury deliberated for four
husband US Army Lieutenant Frederick "Manny" Manion (Gazzara), hours on September 23, 1952, before returning a verdict of not guilty
who has been arrested for the first-degree murder of innkeeper Bernard by reason of insanity.[10] Two days later, after Peterson was examined
"Barney" Quill. Manion does not deny the murder, but claims that Quill by a psychiatrist who judged him sane, he was released.[11] Peterson
raped his wife. Even with such a motivation, getting Manion cleared of and his wife were divorced soon after the trial.[12] Hillsdale Circuit
murder would be difficult, but Manion claims to have no memory of the Court Judge Charles O. Arch, Sr. tried the case because of the illness
event, suggesting that he may be eligible for a defense of irresistible of a local judge.[13]
impulse—a version of a temporary insanity defense. Biegler's folksy
speech and laid-back demeanor hide a sharp legal mind and a Cast
propensity for courtroom theatrics that has the judge busy keeping James Stewart as Paul Biegler
things under control. However, the case for the defense does not go Lee Remick as Laura Manion
well, especially since the local district attorney (Brooks West) is Ben Gazzara as Lt. Frederick Manion
assisted by high-powered prosecutor Claude Dancer (Scott) from the Arthur O'Connell as Parnell McCarthy
Attorney General's office. Eve Arden as Maida Rutledge
Kathryn Grant as Mary Pilant
Furthermore, the prosecution tries at every instance to block any George C. Scott as Claude Dancer
mention of Manion's motive for killing Quill. Biegler eventually manages Orson Bean as Dr. Matthew Smith
to get the rape of Laura Manion into the record and Judge Weaver Russ Brown as George Lemon
(Joseph N. Welch) agrees to allow the matter to be part of the Murray Hamilton as Alphonse Paquette
deliberations. During cross-examination, Dancer insinuates that Laura Brooks West as Mitch Lodwick
openly flirted with other men, including the man she claimed raped her. Ken Lynch as Sgt. James Durgo
Psychiatrists give conflicting testimony to Manion's state of mind at the John Qualen as Deputy Sheriff Sulo
time that he killed Quill. Dancer says that Manion may have suspected Howard McNear as Dr. Dompierre
Laura of cheating on him because he asked his wife, a Catholic, to Alexander Campbell as Dr. Gregory Harcourt
swear on a rosary that Quill raped her. This raises doubt as to whether Ned Wever as Dr. Raschid
the act was non-consensual. Jimmy Conlin as Madigan
Royal Beal as Sheriff Battisfore
Quill's estate is to be inherited by Mary Pilant (Kathryn Grant), whom
Dancer accuses of being Quill's mistress. McCarthy learns that she is INHERIT THE WIND
in fact Quill's daughter, a fact she is anxious to keep secret since she In a small Southern town, a school teacher, Bertram Cates, is about to
was born out of wedlock. Biegler, who is losing the case, tries to stand trial. His offense: violating a state law by introducing to his
persuade Pilant that Al Paquette (Murray Hamilton), the bartender who students the concept that man descended from the lower life forms, a
witnessed the murder, may know if Quill admitted to him of raping Laura theory of the naturalist Charles Darwin. Cates is denounced by town
but Paquette is covering this up, either because he loves Pilant or out leaders including the Rev. Jeremiah Brown.
of loyalty to Quill. Through Pilant, Biegler is unable to get Paquette to
testify on behalf of Manion. The town is excited because appearing for the prosecution will be
Matthew Brady, a noted statesman and three-time presidential
During the trial, Laura claims that Quill tore off her panties while raping candidate. A staunch foe of evolution and a Biblical scholar, Brady will
her; the panties were not found where she alleges the rape took place. sit beside prosecuting attorney Tom Davenport, in the courtroom of
Pilant, unaware of any details of the case, testifies that she found the Judge Coffey.
panties in the inn's laundry room. Biegler suggests Quill may have
attempted to avoid suspicion by dropping the panties down the laundry
chute, located next to his room. Dancer tries to establish that Pilant's Spencer Tracy, Harry Morgan, and Fredric March during the
answers are founded on her jealousy. When Dancer asserts forcibly questioning of Brady by Drummond
that Quill was Pilant's lover and that Pilant lied to cover this fact, Pilant The teacher's defense is to be handled by the equally well-known
shocks everyone by stating that Quill was her father. Manion is found Henry Drummond, one of America's most controversial legal minds and
"not guilty by reason of insanity". After the trial, Biegler decides to open a long-standing acquaintance and adversary of Brady. An influential
a new practice, with a newly sober McCarthy as his partner. newspaperman, E.K. Hornbeck of the Baltimore Herald, has persuaded
Drummond to represent Cates, and ensured that his newspaper and a
radio network will provide nationwide coverage of the case.
James Stewart in the film's trailer
The next day, Biegler and McCarthy travel to the Manions' trailer park Rev. Brown publicly rallies the townspeople against Cates and
home to get Manion's signature on a promissory note which they hope Drummond. The preacher's daughter Rachel is conflicted because she
will suffice as collateral for a desperately needed loan. It turns out the and Cates are engaged.
Manions have vacated the trailer park, the trailer park superintendent
commenting that Laura Manion had been crying. Manion left a note for The judge admires Brady, addressing him as "Colonel," as the
Biegler, indicating that his flight was "an irresistible impulse", the same governor had given Brady an honorary commission in the state militia.
justification Biegler used during the trial. Biegler states that Mary Pilant Drummond objects to this; as a compromise the mayor makes him a
"temporary colonel" for the duration of the trial. Each time Drummond
calls a scientist or authority figure to discuss Darwin's theories, the teacher Mickey sends him a medical malpractice case in which it is all
judge sustains the prosecution's objections and forbids such testimony but assured that the defense will settle for a large amount. The case
from being heard. Drummond grows frustrated, feeling the case has involves a young woman given an anesthetic during childbirth, after
already been decided. When he asks to withdraw from the case, the which she choked on her vomit and was deprived of oxygen. The
judge holds Drummond in contempt of court, orders him jailed, and tells woman is now comatose and on a respirator. Her sister and brother-in-
Drummond to show cause the next morning why he should not be held law are hoping for a monetary award in order to give her proper care.
in contempt of court. John Stebbins offers his farm as collateral for Frank assures them they have a strong case.
Drummond's bail. (His son was a friend and protege of Cates who
drowned after developing a cramp while swimming.) The Reverend had Frank visits the comatose woman and is deeply affected. Later, a
said the child was damned to hell because he was not baptized. This representative of the Catholic hospital where the incident took place
led to Cates abandoning the church, as he felt it was not fair that a child
offers a substantial settlement. Without consulting the family, Frank
could not enter Heaven due to an action that was beyond his control. declines the offer and decides to take the case to trial, stunning all
parties including the presiding judge and the victim's relatives.
That night, mocking crowds go by the jail and then to the hotel where Meanwhile, Frank, who is lonely, becomes romantically involved with
Drummond is staying. Drummond is trying to decide how to present his Laura, a woman he had spotted earlier in a bar.
defense without his witnesses and states that he needs a miracle.
Hornbeck throws him a Bible from Brady, stating "There are plenty in Things quickly go wrong for Frank: his client's brother-in-law finds out
there." As Hornbeck pours some drinks and turns to Drummond, he is from "the other side" that Frank has turned down settlement, and
surprised by Drummond holding the Bible and smiling. angrily confronts Frank; his star medical expert disappears; a hastily
arranged substitute's credentials and testimony are called into serious
Drummond calls Brady himself to the witness stand. Brady's confidence question on the witness stand; his opponent, the high-priced attorney
in his Biblical knowledge is so great that he welcomes this challenge, Ed Concannon, has at his disposal a large legal team that is masterful
but becomes flustered under Drummond's cross-examination, unable with the press; the presiding judge obstructs Frank's questioning of his
to explain certain apparent contradictions, until he is forced to confess expert; and no one who was in the operating room is willing to testify
that at least some Biblical passages cannot be interpreted literally. that negligence occurred. Concannon is also shown paying off Laura.
Drummond hammers home his point — that Cates, like any other man,
demands the right to think for himself, and those citing divine support Frank's break comes when he discovers that Kaitlin Costello, the nurse
as a rationale to silence him are wrong. who admitted his client to the hospital, is now a pre-school teacher in
New York. Frank travels there to seek her help, leaving Mickey and
Cates is found guilty, but because Drummond has made his case so Laura working together in Frank's office. Mickey discovers a check from
convincingly, with the trial becoming a political embarrassment, the Concannon in her handbag and infers that Laura is a mole, providing
judge only fines him $100. Brady is furious and tries to enter a speech information to the opposing lawyers.
into the record, but Drummond persuades the judge to disallow it as
the trial has concluded. As court adjourns, Brady tries to give his Mickey flies to New York to tell Frank about Laura's betrayal. Shortly
speech but most ignore him outside of his wife and his opponents at thereafter, Frank confronts Laura, striking her and knocking her to the
the defense table — Cates, Rachel, Hornbeck, and Drummond. As he floor. Mickey later suggests it would be easy to get the case declared
becomes increasingly hysterical, he suffers from a "busted belly", dying a mistrial but Frank decides to continue.
in the courtroom.
Costello testifies that, shortly after the patient had become comatose,
After the crowd has cleared out, Hornbeck talks with Drummond, the anesthesiologist (one of the two doctors on trial, along with the
wanting to use the Bible quotation from Reverend Brown's rally, where archdiocese of Boston) told her to change her notes on the admitting
Brady had quoted the "inherit the wind" verse because Brown was form to hide his fatal error. She had written down that the patient had
about to damn his own daughter to hell. Drummond quotes the verse eaten a full meal only one hour before being admitted. The doctor had
verbatim, shocking Hornbeck, who states, "Well, we're growing an odd failed to read the admitting notes. Thus, in ignorance, he gave her an
crop of agnostics this year!" They argue over Brady's legacy, anesthetic that should never have been given to a patient with a full
Drummond accuses Hornbeck of being a heartless cynic, and stomach. As a result, the patient vomited and choked.
Hornbeck walks out, leaving Drummond alone in the courtroom.
Drummond picks up the Bible and Darwin's book (On the Origin of Costello further testifies that, when the anesthesiologist realized his
Species), balancing them in his hands before walking out with both of mistake, he met with Costello in private and forced her to change the
them. number "1" to the number "9" on her admitting notes. But before she
made the change Costello had made a photocopy of the notes, which
Cast she brought with her to court. Concannon quickly turns the situation
Spencer Tracy as Henry Drummond (patterned after Clarence Darrow) around by getting the judge to declare the nurse's testimony stricken
Fredric March as Matthew Harrison Brady (patterned after William from the record on technicalities. Feeling that his case is hopeless,
Jennings Bryan) Frank gives a brief but passionate closing argument.
Gene Kelly as E. K. Hornbeck of the Baltimore Herald (patterned after
Henry L. Mencken) While the jury is out, a diocese lawyer praises Concannon's
Florence Eldridge as Sara Brady performance to the defendant bishop, who asks "but do you believe
Dick York as Bertram T. Cates (patterned after John Scopes) her?" and is met with embarrassed silence.
Donna Anderson as Rachel Brown
Harry Morgan as Judge Merle Coffey The jury finds in favor of Frank's clients. The foreman then asks the
Claude Akins as Rev. Jeremiah Brown judge whether the jury can award more than the amount plaintiffs
Elliott Reid as Prosecutor Tom Davenport sought. The judge resignedly replies that they can. As Frank is
Paul Hartman as Deputy Horace Meeker – Bailiff congratulated, he catches a glimpse of Laura watching him across the
atrium.
THE VERDICT
Once-promising attorney Frank Galvin, framed for jury tampering years That night, Laura, in a drunken stupor on her bed, drops her whiskey
ago, was fired from his elite Boston firm and became an alcoholic on the floor, drags the phone toward her and dials Frank. As the phone
ambulance chaser with little work. As a favor, his friend and former
rings, Frank sits in his office with a cup of coffee. He moves to answer million and the release of his imprisoned brother Ray in Arkansas. The
but ultimately does not. FBI release Ray but plan to return him to the slammer once Mitch hands
the Feds the files. They also give him half the money before they
Cast receive the files. Meanwhile, Mitch confesses to Abby about his one-
Paul Newman as Frank Galvin night stand in the Caymans and she separates herself from him,
Charlotte Rampling as Laura Fischer eventually deciding to leave Memphis.
Jack Warden as Mickey Morrissey
James Mason as Ed Concannon Desperate to find a way out of his predicament, Mitch inadvertently
Milo O'Shea as Judge Hoyle stumbles on a solution when one of his clients complains that he was
Lindsay Crouse as Kaitlin Costello Price billed for extra several hours of fees, as part of the firm's money-
Edward Binns as Bishop Brophy laundering services for the Moroltos. Mailing these padded bills to the
Julie Bovasso as Maureen Rooney firm's clients is considered to be mail fraud, which would expose the
Roxanne Hart as Sally Doneghy firm to RICO charges. Mitch begins secretly copying the firm's billing
James Handy as Kevin Doneghy records with help from Lomax's secretary Tammy, but they need files
Wesley Addy as Dr. Towler in Tolar's Cayman house. Meanwhile, Tolar visits Abby at her job to say
Joe Seneca as Dr. Thompson goodbye, and invites her to come with him to the Caymans. Abby
declines, but Tolar reveals his work schedule has changed, thus
THE FIRM threatening Mitch's plans. After telling Tammy not to inform Mitch, Abby
Mitch McDeere (Tom Cruise) is a young man from an impoverished flies to the Caymans to seduce and drug Tolar. The firm's phone tap
background, but with a promising future as a lawyer. About to graduate picks up Abby's warning to Tammy, and DeVasher sends his hitmen to
from Harvard Law School near the top of his class, he receives a the Caymans. After Abby and Tammy steal client files from Tolar's
generous job offer from Bendini, Lambert & Locke, a small boutique house, a drowsy Tolar warns Abby to leave immediately. Tolar is killed
firm in Memphis specializing in accounting and tax law. He and his wife, by the hitmen.
Abby (Jeanne Tripplehorn), move to Memphis and Mitch sets to work
studying to pass the Tennessee bar exam. Avery Tolar (Gene Mitch's plans are jeopardized when a prison guard on the Moroltos'
Hackman), one of the firm's senior partners, becomes his mentor and payroll alerts DeVasher after Mitch's brother Ray is transferred to FBI
begins introducing Mitch to BL&L's professional culture, which custody without the usual formalities being followed. Evading
demands complete loyalty, strict confidentiality, and a willingness to DeVasher and his thugs, Mitch meets with the Morolto brothers and,
charge exceptional fees for their services. Seduced by the money and presenting himself as a loyal attorney looking out for his clients' best
perks showered on him (including a house, car, and his student loans interests, tells them that his contact with the FBI and his copying of the
paid off), he is at first totally oblivious to the more sinister side of his firm's files were merely an attempt to expose the firm's illegal
new employer, although Abby has her suspicions due to the Firm's overbilling. Mitch asks the Moroltos for permission to turn over their
desire for stability in the family. billing invoices in order to help the FBI make their case against the firm.
He reveals that he has made his own copies of the files, but assures
Mitch passes the bar exam and begins working long hours that put a them that as long as he is alive, any other information he knows about
strain on his marriage. Working closely with Tolar, Mitch learns that their legal affairs is covered under attorney-client privilege and will
most of the firm's work involves helping wealthy clients hide large never be revealed. Convinced thus, the Moroltos agree to guarantee
amounts of money in off-shore shell corporations and other dubious Mitch's safety and let him give the FBI all the evidence it needs to
tax-avoidance schemes. While on a trip to the Cayman Islands Mitch prosecute the firm. Since the attorney-client privilege doesn't apply
listens to Tolar talk to client Sonny Capps about taxes and hears Capps when a lawyer knows about ongoing criminal activity, Mitch is able to
state how the firm's clients in Chicago break people's legs. Later on, keep his status as a lawyer.
Mitch is seduced by a local woman and cheats on Abby. Unbeknownst
to Mitch, this encounter has been arranged by the firm's sinister The film ends as the McDeeres leave their house in Memphis and
security chief, Bill DeVasher (Wilford Brimley), who later uses photos return to Boston, driving the same well-used car, an early 1980s Toyota
of Mitch's beach tryst with the woman as blackmail to keep him quiet Supra, in which they arrived in Memphis.
about the firm's questionable, even illegal, activities.
Cast
Mitch realizes he is now trapped, but after he learns two associates of Tom Cruise as Mitch McDeere, a promising recent Harvard Law
the firm died under mysterious circumstances, he hires private graduate.
investigator Eddie Lomax to learn the truth. Lomax is shot in his office, Jeanne Tripplehorn as Abigail "Abby" McDeere, Mitch's wife.
which his secretary Tammy witnesses. Mitch is then approached by FBI Gene Hackman as Avery Tolar, Mitch's mentor at the Firm.
agents who inform him that, while some of BL&L's business is Holly Hunter as Tamara "Tammy" Hemphill, Eddie's chain-smoking
legitimate, their biggest client is the Morolto Mafia family from Chicago. secretary and lover who aids Mitch in copying and stealing the files in
The firm's partners, as well as most of the associates, are all complicit Memphis and the Cayman Islands.
in a massive tax fraud and money-laundering scheme. The two Ed Harris as Agent Wayne Tarrance, the agent in charge of the
associates who died had learned about the firm's dark side and were investigation into the Firm; Mitch's primary contact with the FBI.
killed to keep them from talking, while Lomax was killed for asking Hal Holbrook as Oliver Lambert, senior partner at the Firm.
questions. The FBI agents warn Mitch that his house, car, and office Jerry Hardin as Royce McKnight, managing partner at the Firm.
have probably all been bugged. The FBI pressures Mitch to provide the David Strathairn as Ray McDeere, Mitch's brother who was in jail for a
Bureau with evidence they can use to go after the Moroltos and bring manslaughter conviction
down BL&L. Terry Kinney as Lamar Quinn, Mitch's friend who works at the Firm.

Mitch knows he faces a stark choice. If he works with the FBI, he FRACTURE
believes that even if he stays alive, he will have to disclose information Theodore "Ted" Crawford (Anthony Hopkins), a wealthy and
about the firm's legitimate clients—thus breaking the attorney–client resourceful Irish aeronautical engineer in Los Angeles, confirms that
privilege and risking disbarment. However, the FBI warns him that if he his wife, Jennifer (Embeth Davidtz), is having an affair with police
stays with the firm, he will almost certainly go to jail when the FBI takes detective Robert Nunally (Billy Burke). Confronting his wife, Crawford
down both the firm and the Moroltos. Either way, his life as he knows it shoots her. Police are called, including Nunally, who enters the house
is over, and he agrees to cooperate with the FBI in return for $1.5 cautiously, negotiating with Crawford for both to put down their guns.
Crawford confesses he shot his wife. Recognizing the victim, and being Rosamund Pike as Nikki Gardner
subtly goaded by Crawford, Nunally becomes enraged and assaults Embeth Davidtz as Jennifer Crawford
him. Billy Burke as Lt. Rob Nunally
Cliff Curtis as Detective Flores
Now in jail awaiting trial, Crawford engages in a battle of wits with rising Fiona Shaw as Judge Robinson
star deputy district attorney William "Willy" Beachum (Ryan Gosling), Bob Gunton as Judge Frank Gardner
who considers the case an open-and-shut matter and agrees to go to Josh Stamberg as Norman Foster
trial immediately. Beachum is preparing to transition from criminal law Xander Berkeley as Judge Moran
to a corporate attorneyship at well-known law firm Wooton & Simms, Zoe Kazan as Mona
and flirts with his future boss, Nikki Gardner (Rosamund Pike). Alla Korot as Russian translator

At the trial, Crawford acts as his own attorney, thereby matching THE PELICAN’S BRIEF
himself, an untrained litigant, against a star prosecutor. Crawford After two Supreme Court justices are killed by an assassin named
informs the court that the arresting officer (Nunally) was having an affair Khamel, Tulane University law student Darby Shaw writes a legal brief
with his wife, assaulted him during his arrest, and was present during detailing her theory on why they were killed. She gives the brief to her
his interrogation. Crawford's confession is therefore ruled inadmissible law professor Thomas Callahan, who in turn gives a copy to Gavin
as evidence, being fruit of the poisonous tree. Beachum discovers that Verheek, special counsel to the Director of the FBI. Callahan is killed
Crawford's handgun could not have been used in the shooting because by a car bomb; Darby manages to avoid the same fate and is
it does not match shell casings at the crime scene and in fact has never subsequently attacked by an unknown assailant. Realizing that her
been fired. This baffles police, since CCTV surveillance was in effect brief was accurate, she goes into hiding and reaches out to Verheek
during the shooting and until Crawford's arrest. for assistance.

Nunally comes up with a scheme to plant false evidence to implicate An informant calling himself Garcia contacts Washington Herald
Crawford, which Beachum rejects. With no new evidence to present, reporter Gray Grantham with information about the assassinations, but
Beachum has to concede the trial, and Crawford is acquitted. suddenly disappears. Darby contacts Grantham, who finds her
Disgraced, Nunally commits suicide outside the court. information is accurate. Darby's computer, disks, and files disappear
from her home, where she is again attacked but manages to escape.
Beachum's future with the prestigious firm is now in tatters. However, She contacts and agrees to meet Verheek, but Khamel kills Verheek
he begins to see his D.A. job as a means to fight for justice for those and impersonates him at the meet. Before Khamel can kill Darby, he is
such as Crawford's wife. Crawford himself observes the change, shot and killed by an unknown person.
commenting sarcastically that Beachum has "found God". This
motivates Beachum to continue searching for evidence, almost Darby agrees to meet Grantham in New York City, where she shares
obsessively. Realizing that Crawford's plan is to dispose of the only the theory expressed in her brief: the assassinations were done on
eyewitness to the crime, Beachum obtains a court order to keep behalf of oil tycoon Victor Mattiece, who intends to drill for oil on
Jennifer on life support. He arrives at the hospital, but is unable to Louisiana marshland that is habitat for an endangered sub-species of
prevent staff turning off her life support. brown pelicans. A court appeal to deny Mattiece the drilling rights is
expected to reach the Supreme Court. Darby has surmised that
A mix-up of cell phones causes Beachum to realize that Nunally and Mattiece, hoping to turn the case in his favor, is behind the justices'
Crawford both used the same type of gun, a .45 caliber Glock 21. He murders, given their history of environmentalism. When Grantham tells
figures out that before the crime Crawford must have switched his and her about Garcia, they discover that the man is Curtis Morgan, a lawyer
Nunally's guns in the hotel room where Jennifer and Nunally secretly in the oil and gas division at the Washington, DC law firm of White &
met. Crawford had shot his wife with Nunally's gun, then reloaded it. Blazevich.
The detective had arrived on the scene carrying Crawford's gun, and
both had put down their weapons as a preliminary move in Darby visits White & Blazevich, pretending to have an appointment with
negotiations. When Nunally had recognized the victim, rushing over to Morgan, and is told he had been killed. Suspecting that his murder was
Jennifer, Crawford had switched the guns again, retrieving his own, related to the incriminating information, she and Grantham visit his
unused, weapon. When Crawford had reappeared brandishing his gun, widow who gives them a key to a safe deposit box. Darby visits the
Nunally had tackled and assaulted him, before Crawford's arrest. bank to retrieve the contents of the box. After barely escaping death by
Nunally had then unwittingly holstered the murder weapon, allowing the a car bomb, they reach the Washington Herald building where they
unused gun be taken as evidence. review the documents and a videotape recovered from Morgan's box.
The tape confirms Darby's theory, as Morgan's documents prove his
Beachum confronts Crawford with his deductions. With Jennifer now own discovery that Mattiece ordered the assassination of the Justices.
dead, the bullet lodged in her head can now be retrieved and matched With this evidence, Grantham writes his story. He gives the FBI a
with Nunally's gun. Crawford confesses, confident he is protected by chance to comment and FBI Director Voyles confirms that Darby's
the principle of Double Jeopardy. However, Beachum dryly informs him "Pelican Brief" was delivered to the White House. He reveals the
that by allowing his wife to die, Crawford can now be prosecuted for President ordered the FBI to "back off," and that the CIA is investigating
murder, having previously been tried merely for attempted murder. Mattiece, with one of them killing Khamel to save Darby's life. A plane
Since he had taken Jennifer off life support, new charges can be filed is arranged for Darby to flee the country.
against Crawford and a new trial can be set. Crawford is arrested by
waiting police. Sometime later, Darby is watching a TV interview of Grantham where
it is revealed that Mattiece and two partners at White & Blazevich have
The film ends with a new trial about to begin, with Beachum prosecuting been indicted in federal court, the President's chief of staff has
and Crawford surrounded by a team of highly paid defense attorneys resigned, and the President (who received $4.2 million in contributions
from Wooton & Simms. from Mattiece) will not run for reelection. Grantham deflects speculation
that Darby is fictional, but does agree that she is "almost" too good to
Cast be true. Darby smiles.
Anthony Hopkins as Theodore "Ted" Crawford
Ryan Gosling as William "Willy" Beachum Cast
David Strathairn as District Attorney Joe Lobruto Julia Roberts as Darby Shaw
Denzel Washington as Gray Grantham Production and cast changes
Sam Shepard as Thomas Callahan Upon the original creation of the film adaptation, sisters Dakota
John Heard as Gavin Verheek Fanning and Elle Fanning were cast to play Kate and Anna
Tony Goldwyn as Fletcher Coal respectively. However, when Dakota heard that she would be required
James B. Sikking as FBI Director Denton Voyles to shave her head for the role, she dropped out of the film as then did
William Atherton as Bob Gminski Elle. The two sisters were replaced, with Abigail Breslin taking on the
Robert Culp as President lead role as Anna Fitzgerald and Sofia Vassilieva on the role of Kate
Stanley Tucci as Khamel Fitzgerald.[3]
Hume Cronyn as Justice Rosenberg
John Lithgow as Smith Keen Cast
Anthony Heald as Marty Velmano Abigail Breslin as Anna Fitzgerald
Cynthia Nixon as Alice Stark Alexandra Casteele as Young Anna Fitzgerald
Jake Weber as Curtis Morgan / Garcia Cameron Diaz as Sara Fitzgerald
Ralph Cosham as Justice Jensen Sofia Vassilieva as Kate Fitzgerald
Casey Biggs as Eric East Olivia Hancock as young Kate Fitzgerald
Jason Patric as Brian Fitzgerald
MY SISTER’S KEEPER Chris Kinkade as Dr. Nguyen
Kate Fitzgerald (Sofia Vassilieva) has acute promyelocytic leukemia. David Thornton as Dr. Chance
Conceived by in vitro fertilization, her younger sister Anna (Abigail Evan Ellingson as Jesse Fitzgerald
Breslin) was brought into the world as a savior sister. She is a genetic Brennan Bailey as young Jesse Fitzgerald
match to her older sister and can donate compatible organs, blood, and Paul Christopher Butler as three-year-old Jesse
tissue to help her. When Kate turns 15, she goes into renal failure and Alec Baldwin as Campbell Alexander
11-year old Anna knows that she will be forced by her parents to donate E.G. Daily as Nurse Susan
one of her kidneys. She also realizes that she may not be able to live Lin Shaye as Nurse Adele
the life she wants to lead – she will not be able to play sports, drink Joan Cusack as Judge De Salvo
alcohol, or be a mother in the future. Anna tells her parents that she Heather Wahlquist as Kelly
does not want to be a donor and sues them for medical emancipation Thomas Dekker as Taylor Ambrose
and the rights to her own body. Her father Brian (Jason Patric) Emily Deschanel as Dr. Farquad
understands her, though her domineering mother, Sara (Cameron
Diaz), who leads an obsessive campaign to keep Kate alive, is ….JUSTICE FOR ALL
indignant at her decision. Attorney Campbell Alexander (Alec Baldwin) Arthur Kirkland, a defense attorney in Baltimore, is in jail on a contempt
agrees to work for Anna as her guardian ad litem, suing for partial of court charge after punching Judge Henry T. Fleming while arguing
termination of parental rights. He has agreed to take the case because the case of Jeff McCullaugh. McCullagh was stopped for a minor traffic
he has epilepsy, and is sympathetic to her predicament. offense, but then mistaken for a killer of the same name and has
already spent a year and a half in jail; Fleming has repeatedly stymied
The film is interlaced with flashbacks that detail Kate and Anna's close Arthur's efforts to have the case reviewed. Though there is strong new
relationship, as well as how Kate's illness has affected her siblings, evidence that Jeff is innocent, Fleming refuses his appeal due to its late
including their brother, Jesse (Evan Ellingson) who has run away from submission and leaves him in prison.
his summer camp. In a flashback, Kate meets a fellow cancer patient,
Taylor Ambrose (Thomas Dekker), whom she begins dating. He asks Arthur starts a new case, defending transgender Ralph Agee, arrested
her to the hospital's prom for teen patients; there, they slow-dance, then for a small crime and becoming a victim of the legal system.
have sex. A few days later, Kate is upset that she has not seen Taylor
since the dance. She learns that Taylor has died and attempts suicide Arthur pays regular visits to his grandfather Sam in a nursing home,
by overdosing on painkillers, but Anna stops her. Kate expresses hope who is progressively becoming senile. It is revealed that Arthur was
that after she dies, she will see Taylor. abandoned by his parents at a young age, and it was Sam who raised
him and put him through law school. Arthur also begins a romance with
Kate makes a request to go to the beach one last time. Brian obtains a legal ethics committee member, Gail Packer. Arthur has a friendly
permission and discharges her from the hospital for the day. Sara relationship with Judge Francis Rayford, who takes him on a hair-
overreacts and demands that Kate be returned to the hospital raising ride in his personal helicopter, laughing as he tests how far they
immediately. Brian angrily refuses and threatens Sara with a divorce if can possibly go without running out of fuel, while a terrified Arthur begs
she does not join them. Sara shows up at the beach, where they enjoy him to land. Rayford, a veteran of the Korean War, is borderline suicidal
one final family outing. and keeps a rifle in his chambers at the courthouse and an M1911 pistol
in his shoulder holster at all times, and eats his lunch on the ledge
During the hearing, Jesse reveals that Anna is actually acting under outside his office window, four stories up.
Kate's instruction; Kate, not wanting to live any longer, had persuaded
Anna to refuse to donate her kidney. Anna had wanted to give Kate her One day, Arthur is unexpectedly requested to defend Judge Fleming,
kidney and had been upset at Kate's decision. Sara is finally forced to who has been accused of brutally assaulting and raping a young
acknowledge what Kate has been trying to tell her all this time: she is woman. As the two loathe each other, Fleming feels that having the
ready to die. Later that day, Kate dies sleeping, with her mother by her person who publicly hates him argue his innocence will be to his
side. After her death, Campbell states that Anna has won the case. The advantage. Fleming blackmails Arthur with an old violation of lawyer-
family moves on with their lives. Sara, who gave up practicing law to client confidentiality, for which Arthur will likely be disbarred if it were to
look after Kate, returns to work, Brian retires from firefighting and come to light.
counsels troubled youths, and Jesse receives an arts scholarship in
New York. Anna reveals that every year on Kate's birthday they go to Arthur's friend and partner, Jay Porter, is also unstable. He feels guilt
Montana, which was her "most favorite place in the world". She from gaining acquittals for defendants who were truly guilty of violent
concludes that she was not born merely to save her sister, she was crimes, and shows up drunk at Arthur's apartment after one of his
born because she had a sister, and that their relationship continues clients commits another murder after his acquittal. After a violent
even in death. breakdown at the courthouse, wherein he ends up throwing plates at
people, Jay is taken to a hospital. Before leaving in the ambulance,
Arthur asks Warren Fresnell, another partner, to handle Ralph Agee's Keith Andes as Marvin Bates
court hearing in his absence. Arthur gives Warren a corrected version
of Ralph's probation report and stresses that it must be shown to the THE CONSPIRATOR
judge so that Ralph will get probation rather than jail time. On April 14, 1865, five days after the Civil War ends with the South's
surrender to the North at Appomattox Court House, Virginia, lawyer and
Unfortunately, Warren fails to appear on time and Ralph is sentenced Union veteran Frederick Aiken, with his friends, William Thomas
to jail. Arthur is livid and attacks Warren's car. When Warren argues Hamilton and Nicholas Baker, and girlfriend, Sarah Weston, celebrate.
that Ralph's trial was nothing but "nickels and dimes" and beneath him, Later that same night, Southerner Lewis Payne seriously wounds
Arthur reminds him that "they're people!" He then reveals that 30 Secretary of State William Seward in an unsuccessful assassination
minutes after he was sentenced, Ralph committed suicide by hanging attempt. German immigrant and carriage repair business owner
himself. Meanwhile, Jeff, sexually and physically abused by other George Atzerodt is assigned to kill Vice President Andrew Johnson but
inmates, finally snaps and takes two hostages. Arthur pleads with him becomes afraid and runs away. Meanwhile, actor John Wilkes Booth
to surrender, promising to get him out, but a police sniper shoots and enters Ford's Theatre and sees his target, President Abraham Lincoln.
kills Jeff when he moves in front of a window. Booth sneaks into the President's box and shoots Lincoln, mortally
wounding him. Booth stabs diplomat and military officer Henry
A clearly disturbed Arthur takes on Fleming's case. He tries to talk the Rathbone who was a guest in Lincoln's box, and leaps onto the stage,
prosecuting attorney, Frank Bowers, into throwing the case out but shouting, "Sic Semper Tyrannis! The South is avenged!" before
Bowers, who recognizes the prestige that convicting a judge would escaping. A crowd, including Aiken, Hamilton and Baker, watch in
earn him, refuses to back down. Arthur meets with another client, Carl, horror as the unconscious President is taken to a nearby boarding
who gives him photographs that show Fleming engaged in BDSM acts house where he dies early the next morning.
with a prostitute. Gail warns him not to betray a client, revealing that
the ethics committee has been keeping their eye on him ever since the Secretary of War Edwin Stanton orders all suspects, including Mary
contempt of court incident. He shows the pictures to Fleming, who Surratt, arrested. Booth and David Herold manage to evade capture for
freely admits he is guilty of the rape. some days, but Union soldiers find a barn where they suspect the
conspirators are hiding and set it on fire. Herold is arrested, while Booth
As the trial opens, Fleming makes a casual remark to Arthur about is shot and killed by sergeant Boston Corbett.
wanting to rape the victim again, which pushes an already disgusted
Arthur to a breaking point. In his opening statement, Arthur begins by Maryland Senator Reverdy Johnson is Mary Surratt's lawyer. Her son,
mocking Bowers' case while speculating on the ultimate objective of John Surratt, had escaped with hundreds of agents looking for him.
the American legal system. He appears to be making a strong case to Feeling unable to defend Surratt because he's a Southerner, Reverdy
exonerate Fleming – but then, unexpectedly, he bursts out that the asks Aiken, a Northerner, to take over, but he tries to refuse. He is
prosecution is not going to get Fleming, because he is going to get him ordered to defend her and tells Sarah and his friends, who are shocked
and declares that his client is guilty. Judge Rayford shouts that Arthur to hear this.
is "out of order," to which Arthur retorts, "You're out of order! You're out
of order! The whole trial is out of order! They're out of order!" Arthur is Aiken visits Mary in her cell to question her. Mary asks Aiken to look in
dragged out of the courtroom, venting his rage all the way and on her daughter Anna. Aiken does so and searches the boarding house
condemning Fleming for his and the legal system's abuse of the law. for clues. He finds a ticket with the initials "LJW" (Louis J. Weichmann).
As the courtroom spectators (including Gail) cheer for Arthur, Fleming At the court, Weichman - a seminary friend of Mary's son John, is the
sits down in defeat, and a fed-up Rayford storms out. first witness and describes John Surratt's meetings with Booth. Aiken
incriminates Weichman, making him appear as guilty as the rest of the
In the end, Arthur sits on the courthouse's steps, knowing his antics will conspirators.
probably cost him his career in law. An apparently cured Jay passes by
and tips his wig to Arthur in greeting, leaving him sitting on the steps in Aiken again tries to give up defending Mary, believing her guilty. He
disbelief. meets with her, intending to get evidence of her guilt. She explains that
John and the others conspired to kidnap Lincoln, not to kill him. They
Cast were about to attack a carriage but were stopped by Booth who
Al Pacino as Arthur Kirkland reported that Lincoln was elsewhere. She says John left town and went
Jack Warden as Judge Rayford into hiding after this, two weeks before the assassination. Aiken asks
John Forsythe as Judge Fleming Anna for information to help with his trial preparations, but she refuses.
Lee Strasberg as Grandpa Sam
Jeffrey Tambor as Jay Porter At the court, Chief Prosecutor Joseph Holt brings Innkeeper John Lloyd
Christine Lahti as Gail Packer to the stand. Lloyd claims that Mary sent binoculars to Booth and
Sam Levene as Arnie prepared shooting irons and whiskey for Booth and Herold on the night
Robert Christian as Ralph Agee of the assassination. Aiken angers Lloyd, implying that he was bribed
Thomas Waites as Jeff McCullaugh for his testimony in whiskey. Lloyd is dragged out of the courtroom after
Larry Bryggman as Warren Fresnell threatening Aiken.
Craig T. Nelson as Frank Bowers
Dominic Chianese as Carl Travers While attempting to attend a party at the Century Club, Aiken finds his
Victor Arnold as Leo Fauci membership has been revoked due to his defending Mary Surratt. This
Vincent Beck as Officer Leary triggers an argument with Sarah and she disowns and leaves him.
Michael Gorrin as Elderly Man Aiken asks Anna to testify next. Anna testifies that Mary had no part in
Baxter Harris as Larry the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, but that it was her brother John
Joe Morton as Prison Doctor instead. Anna visits Aiken at his house and tells him about Booth and
Alan North as Deputy Sheriff John, and sends him to where John Surratt is hiding. He brings the
Tom Quinn as Desk Clerk Kiley message that John must surrender or his mother will hang for his
Beverly Sanders as Sherry crimes. On July 6, Mary is found guilty on all charges and, with
Connie Sawyer as Gitel Stanton's intervention, sentenced to hang with three others on the 7th.
Charles Siebert as Assistant D. A. Keene Aiken procures a writ of habeas corpus to try Mary in civilian court, but
Robert Symonds as Judge Burns President Johnson suspends the writ and Mary is hanged.
More states that he cannot give his blessing as long as Roper remains
Sixteen months later, Aiken visits John Surratt, who was captured a Lutheran.
abroad and is in jail. John thanks him for his kindness to his mother.
Aiken offers him Mary's rosary but he declines. The epilogue goes on Some time later, Wolsey dies of a heart attack. King Henry appoints
to state that a year later the Supreme Court ruled that citizens were More as Lord Chancellor of England to succeed Wolsey. The King
entitled to trial by a civilian jury and not a military tribunal, even in times makes an "impromptu" visit to the More estate, but More remains
of war (Ex parte Milligan), and that a jury of Northerners and unmoved as Henry alternates between threats, tantrums, and promises
Southerners could not agree on a verdict for John Surratt, and he was of unbounded Royal favour. After the King leaves, Cromwell promises
freed. Aiken left the law and became The Washington Post's first City Rich a position at Court in return for damaging information about More.
Editor.
Roper, learning of More's quarrel with the King, reveals that his
Cast religious opinions have altered considerably: He declares that by
James McAvoy as Captain Frederick Aiken, an idealistic young war attacking the Church, the King has become "the Devil's minister." More
hero who reluctantly defends Surratt and in the process comes to admonishes him to be more guarded as Rich arrives, pleading again
believe in her innocence for a position at Court. When More again refuses, Rich denounces
Robin Wright as Mary Surratt, the only woman among the group More's steward as a spy for Thomas Cromwell. An unmoved More
charged with killing the president responds, "Of course, that's one of my servants."
Evan Rachel Wood as Anna Surratt, Mary Surratt's daughter
Kevin Kline as Edwin Stanton, Secretary of War Humiliated, Rich joins Cromwell in attempting to bring down More.
Tom Wilkinson as Reverdy Johnson, a former attorney general and Meanwhile, the King has Parliament declare him "Supreme Head of the
current U.S. Senator who is Aiken's mentor Church of England" and demands that bishops and Parliament
Alexis Bledel as Sarah Weston, Aiken's girlfriend renounce all allegiance to the Pope. More quietly resigns as Lord
Danny Huston as Brigadier General Joseph Holt, the prosecuting Chancellor rather than accept the new order. His close friend, Thomas
attorney[7] Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, attempts to draw out his opinions in a
Stephen Root as John M. Lloyd, a principal witness for the friendly private chat, but More knows that the time for speaking openly
prosecution[8] of such matters is over.
Jonathan Groff as Louis Weichmann, a principal witness for the
prosecution Cromwell, in a meeting with Norfolk, implies that More's troubles would
Justin Long as Nicholas Baker, Aiken's best friend, an injured Civil War be over were he to attend the King's wedding to Anne Boleyn. When
veteran More declines the invitation, he is summoned again to Hampton Court,
Johnny Simmons as John Surratt, Mary Surratt's son[9] now occupied by Cromwell. More is interrogated, but refuses to
Toby Kebbell as John Wilkes Booth, the man who assassinates answer. Infuriated, Cromwell declares that the King views him as a
Abraham Lincoln. traitor, but allows him to return home.
Norman Reedus as Lewis Payne, the man who attempts to assassinate
William H. Seward Upon returning home, Meg informs her father that a new oath is being
John Cullum as Andrew Wylie, a judge of the Supreme Court of the circulated and that all must take it or face charges of high treason.
District of Columbia Initially, More says he would be willing to take the oath, provided it
Marcus Hester as David Herold, one of the conspirators refers only to the King's marriage to Boleyn. Upon learning that it
Colm Meaney as Major General David Hunter, president of the military names the King as Supreme Head of the Church, More refuses to take
commission that tries the conspirators it and is subsequently imprisoned in the Tower of London.
Shea Whigham as Captain Cottingham, a witness for the defense
James Badge Dale as William Hamilton, a friend of Aiken's More remains steadfast in his refusal to take the Oath and refuses to
Jim True-Frost as Brigadier General John F. Hartranft, commander of explain his objections, knowing that he cannot be convicted if he hasn't
the Old Capitol Prison explicitly denied the King's supremacy. A request for new books to read
John Michael Weatherly as George Atzerodt, a conspirator charged backfires, resulting in confiscation of the books he has, and Rich
with the assassination of Vice President Johnson removes them from More's cell.
Chris Bauer as Major Smith, a witness for the prosecution
More is finally brought to trial, but refuses to speak about the marriage
A MAN FOR ALL SEASONS or why he will not take the Oath, and cites his silence in defence. Rich
The film covers the years 1529 to 1535, during the reign of King Henry then testifies that when he came to take away More's books, More told
VIII. him he would not take the Oath because the King could not be Head of
the Church, thus committing treason by contradicting the Act of
During a private late-night meeting at Hampton Court, Cardinal Wolsey, Supremacy. More is convicted of treason on the perjured testimony of
Lord Chancellor of England, chastises More for being the only member Rich, who has been made Attorney-General for Wales as a reward.
of the Privy Council to oppose Wolsey's attempts to obtain a divorce
for King Henry VIII from the Vatican so that he can marry Anne Boleyn, More says goodbye to his wife Alice, Meg and Roper, urging them not
as his present queen, Catherine, has not produced a male heir, risking to try to defend him. With nothing left to lose, More denounces the
another period of dynastic wars like the Wars of the Roses. More states King's actions as illegal, citing the Biblical basis for the authority of the
that he can never go along with Wolsey's suggestion that they apply Papacy over Christendom and further declaring that the Church's
"pressure" on Church property and revenue in England. Unknown to immunity to State interference is guaranteed both in Magna Carta and
More, the conversation is overheard by Wolsey's aide, Thomas in the King's own Coronation Oath. As the audience screams in protest,
Cromwell. More is condemned to death by beheading. Before his execution on
Tower Hill, More pardons the executioner, and says, "I die His Majesty's
Returning to his home at Chelsea at dawn, More finds his young good servant, but God's first."
acquaintance Richard Rich waiting for his return to lobby for a position
at Court. More recommends instead that Rich find a job as a teacher. A narrator intones the epilogue, listing the subsequent untimely deaths
Rich declines More's advice, saying that has little prestige. More finds of the major characters, apart from Richard Rich, who "became
his daughter Meg chatting with a brilliant young lawyer named William Chancellor of England, and died in his bed."
Roper, who announces his desire to marry her. The devoutly Catholic
Cast to keep him in prison to avoid admitting their mistake. Betty Anne is
Paul Scofield as Sir Thomas More heartbroken again, but refuses to give up after Barry advises her that
Wendy Hiller as Alice More their discovery not only proves Kenny's innocence, but also that the
Leo McKern as Thomas Cromwell main witnesses against him were lying.
Orson Welles as Cardinal Wolsey
Robert Shaw as Henry VIII Betty Anne, Abra, and Scheck visit the other two main trial witnesses,
Susannah York as Margaret More Kenny's ex-wife and his ex-girlfriend. Both tearfully confess that
Nigel Davenport as the Duke of Norfolk Sergeant Taylor coerced them into perjuring themselves at Kenny's
John Hurt as Richard Rich trial. With an affidavit from Kenny's ex-wife and the DNA evidence,
Corin Redgrave as William Roper (the Younger) Kenny's conviction is vacated and he is freed from prison in June 2001.
Colin Blakely as Matthew Betty Anne is able to persuade his daughter, Mandy, whom he hadn't
Cyril Luckham as Archbishop Thomas Cranmer had any contact with since she was a small child, that he never stopped
Vanessa Redgrave as Anne Boleyn trying to reach out to her while he was in prison. He is able to reconnect
Jack Gwillim as Chief Justice with his daughter, and is reunited with his sister and her sons.

CONVICTION Cast
Betty Anne Waters' life revolves around her brother, who is now in jail Hilary Swank as Betty Anne Waters
for murder. Despite Kenny's knack for getting in trouble, they have Bailee Madison as Young Betty Anne Waters
always been close. After the murder, Kenny is initially brought in for Sam Rockwell as Kenny Waters
questioning by Sergeant Nancy Taylor, but released. Two years later, Minnie Driver as Abra Rice
based on new testimony from two witnesses, Kenny is arrested and Ele Bardha as Don
tried. The evidence presented at Kenny's trial is entirely circumstantial,
Melissa Leo as Nancy Taylor
but he is convicted of first degree murder and sentenced to life in prison
Ari Graynor as Mandy Marsh
without parole. The three main witnesses against him are Sergeant Loren Dean as Rick Miller
Taylor, his ex-wife Brenda, and ex-girlfriend Roseanna. Karen Young as Elizabeth Waters
Jennifer G. Roberts as Martha Coakley
Three years later, Betty Anne lives with her husband, Rick and two Clea DuVall as Brenda Marsh
sons, Richard and Ben. She is frantic that she has not heard from Juliette Lewis as Roseanna Perry
Kenny, who calls her every week from prison, and finally discovers that Peter Gallagher as Barry Scheck
he tried to commit suicide. Betty Anne decides to go back to school and
become a lawyer so she can exonerate him, but her husband is GHOSTS OF MISSISSIPPI
skeptical and unsupportive, and eventually they split up. As Betty Anne Medgar Evers was an African-American civil rights activist in
struggles with being a working mother attending law school, flashbacks Mississippi who was murdered by an assassin on June 12, 1963. It was
reveal that her mother was callous and uncaring, forcing Kenny and suspected that Byron De La Beckwith, a white supremacist, was the
Betty Anne to fend for themselves. The two were very close, but murderer. He had been tried twice and both trials ended in hung juries.
frequently got into trouble, and were eventually taken away from their In 1989, Evers' widow Myrlie, who had been trying to bring De La
mother and sent to separate foster homes. Beckwith to justice for over 25 years, believed she had what it takes to
bring him to trial again. Although most of the evidence from the old trial
Betty Anne continues to visit Kenny in prison, working in a bar while had disappeared, Bobby DeLaughter, an assistant District Attorney,
going to school, but her busy schedule causes her to miss a planned decided to help her despite being warned that it might hurt his political
outing with her sons, who decide they would be better off living with aspirations and despite the strain that it caused in his marriage.
their father. Struggling in school, demoralized and exhausted, Betty DeLaughter becomes primarily involved with bringing De La Beckwith
Anne stops going to classes, until a friend from school, Abra, comes to to trial for the third time 30 years later. In 1994, Byron De La Beckwith
her house and prods her to just get up, get dressed, and get back to was found guilty and sentenced to life imprisonment, giving justice to
class. the family of Medgar Evers.

In a study group, Betty Anne learns about the new field of DNA testing Cast
and realizes that this could be the key to overturning Kenny's Alec Baldwin as Bobby DeLaughter
conviction, as only blood types had been matched at the time of the Whoopi Goldberg as Myrlie Evers
trial. She contacts attorney Barry Scheck from the Innocence Project. James Woods as Byron De La Beckwith
The backlog of cases will mean waiting at least 18 months unless she Virginia Madsen as Dixie DeLaughter
can pass the bar exam and find the blood evidence from Kenny's trial Susanna Thompson as Peggy Lloyd
herself to have it tested. She passed the bar exam and now she is Craig T. Nelson as Ed Peters
working hard to get her brother out of jail. At first she is stonewalled, Lucas Black as Burt DeLaughter
then told the evidence was destroyed, but she refuses to give up, and Alexa PenaVega as Claire DeLaughter
she and Abra embark on an odyssey to recover any evidence that might William H. Macy as Charlie Crisco
still be stored away somewhere. In the process, Betty Anne learns that Benny Bennett as Lloyd "Benny" Bennett (Himself)
Nancy Taylor was fired from the police department for fabricating Diane Ladd as Grandma Caroline Moore
evidence in another case, which deepens Betty Anne's suspicions Margo Martindale as Clara Mayfield
about Kenny's conviction and the evidence presented at trial. She is Darrell Evers as Himself
told that the evidence has been moved to the courthouse but after 10 Yolanda King as Reena Evers
years it was destroyed. Refusing to give up, she and Abra travel to Ayer
and personally ask the courthouse supervisor to look through the I AM SAM
records and the evidence is found. When the DNA results come back Sam Dawson (Sean Penn), a man with an intellectual disability, is the
and establish that the blood was not Kenny's. Betty Anne and Kenny single father of Lucy (Dakota Fanning), following their abandonment by
are overjoyed anticipating his release, but Martha Coakley, of the her mother, who is revealed to be a homeless woman. Sam is well-
District Attorney's office, refuses to vacate the conviction, claiming that adjusted and has a supportive group of friends with disabilities, as well
there was still enough evidence to convict Kenny as an accomplice. as a kind, agoraphobic neighbor Annie (Dianne Wiest) who takes care
Kenny is convinced that no matter what, the authorities will find a way
of Lucy when Sam cannot. Though Sam provides a loving place for shut case. Public defender James Stamphill (Christian Slater), a recent
precocious Lucy, she soon surpasses his mental ability. graduate of Harvard Law School, is given the case. After discovering
the facts of Young's case, Stamphill attempts to put Alcatraz on trial by
Other children tease her for having a father that has mental problems, alleging that its harsh conditions drove him insane. The trial becomes
and she becomes too embarrassed to accept that she is more highly politicized and contentious. Eventually Young is convicted of
intellectually advanced than Sam. He gets advice of his friends, as well involuntary manslaughter, not first degree murder. He is returned to
as hiring a lawyer, Rita Harrison (Michelle Pfeiffer), whose complete Alcatraz where he subsequently dies. The film concludes with ″The
absorption in her work and carelessness of her son reveal her to be at Rock's″ associate warden Milton Glenn (Gary Oldman) being convicted
least as handicapped as Sam is, although in a socially acceptable way. for mistreatment and banned from working in the US penal system.
In an attempt to prove to others that she is not cold, Rita agrees to take
on Sam's case pro bono. As they work together to secure Sam's rights, Christian Slater as James Stamphill
Sam helps Rita see her own life, anew. This includes encouraging her Kevin Bacon as Henri Young
to leave her philandering husband and repairing her fractious Gary Oldman as Warden Milton Glenn
relationship with her son. She and Sam have a moment together when Embeth Davidtz as Mary McCasslin
they reveal that they are never enough. William H. Macy as D.A. William McNeil
Stephen Tobolowsky as Mr. Henkin
At the trial, Sam cries. After the trial, Lucy resides in a foster home with Brad Dourif as Byron Stamphill
Randy Carpenter (Laura Dern), but tries to convince Sam to help her R. Lee Ermey as Judge Clawson
run away, and continually escapes in the middle of the night to go to Mia Kirshner as Rosetta Young
Sam's apartment, (having learned from the failed attempt to run away) Ben Slack as Jerry Hoolihan
he immediately returns her. The foster family decides not to adopt her
like they planned. They decide to give her back to Sam. When returning TOWN WITHOUT PITY
Lucy to Sam, Randy tells him that she will tell the judge that Sam is a In occupied Germany fifteen years after the end of World War II, four
better parent for Lucy. Sam asks Randy if she will help him raise her somewhat drunk American soldiers leave a bar where "Town Without
because he feels like he needs help, and Lucy needs another parent. Pity" is playing on the jukebox and head to a river in the countryside.
Meanwhile, sixteen-year-old local Karin Steinhof (Christine Kaufmann)
The final scene depicts a soccer game, in which Sam referees and in has a quarrel with her 19-year-old boyfriend, Frank Borgmann, on the
which Lucy participates as a player. In attendance are Lucy's former banks of the same river. She swims back to her starting point and strips
foster family, Sam's friendship group, and a newly single Rita with her out of her wet bikini when she is confronted by Sergeant Chuck Snyder
son. (Frank Sutton) and gang raped by him, Corporal Birdwell Scott (Richard
Jaeckel), Private Joey Haines (Mal Sondock), and Corporal Jim Larkin
Cast (Robert Blake). When Frank hears her screams for help, he swims
Sean Penn as Samuel John "Sam" Dawson across the river to help her, but he is knocked out by one of the rapists.
Michelle Pfeiffer as Rita Harrison Williams After the four men are finished, the guilt-ridden Larkin lingers behind;
Dakota Fanning as Lucy Diamond Dawson he covers the victim with his shirt before fleeing with the other three.
Allison and Jillian Thormahlen as infant Lucy
Ryan Williams as 6 month old Lucy The men are quickly apprehended. To appease the anger and outrage
Felicity Ann and Makindra Sherry Forbes as 18 month old Lucy of the Germans, the division commanding general, Major General
Elle Fanning as 2 year old Lucy Stafford orders that their court martial be held in public in the local high
Amanda Lehaf as 4 year old Lucy school gymnasium. The prosecutor, Lieutenant Colonel Jerome
Dianne Wiest as Annie Cassell Pakenham (E. G. Marshall), seeks the death penalty. Major Steve
Loretta Devine as Margaret Calgrove Garrett (Kirk Douglas) is assigned to defend the accused. After
Richard Schiff as Mr. Turner interviewing his clients, Garrett tries to plea bargain for long sentences
Laura Dern as Miranda "Randy" Carpenter at hard labor, but Pakenham feels he has a strong case. Garrett starts
Marin Hinkle as Patricia investigating, questioning the residents. He is followed by Inge Koerner
Stanley DeSantis as Robert (Barbara Rütting), a hostile German reporter from what Garrett
Doug Hutchison as Ifty considers to be a scandal-seeking newspaper.
Rosalind Chao as Lily
Ken Jenkins as Judge Philip McNeily At the start of the trial, three of the men plead not guilty. Larkin tries to
enter a plea of guilty, but is overruled by Garrett. Garrett produces an
MURDER IN THE FIRST army psychiatrist who had been treating Larkin before the incident. The
He is apprehended by the store clerk, and his sister is sent to an witness testifies that Larkin is impotent for psychological reasons.
orphanage. Because that grocery store also housed a U.S. Post Office Larkin violently denies it, and has to be forcibly removed from the
his crime becomes a federal offense. Young never sees his sister again courtroom. After the first day, Garrett pleads with Karin's bank manager
and is sentenced to Leavenworth Penitentiary, Kansas. After later father, Karl Steinhof (Hans Nielsen), to withdraw her from the trial
being transferred to Alcatraz, he participates in an escape attempt with before it is too late, stating that he will have to break her down on the
two other prisoners. stand to save his clients. He advises Herr Steinhof to take his family
and leave town, but Steinhof refuses.
The escape plan fails due to the betrayal of a fellow inmate, Rufus
McCain (David Michael Sterling). Young is punished by being sent to With no choice, Garrett shows that Karin is not as innocent as she first
"the hole" which is in Alcatraz's dungeons. Except for 30 minutes on appeared, nor is she well liked. He also catches both her and Frank in
Christmas Day in 1940, he is left in there for three years. The solitary pointless little lies to destroy their credibility. As his cross examination
confinement causes Young to lose his sanity. On release back to the of Karin continues, the girl eventually collapses under the strain. Her
general population, he experiences a psychotic episode in the prison father withdraws her from the trial, which ensures that the defendants
cafeteria and attacks McCain, stabbing him to death with a spoon in full cannot be executed. Three are sentenced to long terms at hard labor;
view of the prison staff and the other convicts. Larkin is given a shorter sentence of six years. The damage has been
done, however; the townsfolk turn against Karin.
Young is put on trial in San Francisco for first degree murder in what
prosecutors and the public-defender's office believe is an open-and-
Though Frank attacks him with a whip, Garrett tells him to take Karin privately funded investigation". Director Amy Berg, wrote Morgenstern,
and leave town forever. The young man takes his advice, but to raise "has a dramatist's eye for what was irretrievably lost — the innocent
money, he forges his mother's signature on a check. Determined to lives of the children, plus 18 years of three other innocent lives. And
keep her son under her control, she sends the police after the couple. she saw, equally well, what was there to be gained: dramatic new
While Frank argues with the policemen, Karin runs away. Koerner later insights into an inexorable progression from random arrests through
informs Garrett that Karin drowned herself in the river near where she groundless supposition, fevered conjecture and flagrant perjury to
had been violated. The last line of the title song is, "It isn't very pretty official disgrace in a supposedly airtight case."[8]
what a town without pity can do."
Film critic Philip French of The Observer called West of Memphis
Cast "riveting", and a "shocking indictment of the American criminal justice
Kirk Douglas as Major Garrett system and a tribute to the dedication of selfless civil rights lawyers and
Barbara Rütting as Inge Koerner their supporters from all over the world".[9]
Christine Kaufmann as Karin Steinhof
E. G. Marshall as Lieutenant Colonel Pakenham Owen Gleiberman of Entertainment Weekly gave the film an "A-" and
Hans Nielsen as Karl Steinhof wrote that it "casts a hypnotic spell all its own. It artfully sketches out
Ingrid van Bergen as Trude, a prostitute who provides Garrett with the events for anyone who's coming in cold, but basically, its strategy
information is to take what we already know and go deeper. ... West of Memphis
Robert Blake as Corporal Jim Larkin goes after another possible suspect, Terry Hobbs, who was stepfather
Richard Jaeckel as Corporal Birdwell Scott to one of the victims and who has denied any involvement. In doing so,
Frank Sutton as Staff Sergeant Chuck Snyder the film reframes the story's terrible darkness, even if it can't give us
Mal Sondock as Private Joey Haines the closure we hunger for."[10]
Karin Hardt as Frau Steinhof, Karin's mother
Gerhart Lippert as Frank Borgmann Roger Ebert of Chicago Sun-Times gave the film a perfect four star
Alan Gifford as Major General Stafford rating, writing: "Do we need a fourth film? Yes, I think we do. If you only
Max Haufler as Doctor Urban, called to testify about Larkin see one of them, this is the one to choose, because it has the benefit
Rose Renée Roth as Frau Kulig, a town gossip of hindsight."[3]
Eleonore von Hoogstraten as Frau Borgmann, Frank's mother
Egon von Jordan as Bürgermeister JAGGED EDGE
Philo Hauser as Herr Schmidt An intruder in a black mask ties up San Francisco socialite Paige
Forrester at her remote beach house and kills her with a hunting knife.
WEST OF MEMPHIS He writes the word "Bitch" on the wall with her blood. Her husband Jack
Background is arrested for her murder by Thomas Krasny, a district attorney. Jack
As with the Paradise Lost film and its two sequels, West of Memphis tries to hire high-profile lawyer Teddy Barnes to defend him. Barnes
follows the events of the West Memphis Three, a case in which three used to work for Krasny, and she is reluctant to take the case, as she
teenagers (Jessie Misskelley, Damien Echols and Jason Baldwin) were stopped working in criminal law after an incident with Krasny.
arrested for the murders of three 8-year-old children.[3]
Krasny runs into Barnes. He tells her that "Henry Styles hanged himself
The West Memphis Three were subsequently convicted of murder and in his cell," which distresses her. Barnes visits Sam Ransom, a private
remained in prison for more than 18 years. West of Memphis focuses detective who used to work for Krasny's office as well. He stopped
on Terry Hobbs, stepfather of Stevie Branch, one of the victims of the private investigations at the same time that Barnes left Krasny's office,
1993 crime, as a potential suspect due to physical evidence linking him and it becomes clear that the Styles case was the reason. Barnes
to the crime, a history of violent behavior and his lack of an alibi for the decides to take the case.
time the murders were committed, as well as damaging statements
made by his ex-wife, former neighbors, and most recently his own While preparing for the trial, Barnes and Forrester spend a great deal
nephew, who claims Hobbs confessed to him. The film reveals that of time together, and eventually sleep together. Ransom warns Barnes
inexplicably Terry Hobbs was not interviewed by police at the time of that Forrester is just trying to make her care more about his case. Her
the murders.[3][4] office begins receiving anonymous typed letters that mention things
about the case. All of the letter t's are slightly raised, and analysis
Since the 1996 release of the HBO Joe Berlinger and Bruce Sinofsky determines that they were written on a 1942 Corona typewriter.
documentary, Paradise Lost: The Child Murders at Robin Hood Hills,
supporters protested the innocence of the West Memphis Three.[5] In a pre-trial meeting, Barnes tells the judge that Krasny has a history
Much like the Paradise Lost films, West of Memphis chronicles the of not meeting his discovery obligations. The prosecution's case relies
history of the imprisoned men all the way up to the eventual release mainly on circumstantial evidence. Witness Ginny Howell testifies that
through interviews conducted with lawyers, judges, journalists, family Paige told her she was divorcing Jack, but Barnes discredits her with
members, witnesses, and the West Memphis Three themselves. With evidence, including a love letter, that her advances had been rejected
the January 2012 HBO premiere of the third Paradise Lost film, by Jack, causing Paige to cut off all communication with her. Barnes
Paradise Lost 3: Purgatory,[6] there were two documentary films on the discredits Anthony Fabrizi, a locker-room attendant at a private club
subject within a year. who claims to have seen a hunting knife in Forrester's locker, when he
admits that the knife was in another member's locker.
West of Memphis premiered at the Sundance Film Festival on January
21, 2012, at the Deauville American Film Festival on September 2, Krasny calls Eileen Avery, who had an affair with Forrester. As Avery
2012, and at the Toronto International Film Festival on September 8, details her relationship with Forrester, Barnes finds it eerily similar to
2012.[7] her own relationship with Forrester. She feels manipulated and now
believes Forrester is guilty, but agrees to continue out of a sense of
Critical reception duty. Another note arrives at her office saying, "He is innocent. Santa
Writing in The Wall Street Journal, film critic Joe Morgenstern Cruz. January 21, 1984. Ask Julie Jensen."
described West of Memphis as "a devastating account of police
incompetence, civic hysteria and prosecutorial behavior that was totally Barnes interviews Jensen, who testifies at the trial that she was
at odds with a vastly persuasive body of evidence uncovered in a attacked in the same manner as Paige Forrester. All the details match,
but she says her attacker seemed to stop himself from killing her. As
Krasny objects that the attack on Jensen is unrelated to the one on
Forrester, he lets slip that his office had investigated the attack and not
revealed it in discovery. In chambers, the judge threatens to have
Krasny disbarred. Krasny insists that Forrester staged the earlier attack
in order to create an alibi of sorts for Paige's murder, which he had
planned for 18 months. Krasny also insists that Forrester has been
sending Barnes the anonymous notes.

After Forrester is found not guilty, Barnes announces to the media that
she left Krasny's office over the Henry Styles case, where Krasny
suppressed evidence that proved Styles was innocent. Krasny walks
off in disgust.

Barnes goes to Forrester's house to celebrate, and they sleep together


again. In the morning, she discovers a typewriter in his closet. She tests
it, and the "t" is raised, just as in the anonymous notes. She throws
clothing over the typewriter and flees with it, pretending to Forrester
that her little boy is sick.

When Forrester calls, she tells him that she found the typewriter.
Forrester says that he is baffled and that he is coming over. Barnes
calls Ransom, on the brink of telling him that Forrester is a killer, but
instead hangs up. A masked figure breaks in and confronts her in her
bedroom. As he starts to attack, Barnes throws back the covers to
reveal her gun. She shoots him several times until he falls to the floor.
Ransom comes in and unmasks the attacker: It is Forrester (with a look
of dismay frozen on his face).

Cast
Glenn Close as Teddy Barnes
Jeff Bridges as Jack Forrester
Peter Coyote as Thomas Krasny
Robert Loggia as Sam Ransom
John Dehner as Judge Carrigan
Karen Austin as Julie Jenson
Guy Boyd as Matthew Barnes
Marshall Colt as Bobby Slade
Louis Giambalvo as (Anthony) Fabrizi
Ben Hammer as Dr. Goldman
Lance Henriksen as Frank Martin
Sanford Jensen as Scott Talbot
James Karen as Andrew Hardesty
Leigh Taylor-Young as Virginia (Ginny) Howell
William Allen Young as Greg Arnold
Diane Erickson as Eileen Avery

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