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# 236 CHAPTER 3 Torsion

## Problem 3.9-1 A solid circular bar of steel (G  11.4  106 psi)

d
with length L  30 in. and diameter d  1.75 in. is subjected to T T
pure torsion by torques T acting at the ends (see figure).
(a) Calculate the amount of strain energy U stored in the bar
L
when the maximum shear stress is 4500 psi.
(b) From the strain energy, calculate the angle of twist 
(in degrees).

## Solution 3.9-1 Steel bar

(a) STRAIN ENERGY
d
T T
T 2L d 3tmax 2 L 32
U ¢ ≤ ¢ ≤¢ ≤
2GIP 16 2G d 4
L
d 2Lt2max
 (Eq. 2)
16G
G  11.4  106 psi Substitute numerical values:
L  30 in. U  32.0 in.-lb
d  1.75 in.
(b) ANGLE OF TWIST
max  4500 psi
Tf 2U
16 T d 3tmax U f 
tmax  3 T  (Eq. 1) 2 T
d 16
Substitute for T and U from Eqs. (1) and (2):
d 4
IP  2Ltmax
32 f (Eq. 3)
Gd
Substitute numerical values:
f  0.013534

## Problem 3.9-2 A solid circular bar of copper (G  45 GPa) with length

L  0.75 m and diameter d  40 mm is subjected to pure torsion by
torques T acting at the ends (see figure).
(a) Calculate the amount of strain energy U stored in the bar when the
maximum shear stress is 32 MPa.
(b) From the strain energy, calculate the angle of twist  (in degrees)

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SECTION 3.9 Strain Energy in Torsion 237

## Solution 3.9-2 Copper bar

d
T T (a) STRAIN ENERGY
T 2L d 3tmax 2 L 32
U ¢ ≤ ¢ ≤¢ ≤
L 2GIP 16 2G d 4

G  45 GPa d2Lt2max
 (Eq. 2)
16G
L  0.75 m
Substitute numerical values:
d  40 mm
U  5.36 J
max  32 MPa
(b) ANGLE OF TWIST
16T d 3tmax
tmax  T  (Eq. 1) Tf 2U
d 3 16 U f 
2 T
d 4 Substitute for T and U from Eqs. (1) and (2):
IP 
32
2Ltmax
f (Eq. 3)
Gd
Substitute numerical values:
f  0.026667 rad  1.53

d2 d1
Problem 3.9-3 A stepped shaft of solid circular cross sections
(see figure) has length L  45 in., diameter d2  1.2 in., and T T
diameter d1  1.0 in. The material is brass with G  5.6  10 psi.
6

is 3.0°. L
— L

2 2

## Solution 3.9-3 Stepped shaft

d2 d1 STRAIN ENERGY
T T
T 2L 16 T 2(L2) 16 T 2(L2)
U a  
2GIP Gd24 Gd14
L
— L
— 8T 2L 1 1
2 2  ¢  ≤ (Eq. 1)
G d24 d14
d1  1.0 in. Tf
Also, U  (Eq. 2)
2
d2  1.2 in.
Equate U from Eqs. (1) and (2) and solve for T:
L  45 in.
Gd14 d24 f
G  5.6  106 psi (brass) T
16L(d14  d24)
  3.0  0.0523599 rad
Tf Gf2 d14 d24
U  ¢ ≤f  radians
2 32L d14  d24

## SUBSTITUTE NUMERICAL VALUES:

U  22.6 in.-lb

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238 CHAPTER 3 Torsion

Problem 3.9-4 A stepped shaft of solid circular cross sections (see figure)
has length L  0.80 m, diameter d2  40 mm, and diameter d1  30 mm.
The material is steel with G  80 GPa.
Determine the strain energy U of the shaft if the angle of twist is 1.0°.

## Soluton 3.9-4 Stepped shaft

d2 d1 Equate U from Eqs. (1) and (2) and solve for T:
T T
G d14 d24 f
T
16L(d14  d24)
L L Tf Gf2 d14 d24

2

2 U  ¢ ≤f  radians
2 32L d14  d24

##   1.0  0.0174533 rad

STRAIN ENERGY
T 2L 16T 2(L2) 16T 2(L2)
U a  
2GIP Gd24 Gd14
8T 2L 1 1
 ¢ 4  4≤ (Eq. 1)
G d2 d1
Tf
Also, U  (Eq. 2)
2

## Problem 3.9-5 A cantilever bar of circular cross section and length L is

fixed at one end and free at the other (see figure). The bar is loaded by a
torque T at the free end and by a distributed torque of constant intensity t
t per unit distance along the length of the bar.
(a) What is the strain energy U1 of the bar when the load T acts alone?
(b) What is the strain energy U2 when the load t acts alone? L T
(c) What is the strain energy U3 when both loads act simultaneously?

## Solution 3.9-5 Cantilever bar with distributed torque

G  shear modulus
t IP  polar moment of inertia
T  torque acting at free end

## L T t  torque per unit distance

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SECTION 3.9 Strain Energy in Torsion 239

## (c) BOTH LOADS ACT SIMULTANEOUSLY

(a) LOAD T ACTS ALONE (Eq. 3-51a)
T 2L t
U1  T
2GIP

## (b) LOAD t ACTS ALONE dx x

From Eq. (3-56) of Example 3-11: At distance x from the free end:
t 2L3 T(x)  T  tx
U2 
6GIP L
[T(x) ] 2 L

  (T  tx) dx
1
U3  dx  2

0
2GIP 2GIP 0

T 2L TtL2 t 2L3
  
2GIP 2GIP 6GIP
NOTE: U3 is not the sum of U1 and U2.

Problem 3.9-6 Obtain a formula for the strain energy U of the statically 2T0 T0
indeterminate circular bar shown in the figure. The bar has fixed supports A B
at ends A and B and is loaded by torques 2T0 and T0 at points C and D,
respectively. C D
Hint: Use Eqs. 3-46a and b of Example 3-9, Section 3.8, to obtain the
reactive torques. L
— L
— L

4 2 4

2T0 T0
TA A B TB

C D

L
— L
— L

4 2 4

## REACTIVE TORQUES STRAIN ENERGY (from Eq. 3-53)

From Eq. (3-46a): n
Ti2Li
U a
3L L i1 2Gi IPi
(2T0 ) ¢ ≤ T0 ¢ ≤
4 4 7T0 1 L 2 L 2 L
TA     B T 2 ¢ ≤  TCD ¢ ≤  TDB¢ ≤ R
L L 4 2GIp AC 4 2 4
5T0 1 7T0 2 L T0 2 L 5T0 2 L
TB  3T0  TA   B ¢ ≤ ¢ ≤¢ ≤ ¢ ≤¢ ≤ ¢ ≤R
4 2GIP 4 4 4 2 4 4
INTERNAL TORQUES 19T02L
U
7T0 T0 5T0 32GIP
TAC   TCD  TDB 
4 4 4

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240 CHAPTER 3 Torsion

## Problem 3.9-7 A statically indeterminate stepped shaft ACB is fixed at

ends A and B and loaded by a torque T0 at point C (see figure). The two A
segments of the bar are made of the same material, have lengths LA and LB, IPA
T0
and have polar moments of inertia IPA and IPB.
Determine the angle of rotation  of the cross section at C by using C
IPB
strain energy. B
LA
Hint: Use Eq. 3-51b to determine the strain energy U in terms of the
angle . Then equate the strain energy to the work done by the torque T0.
LB
Compare your result with Eq. 3-48 of Example 3-9, Section 3.8.

A
IPA

## C WORK DONE BY THE TORQUE T0

IPB
T0 B
LA  T0f
W
2
LB
EQUATE U AND W AND SOLVE FOR 
Gf2 IPA IPB T0f
STRAIN ENERGY (FROM EQ. 3-51B) ¢  ≤
2 LA LB 2
n
GIPif2i GIPAf2 GIPBf2
U a   T0LALB
i1 2Li 2LA 2LB f
G(LBIPA  LAIPB )
Gf2 IPA IPB
 ¢  ≤ (This result agrees with Eq. (3-48) of Example 3-9,
2 LA LB Section 3.8.)

Problem 3.9-8 Derive a formula for the strain energy U of the cantilever
bar shown in the figure.
The bar has circular cross sections and length L. It is subjected
to a distributed torque of intensity t per unit distance. The intensity
varies linearly from t  0 at the free end to a maximum value t  t 0
at the support.
t0

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SECTION 3.9 Strain Energy in Torsion 241

## Solution 3.9-8 Cantilever bar with distributed torque

t0

x
t(x) = t0 x  distance from right-hand end of the bar
L

dx
d
x 
L

## STRAIN ENERGY OF ELEMENT dx

ELEMENT d
[T(x) ] 2dx 1 t0 2 4
Consider a differential element d at distance  from dU   ¢ ≤ x dx
the right-hand end. 2GIP 2GIP 2L
t02
 2 x4 dx
8L GIP
dT
STRAIN ENERGY OF ENTIRE BAR
L L
t 02
  x dx
d
U dU  4

0
8L2GIP 0

## dT  external torque acting on this element t02 L5

 2 ¢ ≤
dT  t()d 8L GIP 5
j t 20L3
 t0 ¢ ≤ dj U
L 40GIP

ELEMENT dx AT DISTANCE x

T(x) T(x)

dx

## T(x)  internal torque acting on this element

T(x)  total torque from x  0 to x  x
x x

 t
j
T(x)  dT  0¢ ≤ dj
0 0
L
t0x2

2L

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242 CHAPTER 3 Torsion

## Problem 3.9-9 A thin-walled hollow tube AB of conical shape has B

constant thickness t and average diameters dA and dB at the ends A
T T
(see figure).
(a) Determine the strain energy U of the tube when it is subjected
L
to pure torsion by torques T.
(b) Determine the angle of twist  of the tube. t
t
Note: Use the approximate formula IP  d 3t/4 for a thin circular
ring; see Case 22 of Appendix D.
dA dB

## Solution 3.9-9 Thin-walled, hollow tube

B
A
T T Therefore,
d(x)


L
dx
x dx
dB  dA 3
B dA  ¢ ≤ xR
L 0 L
L

t  thickness 1
 4
dA  average diameter at end A 2(dB  dA ) dB  dA 2
B dA  ¢ ≤x R
dB  average diameter at end B L L 0

L L
d(x)  average diameter at distance x from end A  
2(dB  dA )(dB ) 2 2(dB  dA )(dA ) 2
dB  dA
d(x)  dA  ¢ ≤x L(dA  dB )
L 
2dA2 dB2
POLAR MOMENT OF INERTIA
Substitute this expression for the integral into the
d t 3 equation for U (Eq. 1):
IP 
4 2T 2 L(dA  dB ) T 2L dA  dB
U   ¢ ≤
[d(x) ] 3t t dB  dA 3 Gt 2dA2dB2 Gt dA2 dB2
IP (x)   B dA  ¢ ≤ xR
4 4 L
(b) ANGLE OF TWIST
(a) STRAIN ENERGY (FROM EQ. 3-54) Tf
Work of the torque T: W 
L 2
 2GI (x)
2
T dx
U
P Tf T 2L(dA  dB )
0
W  U 
2 Gt dA2dB2


L
2T2 dx Solve for :
 3 (Eq. 1)
Gt dB  dA x
B dA  ¢ ≤ R 2TL(dA  dB )
L f
0 Gt dA2dB2
From Appendix C:

 (a  bx)
dx 1

3
2b(a  bx) 2

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SECTION 3.9 Strain Energy in Torsion 243

Problem 3.9-10 A hollow circular tube A fits over the end of IPA
IPB
a solid circular bar B, as shown in the figure. The far ends of both
bars are fixed. Initially, a hole through bar B makes an angle  with Tube A Bar B
a line through two holes in tube A. Then bar B is twisted until the
holes are aligned, and a pin is placed through the holes.
When bar B is released and the system returns to equilibrium, L L
what is the total strain energy U of the two bars? (Let IPA and IPB
represent the polar moments of inertia of bars A and B, respectively. 
The length L and shear modulus of elasticity G are the same for
Tube A
both bars.)
Bar B

## Solution 3.9-10 Circular tube and bar

IPA 
IPB
Tube A
Tube A Bar B
Bar B

L L

TUBE A COMPATIBILITY
A  B  
A
FORCE-DISPLACEMENT RELATIONS
T
TL TL
fA  fB 
GIPA GIPB
Substitute into the equation of compatibility and
solve for T:
T  torque acting on the tube
bG IPAIPB
A  angle of twist T ¢ ≤
L IPA  IPB

## BAR B STRAIN ENERGY

T 2L T 2L T 2L
B U a  
T
2GIP 2GIPA 2GIPB
T 2L 1 1
 ¢  ≤
2G IPA IPB
Substitute for T and simplify:
b2G IPA IPB
U ¢ ≤
2L IPA  IPB

## T  torque acting on the bar

B  angle of twist

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244 CHAPTER 3 Torsion

## Problem 3.9-11 A heavy flywheel rotating at n revolutions per minute is

rigidly attached to the end of a shaft of diameter d (see figure). If the
bearing at A suddenly freezes, what will be the maximum angle of twist 
A
of the shaft? What is the corresponding maximum shear stress in the d
shaft? B n (rpm)
(Let L  length of the shaft, G  shear modulus of elasticity, and C
Im  mass moment of inertia of the flywheel about the axis of the shaft.
Also, disregard friction in the bearings at B and C and disregard the mass
of the shaft.)
Hint: Equate the kinetic energy of the rotating flywheel to the strain
energy of the shaft.

## Solution 3.9-11 Rotating flywheel

Shaft d  diameter of shaft
Flywheel Gd 4f2
U
64L
UNITS:
G  (force)/(length)2
IP  (length)4
d  diameter
L  length
n  rpm
U  (length)(force)
KINETIC ENERGY OF FLYWHEEL
EQUATE KINETIC ENERGY AND STRAIN ENERGY
1
K.E.  I v2 2n2Im Gd 4f2
2 m K.E.  U 
1800 64L
2n
v Solve for :
60
n  rpm 2n 2ImL
f
15d B G
2
1 2n 2
K.E.  Im ¢ ≤
2 60 MAXIMUM SHEAR STRESS
 n Im
2 2
T(d2) TL
 t f 
1800 IP GIP
UNITS: Eliminate T:
Im  (force)(length)(second)2 Gdf
t
  radians per second 2L
Gd 2n 2ImL
K.E.  (length)(force) tmax  
2L 15d B G
2

## STRAIN ENERGY OF SHAFT (FROM EQ. 3-51b) n 2GIm

tmax 
GIPf 2 15d B L
U
2L
 4
IP  d
32

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SECTION 3.10 Thin-Walled Tubes 245

Thin-Walled Tubes

Problem 3.10-1 A hollow circular tube having an inside diameter of 10.0 in.
and a wall thickness of 1.0 in. (see figure) is subjected to a torque T  1200 k-in. 10.0 in.
Determine the maximum shear stress in the tube using (a) the approximate
theory of thin-walled tubes, and (b) the exact torsion theory. Does the approximate
1.0 in.
theory give conservative or nonconservative results?

## Solution 3.10-1 Hollow circular tube

APPROXIMATE THEORY (EQ. 3-63)
T 1200 k-in.
t1  2   6314 psi
2r t 2(5.5 in.) 2 (1.0 in.)
10.0 in.
tapprox  6310 psi
1.0 in.
EXACT THEORY (EQ. 3-11)
T(d2 2) Td2
t2  
IP 
2 ¢ ≤ d24  d14
T  1200 k-in. 32
t  1.0 in. 16(1200 k-in.)(12.0 in.)

r  radius to median line [ (12.0 in.) 4  (10.0 in.) 4 ]

## d2  outside diameter  12.0 in. texact  6830 psi

d1  inside diameter  10.0 in. Because the approximate theory gives stresses that
are too low, it is nonconservative. Therefore, the
approximate theory should only be used for very thin
tubes.

t
Problem 3.10-2 A solid circular bar having diameter d is to be replaced
by a rectangular tube having cross-sectional dimensions d  2d to the t
median line of the cross section (see figure). d d
Determine the required thickness tmin of the tube so that the maxi-
mum shear stress in the tube will not exceed the maximum shear stress in
the solid bar. 2d

## Solution 3.10-2 Bar and tube

SOLID BAR Am  (d)(2d)  2d 2 (Eq. 3-64)
16T T T
tmax  (Eq. 3-12) tmax   (Eq. 3-61)
d d 3 2tAm 4td 2
EQUATE THE MAXIMUM SHEAR STRESSES AND SOLVE FOR t

## RECTANGULAR TUBE 16T T

t 
d 3 4td 2
d
d tmin 
64
If t  tmin, the shear stress in the tube is less than the
2d shear stress in the bar.

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246 CHAPTER 3 Torsion

## Problem 3.10-3 A thin-walled aluminum tube of rectangular

cross section (see figure) has a centerline dimensions b  6.0 in.
and h  4.0 in. The wall thickness t is constant and equal to t
0.25 in. h
(a) Determine the shear stress in the tube due to a torque
T  15 k-in.
(b) Determine the angle of twist (in degrees) if the length L of
the tube is 50 in. and the shear modulus G is 4.0  106 psi. b
Use with Prob. 3.10-4

## Solution 3.10-3 Thin-walled tube

Eq. (3-64): Am  bh  24.0 in.2

t 2b2h2t
Eq. (3-71)witht1  t2  t:J 
h bh
J  28.8 in.4

## (a) SHEAR STRESS (EQ. 3-61)

b
T
t  1250 psi
b  6.0 in. 2tAm
h  4.0 in.
(b) ANGLE OF TWIST (EQ. 3-72)
t  0.25 in.
TL
T  15 k-in. f  0.0065104 rad
GJ
L  50 in.  0.373
G  4.0  106 psi

## Problem 3.10-4 A thin-walled steel tube of rectangular cross section

(see figure) has centerline dimensions b 150 mm and h  100 mm.
The wall thickness t is constant and equal to 6.0 mm.
(a) Determine the shear stress in the tube due to a torque T  1650 N  m.
(b) Determine the angle of twist (in degrees) if the length L of the tube is
1.2 m and the shear modulus G is 75 GPa.

## Solution 3.10-4 Thin-walled tube

b  150 mm (a) SHEAR STRESS (Eq. 3-61)
h  100 mm T
t t  9.17 MPa
t  6.0 mm 2tAm
h
T  1650 N  m (b) ANGLE OF TWIST (Eq. 3-72)
L  1.2 m TL
b
G  75 GPa GJ
Eq. (3-64): Am  bh  0.015 m2  0.140

2b2h2t
Eq. (3-71)witht1  t2  t:J 
bh
J  10.8  106 m4

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SECTION 3.10 Thin-Walled Tubes 247

Problem 3.10-5 A thin-walled circular tube and a solid circular bar of Tube (1)
the same material (see figure) are subjected to torsion. The tube and bar Bar (2)
have the same cross-sectional area and the same length.
What is the ratio of the strain energy U1 in the tube to the strain
energy U2 in the solid bar if the maximum shear stresses are the same in
both cases? (For the tube, use the approximate theory for thin-walled bars.)

## Solution 3.10-5 THIN-WALLED TUBE (1)

t SOLID BAR (2)
Am  r2 J  2r3t A  2rt r2  4
r A  r22 IP  r
tmax 
T

T 2 2
2tAm 2r2t
Tr2 2T r23tmax
tmax   3 T
T 2r 2tmax IP r2 2
T 2L (2r 2ttmax ) 2L T 2L (r23 tmax ) 2L r22t2maxL
U1   U2   
2GJ 2G(2r 3t) 2GIP  4G
8G ¢ r24 ≤
rtt2maxL 2
 At2maxL
G But r22  A ∴ U2 
4G
A
But rt 
2 RATIO
At2 L
 U1  max U1
2G 2
U2

t = 8 mm
Problem 3.10-6 Calculate the shear stress  and the angle of twist  (in
r = 50 mm r = 50 mm
degrees) for a steel tube (G  76 GPa) having the cross section shown
in the figure. The tube has length L  1.5 m and is subjected to a torque
T  10 kN  m.

b = 100 mm

## Solution 3.10-6 Steel tube

t = 8 mm SHEAR STRESS
r = 50 mm r = 50 mm
T 10 kN . m
G  76 GPa t 
2tAm 2(8 mm)(17,850 mm2 )
L  1.5 m
 35.0 MPa
T  10 kN . m
b = 100 mm Am  r22br ANGLE OF TWIST
Am  (50 mm)22(100 mm)(50 mm) TL (10 kN . m) (1.5 m)
f 
 17,850 mm2 GJ (76 GPa)(19.83  106 mm4 )
Lm  2b2r  0.00995 rad
 2(100 mm)2(50 mm)  0.570
 514.2 mm
4tA2m 4(8 mm)(17,850 mm2 ) 2
J 
Lm 514.2 mm
 19.83  106 mm4

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248 CHAPTER 3 Torsion

## Problem 3.10-7 A thin-walled steel tube having an elliptical cross

t
section with constant thickness t (see figure) is subjected to a torque
T  18 k-in.
Determine the shear stress  and the rate of twist  (in degrees
per inch) if G  12  106 psi, t  0.2 in., a  3 in., and b  2 in. 2b
(Note: See Appendix D, Case 16, for the properties of an ellipse.)

2a

## Solution 3.10-7 Elliptical tube

t
FROM APPENDIX D, CASE 16:
Am  ab  (3.0 in.)(2.0 in.)  18.850 in.2
2b Lm  p[1.5(a  b)  ab]
 [1.5(5.0 in.)  6.0 in.2 ]  15.867 in.
4tA2m 4(0.2 in.)(18.850 in.2 ) 2
2a J 
Lm 15.867 in.
T  18 k-in.  17.92 in. 4

G  12  106 psi
SHEAR STRESS
t  constant
T 18 k-in.
t  0.2 in a  3.0 in. b  2.0 in. t 
2tAm 2(0.2 in.)(18.850 in.2 )
 2390 psi

## ANGLE OF TWIST PER UNIT LENGTH (RATE OF TWIST)

f T 18 k-in.
u  
L GJ (12  10 psi)(17.92 in.4 )
6

## Problem 3.10-8 A torque T is applied to a thin-walled tube having

a cross section in the shape of a regular hexagon with constant wall t
thickness t and side length b (see figure).
Obtain formulas for the shear stress  and the rate of twist .

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SECTION 3.10 Thin-Walled Tubes 249

## Solution 3.10-8 Regular hexagon

SHEAR STRESS
t
T T3
t 
2tAm 9b2t
ANGLE OF TWIST PER UNIT LENGTH (RATE OF TWIST)
4A2mt 4A2mt 9b3t
J  Lm  

dS Lm 2
b 0 t
T 2T 2T
b  Length of side u  3 
GJ G(9b t) 9Gb3t
t  Thickness
Lm  6b

## FROM APPENDIX D, CASE 25:

  60 n  6
nb2 b 6b2
Am  cot  cot 30
4 2 4
33b2

2

Problem 3.10-9 Compare the angle of twist 1 for a thin-walled circular tube t
(see figure) calculated from the approximate theory for thin-walled bars with the r
angle of twist 2 calculated from the exact theory of torsion for circular bars.
C
(a) Express the ratio 1/2 in terms of the nondimensional ratio   r/t.
(b) Calculate the ratio of angles of twist for   5, 10, and 20. What conclusion
about the accuracy of the approximate theory do you draw from these results?

## Solution 3.10-9 Thin-walled tube

(a) RATIO
t
r f1 4r2  t2 t2
  1 
C
f2 4r2 4r2

r f1 1
Let b   1 2
APPROXIMATE THEORY t f2 4b

TL TL (b)  1/2
f1  J  2r3t f1 
GJ 2Gr3t
5 1.0100
EXACT THEORY 10 1.0025
TL rt 20 1.0006
f2  From Eq. (3-17): Ip  (4r2  t2 )
GIP 2
As the tube becomes thinner and  becomes larger,
TL 2TL the ratio 1/2 approaches unity. Thus, the thinner
f2  
GIP Grt(4r2  t2 ) the tube, the more accurate the approximate theory
becomes.

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250 CHAPTER 3 Torsion

## Problem 3.10-10 A thin-walled rectangular tube has uniform thickness t t

and dimensions a  b to the median line of the cross section (see figure).
How does the shear stress in the tube vary with the ratio   a/b if
the total length Lm of the median line of the cross section and the torque T
b
remain constant?
From your results, show that the shear stress is smallest when the
tube is square (  1).
a

## Solution 3.10-10 Rectangular tube

t T, t, and Lm are constants.
2T (1  b) 2
Let k   constantt  k
b tL2m b

8
a 6

k 4

t  thickness (constant) 2
a
b
a, b  dimensions of the tube 0 1 2 3

a
b
b t 8T
¢ ≤ 4 tmin 
Lm  2(a  b)  constant
k min tL2m
From the graph, we see that  is minimum when
T  constant
  1 and the tube is square.
SHEAR STRESS
ALTERNATE SOLUTION
T
t  Am  ab  bb2 2T (1  b) 2
2tAm t B R
tL2m b
Lm  2b(1  b)  constant
dt 2T b(2)(1  b)  (1  b) 2 (1)
Lm Lm 2  2B R 0
b  Am  b B R db tLm b2
2(1  b) 2(1  b)
or 2 (1)(1)2  0 1
bL2m
Am  Thus, the tube is square and  is either a minimum
4(1  b) 2 or a maximum. From the graph, we see that  is a
T T(4)(1  b) 2 2T(1  b) 2 minimum.
t  
2tAm 2tbL2m tL2mb

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SECTION 3.10 Thin-Walled Tubes 251

## Problem 3.10-11 A tubular aluminum bar (G  4  106 psi) of square

cross section (see figure) with outer dimensions 2 in.  2 in. must resist a
t
torque T  3000 lb-in.
Calculate the minimum required wall thickness tmin if the allowable 2 in.
shear stress is 4500 psi and the allowable rate of twist is 0.01 rad/ft.

2 in.

## Solution 3.10-11 Square aluminum tube

THICKNESS t BASED UPON SHEAR STRESS
t
T T T
t tAm  t(b  t) 2 
2 in. 2tAm 2t 2t
UNITS: t  in. b  in. T  lb-in.   psi
3000 lb-in. 1
t(2.0 in.  t) 2   in.3
2(4500 psi) 3
2 in.
3t(2  t) 2  1  0
Solve for t: t  0.0915 in.
Outer dimensions:
2.0 in.  2.0 in. THICKNESS t BASED UPON RATE OF TWIST
G  4  106 psi T T T
u  t(b  t) 3 
T  3000 lb-in. GJ Gt(b  t) 3 Gu

## allow  4500 psi UNITS: t  in. G  psi   rad/in.

3000 lb-in
0.01
radin. t(2.0 in.  t) 3 
12 (4  10 psi)(0.0112 rad in.)
6

## Let b  outer dimension 9


10
 2.0 in.
10t(2  t) 3  9  0
Centerline dimension  b  t
Solve for t:
Am  (b  t)2 Lm  4(b  t)
t  0.140 in.
4tA2m 4t(b  t) 4
J   t(b  t) 3
Lm 4(b  t) ANGLE OF TWIST GOVERNS
tmin  0.140 in.

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252 CHAPTER 3 Torsion

## Problem 3.10-12 A thin tubular shaft of circular cross section

(see figure) with inside diameter 100 mm is subjected to a torque of
5000 N  m.
If the allowable shear stress is 42 MPa, determine the required
100 mm
wall thickness t by using (a) the approximate theory for a thin-walled
tube, and (b) the exact torsion theory for a circular bar.
t

## (b) EXACT THEORY

Tr2  
t Ip  (r42  r41 )  [ (50  t) 4  (50) 4 ]
Ip 2 2
100 mm
(5,000 N . m)(50  t)
42 MPa 

t [ (50  t) 4  (50) 4 ]
2
(50  t) 4  (50) 4 (5000 N . m)(2)
T  5,000 N  m d1  inner diameter  100 mm 
50  t ()(42 MPa)
allow  42 MPa 5  106
 mm3
t is in millimeters. 21
r  Average radius Solve for t:

 50 mm 
t t  7.02 mm
2
The approximate result is 5% less than the
exact result. Thus, the approximate theory is
nonconservative and should only be used for
 50 mm
thin-walled tubes.
 50 mm  t Am  r2

## (a) APPROXIMATE THEORY

T T T
t  2 
2tAm 2t(r ) 2r2t
5,000 N . m
42 MPa 
t 2
2 ¢ 50  ≤ t
2
or
t 2 5,000 N . m 5  106
t ¢ 50  ≤   mm3
2 2(42 MPa) 84
Solve for t:
t  6.66 mm

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SECTION 3.10 Thin-Walled Tubes 253

## Problem 3.10-13 A long, thin-walled tapered tube AB of circular cross B

section (see figure) is subjected to a torque T. The tube has length L and A
T T
constant wall thickness t. The diameter to the median lines of the cross
sections at the ends A and B are dA and dB, respectively.
Derive the following formula for the angle of twist of the tube: L
t
 
 Gt 
2TL dA  dB

dA2dB2  t

## Hint: If the angle of taper is small, we may obtain approximate

results by applying the formulas for a thin-walled prismatic tube to a dA dB
differential element of the tapered tube and then integrating along the
axis of the tube.

## A B For entire tube:


L
dA d(x) dB 4T dx
f
GT dB  dA 3
x dx B dA  ¢ ≤ xR
0 L
L
From table of integrals (see Appendix C):

t  thickness
 (a  bx)
dx 1

3
2b(a  bx) 2
dA  average diameter at end A
dB  average diameter at end B
L
4T 1
T  torque f 
Gt C dB  dA dB  dA 2
S
d(x)  average diameter at distance x from end A. 2¢ ≤¢ dA   x≤
L L 0
dB  dA
d(x)  dA  ¢ ≤x
L
4T L L
d 3t  B  R
J  2r3t  Gt 2(dB  dA )dB2 2(dB  dA )dA2
4
t t dB  dA 3
J(x)  [d(x) ] 3  B dA  ¢ ≤ xR
4 4 L 2TL dA  dB
f ¢ ≤
Gt dA2dB2
For element of length dx:
Tdx 4Tdx
df  
GJ(x) dB  dA 3
Gt B dA  ¢ ≤ xR
L

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254 CHAPTER 3 Torsion

## The problems for Section 3.11 are to be solved by considering the

stress-concentration factors. D2 R
D1
Problem 3.11-1 A stepped shaft consisting of solid circular segments T T
having diameters D1  2.0 in. and D2  2.4 in. (see figure) is subjected
to torques T. The radius of the fillet is R  0.1 in.
If the allowable shear stress at the stress concentration is 6000 psi,
what is the maximum permissible torque Tmax?
Probs. 3.11-1 through 3.11-5

## Solution 3.11-1 Stepped shaft in torsion

D2 R USE FIG. 3-48 FOR THE STRESS-CONCENTRATION
D1
FACTOR
T T
R 0.1 in. D2 2.4 in.
  0.05   1.2
D1 2.0 in. D1 2.0 in.
16 Tmax
K  1.52 tmax  K tnom  K ¢ ≤
 D31
D1  2.0 in.
D31tmax
D2  2.4 in. Tmax 
16K
R  0.1 in.
(2.0 in.) 3 (6000 psi)
allow  6000 psi   6200 lb-in.
16(1.52)
∴ Tmax  6200 lb-in.

## Problem 3.11-2 A stepped shaft with diameters D1  40 mm and

D2  60 mm is loaded by torques T  1100 N  m (see figure).
If the allowable shear stress at the stress concentration is 120 MPa,
what is the smallest radius Rmin that may be used for the fillet?

## Solution 3.11-2 Stepped shaft in torsion

D2 R USE FIG. 3-48 FOR THE STRESS-CONCENTRATION FACTOR
D1
16T
T T tmax  Ktnom  K ¢ ≤
D31
D31tmax (40 mm) 3 (120 MPa)
K   1.37
16T 16(1100 N # m)
D2 60 mm
D1  40 mm   1.5
D1 40 mm
D2  60 mm
D2
T  1100 N  m From Fig. (3-48) with  1.5 and K  1.37,
D1
allow  120 MPa R
we get  0.10
D1
∴ Rmin  0.10(40 mm)  4.0 mm

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SECTION 3.11 Stress Concentrations in Torsion 255

## Problem 3.11-3 A full quarter-circular fillet is used at the shoulder

of a stepped shaft having diameter D2  1.0 in. (see figure). A torque
T  500 lb-in. acts on the shaft.
Determine the shear stress max at the stress concentration for
values as follows: D1  0.7, 0.8, and 0.9 in. Plot a graph showing
max versus D1.

## Solution 3.11-3 Stepped shaft in torsion

D2 R
D1 D1 (in.) D2/D1 R (in.) R/D1 K max (psi)
T T 0.7 1.43 0.15 0.214 1.20 8900
0.8 1.25 0.10 0.125 1.29 6400
0.9 1.11 0.05 0.056 1.41 4900

D2  1.0 in.
T  500 lb-in.
D1  0.7, 0.8, and 0.9 in. 10,000

(psi)
D2  D1 D1
R  0.5 in. 
2 2 5000

## USE FIG. 3-48 FOR THE STRESS-CONCENTRATION FACTOR

16T
tmax  Ktnom  K ¢ ≤
D31 0
0.6 0.8 1 D1 (in.)
16(500 lb-in.) K
K  2546 3
D31 D1

## Note that max gets smaller as D1 gets larger, even

though K is increasing.

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256 CHAPTER 3 Torsion

## Problem 3.11-4 The stepped shaft shown in the figure is required to

transmit 600 kW of power at 400 rpm. The shaft has a full quarter-circular
fillet, and the smaller diameter D1  100 mm.
If the allowable shear stress at the stress concentration is 100 MPa, at
what diameter D2 will this stress be reached? Is this diameter an upper or
a lower limit on the value of D2?

## Solution 3.11-4 Stepped shaft in torsion

D2 R
D1
T T

P  600 kW D1  100 mm Use the dashed line for a full quarter-circular fillet.
n  400 rpm allow  100 MPa
R
Full quarter-circular fillet  0.075 R  0.075
D1  0.075 (100 mm)
D1
2nT  7.5 mm
POWER P  (Eq. 3-42 of Section 3.7)
60 D2  D1  2R  100 mm  2(7.5 mm)  115 mm
P  watts n  rpm T  Newton meters ∴ D2  115 mm
60P 60(600  10 W) 3
T   14,320 N # m This value of D2 is a lower limit
2n 2(400 rpm)
(If D2 is less than 115 mm, R/D1 is smaller, K is larger,
USE FIG. 3-48 FOR THE STRESS-CONCENTRATION FACTOR and max is larger, which means that the allowable stress
is exceeded.)
16T
tmax  Ktnom  K ¢ ≤
D31
tmax (D31 )
K
16T
(100 MPa)()(100 mm) 3
  1.37
16(14,320 N # m)

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SECTION 3.11 Stress Concentrations in Torsion 257

Problem 3.11-5 A stepped shaft (see figure) has diameter D2  1.5 in.
and a full quarter-circular fillet. The allowable shear stress is 15,000 psi
and the load T  4800 lb-in.
What is the smallest permissible diameter D1?

D2 R
D1
T T

## D2  1.5 in. Use trial-and-error. Select trial values of D1

allow  15,000 psi D1 (in.) R (in.) R/D1 K max(psi)
T  4800 lb-in. 1.30 0.100 0.077 1.38 15,400
1.35 0.075 0.056 1.41 14,000
Full quarter-circular fillet D2  D1  2R
1.40 0.050 0.036 1.46 13,000
D2  D1 D1
R  0.75 in. 
2 2
max (psi)
USE FIG. 3-48 FOR THE STRESS-CONCENTRATION FACTOR
16T
tmax  Ktnom  K ¢ ≤ 16,000
D31
allow
K 16(4800 lb-in.)
 3B R 15,000
D1 
K
 24,450 D1=1.31in.
D31 14,000

13,000 D1(in.)
1.30 1.40

## From the graph, minimum D1  1.31 in.

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