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236 CHAPTER 3 Torsion

Strain Energy in Torsion

Problem 3.9-1 A solid circular bar of steel (G  11.4  106 psi)


d
with length L  30 in. and diameter d  1.75 in. is subjected to T T
pure torsion by torques T acting at the ends (see figure).
(a) Calculate the amount of strain energy U stored in the bar
L
when the maximum shear stress is 4500 psi.
(b) From the strain energy, calculate the angle of twist 
(in degrees).

Solution 3.9-1 Steel bar


(a) STRAIN ENERGY
d
T T
T 2L d 3tmax 2 L 32
U ¢ ≤ ¢ ≤¢ ≤
2GIP 16 2G d 4
L
d 2Lt2max
 (Eq. 2)
16G
G  11.4  106 psi Substitute numerical values:
L  30 in. U  32.0 in.-lb
d  1.75 in.
(b) ANGLE OF TWIST
max  4500 psi
Tf 2U
16 T d 3tmax U f 
tmax  3 T  (Eq. 1) 2 T
d 16
Substitute for T and U from Eqs. (1) and (2):
d 4
IP  2Ltmax
32 f (Eq. 3)
Gd
Substitute numerical values:
f  0.013534
rad  0.775

Problem 3.9-2 A solid circular bar of copper (G  45 GPa) with length


L  0.75 m and diameter d  40 mm is subjected to pure torsion by
torques T acting at the ends (see figure).
(a) Calculate the amount of strain energy U stored in the bar when the
maximum shear stress is 32 MPa.
(b) From the strain energy, calculate the angle of twist  (in degrees)

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SECTION 3.9 Strain Energy in Torsion 237

Solution 3.9-2 Copper bar


d
T T (a) STRAIN ENERGY
T 2L d 3tmax 2 L 32
U ¢ ≤ ¢ ≤¢ ≤
L 2GIP 16 2G d 4

G  45 GPa d2Lt2max
 (Eq. 2)
16G
L  0.75 m
Substitute numerical values:
d  40 mm
U  5.36 J
max  32 MPa
(b) ANGLE OF TWIST
16T d 3tmax
tmax  T  (Eq. 1) Tf 2U
d 3 16 U f 
2 T
d 4 Substitute for T and U from Eqs. (1) and (2):
IP 
32
2Ltmax
f (Eq. 3)
Gd
Substitute numerical values:
f  0.026667 rad  1.53

d2 d1
Problem 3.9-3 A stepped shaft of solid circular cross sections
(see figure) has length L  45 in., diameter d2  1.2 in., and T T
diameter d1  1.0 in. The material is brass with G  5.6  10 psi.
6

Determine the strain energy U of the shaft if the angle of twist


is 3.0°. L
— L

2 2

Solution 3.9-3 Stepped shaft

d2 d1 STRAIN ENERGY
T T
T 2L 16 T 2(L2) 16 T 2(L2)
U a  
2GIP Gd24 Gd14
L
— L
— 8T 2L 1 1
2 2  ¢  ≤ (Eq. 1)
G d24 d14
d1  1.0 in. Tf
Also, U  (Eq. 2)
2
d2  1.2 in.
Equate U from Eqs. (1) and (2) and solve for T:
L  45 in.
Gd14 d24 f
G  5.6  106 psi (brass) T
16L(d14  d24)
  3.0  0.0523599 rad
Tf Gf2 d14 d24
U  ¢ ≤f  radians
2 32L d14  d24

SUBSTITUTE NUMERICAL VALUES:


U  22.6 in.-lb

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238 CHAPTER 3 Torsion

Problem 3.9-4 A stepped shaft of solid circular cross sections (see figure)
has length L  0.80 m, diameter d2  40 mm, and diameter d1  30 mm.
The material is steel with G  80 GPa.
Determine the strain energy U of the shaft if the angle of twist is 1.0°.

Soluton 3.9-4 Stepped shaft


d2 d1 Equate U from Eqs. (1) and (2) and solve for T:
T T
G d14 d24 f
T
16L(d14  d24)
L L Tf Gf2 d14 d24

2

2 U  ¢ ≤f  radians
2 32L d14  d24

d1  30 mm d2  40 mm SUBSTITUTE NUMERICAL VALUES:

L  0.80 m G  80 GPa (steel) U  1.84 J

  1.0  0.0174533 rad

STRAIN ENERGY
T 2L 16T 2(L2) 16T 2(L2)
U a  
2GIP Gd24 Gd14
8T 2L 1 1
 ¢ 4  4≤ (Eq. 1)
G d2 d1
Tf
Also, U  (Eq. 2)
2

Problem 3.9-5 A cantilever bar of circular cross section and length L is


fixed at one end and free at the other (see figure). The bar is loaded by a
torque T at the free end and by a distributed torque of constant intensity t
t per unit distance along the length of the bar.
(a) What is the strain energy U1 of the bar when the load T acts alone?
(b) What is the strain energy U2 when the load t acts alone? L T
(c) What is the strain energy U3 when both loads act simultaneously?

Solution 3.9-5 Cantilever bar with distributed torque

G  shear modulus
t IP  polar moment of inertia
T  torque acting at free end

L T t  torque per unit distance

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SECTION 3.9 Strain Energy in Torsion 239

(c) BOTH LOADS ACT SIMULTANEOUSLY


(a) LOAD T ACTS ALONE (Eq. 3-51a)
T 2L t
U1  T
2GIP

(b) LOAD t ACTS ALONE dx x

From Eq. (3-56) of Example 3-11: At distance x from the free end:
t 2L3 T(x)  T  tx
U2 
6GIP L
[T(x) ] 2 L

  (T  tx) dx
1
U3  dx  2

0
2GIP 2GIP 0

T 2L TtL2 t 2L3
  
2GIP 2GIP 6GIP
NOTE: U3 is not the sum of U1 and U2.

Problem 3.9-6 Obtain a formula for the strain energy U of the statically 2T0 T0
indeterminate circular bar shown in the figure. The bar has fixed supports A B
at ends A and B and is loaded by torques 2T0 and T0 at points C and D,
respectively. C D
Hint: Use Eqs. 3-46a and b of Example 3-9, Section 3.8, to obtain the
reactive torques. L
— L
— L

4 2 4

Solution 3.9-6 Statically indeterminate bar


2T0 T0
TA A B TB

C D

L
— L
— L

4 2 4

REACTIVE TORQUES STRAIN ENERGY (from Eq. 3-53)


From Eq. (3-46a): n
Ti2Li
U a
3L L i1 2Gi IPi
(2T0 ) ¢ ≤ T0 ¢ ≤
4 4 7T0 1 L 2 L 2 L
TA     B T 2 ¢ ≤  TCD ¢ ≤  TDB¢ ≤ R
L L 4 2GIp AC 4 2 4
5T0 1 7T0 2 L T0 2 L 5T0 2 L
TB  3T0  TA   B ¢ ≤ ¢ ≤¢ ≤ ¢ ≤¢ ≤ ¢ ≤R
4 2GIP 4 4 4 2 4 4
INTERNAL TORQUES 19T02L
U
7T0 T0 5T0 32GIP
TAC   TCD  TDB 
4 4 4

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240 CHAPTER 3 Torsion

Problem 3.9-7 A statically indeterminate stepped shaft ACB is fixed at


ends A and B and loaded by a torque T0 at point C (see figure). The two A
segments of the bar are made of the same material, have lengths LA and LB, IPA
T0
and have polar moments of inertia IPA and IPB.
Determine the angle of rotation  of the cross section at C by using C
IPB
strain energy. B
LA
Hint: Use Eq. 3-51b to determine the strain energy U in terms of the
angle . Then equate the strain energy to the work done by the torque T0.
LB
Compare your result with Eq. 3-48 of Example 3-9, Section 3.8.

Solution 3.9-7 Statically indeterminate bar

A
IPA

C WORK DONE BY THE TORQUE T0


IPB
T0 B
LA  T0f
W
2
LB
EQUATE U AND W AND SOLVE FOR 
Gf2 IPA IPB T0f
STRAIN ENERGY (FROM EQ. 3-51B) ¢  ≤
2 LA LB 2
n
GIPif2i GIPAf2 GIPBf2
U a   T0LALB
i1 2Li 2LA 2LB f
G(LBIPA  LAIPB )
Gf2 IPA IPB
 ¢  ≤ (This result agrees with Eq. (3-48) of Example 3-9,
2 LA LB Section 3.8.)

Problem 3.9-8 Derive a formula for the strain energy U of the cantilever
bar shown in the figure.
The bar has circular cross sections and length L. It is subjected
to a distributed torque of intensity t per unit distance. The intensity
varies linearly from t  0 at the free end to a maximum value t  t 0
at the support.
t0

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SECTION 3.9 Strain Energy in Torsion 241

Solution 3.9-8 Cantilever bar with distributed torque


t0

x
t(x) = t0 x  distance from right-hand end of the bar
L

dx
d
x 
L

STRAIN ENERGY OF ELEMENT dx


ELEMENT d
[T(x) ] 2dx 1 t0 2 4
Consider a differential element d at distance  from dU   ¢ ≤ x dx
the right-hand end. 2GIP 2GIP 2L
t02
 2 x4 dx
8L GIP
dT
STRAIN ENERGY OF ENTIRE BAR
L L
t 02
  x dx
d
U dU  4

0
8L2GIP 0

dT  external torque acting on this element t02 L5


 2 ¢ ≤
dT  t()d 8L GIP 5
j t 20L3
 t0 ¢ ≤ dj U
L 40GIP

ELEMENT dx AT DISTANCE x

T(x) T(x)

dx

T(x)  internal torque acting on this element


T(x)  total torque from x  0 to x  x
x x

 t
j
T(x)  dT  0¢ ≤ dj
0 0
L
t0x2

2L

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242 CHAPTER 3 Torsion

Problem 3.9-9 A thin-walled hollow tube AB of conical shape has B


constant thickness t and average diameters dA and dB at the ends A
T T
(see figure).
(a) Determine the strain energy U of the tube when it is subjected
L
to pure torsion by torques T.
(b) Determine the angle of twist  of the tube. t
t
Note: Use the approximate formula IP  d 3t/4 for a thin circular
ring; see Case 22 of Appendix D.
dA dB

Solution 3.9-9 Thin-walled, hollow tube

B
A
T T Therefore,
d(x)


L
dx
x dx
dB  dA 3
B dA  ¢ ≤ xR
L 0 L
L

t  thickness 1
 4
dA  average diameter at end A 2(dB  dA ) dB  dA 2
B dA  ¢ ≤x R
dB  average diameter at end B L L 0

L L
d(x)  average diameter at distance x from end A  
2(dB  dA )(dB ) 2 2(dB  dA )(dA ) 2
dB  dA
d(x)  dA  ¢ ≤x L(dA  dB )
L 
2dA2 dB2
POLAR MOMENT OF INERTIA
Substitute this expression for the integral into the
d t 3 equation for U (Eq. 1):
IP 
4 2T 2 L(dA  dB ) T 2L dA  dB
U   ¢ ≤
[d(x) ] 3t t dB  dA 3 Gt 2dA2dB2 Gt dA2 dB2
IP (x)   B dA  ¢ ≤ xR
4 4 L
(b) ANGLE OF TWIST
(a) STRAIN ENERGY (FROM EQ. 3-54) Tf
Work of the torque T: W 
L 2
 2GI (x)
2
T dx
U
P Tf T 2L(dA  dB )
0
W  U 
2 Gt dA2dB2


L
2T2 dx Solve for :
 3 (Eq. 1)
Gt dB  dA x
B dA  ¢ ≤ R 2TL(dA  dB )
L f
0 Gt dA2dB2
From Appendix C:

 (a  bx)
dx 1

3
2b(a  bx) 2

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SECTION 3.9 Strain Energy in Torsion 243

Problem 3.9-10 A hollow circular tube A fits over the end of IPA
IPB
a solid circular bar B, as shown in the figure. The far ends of both
bars are fixed. Initially, a hole through bar B makes an angle  with Tube A Bar B
a line through two holes in tube A. Then bar B is twisted until the
holes are aligned, and a pin is placed through the holes.
When bar B is released and the system returns to equilibrium, L L
what is the total strain energy U of the two bars? (Let IPA and IPB
represent the polar moments of inertia of bars A and B, respectively. 
The length L and shear modulus of elasticity G are the same for
Tube A
both bars.)
Bar B

Solution 3.9-10 Circular tube and bar

IPA 
IPB
Tube A
Tube A Bar B
Bar B

L L

TUBE A COMPATIBILITY
A  B  
A
FORCE-DISPLACEMENT RELATIONS
T
TL TL
fA  fB 
GIPA GIPB
Substitute into the equation of compatibility and
solve for T:
T  torque acting on the tube
bG IPAIPB
A  angle of twist T ¢ ≤
L IPA  IPB

BAR B STRAIN ENERGY


T 2L T 2L T 2L
B U a  
T
2GIP 2GIPA 2GIPB
T 2L 1 1
 ¢  ≤
2G IPA IPB
Substitute for T and simplify:
b2G IPA IPB
U ¢ ≤
2L IPA  IPB

T  torque acting on the bar


B  angle of twist

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244 CHAPTER 3 Torsion

Problem 3.9-11 A heavy flywheel rotating at n revolutions per minute is


rigidly attached to the end of a shaft of diameter d (see figure). If the
bearing at A suddenly freezes, what will be the maximum angle of twist 
A
of the shaft? What is the corresponding maximum shear stress in the d
shaft? B n (rpm)
(Let L  length of the shaft, G  shear modulus of elasticity, and C
Im  mass moment of inertia of the flywheel about the axis of the shaft.
Also, disregard friction in the bearings at B and C and disregard the mass
of the shaft.)
Hint: Equate the kinetic energy of the rotating flywheel to the strain
energy of the shaft.

Solution 3.9-11 Rotating flywheel


Shaft d  diameter of shaft
Flywheel Gd 4f2
U
64L
UNITS:
G  (force)/(length)2
IP  (length)4
  radians
d  diameter
L  length
n  rpm
U  (length)(force)
KINETIC ENERGY OF FLYWHEEL
EQUATE KINETIC ENERGY AND STRAIN ENERGY
1
K.E.  I v2 2n2Im Gd 4f2
2 m K.E.  U 
1800 64L
2n
v Solve for :
60
n  rpm 2n 2ImL
f
15d B G
2
1 2n 2
K.E.  Im ¢ ≤
2 60 MAXIMUM SHEAR STRESS
 n Im
2 2
T(d2) TL
 t f 
1800 IP GIP
UNITS: Eliminate T:
Im  (force)(length)(second)2 Gdf
t
  radians per second 2L
Gd 2n 2ImL
K.E.  (length)(force) tmax  
2L 15d B G
2

STRAIN ENERGY OF SHAFT (FROM EQ. 3-51b) n 2GIm


tmax 
GIPf 2 15d B L
U
2L
 4
IP  d
32

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SECTION 3.10 Thin-Walled Tubes 245

Thin-Walled Tubes

Problem 3.10-1 A hollow circular tube having an inside diameter of 10.0 in.
and a wall thickness of 1.0 in. (see figure) is subjected to a torque T  1200 k-in. 10.0 in.
Determine the maximum shear stress in the tube using (a) the approximate
theory of thin-walled tubes, and (b) the exact torsion theory. Does the approximate
1.0 in.
theory give conservative or nonconservative results?

Solution 3.10-1 Hollow circular tube


APPROXIMATE THEORY (EQ. 3-63)
T 1200 k-in.
t1  2   6314 psi
2r t 2(5.5 in.) 2 (1.0 in.)
10.0 in.
tapprox  6310 psi
1.0 in.
EXACT THEORY (EQ. 3-11)
T(d2 2) Td2
t2  
IP 
2 ¢ ≤ d24  d14
T  1200 k-in. 32
t  1.0 in. 16(1200 k-in.)(12.0 in.)

r  radius to median line [ (12.0 in.) 4  (10.0 in.) 4 ]

r  5.5 in.  6831 psi

d2  outside diameter  12.0 in. texact  6830 psi

d1  inside diameter  10.0 in. Because the approximate theory gives stresses that
are too low, it is nonconservative. Therefore, the
approximate theory should only be used for very thin
tubes.

t
Problem 3.10-2 A solid circular bar having diameter d is to be replaced
by a rectangular tube having cross-sectional dimensions d  2d to the t
median line of the cross section (see figure). d d
Determine the required thickness tmin of the tube so that the maxi-
mum shear stress in the tube will not exceed the maximum shear stress in
the solid bar. 2d

Solution 3.10-2 Bar and tube


SOLID BAR Am  (d)(2d)  2d 2 (Eq. 3-64)
16T T T
tmax  (Eq. 3-12) tmax   (Eq. 3-61)
d d 3 2tAm 4td 2
EQUATE THE MAXIMUM SHEAR STRESSES AND SOLVE FOR t

RECTANGULAR TUBE 16T T


t 
d 3 4td 2
d
d tmin 
64
If t  tmin, the shear stress in the tube is less than the
2d shear stress in the bar.

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246 CHAPTER 3 Torsion

Problem 3.10-3 A thin-walled aluminum tube of rectangular


cross section (see figure) has a centerline dimensions b  6.0 in.
and h  4.0 in. The wall thickness t is constant and equal to t
0.25 in. h
(a) Determine the shear stress in the tube due to a torque
T  15 k-in.
(b) Determine the angle of twist (in degrees) if the length L of
the tube is 50 in. and the shear modulus G is 4.0  106 psi. b
Use with Prob. 3.10-4

Solution 3.10-3 Thin-walled tube


Eq. (3-64): Am  bh  24.0 in.2

t 2b2h2t
Eq. (3-71)witht1  t2  t:J 
h bh
J  28.8 in.4

(a) SHEAR STRESS (EQ. 3-61)


b
T
t  1250 psi
b  6.0 in. 2tAm
h  4.0 in.
(b) ANGLE OF TWIST (EQ. 3-72)
t  0.25 in.
TL
T  15 k-in. f  0.0065104 rad
GJ
L  50 in.  0.373
G  4.0  106 psi

Problem 3.10-4 A thin-walled steel tube of rectangular cross section


(see figure) has centerline dimensions b 150 mm and h  100 mm.
The wall thickness t is constant and equal to 6.0 mm.
(a) Determine the shear stress in the tube due to a torque T  1650 N  m.
(b) Determine the angle of twist (in degrees) if the length L of the tube is
1.2 m and the shear modulus G is 75 GPa.

Solution 3.10-4 Thin-walled tube


b  150 mm (a) SHEAR STRESS (Eq. 3-61)
h  100 mm T
t t  9.17 MPa
t  6.0 mm 2tAm
h
T  1650 N  m (b) ANGLE OF TWIST (Eq. 3-72)
L  1.2 m TL
b
f  0.002444 rad
G  75 GPa GJ
Eq. (3-64): Am  bh  0.015 m2  0.140

2b2h2t
Eq. (3-71)witht1  t2  t:J 
bh
J  10.8  106 m4

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SECTION 3.10 Thin-Walled Tubes 247

Problem 3.10-5 A thin-walled circular tube and a solid circular bar of Tube (1)
the same material (see figure) are subjected to torsion. The tube and bar Bar (2)
have the same cross-sectional area and the same length.
What is the ratio of the strain energy U1 in the tube to the strain
energy U2 in the solid bar if the maximum shear stresses are the same in
both cases? (For the tube, use the approximate theory for thin-walled bars.)

Solution 3.10-5 THIN-WALLED TUBE (1)


t SOLID BAR (2)
Am  r2 J  2r3t A  2rt r2  4
r A  r22 IP  r
tmax 
T

T 2 2
2tAm 2r2t
Tr2 2T r23tmax
tmax   3 T
T 2r 2tmax IP r2 2
T 2L (2r 2ttmax ) 2L T 2L (r23 tmax ) 2L r22t2maxL
U1   U2   
2GJ 2G(2r 3t) 2GIP  4G
8G ¢ r24 ≤
rtt2maxL 2
 At2maxL
G But r22  A ∴ U2 
4G
A
But rt 
2 RATIO
At2 L
 U1  max U1
2G 2
U2

t = 8 mm
Problem 3.10-6 Calculate the shear stress  and the angle of twist  (in
r = 50 mm r = 50 mm
degrees) for a steel tube (G  76 GPa) having the cross section shown
in the figure. The tube has length L  1.5 m and is subjected to a torque
T  10 kN  m.

b = 100 mm

Solution 3.10-6 Steel tube


t = 8 mm SHEAR STRESS
r = 50 mm r = 50 mm
T 10 kN . m
G  76 GPa t 
2tAm 2(8 mm)(17,850 mm2 )
L  1.5 m
 35.0 MPa
T  10 kN . m
b = 100 mm Am  r22br ANGLE OF TWIST
Am  (50 mm)22(100 mm)(50 mm) TL (10 kN . m) (1.5 m)
f 
 17,850 mm2 GJ (76 GPa)(19.83  106 mm4 )
Lm  2b2r  0.00995 rad
 2(100 mm)2(50 mm)  0.570
 514.2 mm
4tA2m 4(8 mm)(17,850 mm2 ) 2
J 
Lm 514.2 mm
 19.83  106 mm4

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248 CHAPTER 3 Torsion

Problem 3.10-7 A thin-walled steel tube having an elliptical cross


t
section with constant thickness t (see figure) is subjected to a torque
T  18 k-in.
Determine the shear stress  and the rate of twist  (in degrees
per inch) if G  12  106 psi, t  0.2 in., a  3 in., and b  2 in. 2b
(Note: See Appendix D, Case 16, for the properties of an ellipse.)

2a

Solution 3.10-7 Elliptical tube


t
FROM APPENDIX D, CASE 16:
Am  ab  (3.0 in.)(2.0 in.)  18.850 in.2
2b Lm  p[1.5(a  b)  ab]
 [1.5(5.0 in.)  6.0 in.2 ]  15.867 in.
4tA2m 4(0.2 in.)(18.850 in.2 ) 2
2a J 
Lm 15.867 in.
T  18 k-in.  17.92 in. 4

G  12  106 psi
SHEAR STRESS
t  constant
T 18 k-in.
t  0.2 in a  3.0 in. b  2.0 in. t 
2tAm 2(0.2 in.)(18.850 in.2 )
 2390 psi

ANGLE OF TWIST PER UNIT LENGTH (RATE OF TWIST)


f T 18 k-in.
u  
L GJ (12  10 psi)(17.92 in.4 )
6

u  83.73  10 6 radin.  0.0048in.

Problem 3.10-8 A torque T is applied to a thin-walled tube having


a cross section in the shape of a regular hexagon with constant wall t
thickness t and side length b (see figure).
Obtain formulas for the shear stress  and the rate of twist .

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SECTION 3.10 Thin-Walled Tubes 249

Solution 3.10-8 Regular hexagon

SHEAR STRESS
t
T T3
t 
2tAm 9b2t
ANGLE OF TWIST PER UNIT LENGTH (RATE OF TWIST)
4A2mt 4A2mt 9b3t
J  Lm  

dS Lm 2
b 0 t
T 2T 2T
b  Length of side u  3 
GJ G(9b t) 9Gb3t
t  Thickness
(radians per unit length)
Lm  6b

FROM APPENDIX D, CASE 25:


  60 n  6
nb2 b 6b2
Am  cot  cot 30
4 2 4
33b2

2

Problem 3.10-9 Compare the angle of twist 1 for a thin-walled circular tube t
(see figure) calculated from the approximate theory for thin-walled bars with the r
angle of twist 2 calculated from the exact theory of torsion for circular bars.
C
(a) Express the ratio 1/2 in terms of the nondimensional ratio   r/t.
(b) Calculate the ratio of angles of twist for   5, 10, and 20. What conclusion
about the accuracy of the approximate theory do you draw from these results?

Solution 3.10-9 Thin-walled tube


(a) RATIO
t
r f1 4r2  t2 t2
  1 
C
f2 4r2 4r2

r f1 1
Let b   1 2
APPROXIMATE THEORY t f2 4b

TL TL (b)  1/2
f1  J  2r3t f1 
GJ 2Gr3t
5 1.0100
EXACT THEORY 10 1.0025
TL rt 20 1.0006
f2  From Eq. (3-17): Ip  (4r2  t2 )
GIP 2
As the tube becomes thinner and  becomes larger,
TL 2TL the ratio 1/2 approaches unity. Thus, the thinner
f2  
GIP Grt(4r2  t2 ) the tube, the more accurate the approximate theory
becomes.

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250 CHAPTER 3 Torsion

Problem 3.10-10 A thin-walled rectangular tube has uniform thickness t t


and dimensions a  b to the median line of the cross section (see figure).
How does the shear stress in the tube vary with the ratio   a/b if
the total length Lm of the median line of the cross section and the torque T
b
remain constant?
From your results, show that the shear stress is smallest when the
tube is square (  1).
a

Solution 3.10-10 Rectangular tube


t T, t, and Lm are constants.
2T (1  b) 2
Let k   constantt  k
b tL2m b

8
a 6

k 4

t  thickness (constant) 2
a
b
a, b  dimensions of the tube 0 1 2 3

a
b
b t 8T
¢ ≤ 4 tmin 
Lm  2(a  b)  constant
k min tL2m
From the graph, we see that  is minimum when
T  constant
  1 and the tube is square.
SHEAR STRESS
ALTERNATE SOLUTION
T
t  Am  ab  bb2 2T (1  b) 2
2tAm t B R
tL2m b
Lm  2b(1  b)  constant
dt 2T b(2)(1  b)  (1  b) 2 (1)
Lm Lm 2  2B R 0
b  Am  b B R db tLm b2
2(1  b) 2(1  b)
or 2 (1)(1)2  0 1
bL2m
Am  Thus, the tube is square and  is either a minimum
4(1  b) 2 or a maximum. From the graph, we see that  is a
T T(4)(1  b) 2 2T(1  b) 2 minimum.
t  
2tAm 2tbL2m tL2mb

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SECTION 3.10 Thin-Walled Tubes 251

Problem 3.10-11 A tubular aluminum bar (G  4  106 psi) of square


cross section (see figure) with outer dimensions 2 in.  2 in. must resist a
t
torque T  3000 lb-in.
Calculate the minimum required wall thickness tmin if the allowable 2 in.
shear stress is 4500 psi and the allowable rate of twist is 0.01 rad/ft.

2 in.

Solution 3.10-11 Square aluminum tube


THICKNESS t BASED UPON SHEAR STRESS
t
T T T
t tAm  t(b  t) 2 
2 in. 2tAm 2t 2t
UNITS: t  in. b  in. T  lb-in.   psi
3000 lb-in. 1
t(2.0 in.  t) 2   in.3
2(4500 psi) 3
2 in.
3t(2  t) 2  1  0
Solve for t: t  0.0915 in.
Outer dimensions:
2.0 in.  2.0 in. THICKNESS t BASED UPON RATE OF TWIST
G  4  106 psi T T T
u  t(b  t) 3 
T  3000 lb-in. GJ Gt(b  t) 3 Gu

allow  4500 psi UNITS: t  in. G  psi   rad/in.


3000 lb-in
uallow  0.01 radft 
0.01
radin. t(2.0 in.  t) 3 
12 (4  10 psi)(0.0112 rad in.)
6

Let b  outer dimension 9



10
 2.0 in.
10t(2  t) 3  9  0
Centerline dimension  b  t
Solve for t:
Am  (b  t)2 Lm  4(b  t)
t  0.140 in.
4tA2m 4t(b  t) 4
J   t(b  t) 3
Lm 4(b  t) ANGLE OF TWIST GOVERNS
tmin  0.140 in.

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252 CHAPTER 3 Torsion

Problem 3.10-12 A thin tubular shaft of circular cross section


(see figure) with inside diameter 100 mm is subjected to a torque of
5000 N  m.
If the allowable shear stress is 42 MPa, determine the required
100 mm
wall thickness t by using (a) the approximate theory for a thin-walled
tube, and (b) the exact torsion theory for a circular bar.
t

Solution 3.10-12 Thin tube

(b) EXACT THEORY


Tr2  
t Ip  (r42  r41 )  [ (50  t) 4  (50) 4 ]
Ip 2 2
100 mm
(5,000 N . m)(50  t)
42 MPa 

t [ (50  t) 4  (50) 4 ]
2
(50  t) 4  (50) 4 (5000 N . m)(2)
T  5,000 N  m d1  inner diameter  100 mm 
50  t ()(42 MPa)
allow  42 MPa 5  106
 mm3
t is in millimeters. 21
r  Average radius Solve for t:

 50 mm 
t t  7.02 mm
2
The approximate result is 5% less than the
r1  Inner radius
exact result. Thus, the approximate theory is
nonconservative and should only be used for
 50 mm
thin-walled tubes.
r2  Outer radius
 50 mm  t Am  r2

(a) APPROXIMATE THEORY


T T T
t  2 
2tAm 2t(r ) 2r2t
5,000 N . m
42 MPa 
t 2
2 ¢ 50  ≤ t
2
or
t 2 5,000 N . m 5  106
t ¢ 50  ≤   mm3
2 2(42 MPa) 84
Solve for t:
t  6.66 mm

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SECTION 3.10 Thin-Walled Tubes 253

Problem 3.10-13 A long, thin-walled tapered tube AB of circular cross B


section (see figure) is subjected to a torque T. The tube has length L and A
T T
constant wall thickness t. The diameter to the median lines of the cross
sections at the ends A and B are dA and dB, respectively.
Derive the following formula for the angle of twist of the tube: L
t
 
 Gt 
2TL dA  dB

dA2dB2  t

Hint: If the angle of taper is small, we may obtain approximate


results by applying the formulas for a thin-walled prismatic tube to a dA dB
differential element of the tapered tube and then integrating along the
axis of the tube.

Solution 3.10-13 Thin-walled tapered tube

A B For entire tube:


L
dA d(x) dB 4T dx
f
GT dB  dA 3
x dx B dA  ¢ ≤ xR
0 L
L
From table of integrals (see Appendix C):

t  thickness
 (a  bx)
dx 1

3
2b(a  bx) 2
dA  average diameter at end A
dB  average diameter at end B
L
4T 1
T  torque f 
Gt C dB  dA dB  dA 2
S
d(x)  average diameter at distance x from end A. 2¢ ≤¢ dA   x≤
L L 0
dB  dA
d(x)  dA  ¢ ≤x
L
4T L L
d 3t  B  R
J  2r3t  Gt 2(dB  dA )dB2 2(dB  dA )dA2
4
t t dB  dA 3
J(x)  [d(x) ] 3  B dA  ¢ ≤ xR
4 4 L 2TL dA  dB
f ¢ ≤
Gt dA2dB2
For element of length dx:
Tdx 4Tdx
df  
GJ(x) dB  dA 3
Gt B dA  ¢ ≤ xR
L

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254 CHAPTER 3 Torsion

Stress Concentrations in Torsion

The problems for Section 3.11 are to be solved by considering the


stress-concentration factors. D2 R
D1
Problem 3.11-1 A stepped shaft consisting of solid circular segments T T
having diameters D1  2.0 in. and D2  2.4 in. (see figure) is subjected
to torques T. The radius of the fillet is R  0.1 in.
If the allowable shear stress at the stress concentration is 6000 psi,
what is the maximum permissible torque Tmax?
Probs. 3.11-1 through 3.11-5

Solution 3.11-1 Stepped shaft in torsion


D2 R USE FIG. 3-48 FOR THE STRESS-CONCENTRATION
D1
FACTOR
T T
R 0.1 in. D2 2.4 in.
  0.05   1.2
D1 2.0 in. D1 2.0 in.
16 Tmax
K  1.52 tmax  K tnom  K ¢ ≤
 D31
D1  2.0 in.
D31tmax
D2  2.4 in. Tmax 
16K
R  0.1 in.
(2.0 in.) 3 (6000 psi)
allow  6000 psi   6200 lb-in.
16(1.52)
∴ Tmax  6200 lb-in.

Problem 3.11-2 A stepped shaft with diameters D1  40 mm and


D2  60 mm is loaded by torques T  1100 N  m (see figure).
If the allowable shear stress at the stress concentration is 120 MPa,
what is the smallest radius Rmin that may be used for the fillet?

Solution 3.11-2 Stepped shaft in torsion


D2 R USE FIG. 3-48 FOR THE STRESS-CONCENTRATION FACTOR
D1
16T
T T tmax  Ktnom  K ¢ ≤
D31
D31tmax (40 mm) 3 (120 MPa)
K   1.37
16T 16(1100 N # m)
D2 60 mm
D1  40 mm   1.5
D1 40 mm
D2  60 mm
D2
T  1100 N  m From Fig. (3-48) with  1.5 and K  1.37,
D1
allow  120 MPa R
we get  0.10
D1
∴ Rmin  0.10(40 mm)  4.0 mm

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SECTION 3.11 Stress Concentrations in Torsion 255

Problem 3.11-3 A full quarter-circular fillet is used at the shoulder


of a stepped shaft having diameter D2  1.0 in. (see figure). A torque
T  500 lb-in. acts on the shaft.
Determine the shear stress max at the stress concentration for
values as follows: D1  0.7, 0.8, and 0.9 in. Plot a graph showing
max versus D1.

Solution 3.11-3 Stepped shaft in torsion

D2 R
D1 D1 (in.) D2/D1 R (in.) R/D1 K max (psi)
T T 0.7 1.43 0.15 0.214 1.20 8900
0.8 1.25 0.10 0.125 1.29 6400
0.9 1.11 0.05 0.056 1.41 4900

D2  1.0 in.
T  500 lb-in.
D1  0.7, 0.8, and 0.9 in. 10,000

Full quarter-circular fillet (D2  D1  2R) max


(psi)
D2  D1 D1
R  0.5 in. 
2 2 5000

USE FIG. 3-48 FOR THE STRESS-CONCENTRATION FACTOR


16T
tmax  Ktnom  K ¢ ≤
D31 0
0.6 0.8 1 D1 (in.)
16(500 lb-in.) K
K  2546 3
D31 D1

Note that max gets smaller as D1 gets larger, even


though K is increasing.

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256 CHAPTER 3 Torsion

Problem 3.11-4 The stepped shaft shown in the figure is required to


transmit 600 kW of power at 400 rpm. The shaft has a full quarter-circular
fillet, and the smaller diameter D1  100 mm.
If the allowable shear stress at the stress concentration is 100 MPa, at
what diameter D2 will this stress be reached? Is this diameter an upper or
a lower limit on the value of D2?

Solution 3.11-4 Stepped shaft in torsion

D2 R
D1
T T

P  600 kW D1  100 mm Use the dashed line for a full quarter-circular fillet.
n  400 rpm allow  100 MPa
R
Full quarter-circular fillet  0.075 R  0.075
D1  0.075 (100 mm)
D1
2nT  7.5 mm
POWER P  (Eq. 3-42 of Section 3.7)
60 D2  D1  2R  100 mm  2(7.5 mm)  115 mm
P  watts n  rpm T  Newton meters ∴ D2  115 mm
60P 60(600  10 W) 3
T   14,320 N # m This value of D2 is a lower limit
2n 2(400 rpm)
(If D2 is less than 115 mm, R/D1 is smaller, K is larger,
USE FIG. 3-48 FOR THE STRESS-CONCENTRATION FACTOR and max is larger, which means that the allowable stress
is exceeded.)
16T
tmax  Ktnom  K ¢ ≤
D31
tmax (D31 )
K
16T
(100 MPa)()(100 mm) 3
  1.37
16(14,320 N # m)

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SECTION 3.11 Stress Concentrations in Torsion 257

Problem 3.11-5 A stepped shaft (see figure) has diameter D2  1.5 in.
and a full quarter-circular fillet. The allowable shear stress is 15,000 psi
and the load T  4800 lb-in.
What is the smallest permissible diameter D1?

Solution 3.11-5 Stepped shaft in torsion

D2 R
D1
T T

D2  1.5 in. Use trial-and-error. Select trial values of D1


allow  15,000 psi D1 (in.) R (in.) R/D1 K max(psi)
T  4800 lb-in. 1.30 0.100 0.077 1.38 15,400
1.35 0.075 0.056 1.41 14,000
Full quarter-circular fillet D2  D1  2R
1.40 0.050 0.036 1.46 13,000
D2  D1 D1
R  0.75 in. 
2 2
max (psi)
USE FIG. 3-48 FOR THE STRESS-CONCENTRATION FACTOR
16T
tmax  Ktnom  K ¢ ≤ 16,000
D31
allow
K 16(4800 lb-in.)
 3B R 15,000
D1 
K
 24,450 D1=1.31in.
D31 14,000

13,000 D1(in.)
1.30 1.40

From the graph, minimum D1  1.31 in.

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