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Bauman's "On Being Light and Liquid”

Solids melted

traditional loyalties, customary rights and obligations

instrumental rationality - determine the role of economy - basis, superstructure
rigidity of order is the artefact and sediment of the human agent’s freedom
dissolution of forces which keep the question of order and system on political agenda
redistribution and reallocaition of modernity’s melting powers
changing relationship between time and space - flexible, expansive; power is extraterritorial
war = promotion of global free trade by other means

1. Steger's "Ideologies of Globalisation”

globality - future social condition characterised by thick economic, political, and cultural interconnections
and global flows that make current existing political borders and economic barriers irrelevant

globalisation - complex social processes that are changing our current social condition based on the
modern system of independent nation-states
– unprecedented compression of time and space
– range of processes nesting under one rather unwieldy epithet

1. uniqueness and morphological sophistication
absorb and rearrange ideas from conventional ideologies
no other focused on shrinking time and space
market as conceptual core
1. context-bound responsiveness to political issues
2. ability to produce effective conceptual decontestation chains
decontestation - specifies the meanings of the core concepts by arranging in a pattern/configuration
simple semantic chains whose conceptual links convey authoritative meanings that facilitate collective

A. Globalisation is about the liberalisation and global integration of markets
– markets are driving force of governments: free-market capitalism
B. inevitable and irreversible
C. Nobody is in charge of globalism
D. Benefits everyone in the long run
E. furthers the spread of democracy
F. Requires global war on terror

beyond industrialisation: multidimensional
process, discourse
condition and outcome generated by the interaction of deeply structured processes of change taking
place over long periods

set of social processes that transition from a pre-modern to a modern society

condition characterised by tight economic, political, cultural and environmental interconnections and
flows making borders and boundaries irrelevant

set of social process that transform weakening nationality to globality
human lives played out in a single space
redefining landscape of sociopolitical processes and social sciences
redefining landscape of sociopolitical processes and social sciences

global imaginary
people’s awareness of belonging to a global community
destabilises and unsettles conventional parameters of undestranding which people imagine their shared

secular forms of power
legitimacy and sovereignty
defined territorial boundaries

monetarized exchange economy
large scale production and consumption of commodities
extensive ownership of private property
accumulation of capital on a systematic and long term basis

no fixed social hierarchies
dynamic social and sexual division of labor
new class formations and distinctive patriarchal relations (modern capitalist)

secular, materialist culture
individualistic, rationalistic and instrumental impulses
new intellectual, cognitive world
cultural and social identities
sense of belonging “imagined community”
symbolic boundaries

capitalist economy - mass production and consumption

rationality (efficiency)
immense bureaucratisation

extensive specialisation/division of labor
mechanical to organic solidarity

modernisation theory
tech and cultural differences = global inequality
tradition - barrier to econ development
progressively linear process (Rostov)
affluent nations = catalysts

dependency theory
historical exploitation = global inequality
wallerstein’s capitalist world economy
affluent nations = perpetrators of impoverishment

modernity = juggernaut, unavoidable force
reflexive, aware= choices, flexibility of law and public opinion
disembodiment from time and space

risk society= preoccupied with future
uncertainties and generate hazards and insecurities

alternatives to nation-state: media, migrants
diasporic public spheres - transnational cultural groups

forego freedom for benefits of increased individual security

Qualifications re: modernity

has not been experienced everywhere and to the same extent
not a straightforward process of cultural homogenisation - there are discontinuities, dialctics/conflicts’’
modernity is not in a progressive linear way
has not eliminated the significance of territoriality
cannot be understood in terms of a single driving force
has to be understood as a normative process of meaning making; has ideological and political

3) Hamilton's "The Enlightenment and the Birth of Social Science”


enlightenment was the creation of a new framework of ideas about man, society and nature that
challenged existing concepcionts rooted in the traditional view dominated by christianity
cultural innovations in writing, printing, painting, music, sculpture and the art; technological innovations
framed social theories
universalised human knowledge bc specialised disciplines
first to last quarter of 18th century
france, european states
philosophes - man of letters who is a freethinker, cosmopolitans, citizens of an enlightened intellectual
a general process of society awakening from the dark slumbers of superstition and ignorance

science was the supreme form of knowledge, based on experiment and observation
encyclopedie - man realising his potential through the use of his mind
instructive and grand
refusal to accept anything uncritically

Tradition and Modernity

– experience, experiment, reason

Social orders and social structure

– not as subversive of traditional social structure: self-interest
– trad structure based on land ownership
– noble landowners
– professionals
– middle class
– middle class
– domestic servants and urban working class
– peasants/smallholders
– 18th century:
– third estate

women and enlightenment

– salon

Enlightenment as the Pursuit of Modernity

belief in pre-eminence of empirical, materialist knowledge
enthusiasm for technological and medical progress - curers of society’s ills
desire for legal and const reform - liberty

moral science/socio - human conditions as prelude to emancipation of man from ties of superstition,
ignorance ideology and feudal social relationships

Enlightenment, Science and Progress

Progress - social institutions could be created to make men happier and free from cruelty, injustice and

– new secular intelligentsia and give role of the intellectual a social and cultural base independent of trad
institutions, represented change in the way in which ideas were created, disseminated and was a truly
modern intellectual movement; propagation depended upon the creation of secular and cross-cultural
forms of communication
– academy, journal, conference

19th and 20th centuries - gulf emerged between natural and social sciences

naturalism - notion that cause and effect sequences in the natural world fully explain social phenomena
control of prejudice

> scientific methods to justify reform of social institutions?

> cultural relativism?

*Englightenment played a part in the emergence of social sciences

– forged a modern conception of society as an entity open to human agency
– reflected human interests
*French Revolution - trad vs modern
*improve human life
*concept of society - new combination of people, inset, social groups and manu processes
*person is microcosm of society

new framework of ideas
confidence in intellectual powers
mathematical and scientific laws
cultural movement
18th century, France, freethinkers/philosophes, cosmopolitanism=eurocentrism
1. Anti-clericalism
Christianity: control of knowledge production, dissemination, ideological legitimation for exercise of

absolute power
absolute power

2. Pre-eminence of empirical, materialist knowledge

Locke: knowledge and emotions = product of experience
science supreme form of knowledge - observation, experiment, reason, experience, applied to all
domains of life
encylopedie: instructive and grand (organise info) universalistic (all knowledge could be reconstructed)

3. Technological and medical progress

social institutions that would make men happy and free from cruelty, injustice and despotism
control nature and society’s ills
secular, cross-cultural forms of communication

4. Legal and constitutional reform

british constitution, liberties
american rev and war of independence
hume: universality of human nature/equality
voltaire: freedom of thought and expression, toleration, separation of powers

newton: knowledge and practices-science
moral sciences - moral phil from theo
naturalism - cause and effect explain social phenomena
control of prejudice - preventing value judgments

1. scientific methods - human institutions
2. cultural relativism - human is uniform, varied in response to local conditions

Held's "The Development of the Modern State”

– impersonal and privileged legal or constitutional order with the capability of administering and
controlling a given territory; distinct for of public power, separate from ruler and ruled forming the
supreme political authority within certain defined boundaries
– civil society - private/voluntary arrangements between individuals and groups outside the direct control
of the state
city-state/polis- east, Mesopotamia
europe- creation of many complex processes at the intersection of internal, external forces and relations

– infrastructural strengths vs despotism
– created urself a momentum toward the development of new forms and limits of soft power: reciprocity
between governors and governed, influencing rulers; surveillance and social relations
– international law = westphalian model
– separate and discrete political orders with no common authority

modern state
– from absolutism and interstate system
– nation-states - political apparatuses distinct from ruler and ruled, with supreme jurisdiction over a
demarcated territorial area backed by a claim to a monopoly of coercive power and enjoying a minimum
level of support or loyalty from citizens
1. territoriality
2. control of the means of violence - pacification of people
3. impersonal structure of power
4. legitimacy - not divine right, active citizens of a new order

“nation”- unification of an administrative apparatus over precisely defined territorial boundaries

“nation”- unification of an administrative apparatus over precisely defined territorial boundaries

*barely bound by constitution = arrogant absolutist states

*absolutist states=less power over civil society

1. Constitutionalism/constitutional state - limits on decision-making; procedural(specifying
decisions)/substansive (blocking changes); safeguard rights and liberties of citizens
2. liberal state - private sphere independent of state, civil society from interference and delimiting state’s
authority; constitutionalism, private property, competitive market economy, patriarchal family
3. liberal or representative democracy - elected officers representing interests of citizens within rule of law,
sub-group of representatives
4. one-party or single party polity


– ability of states to secure their power bases and order affairs internally and externally
– “security dilemma"
– realist tendencies
– internal considerations: widen and secure power base
– war depended on extraction of resources - state structures to aid coordination and control of subject
populations (extraction and formation of admin)

capital-intensive - merchants and capitalists governed structures

coercive-intensive - landlords gained greater control of state, blocked development of councils

– the more costly and demanding war became, rulers had to bargain for and win support of subjects
– more people were drawn into war preps, aware of membership in a political community and rights and
– nationalism was a force in the development of democratic nation-states; administrative unification of
– national identies = struggle for membership in the new political communities, struggle by elites and
governments to create new identity to legitimise state actions; gain state power


world-empires - political units, imperial bureaucracies, armies
world-ecoomies - economic unit that transcended the boundaries of political structures

world capitalist economy

– market relations expansion - raw materials
– agricultural and navigational
modern state has dual anchorage in class divided socio-economic structures, international system of states
– nation states won war, economically successful = legitimacy
– organise and fund military power = warfare
– economies sustained capital accumulation: economic basis expanded,reduced war-making ability of
– support of people

16th century
sovereignty-theory of legitimate power/authority
state sovereignty - state with ultimate authority to define public right
popular socereighty - people’s will, direct determination by the public
– all-powerful sovereign capable of securing the conditions of peaceful and commodious living
– self-perpetuating, undivided and absolute
– safety of the people
– where sovereign authority lay?
– proper form and limits?

– people
– enactment of law according to standards and requirements of the common good
– public discourse and agreement
– citizens-> general will- common good

Hobbes and Rosseau

– potentially tyrannical implications
– no limits on state minorities ought to const to majorities

– government - defence of life, liberty and estate
– individual rights as gained down by God’s will and law
– constitutional state in which public power is legally circumscribed and divided
– people = final judges
– wherever law ends, tyranny behind
– governmental supremacy = delegated on trust

– governors must be accountable to the governed through political mechanisms which alone can give
citizens the satisfactory means for choosing, authorising and controlling political decisions

Marx and Engels

– liberty, equality and justice could not be realised simply by free struggle for votes and profit in market
– class societies, state cannot pursue common good replace machinery of the liberal democratic state by
a commune structure: pyramid

– critic of Marxsm
– territoriality and violence
– monolozying the legitimate use of violence within a given territory
– legitimacy - commitment to a code of legal regulations
– administrative apparatuses

– intersection of national nd international
– subjects, citizens; states system and international economy
– supreme = waging war, economic resources and claims to legitimacy
– went to war to enhance economic activity for legitimation
– system of organisations and relations which can make ands have socio, political and economic changes
– system of power in its own rights

capacity for surveillance extended admin power
dependence on cooperative forms of social relations; reciprocity
inter-state integration
sovereignty and inter-state integration
westpahlia: sovereign , equal, national interest, non-interference
impersonal structure: supreme jurisdiction over territory, political rights, obligations and duties are not
tied to property, religion, nobility
war for capitalist expansion and legitimation
diffusion of power through sea-going military and commercial endeavours

marx and engels

capitalism economy -> systematic inequality and massive restrictions
state reinforces social order for enhancement of capital interest

feared that pol life would be ensured by a rationalised, bureaucracy

What are modern states?

Noam Chomsky: there were set of standards to determine failed states
James Scot: Indochina-India - Zomia (zomies resisted state-like rule, internal colonialism illustrates uneven
development inside a country)
fragile states
government is not functioning well
internal conflicts/local wars
absence of police power
dependence on international institutions
economic destitution

Role of absolutism
instrumental in forging the modern states
expansion of the capacity for surveillance (i.e. collection and storing of info and the supervision of
populations) extended the administrative power of the state
dependence on cooperative forms of social relations; reciprocity between governors and governed;
more opportunities to influence leaders
for it to succeed, it has to be seen as legitimate; authority has to be constantly won
inter-state integration mutual recognition of sovereignty (i.e. state should have equal rights to self-

Sovereignty and inter-state integration

The model of Westphalia
emergence of a world community of sovereign states which recognise no superior authority; right to
legal equality between states
national interest reigns supreme
principle of non-interference

What is a modern state?

– political apparatuses, distinct from both ruler and ruled, with supreme jurisdiction over a demarcated
territorial area, backed by a claim to a monopoly of coercive power and enjoying a minimum level of
support or loyalty from their citizens

key innovations
1. territoriality - exact borders
2. control of the means of violence - legitimate use of force, necessitated the “pacification of peoples”or
the breaking down of rival centres of power and authority in the nation-state
3. impersonal structure of power - a legally circumscribed structure of power with supreme jurisdiction
over a territory; challenges the notion that political rights, obligations and duties are tied to property

rights, religion and claims of nobility

rights, religion and claims of nobility
4. legitimacy - necessitated the erosion of claims to “divine right” or state right, “peoples’ as active
citizens of the new order rather than mere dutiful subjects of the emperor/monarch; support for the
nation-state had to be won

What makes the nation integral to the nation-state is not the existence of sentiments of nationalism (i.e.
sharing a strong linguistic, religious and symbolic identity) but the unification of an administrative apparatus
over precisely defined territorial boundaries”
not just sentiments of nationalism

why are nation-states preeminent?

1. War and militarism
a. the development and maintenance of a coercive capability was central to the development of the
b. the ability of the states to secure and strengthen their power bases and order their affairs, internally
and externally; ability to organise means of coercion and deploy them
c. competition between states and the security dilemma
d. extraction and the building of a sophisticated bureaucracy to manage resources and populations
What occasioned the supremacy of nation states?

Notions of sovereignty?

February 28, 2017

Economic motives or interests gave birth to the modern state apparatus
*state needed monetary sustenance
*those who were running the economy needed protection and assurance
*strong state apparatus that needs to be mindful when dealing with the economy

why is the world capitalist system?

world capitalist system - taking advantage of periphery states

Brown's "The Emergence of the Economy”

18th century- age of commerce, birth of a consumer society

– whole small-scale and piecemeal; industry was labour intensive and skill intensive, work-unit of
– wool, leather, building, cotton
– end of 18th, commerce
– nascent consumerism, pre-modern industries
– pre-industrial
19th century- flexibility and technological innovation

– service sector
– tech innovation
– post-industrial society

Adam Smith
– high priest of capitalism
– invisible hand - economic activities of profit-seeking individuals result in the greatest economic good for
– fundamental harmony of interests between the activities of profit-seeking individuals and general good
of society


– harnesses self-interest of every individual; wellbeing is promoted
– harnesses self-interest of every individual; wellbeing is promoted
– state is absolved from duty of directing the economic affairs of private individuals, only basic
infrastructure of legal order, private property, external defence
– public goods
– economy - separate domain of social life, distinct from political and moral duties of state
Division of Labor
– increase in productivity
– different trades
– within the manufacture of single good

– need to save and increase the stock of capital so that production can be expanded
– better condition
– vanity not ease/pleasure that interests us
– positional goods - can’t be owned by a large number of people without losing something of their appeal

David Ricardo
– income between 3 classes: landlord, capitalist, labourers; rent, profits, wages

Karl Marx
– wealth of nations- ideological defence of capitalism
– irreconcilable conflict of interest between capital and labor (capitalism)
– exploitation of working class and revolutionary to overthrow capitalist system

john maynard keynes

– unemployment
– individual interest is not always consonant with general
– failure of aggregate demand

– theory of invisible hand as an account of capitalist market mechanism
– division of labor as explanation of the sources of increased productiveness
– pervasiveness and strength of motive to better one’s condition as a spur to individual profit-seeking
natural liberty

– economic agents would choose how to use economic property, would best promote country’s opulence
– agriculture first then domestic manufactures, foreign trade

– wealth of nations- signpost for emerging liberal capitalist oder
– but writings do not unambiguously lend support to the interpretation; system of natural liberty based on
natural progress of opulence fro agriculture to manufactures to commerce
– works can be understood in terms of discourses of the enlightenment period

1. impersonality - objective reality between the ruler and the ruled

cannot be an accessory of an interest group
2. strengthen state’s administrative power - increased capacity to administer its territory, increased
surveillance and defining boundaries
3. increased importance of legitimacy - coerce and coax to consent

18th century Europe

dubbed age of commerce, birth of a consumer society

main features
1. population increased and urban areas grew
1. population increased and urban areas grew
2. improvement of canals and roads whichh reduced travel time
3. improved communications
4. development of retailing and advertising
5. emphasis of politeness, refined way of life

Adam Smith 1723-1790

Wealth of Nations- invisible hand, economy can take care of its own, self-correct without state intervention
economic activities of profit-seeking individuals result in the greatest economic good for society as a whole

the free market economy

interpreted as the basis for free trade; position against state involvement in the economy
it is both unnecessary and inefficient for the state to take an active economic role
laissez-faire - the state provides the basic infrastructure of keg order, protection and private opportunity

Division of Labor
made possible an enormous increase in the productivity of labor in opulent countries
rationalisation of processes geared toward the promotion of efficiency, productivity, calculability,
uniformity and control
creation of bureaucratic insitutiotns

need to save and increase the stock of capital so that production can be expanded
ambition is based on a person’s desire to be approved by others (vanity)
not the pursuit of riches and luxuries for own sake, but the effect which the possession of these items
will have on other people

David Ricardo
distribution of income in 3 main classes of society
theory of comparative advantage: industry specialisation and free trade]

smith=defense of capitalism
conflict of interest between capital and labor
asymmetrical and exploitative econ relation during industrialisation

john maynard keynes

unemployment not exploitation - failure of aggregate demand
efficient, equitable capitalist system
individual vs general interest

natural liberty
natural order of economic progression - preference of people, econ agents choose how they use
agriculture, domestic manufavures, foreign trade

Thorstein Veblen’s conspicuous consumption


What is cultural politics?

– role of culture in shaping political, economic and social life
– culture as an area where social, economic and political values and meanings are created and contested

The interpretation of social meanings that support, challenge or change the definitions, perspectives and
identities of social actors to the advantage of some and the disadvantage of others across state and society

cultural arrangements benefit some, disadvantage others

cultural arrangements benefit some, disadvantage others

Critique of modern Society

culture industry - theodor adorno, max horkheimer
rationalised and bureaucratised structures that create and control modern culture
conditioning the minds of populace to need something, providing to address those needs
mass culture = phone culture
modernity = ideological, commodity in itself to benefit those who are of interest
rise of the “knowledge industry” - entities concerned with knowledge production that have become
habermas’s legitimations - systems of ideas generated by the political system to support the existence
of the system

culture industry not so much adapts to the reactions of its customers as it counterfeits them

arenas and perspectives

1. popular culture - ongoing trend, readily accessible
2. digital culture
3. social movements and culture
4. interdisciplinary cultural theory

I. Popular culture
– focuses on issues of race, ethnicity, class, gender, sexuality, cultural imperialism and censorship as
shaped by and redlgected in various mass media
– difference and hierarchy

Chomsky’s necessary illusion

– popular cultures can be regarded as necessary illusion
– means to manufacture consent
– mass media is more than PR industry for rich and powerful
– its function is to sell to the public rather than inform
– “thought control” - trading mids of people to a virtuous attachment to government.. and to the
arrangements of the social, economic and political order more generally
– “manufacturing consent” - necessary illusions and emotionally potent oversimplification

Spivak's Subaltern
Wester academic thinking is produced in order to support western economical results
knowledge is like any other commodity that is exported from th west to the third world for financial and
other types of gain
data or raw material is harvested in the third world country and taken back to the west to be produced
and sold for the benefit of the western readers and especially the western writer

II. Digital Cultures

new techs: 1. reflect offline world, 2. create new cultural interactions 3. new interactions reshape the
real world
inequalities of access to these new media within and between countries
digital divide = access (who is online) and representation (what is online

III. Social movements and cuLTURE

– role of culture as a force in social change movements, historically and in present
– rituals, symbolically charged actions, work of arts and other expressive forms, unique ideologies and
value systems, idiolects, jargons, material culture objects
– symbolic dimension; advocates need handles for a movement to be convincing enough

Tarrow’s Power in Movement

ordinary people join forces in contentious confrontation with elites, authorities and opponents

(domination=power, resistance=subordinate)
(domination=power, resistance=subordinate)
resistance- purview of the marginalised to challenge those in power
mounting, coordinating and sustaining this interaction
known repertoires of contention

Item’s pasyon and Rebolusyon

subversive view
language for venting ill feelings against oppression
contains the limits of prevailing social values and relationships
peasant masses are not cultural dupes
perspectives and views have been muted by attempts to depict the philippine revolution as elite-

– prior to “peaceful revolution”, what led to EDSA was a violent atmosphere
– conditions are generated by

IV. Cultural Theory

– shaped by the struggles of people violently erased from or profoundly misrepresented in histories -
women, indigenous nations, people of color, working class, sexual non conformists, colonised and


– tendency to exotixize the orient -> orientalist
– occident - rationality, reflectivity and dynamism
– orient is regarded as stationary and unchanging

the power and the continued dominance of western ways of intellectual inquiry and the production of
knowledge in the academic, intellectual and cultural spheres of the de-colonized country


contemporary? irreversible, inevitable?
multidimensional, contested. need to problematic
increasing economic interdependence, accelerating flows
political economy: world-capitalist system

– asia is an object of globalisation
– asia is also a subject/agent - spurred the globalisation process
– asia dominated the spice trade, trade routes, science and medicine
– the west only rose after they extracted silver form colonies and pried their way to asian markets
– japanese development pre-world war shaped globalised key parts of the world economy
– colonies are ‘laboraties of modernity’
– innovations in political form and social imaginary and in what defined the modern itself were not
european exports rather other way
– ex PH, colonial policing in the colony transformed both philippine polity and us national security
– Dutch East Indies: realm of intimate and personal influenced sexuality and social reform
– reemergence = restoration of traditional dominant position
– TODAy: china (money lending), india (textile), foreign workers and remittance, regional free trade
agreements and open regionalism

– asia is a counter narrative to western globalisation

– asia is a counter narrative to western globalisation
– international organization
– terrorism
– homogenisation??? asia has diverse processes of engagement, individual responses to the
occurrence of globalisation and modernity


– what are the advantages and disadvantages of globalisation in terms of media and religion?
– think of a country to compare ph to. similarities and differences in we globalise through media and
through religion

– religion/tradition was undermined by rationality (Weber)
– religion in th private sphere
– not all states have undergone secularisation like PH, Shariah laws

– Religion is now a transnational force
– in a modern society, people can get disenchanted easily. we need mechanisms to ensure that that
social and moral fabric stays intact.
– Religion= collective effervescence (Durkheim)
– no post-secular society because religion has always been public ?? discourse

mass media/social media

– has cultural, economic and political role
– have we forged a global village?
– media has been responsible for disseminating narratives, ideology that favour the current capitalist
– makes sure capitalism stays stronger


– post-secular society
– post-secularity - return of religion to the public sphere
– religious fundamentalism emerged
– secularism and modernity
– security is a movement that universals and unifies
– so every state take on the same characteristics
– breaches cultural boundaries
– but secularism is not a byproduct of ideological globalization but as a voluntary action that is initiated
– inherent western bias
– religion is a manifestation of ongoing processes of globalization

– shrinking of the world
– not equated with universalism but interpenetration of universalism and particularism
Space-time & globalization
– global that supersedes the modern age - goes afte, as if modernity gave rice globalisation
– giddens and beck suggest specific historical trajectory that we can point to as global age or
– but the problem is when we assign a specific trajectory, we lose sight that even before we label a point
modernization, maybe before it already has happened
– ongoing process that may have breached a certainn time period
– dialectic of deterritorialization and deterritorialization

theorizing religion
Globalization of religion
Globalization of religion
– spread of religions and specific genres
– mega churches
globalization and religion
– religion is a dynamic entity - it adapts, reshapes their institutional practices and mentalites
– atoned to the times
– church protects itself, but also church’s attempt to discourse on modernity
religion as transnational
– transnational transcendence
– religion becomes the central reference of immigrant communities
– exchange of practices, flows of narratives/ideas
interface between religion and culture
– ability of religion to mold into the fabric of different communities in ways that connect it intimately with
communal and local relations
– shedding of universal uniformity in favor of blending with locality

no globalization without media

media acts as a conduit that disseminates and diffuses the practices beyond place of origin
nations are the result of imagined communities - media helps perpetuate this
while we are consumers of media, we have the capacity to interpret, recreate this globalisation of media
human agency - producers, through media we can also disseminate at varying degrees
mcluhan — global village - media helps facilitate
mumford - media as the influence to maintain status quo, playing field that reinforces power, not an
equal playing field to begin with

MEDIA and econ globalization

– mass media is missionary of global capitalism
– legitimizing argument for global capitalism
– embodies it as well - corporations multiplying like CNN

media and pol globalization

– media corps are powerful political actors
– governments shape and manipulate the news

media and cultural globalization

– media primary carriers of culture
– comprised of people who are active economic agents and aggressive political lobbyists on matters of
– cultural differentialism (multiplicity and pluralism of culture), cultural convergence (malleability, blending,
mcdonalization and hollywoodization) and cultural hybridity (globalization)