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TUTORIAL SEPT 2014 CHEMICAL PROCESS PRINCIPLES (CLB 10904)

CHEMICAL PROCESS PRINCIPLES (CLB 10904)

TUTORIAL 4
CHAPTER 3: SINGLE PHASE SYSTEM (PART 1)

1. Calculate the volume occupied by 150 lbm of CO2 at a pressure of 35.0 ft H2O and at 15°C.
nRT
V=
P
lbmol 0.7302 ft 3 .atm "
150lbm × × o
× #1.8(15) + 32 + 459.67\$% o R
= 44.01lbm lbmol. R = 1250.2724 ft 3
1atm
35.0 ftH 2O ×
33.9 ftH 2O

2. The volume of dry box (A closed chamber with dry nitrogen gas flowing through it) is 12.0 m3. The
dry box is maintained at a positive gauge pressure of 10 m H2O and room temperature (25°C). If the
contents of the box are to be replaced every 15 min, calculate the required mass flow rate of nitrogen
gas (in g/min).
a) Direct solution of the ideal gas equation of state
Pgauge = 10m H 2O
" 1atm %
Pabsolute = Pgauge + Patmosphere = \$10m H 2O × ' +1atm = 1.9678atm
# 10.333m H 2O &
12.0m3
1.9678atm ×
PV 15min mol
n! = = 3
= 64.3440
RT 0.08206L.atm 1m min
× × (25+ 273.15)K
mol.K 1000L
mol 28.02g g
m! = 64.3440 × = 1801.632
min mol min

b) Conversion from standard conditions.

PV n T
=
ˆ
PsVs ns Ts
PV T
n= × ns × s
PsVˆs T
" 12.0m3 %
(1.9678atm) × \$ '
# 15min & 273K mol
= ×1mol × = 64.3073
(1atm)(0.022415m3 ) (25+ 273.15)K min
mol 28.02g g
m! = 64.3073 × = 1801.8905
min mol min

1 DR. KELLY 2014

TUTORIAL SEPT 2014 CHEMICAL PROCESS PRINCIPLES (CLB 10904)
3. The pressure gauge on a 15.0 ft3 tank of oxygen gas at 25°C reads 15 bars. Estimate the mass of
oxygen gas in the tank (in lbm) by
a) Direct solution of the ideal gas equation of state
" 1atm %
Pabsolute = Pgauge + Patmosphere = \$15bar × ' +1atm = 15.8038atm
# 1.01325bar &
PV 15.8038atm ×15.0 ft 3
n= = = 0.6049lbmol
RT ft 3 .atm ( * o
0.7302 × )1.8(25) + 32 + 459.67+ R
lbmol. o R
32lbm
m = 0.6049lbmol × = 19.3568lbm
lbmol

b) Conversion from standard conditions

PV n T PV T
= ⇒n= × ns × s
PsVˆs ns Ts PsVˆs T
(15.8038atm) ×15.0 ft 3 492 o R
n= ×1lbmol × = 0.6053lbmol
(1atm)(359.05 ft 3 ) #1.8(25) + 32 + 459.67% o R
\$ &
32lbm
m = 0.6053lbmol × = 19.3696lbm
lbmol

4. A gas cylinder with a volume of 2.50 L contains 0.005 kmol of CO2 at 300K. Estimate the gas
pressure in atm.
a) Using Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of state
V 2.5L L
Vˆ = = = 0.5
n 1000mol mol
0.005 kmol ×
1kmol
From table B.1, Tc = 304.2K, Pc = 72.9atm,From table 5.3.1 Pitzer acentric factor, ϖ = 0.225
L.atm
(RTc ) 2 (0.08206 × 304.2K ) 2
mol.K L2 .atm
a = 0.42747 = 0.42747 = 3.6539
Pc 72.9atm mol 2
L.atm
RTc (0.08206 × 304.2K )
mol.K L
b = 0.08664 = 0.08664 = 0.0297
Pc 72.9atm mol
m = 0.4508 +1.55171ω − 0.1561ω 2 = 0.4508 +1.55171(0.225) − 0.1561(0.225) 2 = 0.7920
T 300K
Tr = = = 0.9862
Tc 304.2K
2 2
α = #\$1+ m 1− Tr0.5 %& = #\$1+ (0.7920) 1− 0.98620.5 %& = 1.0110
( ) ( )
' L.atm * ' L2 .atm *
RT αa
) 0.08206
(
, × 300K
mol.K +
(1.0110) ) 3.6539
( mol 2 +
,
P= − = − = 38.3974atm
Vˆ − b Vˆ (Vˆ + b) L L ' L *' L L *
0.5 − 0.0297 ) 0.5 ,) 0.5 + 0.0297 ,
mol mol ( mol +( mol mol +

2 DR. KELLY 2014

TUTORIAL SEPT 2014 CHEMICAL PROCESS PRINCIPLES (CLB 10904)
b) Using Van der Waals equation of state

RT a
P= − 2
Vˆ − b Vˆ
27R 2Tc2 RT
a= AND b = c
64Pc 8Pc

c) Using Redlich-Kwong equation of state

RT a
P= − 0.5
Vˆ − b T Vˆ (Vˆ + b)
R 2Tc2.5 RT
a = 0.42747 AND b = 0.08664 c
Pc Pc

5. 1.50 m3/hr of methane flows through a pipeline at 40.0 bar absolute and 300.0K. Using compressibility
factor, z of 0.934, estimate the mass flow rate in kg/h.

PV!
z=
!
nRT
1.50m3 1000L
40bar × ×
PV! hr 1m3 mol
!n = = = 2575.5605
zRT L.bar hr
0.934 × 0.08314 × 300K
mol.K
mol 16.04kg 1kmol kg
m! = 2575.5605 × × = 41.3120
hr kmol 1000mol hr

3 DR. KELLY 2014

TUTORIAL SEPT 2014 CHEMICAL PROCESS PRINCIPLES (CLB 10904)
CHEMICAL PROCESS PRINCIPLES (CLB 10904)
TUTORIAL 4
CHAPTER 3: MULTIPHASE SYSTEM (PART 2)

1. Use Henry’s law to solve this problem. A gas containing 5.0 mol% ethane (C2H6) is in contact with
water at 20.0°C and 15.0 atm. Estimate the mole fraction of the dissolved ethane. Given Henry’s law
constant for ethane in water (20.0°C) is 2.63×104 atm/mole fraction.

From yC2H6 P = xC2H6 H C2H6

Given yC2H6 = 5.0 mole% = 0.05,
H C2H6 = 2.63×104 atm/mole fraction, P = 15.0atm

Therefore xC2H6 =
yC2H6 P
=
(0.05) (15.0atm)
H C2H6 2.63×104 atm/mole fraction
mol C2 H 6
= 2.85×10−5
mol

2. Use Henry’s law to solve this problem. Ethane (C2H6) gas is in contact with water at 20.0°C and 17.5
bar. Estimate the mole fraction of the ethane gas if given 0.02 mol% of the gas were dissolved in the
water. Given Henry’s law constant for ethane in water (20.0°C) is 2.63×104 atm/mole fraction.

From yC2H6 P = xC2H6 H C2H6

Given xC2H6 = 0.002 mole% = 0.0002,
H C2H6 = 2.63×104 atm/mole fraction, P = 7.5bar

Therefore yC2H6 =
xC2H6 H C2H6
=
( )(
0.0002 2.63×104 atm/mole fraction )
P 1atm
17.5bar ×
1.01325bar
mol C2 H 6
= 0.3046
mol

4 DR. KELLY 2014

TUTORIAL SEPT 2014 CHEMICAL PROCESS PRINCIPLES (CLB 10904)
3. An equimolar liquid mixture of benzene (B) and toluene (T) is in equilibrium with its vapor at 40.0°C.
What are the system pressure and the composition of the vapor?
*
From pB = y B P = xB pB(T )
for benzene and pT = yT P = xT pT* (T ) for toluene
* 1203.531
From Antoine Equation, log10 pB(T )
= 6.89272 − = 2.2618
40 + 219.888
*
Therefore pB(T )
= 182.7259mmHg
1346.773
From Antoine Equation, log10 pT* (T ) = 6.95805− = 1.7720
40 + 219.693
Therefore pT* (T ) = 59.1562mmHg
*
From pB = y B P = xB pB(T )
for benzene and pT = yT P = xT pT* (T ) for toluene
Equimolar liquid mixture (xB = xT = 0.5),Vapor fraction, y B and yT = 1− y B
*
y B P = xB pB(T ) ( )(
⇒ y B P = 0.5 182.7259mmHg )
yT P = xT pT* (T ) ⇒ (1− y B )P = (0.5) (59.1562mmHg )
Solve simultaneous equation
mole benzene mole toluene
P =120.9411mmHg, y B = 0.755 , yT = 1− y B = 0.245
mole mole

4. A vapor mixture of 70 mol% benzene (B) and toluene (T) is in equilibrium with its liquid mixture at
60°C. Given the gas-liquid mixture exhibits ideal solution behavior. Determine the system pressure
and the composition of the liquid.
*
From pB = y B P = xB pB(T )
for benzene and pT = yT P = xT pT* (T ) for toluene
* 1203.531
From Antoine Equation, log10 pB(T )
= 6.89272 − = 2.5927
60 + 219.888
*
Therefore pB(T )
= 391.4714mmHg
1346.773
From Antoine Equation, log10 pT* (T ) = 6.95805− = 2.1429
60 + 219.693
Therefore pT* (T ) = 138.9527mmHg
*
From pB = y B P = xB pB(T )
for benzene and pT = yT P = xT pT* (T ) for toluene
Vapor fraction(y B = 0.7, yT = 0.3),Liquid fraction, x B and x T = 1− xB
*
y B P = xB pB(T ) ( )(
⇒ 0.7P = xB 391.471mmHg )
yT P = xT pT* (T ) ⇒ 0.3P = (1− x ) (138.9527mmHg )
B

Solve simultaneous equation

mole benzene mole toluene
P =253.3377mmHg, xB = 0.4530 , xT = 1− xB = 0.547
mole mole

5 DR. KELLY 2014

TUTORIAL SEPT 2014 CHEMICAL PROCESS PRINCIPLES (CLB 10904)
5. Air at 60% relative humidity is cooled isobarically at 1 atm absolute from 92.5°C to 25°C. Estimate
the dew point and degrees of superheat of the air at 95°C.

pH20
Given relative humidity, h r =60% = *
×100%
pH20(90)
From Table B.3, at 90oC, pH20(90)
*
= 577.71mmHg
pH20
Therefore, 60% = ×100%, pH20 = 346.626mmHg
577.71
Dew Point = T at which vapor become saturated
From Table B.3. when pH20 = 346.626mmHg, T = 79.4oC
Note: Interpolation between 79 and 80oC
Dew Point =79.4oC
Degrees of superheat of the air = 92.5oC − 79.4oC = 13.1oC

6. Air is cooled isobarically at 1 atm absolute from 85°C to 25°C. It is determined that the degrees of
superheat of the air as 15.4°C. Determine the relative humidity of the air.

Degrees of superheat of the air = 15.4oC = 85.0 − (Dew point)

Dew Point = 69.6oC
Dew Point = T at which vapor become saturated
From Table B.3. when T = 69.6oC, pH20 = 229.712mmHg
pH20
Given relative humidity, h r = *
×100%
pH20(85)
From Table B.3, at 85oC, pH20(85)
*
= 433.6mmHg
229.712
Therefore, h r = ×100% = 53%
433.6