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Perforated Plates of Varying

Thickness

D. Maynes1

e-mail: maynes@byu.edu This paper reports results of an experimental investigation of the loss coefficient and

onset of cavitation caused by water flow through perforated plates of varying thickness

G. J. Holt and flow area to pipe area ratio at high speeds. The overall plate loss coefficient, point of

cavitation inception, and point where critical cavitation occurs are functions of perfora-

J. Blotter tion hole size, number of holes, and plate thickness. Sixteen total plates were considered

in the study with the total perforation hole area to pipe area ratio ranging from 0.11 and

Department of Mechanical Engineering, 0.6, the plate thickness to perforation hole diameter ranging from 0.25 to 3.3, and the

Brigham Young University, number of perforation holes ranging from 4 to 1800. The plates were mounted in the test

Provo, UT 84602 section of a closed water flow loop. The results reveal a complex dependency between the

plate loss coefficient with total free-area ratio and the plate thickness to perforation hole

diameter ratio. In general, the loss coefficient decreases with increasing free-area ratio

and increasing thickness-to-hole diameter ratio. A model based on the data is presented

that predicts the loss coefficient for multiholed perforated plates with nonrounded holes.

Furthermore, the data show that the cavitation number at the points of cavitation incep-

tion and critical cavitation increases with increasing free-area ratio. However, with

regard to the thickness-to-hole diameter ratio, the cavitation number at inception exhibits

a local maximum at a ratio between 0.5 and 1.0. Empirical models to allow prediction

of the point of cavitation inception and the point where critical cavitation begins are

presented and compared to single hole orifice plate behavior. [DOI: 10.1115/1.4023407]

1 Introduction situation [7]. In a typical perforated plate flow scenario, the plate

may not be thin, with the thickness of the plate relative to the hole

1.1 Motivation. Liquid flow through perforated plates can diameters much larger than assumed for the typical sharp-edge ori-

result in cavitation if the pipe velocity is sufficiently high. A perfo- fice application. Because of these differences, prediction of pressure

rated plate is similar to an orifice plate but with multiple holes. The loss and the onset points of incipient and critical cavitation for per-

number of holes, N, plate thickness, t, hole diameter, d, and pipe di- forated plates based on single hole sharp edge orifice data or mod-

ameter, D, all influence the overall pressure loss across the plate, els yields significant error, although it has been expected that the

the point of incipient cavitation and the point of critical cavitation. behavior would mimic the single hole orifice more closely [2].

Incipient cavitation refers to the first onset of cavitation for the

entire flow region, although the formation of vapor bubbles may be

intermittent, and critical cavitation refers to the point where con- 1.2 Background. Cavitation occurs when the local static

stant formation of vapor cavities prevails. Figure 1 shows examples pressure drops below the vapor pressure at liquid/gas interfaces

of typical perforated plates that were used in this study. found at nucleation sites on surfaces or in the flow where absorbed

Perforated plates can be used to physically simulate high- air exists [8–10]. When liquid approaches a perforated plate, it is

pressure drop valve systems of similar hole size, which are fre- forced to accelerate through the holes causing the pressure to drop

quently encountered in industrial systems. The noise and vibra- locally inside the perforation holes and in the exiting fluid jets.

tions that result from cavitation through such plates or similar When the local static pressure drops below the vapor pressure, Pv,

geometries can lead to pipe failure and adverse operating condi- vapor bubbles form at nucleation sites. These bubbles are then

tions [1–4]. Vibration induced fatigue is one of the predominant carried downstream to a point where the pressure begins to rise,

failure mechanisms of pipe systems in large scale industrial set- causing the bubbles to collapse on themselves. At bubble collapse,

tings [5,6] and a general predictive ability as to when incipient a large amount of energy is released, resulting in noise and vibra-

cavitation and critical cavitation occur is of significant relevance. tions that are transmitted into the pipe structure, both undesirable

The flow through a multiholed plate differs from flow through a in industrial settings. Furthermore, direct damage to orifices and

single-holed orifice plate due to the existence of the multiple inter- pipe walls due to pitting can be a significant problem. Due to

acting jets downstream of the plate. The jets interact in a manner interactions of the multiple parallel exiting jets that prevail in a

that alters both the overall plate loss coefficient and the points of in- perforated plate, the onset of cavitation in such a system can be

cipient and critical cavitation from that characteristic of a single different than for a single jet of the same overall flow area.

holed orifice plate. Furthermore, much of the available literature In pipe flow regimes where cavitation prevails, the cavitation

related to loss and cavitation inception at orifice plates considers number, r, is often employed as defined in Eq. (1) [2,11].

the thin plate (thickness to hole diameter ratio, t/d, less than 18)

P2 Pv

r¼ (1)

P1 P2

1

Corresponding author.

Manuscript received June 26, 2012; final manuscript received December 18, P2 is the downstream static pressure, Pv is the liquid vapor pres-

2012; published online February 22, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Mark R. Duignan. sure, and P1 is the upstream static pressure. A cavitation number

C 2013 by ASME MARCH 2013, Vol. 135 / 031302-1

vibration will vary with pipe material, pipe mounting conditions,

etc., and is not of interest for the present paper.

The data of Fig. 2 illustrates the existence of four distinct cavita-

tion regimes. The first (r > 5) is the turbulent regime where cavita-

tion has not occurred and the vibrations are due entirely to the

turbulent jets, their shear layers, and interactions. The second

(4 < r < 5) is where the acceleration levels dramatically increase

over a small change in r. This regime represents where cavitation

has onset, although the cavitation in this regime is only intermittent.

The third (2 < r < 4) is the regime where the flow is fully cavitat-

ing. The fourth (r < 2) is where choking of the flow occurs and the

vibration levels decrease. The points where the lines intersect in

Fig. 2 are all important cavitation numbers and are defined here as

[11]: (1) The inception cavitation number, ri; (2) The critical cavi-

tation number, rc; and (3) The choking cavitation number, rch.

The incipient cavitation number is the point where cavitation first

occurs and where small vapor bubbles are formed irregularly [12].

Fig. 1 Photograph of a typical multiholed perforated plate

used in this study The generated noise is intermittent popping that can barely be dis-

cerned over the turbulent flow generated noise and is a design limit

that is often used when no cavitation is desired within a system

based on the dynamic pressure rather than the pressure drop is [11]. The critical cavitation number is where the flow is fully cavi-

also commonly used and is defined in Eq. (2). r and rv are related tating, or there is a constant generation of vapor bubbles [11]. This

to each other by the pipe loss coefficient, KLp as shown in Eq. (3), is a design limit that is used when some cavitation can be permitted.

where KLp is defined in Eq. (4). Many systems that operate continuously are often run to this limit.

The choking cavitation number, which is not explored in this

P2 Pv research, is the point where choked flow is occurring. Choked flow

rv ¼ (2)

1=2qVp2 is occurring because the local speed of sound in the two-phase flow

is lower than the local flow speed and the mass flow rate and can

rv no longer increase by dropping the downstream pressure.

r¼ (3)

KLp

1.3 Previous Work. The parameters that have previously

P1 P2 been shown to exercise influence on pressure loss and cavitation

KLp ¼ (4)

1=2qVp2 inception are t/d, and the free-area ratio, defined to the be the ratio

of the total hole area to the pipe cross-sectional area, Ah/Ap. There

Vp is the average velocity in the pipe upstream from the perforated has been a significant amount of attention devoted to the pressure

plate and q is the liquid density. Both r and rv are often used to drop across single hole thin sharp-edge orifice plates, and such is

characterize cavitation level [11], however, here we choose to treated in most undergraduate fluid mechanics texts. However,

generally utilize r. Figure 2 shows the typical behavior of the pipe investigations addressing the pressure drop across multiholed plates

wall vibration (measured with wall mounted accelerometers in the and plates that are not “thin,” are few. The most comprehensive

present study) as a function of cavitation number, r, for flow study to investigate pressure loss at perforated plates was performed

through a typical perforated plate. The figure presents the root by Kolodzie and Van Winkle [13]. They measured the loss coeffi-

mean square (rms) of the pipe wall acceleration, A0 , plotted with cient for a wide range of perforated plates with the t/d ranging from

respect to r for a typical configuration. As has been noted previ- 0.33 to 2.0 and Ah/Ap ranging from 0.027 to 0.16, and number of

ously [11], measurement of the pipe wall acceleration is an excel- holes ranging from 7 to 331. Although the number of plates consid-

lent means of determining cavitation inception and other critical ered was large, the range of Ah/Ap explored was limited to relatively

cavitation points, since the pipe wall responds directly to the pres- small values (less than 0.2). Air was utilized as the working fluid in

sure waves caused by the phenomena. Here the acceleration data their study and thus single-phase conditions prevailed throughout.

are only used to identify the points of incipient and critical cavita- They showed that, provided the Reynolds number based on the av-

tion, as discussed further below. The magnitude of the pipe wall erage hole velocity and hole diameter (Reh ¼ Vhd/) was greater

than about 3000, the loss coefficient maintains a constant value, in-

dependent of Reynolds number. Their data are useful in comparing

to the present results and in validating a generalized model for pre-

dicting loss coefficient presented later in the paper.

Testud et al. [2] experimentally explored the noise generated by

cavitation for water flow through a single hole orifice and a multi-

holed plate (47 holes). The two plates had nominally the same

free-area ratio (Ah/Ap 0.08 – 0.09) and the same plate thickness.

However, the t/d ratio for the single hole plate was 0.64, while for

the multiholed plate it was 4.7. r was varied in their experiments

from 0.03 to 0.74. Results from this study will also be compared

to the results in this paper.

Work by Tullis et al. [3,11,14] has been the most significant

with regard to predicting the onset of cavitation for liquid flow

through single hole orifice plates. He has presented correlations

from which ri, rc, and rch may be estimated based on the plate

discharge coefficient, Cd, where Cd is defined as

Vp 1

0

Cd ¼ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ (5)

Fig. 2 A representative plot of A versus r, illustrating the four 2ðP1 P2 Þ=q þ V 2 KLp þ 1

p

different cavitation regimes described in the text

Data of Tullis et al. [3,11,14] are compared in the results sec- reattach to the walls of the holes, the flow is said to be detached.

tion to our data for multiholed plates. More recent studies have This is illustrated in Fig. 3. The following analysis develops an in-

addressed the flow of non-Newtonion fluids [15], numerical mod- tegral analysis for the loss coefficient when the flow is in this

eling of cavitation [16] and head loss in multiphase flows [17] state. Considering the sudden contraction region and assuming the

through single square edge hole orifice plates. flow is inviscid and steady, Bernoulli’s equation states

P1 þ qVp2 ¼ Pj þ qVj2 (7)

is to present the results of an experimental investigation that char- 2 2

acterizes plate loss coefficient and points of incipient and critical

cavitation for 16 perforated plates. The number of perforation where P1 is the upstream pressure, Pj is the jet pressure, and the

holes ranged from 4 to 1800, the free-area ratio was in the range velocities are assumed to be one-dimensional.

0.11 Ah/Ap 0.6 and the plate thickness to perforation hole di- An integral momentum analysis in the streamwise direction for

ameter was in the range 0.25 t/d 3.3. The results are useful in the sudden expansion area, is now performed for the control vol-

understanding the effect all of the influencing variables exert on ume depicted in Fig. 3, where the incoming flow is detached from

KLp, ri, and rc, and in predicting behavior for future designs. Fur- the hole surface and at a velocity Vj with an effective flow area of

thermore, the results reveal how these parameters depart from the Aj. Neglecting body forces, the momentum equation for a steady,

behavior characteristic of single hole orifice plate studies. Models one-dimensional flow may be expressed as

are developed using the present data from which KLp, ri, and rc,

can be determined as a function of the influencing variables for Pj Ap P2 Ap ¼ q Vp2 Ap Vj2 Aj (8)

both thick and thin multiholed plates.

where Pj is assumed to prevail across the entire pipe area (Ap) at

2 Analysis the sudden expansion, as is often done [7]. Combining Eqs. (7)

This section of the paper introduces two models for the plate and (8) and using Eq. (6), the following expression for the

loss coefficient. These two models represent bounding values detached loss coefficient (KLD) based on Vh results in:

which all of the present data lie between, and form the basis for 2

an empirical model to predict KLp. For flow through a nonrounded 2ðP1 P2 Þ 1 Ah

KLD ¼ ¼ (9)

perforation or orifice hole, the flow through the hole creates a jet qVh2 a Ap

of liquid surrounded by a region of relatively stagnant fluid form-

ing a vena-contracta. Testud et al. [2] showed that two theoretical a is the contraction ratio of the vena-contracta (Aj/Ah) and for an

models could be developed for the loss coefficient dependent ideal thin orifice with a sharp edge exiting to free space is nomi-

upon whether the flow reattaches inside of the hole or not after the nally a value of 0.61 [7,18,19].

vena-contracta. Whether or not the flow reattaches is dependent

upon t/d. These models were developed from an integral analysis

of a sudden contraction followed by a sudden expansion, and are 2.2 Attached Model (Thick Plate). For a thick plate, the

derived below, considering the flow area is in the form of a single same upstream conditions can be assumed as the thin plate dis-

hole in the plate. It should be noted that the loss coefficients pre- cussed above and Eq. (6) still applies. However, the conditions

sented in this section are based on the average perforation hole ve- downstream of the plate are now different. Because the flow reat-

locity. As such, these are related to the loss coefficient based on taches itself inside of the hole, there will be loss due to the turbu-

the average pipe velocity by the factor (Ah/Ap) [2]. lent mixing and frictional resistance within each of the perforation

For steady incompressible flow through a perforated plate (see holes. To account for this, a momentum integral analysis is per-

Fig. 3), conservation of mass yields formed in the perforated holes from the point of the throat in the

vena-contracta to the hole exits as illustrated in Fig. 4. A one-

Vp Ap ¼ Vj Aj ¼ Vh Ah (6) dimensionsal integral analysis for control volume A in Fig. 4

yields

Vj is the average jet velocity in the jet region of the vena-con-

Pj Ah Ph Ah ¼ qðVh2 Ah Vj2 Aj Þ (10)

tracta, Aj is the total jet area (for all holes), Vh is the average ve-

locity in the hole, and Ah is the total area of the perforation holes.

Note that Vj is greater than Vh due to the stagnant fluid in the recir- Ph is the pressure at the exit of the hole, and the pressure at the

culation zones of the vena-contracta and Aj is correspondingly throat of the vena-contracta Pj is assumed to prevail across the

smaller than Ah. entire hole area (Ah), although there will be some small deviation

from this due to streamline curvature in the recirculation region.

2.1 Detached Model (Thin Plate). If the fluid, passing A momentum integral analysis on the sudden expansion (con-

through the vena-contracta portion of a perforated plate, does not trol volume B in Fig. 4) for the thick plate scenario yields

Fig. 3 Illustration of a flow through a thin perforation hole when the flow reattaches in the hole after the vena-contracta

when flow does not reattach after the vena-contracta (detached) with the control volumes used for the integral analysis

with the control volume for the integral analysis indicated indicated

Ph Ap P2 Ap ¼ q Vp2 Ap Vh2 Ah (11) Far downstream (120 diameters) from the perforated plate the

flow loop transitions through two elbows, separated by a vertical

pipe section 20 diameters in length, and returns along the floor of the

Ph is again assumed to prevail over the entire pipe area at the inlet laboratory back toward the pump. A volume flow meter and thermo-

to control volume B. Combining Eqs. (7), (10), and (11) and using couple are located in this return line. The location of the flow meter

Eq. (6), an equation for the attached loss coefficient (KLA) based is more than 200 pipe diameters downstream from the perforated

on Vh can be produced and is shown in Eq. (12). plates. Here, the static pressure is very nearly atmospheric and no

2 water vapor can exist in the flow. Following the flow meter is a verti-

2ðP1 P2 Þ Ah 1 1 Ah cal vent that extends 1 m above the elevation of the facility test sec-

KLA ¼ ¼2 1 þ 2þ (12)

qVh2 Ap a a Ap tion, which is at the highest point of the flow loop. This vent is used

to fill the flow loop, to allow entrapped air in the system to escape,

3 Experimental Method and to protect the system from over pressurization. During all test-

ing, the water level in the vent was maintained at nominally 0.6 m

The following sections provide a description of the flow loop above the highest point in the flow loop, and thus air could not be

and the perforated plates that were utilized in the experiments. entrained into the flow loop during dynamic or static conditions. A

The instrumentation that was used to obtain measurements and second flexible rubber coupler is located immediately before the ver-

the experimental procedure are then described. Lastly, the method tical vent and after the vent the pipe expands to a diameter of

of data analysis and experimental uncertainty are discussed. 20.32 cm before the pipe connects to the inlet of the pump.

Two valves are located at the pump outlet, one connected to the

3.1 Flow Loop Facility. Shown in Fig. 5 is a schematic main line, and the second connected to a branch line. The branch

drawing of the flow loop facility, which is described briefly here line bypassed the perforated plate measurement section and was

with more details provided in Refs. [20,21]. Flow is delivered by used to characterize the magnitude of vibrations at the perforated

a Bell and Gossett centrifugal pump driven by a 75 hp Marathon plate location due to the pump rotation and vibration. This was

Electric 365T motor, with both being mounted on a vibration iso- accomplished by operating the pump at a specific pump speed

lation pad. The inlet and outlet pipes to the pump are 20.3 and while measuring the induced vibration at the perforated plate with

10.2 cm Schedule 80 PVC pipe, respectively. Downstream of the flow passing only through the branch line. This was then repeated

pump is a flow conditioner within an expanded pipe of 20.32 cm with flow only through the main line at the same pump speed. At

diameter Schedule 80 PVC pipe. The flow conditioner consists of the point of incipient cavitation, the magnitude of the vibration

a 7.6 cm thick piece of aluminum honeycomb and three mesh due to the turbulent flow and cavitation were more than 40 times

screens all sandwiched between aluminum rings to keep it from greater than the measured vibration when water was passing only

being forced downstream. The flow conditioner is used to through the branch line. Of course, at the point of critical cavita-

straighten the flow and eliminate eddies formed by the pump. Fol- tion, the pump vibration exerts even smaller influence. Thus, with

lowing the flow conditioner, the pipe diameter is reduced to regard to identifying the points of incipient and critical cavitation,

10.2 cm diameter Schedule 40 pipe. Immediately after the reduc- the influence of pump vibration on the accelerometer data is negli-

tion, a flexible rubber coupler is mounted inline and, due to its gibly small.

flexibility, acts to minimize transmission of vibration from the Tap water was utilized in the flow loop facility. It was not

pump downstream into the section of pipe where measurements degassed and is expected to be saturated with dissolved air, repre-

were acquired. The pipe is hard mounted to a concrete wall both sented operating conditions for many industrial water flow envi-

immediately before and after the rubber coupler to further reduce ronments. Both the temperature and pH of the water were

transmission of structural vibrations. monitored throughout all testing. The water temperature remained

Downstream of these mounts, the pipe is supported by flexible in the range 22–35 C for all experiments and was used to deter-

cables hung from the laboratory ceiling. After the rubber coupler mine the fluid viscosity and to estimate the dissolved gas content.

is a straight section of Schedule 40 pipe of length 6.1 m and diam- The pH of the water remained nominally constant at pH 8 and

eter 10.2 cm (60 pipe diameters). Estimating the developing consequently it is expected that the dissolved gas content

length, le, from le/D ¼ 4.4ReD1/6 [7], the length of the pipe remained fairly consistent. The majority of the time the water in

upstream of the perforated plate is much longer than the turbulent the flow loop exists at atmospheric pressure. At this pressure and

development length required at the highest Reynolds number, for the temperature range encountered, the volume fraction of the

ReD, explored. The perforated plates tested in this study were dissolved gas content is estimated to be nominally 0.01–0.018.

flanged connected between this section of pipe and a straight As noted above, nearly atmospheric pressure was maintained at

downstream section of pipe 120 pipe diameters in length. the inlet of the pump; thus the pressure immediately downstream

Fig. 5 Schematic drawing of the flow loop facility used for all experiments

Table 1 Perforated plates used in the study with hole diameter, number of holes, plate thickness, free-area ratio, and thickness to

diameter ratio shown. Also listed are the ranges of P2 and Vp for each plate, in addition to the values of P2i and Vpi.

Plate label d (cm) t (cm) No. of holes Ah/Ap t/d P2 range (kPa) Vp range (m/s) P2i (kPa) Vpi (m/s)

A2 2.54 0.65 4 0.248 0.256 89–107 0.75–2.6 93.2 1.4

B1 1.27 0.66 28 0.434 0.520 121–185 2.6–6.1 131.5 4.0

B2 1.26 0.66 14 0.214 0.524 89–112 0.84–3.0 94.1 1.5

B3 1.27 0.31 7 0.109 0.244 89–96 0.5–1.4 92.3 0.96

B4 1.27 0.64 7 0.109 0.504 89–96 0.5–1.4 93.0 1.15

C1 0.64 0.65 156 0.614 1.016 125–263 3.7–8.5 N/A N/A

C2 0.64 0.67 112 0.441 1.047 108–223 2.7–7.7 146.0 4.9

C3 0.65 0.65 57 0.231 1.000 94–126 1.5–3.7 100.8 2.1

C4 0.63 0.65 28 0.107 1.032 89–94 0.5–1.4 91.0 0.94

D1 0.32 0.51 624 0.614 1.594 125–261 3.7–8.4 N/A N/A

D2 0.32 0.51 448 0.441 1.594 119–242 2.8–8.1 159.2 5.3

D3 0.32 0.56 224 0.220 1.750 94–129 1.5–3.9 102.8 2.3

D4 0.31 0.52 112 0.103 1.677 89–99 0.5–1.6 91.8 1.04

E1 0.16 0.50 1793 0.441 3.125 108–242 2.1–8.1 173.5 5.8

E2 0.16 0.54 896 0.220 3.375 93–133 1.4–4.1 105.3 2.5

of the perforated plates, P2, was not constant, but varied according test section. Also downstream of the test section a K-type thermo-

to the head loss between the pressure measurement location and couple with accuracy of 60.5 C was used to measure the fluid

the location of the vent. P2 increased as expected with increasing temperature so as to determine the vapor pressure and water

flow rate for each perforated plate tested. P2 (absolute) varied properties.

from nominally 90 kPa to 240 kPa over the range of flow speeds

considered. The atmospheric pressure at the elevation of the labo- 3.4 Experimental Procedure. Experiments were conducted

ratory is nominally 86 kPa. The actual ranges for P1, P2, and Vp in both the cavitating and noncavitating flow regimes to character-

are given in Table 1 for all perforated plates considered. Also ize the initiation of cavitation and the pipe wall acceleration over

shown in the table are P2i and Vpi, which are the downstream pres- a range of average pipe fluid velocities from Vp ¼ 0.35–8.5 m/s.

sure and average pipe velocity values at the cavitation inception Data were acquired once steady state was achieved for a given

point. flow speed, which corresponded to the time-averaged pressure

drop across the orifice plate and the rms of the accelerometer data

3.2 Perforated Plates. A total of 16 perforated plates of vary- each leveling off at constant values. The accelerometer, pressure,

ing perforation hole diameter, free-area ratios, and plate thicknesses noise, and flow rate data were acquired at a sample rate of 50 kHz

were used in this study. All plates were made of aluminum and for 5 seconds for each pipe velocity considered. A 2 Hz high pass

were flange mounted between the developing section length of pipe filter and a 20 kHz low pass filter was used to filter the accelerom-

and the pipe test section. The plates have nominal hole diameters of eter data. The filters were used to eliminate the low frequency

2.54 cm, 1.27 cm, 0.64 cm, 0.32 cm, and 0.16 cm and all plates noise that was occurring due to low frequency pipe swaying at the

exhibited nonchamfered holes. The inlets and exits of the holes lower end and the resonant frequencies of the measurement devi-

were abrupt without burrs and no measureable radius of curvature ces at the high frequencies. These measurements were acquired

existed. The plates were examined thoroughly prior to and after for each of the 16 plates over as large of flow speed as possible

testing and no discernible changes occurred in the hole inlets/exits for each plate. Two independent tests were conducted for every

during the process of testing. The free area ratio of the plates (ratio scenario and the results were averaged.

of hole area to total pipe area) was nominally 0.11, 0.22, 0.44, and

0.61, although some modest variation from these values exists. The 3.5 Data Analysis. The accelerometer data collected was

thicknesses of the plates were nominally 0.31 cm, 0.52 cm, and post-processed to obtain the rms of the acceleration data (A0 ) for

0.65 cm. Table 1 lists the perforated plates employed and their asso- each velocity measurement. The time averages of the pressure and

ciated characteristics. The hole sizes, number of holes, and plate flow rate measurements were also acquired for each velocity condi-

thicknesses were chosen to provide systematic variation in the total tion. To determine the point of cavitation inception and critical cav-

through area ratio and plate thickness to hole diameter ratio. For itation, A0 was plotted as a function of r. The logarithm of each

each plate the holes were spaced uniformly, although due to the dis- variable was determined and the data were plotted, as illustrated in

crete nature of the holes and the goal to match a specific through Fig. 6, which shows a representative curve obtained from our meas-

area ratio, near the edges the hole pattern was not exactly symmet- urements. A regression analysis (y ¼ mx þ b) was performed for

ric (for example see the left image of Fig. 1). each of the three linear sections of data evident in the figure. The

three regions shown in the figure existed and were well-defined for

all of the plates considered here. The points of intersection of the

3.3 Instrumentation. A single PCB Piezotronics ICP 352C68

three linear sections were determined to be the points of cavitation

accelerometer was used to measure the pipe wall acceleration. The

inception and critical cavitation. This method was performed for

sensitivity of the accelerometer was 10.2 mV/(m/s2), the range was

each of the two sets of data obtained for each plate and the results

6491 m/s2, and the resolution was 1.5 103 m/s2. The accelerom-

were averaged. The plate loss coefficient based off the average pipe

eter was placed on the side of the pipe test section three diameters

velocity, KLp, was calculated from Eq. (4) and the loss coefficient

downstream from the location where the perforated plates were

based on the average hole velocity was then determined as

flange mounted. Two Omega PX 309 static pressure transducers

with ranges up to 0–100 psi, and accuracy of 60.25% (based on 2

full scale) were placed three diameters upstream and six diameters Ah

KLh ¼ KLp (13)

downstream of the plate location and were used to measure the Ap

pressure drop across the plate. Downstream of the pipe test section,

an Omega FP6500 series paddlewheel with a range of 0.1–9 m/s 3.6 Uncertainty Analysis. Several sources of uncertainty

and accuracy of 61.5%, was used to measure the flow rate in the exist, which include the uncertainty in the regression analysis (to

Fig. 6 ln(A0 ) as a function of ln(r) for a typical plate. Cavitation

inception and critical cavitation values are denoted at the inter-

section of the linear fits (y 5 mx 1 b) for each of the three Fig. 7 Loss coefficient, KLh, as a function of the average perfo-

regimes. ration hole velocity for six perforated plates

find ri, rc), in the calculation of KLp, Ah/Ap, and t/d and in the two-phase influences. It should be noted here that the focus of this

measurements acquired. The uncertainty in the pressure measure- paper is only on the regime up to the point of critical cavitation and

ments was limited to the pressure sensor accuracy of 60.25% of full thus in this regime the loss coefficient is independent of pipe flow

scale. The accuracy of the accelerometer was 67.5 104 m/s2. rate. The behavior of Fig. 7 prevailed for all perforated plates con-

The perforation hole diameter and plate thickness uncertainty was sidered in this study.

65 105 m. The uncertainty of the thermocouple measurement Shown in Fig. 8 is the loss coefficient, KLh, versus the through

was 60.5 C and the uncertainty of the average velocity measure- area ratio (Ah/Ap) for the 16 perforated plates utilized in the pres-

ment was 61.5%. ent study (closed markers). The data of Fig. 8 and all subsequent

Standard uncertainty analysis was employed to calculate the discussion regarding the loss coefficient refers to the regime prior

uncertainty in determining KLp, Ah/Ap, and t/d accounting for all to the point of critical cavitation where the loss coefficient is a

measurement error [22]. The average total uncertainty in KLp was constant value. Data from Testud et al. [2] Kolodzie and Van

nominally 64.1% for all the plates used, with a maximum and Winkle [13], and Tullis [11] are also shown for comparison and

minimum uncertainty of 65.6% and 63.3%, respectively. The av- all data correspond to nonchamfered holes. The data of Testud

erage uncertainty of all the plates for Ah/Ap is nominally 60.1% et al. [2] (two data points) were acquired with a single hole orifice

and the average uncertainty for t/d is nominally 60.02%. The plate of t/d ¼ 0.64 and a multihole plate (47 holes) at the same

uncertainties in the points ri and rc are 10.4% and 3.4%, respec- nominal Ah/Ap value. The data of Tullis [11] were acquired with a

tively, and this accounts for propagation of error from the meas- thin single hole orifice with t/d ! 0 and all of the data of Kolodzie

ured data and the regression analysis employed. and Van Winkle [13] (28 data points) were acquired using multi-

holed plates of varying t/d. Also shown on the figure are the two

theoretical models that were developed in Sec. 2. Recall that KLA-

4 Results corresponds to a model that assumes that the plate is thick enough

for the flow to reattach after the formation of the vena-contracta

4.1 Generalized Loss Coefficient Behavior. The loss coeffi- and KLD is based on a model that assumes the plate is thin so that

cient is a significant variable when considering cavitation and flow the flow does not reattach. The KLh data shown correspond to flow

induced pipe vibrations. This is because the loss of pressure across velocities prior to the point of critical cavitation and as discussed

a perforated plate represents energy being converted into other above, for a given plate, is constant prior to this point.

forms. These other forms of energy are thermal, acoustical, internal

(change of phase, from liquid to vapor for cavitation), and kinetic

energy of the pipe wall (vibrations). As was shown in the work of

Kolodzie and Van Winkle [13], for incompressible flow through a

multiholed orifice plate the loss coefficient levels off to a constant

value, provided Reh 3000. Similar behavior exists in all of our

measurements and for all of our data Reh > 3000. Figure 7 presents

the loss coefficient, KLh, as a function of the average perforation

hole velocity, Vh, for six representative plates. Recall KLh is the loss

coefficient based on average perforation hole velocity and is related

to KLp as shown in Eq. (13). Data are shown for four plates with

through area ratios in the range 0.431–0.441 and for four hole diam-

eter sizes ranging from 0.51 to 2.53 cm. In addition, data are shown

for three plates with nominally constant hole diameters

(0.51–0.56 cm) and at three area ratios ranging from 0.103–0.441.

The significance of the data of Fig. 7 is that for each plate, the

loss coefficient remains an essentially constant value, regardless of

the average liquid hole velocity or Reynolds number. The only Fig. 8 Loss coefficient, KLh, versus the total through area ra-

deviation from this constancy occurs for plates D3 and D2 at ele- tio, Ah/Ap, for 16 perforated plates. Included are the theoretical

vated jet velocities (Vj > 14.5 m/s) and this behavior exists because attached model, KLA, and a theoretical detached model, KLD.

at this extreme operating speed, the liquid is well beyond the criti- Data from Kolodzie and Van Winkle [13], Testud et al. [2], and

cal cavitation point and the flow through the holes is dominated by Tullis [11] are also included for comparison.

The data of Fig. 8 reveal several important points. First, all of small t/d towards an attached state at t/d 1.5. The slight increase

our data and the data from the other investigators are bounded by in KLh above t/d 1.5 is believed to be due to frictional losses

the two analytical models (KLA and KLD) and follow the general within the perforation holes.

trend exhibited by them of decreasing KLh with increasing Ah/Ap. Figures 8 and 9 together illustrate that the loss coefficient

Of course in the limiting case as Ah/Ap ! 1, KLh is due only to exhibits complex dependency upon both the through area ratio as

frictional losses. a is defined for KLA, as a ¼ 0.75, since this is the was expected, and upon the t/d ratio. This dependency leads to an

value that matches the lower bound on the data. In general, a must important implication related to system design. Losses are mini-

lie between 0.61 and 1.0 [7] and a value of 0.75 is reasonable. Fur- mized by increasing the free-area ratio and by increasing the

thermore, the value a ¼ 0.75 allows a normalization to be formed thickness to diameter ratio up to t/d 1.5. This fact illustrates

that yields an excellent collapse of the data for all studies con- that increasing the number of holes while maintaining the same

tained in Fig. 8 and is the main reason for use of this value. This Ah/Ap ratio causes a suppression of the pressure loss. At constant

will be discussed further below. For the KLD model, a is deter- Ah/Ap and plate thickness, the total loss through the plate will be

mined from a theoretical implicit relation of Busemann [19], decreased by employing more small diameter holes compared to

which relates a to Ah/Ap for an ideal thin sharp edge orifice plate. fewer larger diameter holes.

This relation is given in Eq. (14). It is interesting to note that at small t/d (0.5) where the plate

may still be considered thin and reattachment is not expected, the

!

1 2 Ap 1 Ap 2 Ap decrease in KLh is likely due to an increase in a and a concomitant

¼1 1 a tan1 a (14) decrease in the size of the recirculation eddies and accompanying

a p Ah a Ah Ah

pressure loss. Indeed, if one employs the detached model devel-

oped previously (KLD—Eq. (9)), the value of a for each scenario

The single hole orifice data of Tullis [11] show very good agree- may be estimated. As t/d increases from 0.33 to 0.5 the Kolodzie

ment with the KLD model for all Ah/Ap and over the range of Ah/Ap and Van Winkle [13] data suggest increases in a from 0.63 to 0.67

from 0 to 0.6, a as determined from Eq. (14) varies from 0.61 to and 0.64 to 0.69 for the Ah/Ap 0.05 and 0.14 data, respectively.

0.66. The Tullis data is greater than all data for all other plates, At t/d > 1.0 the data of Fig. 9 suggest reattachment has occurred

which exhibit larger thickness to diameter ratio. All other data since the variation in KLh with increasing t/d becomes small.

reveal that at fixed Ah/Ap the loss coefficient exhibits large varia- We now present a generalized model based on the data to allow

tion between the bounds of KLA and KLD, due to variations in the general prediction of the loss coefficient for thin or thick plates.

thickness of the plate, and presumably the degree of reattachment Shown in Fig. 10 is the ratio KLh/KLA as a function of the combina-

and the magnitude of the jet contraction a. All previous studies 1=5

tion variable, / ¼ ðt=d Þ Ah =Ap . / was determined from statisti-

addressing flow through perforated plates that the authors are

cal analysis of the data for the present 16 plates and includes both

aware of consider only plates of relatively small free-area ratio.

Ah/Ap and t/d influences. Also shown in Fig. 10 is a piecewise model

The data of Ref. [13], which represents the largest previous explo-

that trends through all of the data and is given below in Eq. (15).

ration of loss at perforated plates, are limited to the range

Ah/Ap < 0.16, while the range explored here spans up to Ah/Ap (

0.61 and provides insight into the overall KLh variation that has KLh 2:9 3:65/ þ 1:75/2 ; / 0:95

¼ Fð/Þ ¼ (15)

been previously unknown. KLA 0:932 þ 0:078/; / > 0:95

The dependency of KLh on t/d at fixed Ah/Ap is quantified in

Fig. 9, where KLh is shown as a function t/d. Data are shown at Plotted versus / the KLh/KLA data demonstrate a remarkable

nominally constant values of Ah/Ap 0.11, 0,22, 0.44, and 0.61 collapse. It should be noted that Eq. (15) was developed based on

from the present study, and at Ah/Ap 0.05 and 0.14 from the our present data only. However, the data of Refs. [2], [11], and

data of Ref. [13]. The data of Fig. 9 show that for a given free- [13], are also shown in Fig. 10, and show excellent agreement and

area ratio, KLh decreases steeply with increasing t/d over the range collapse with our data and the behavior predicted by Eq. (15). The

0 t/d 1.5. At t/d 1.5; however, KLh increases slightly with t/d ratio of the data of Tullis [11] was not reported, other than it

continued increase in t/d. The large decrease of KLh in the was stated that the plate was knife-edge thin at the hole; thus we

t/d 1.5 range illustrates that the loss coefficient is approaching have assumed / 0 for it. The data of Fig. 9 illustrate more

the theoretical thick plate model, KLA. Thus, the vertical spread in clearly the existence two flow regimes. Between 0 / 0.95 the

the data of Fig. 8 at a fixed Ah/Ap value appears to be caused by flow through the vena-contracta is transitioning from detached to

the flow transitioning from a detached type of flow condition at attached behavior and the increasing loss with decreasing / is

attributed to the increased turbulence and flow separation caused

Fig. 9 KLh as a function of the thickness ratio, t/d, for 16 perfo- Fig. 10 Ratio of the actual loss coefficient over the theoretical

rated plates and nominal free-area ratios of 0.11, 0.22, 0.44, and loss coefficient, KLh/KLA as a function of the parameter / for all

0.0.61. Data from Kolodzie and Van Winkle [13] are also shown perforated plates considered in this study. Data from Refs. [2],

at nominal free-area ratios of 0.05 and 0.14. [11], and [13], are also shown.

by the flow not reattaching. Above / ¼ 0.95, the flow is attached

and the slightly increasing loss with increased / is attributed to

the friction within the perforation hole. The nature of what

appears to be a generalized data collapse of Fig. 10 has never

been reported before in the literature, likely due to the absence of

data at higher t/d. Because the loss coefficient is nominally con-

stant up to the point of cavitation inception (provided Reh > 3000

[13]), Eq. (15) can be used to predict the loss coefficient for any

perforated (singe or multiholed) plate over the range 0 / 3.0.

The loss coefficient can subsequently be used in predicting cavita-

tion inception, as discussed in the next section.

of the paper addresses the cavitation number at the point of cavita-

tion inception and critical cavitation. Figure 11 shows the rms of

the pipe wall acceleration, A0 , as a function of the average velocity

through the perforation holes for the same 6 plates of Fig. 7. As

evident by its definition (Eq. (1)), r varies inversely with KLh and

Vh (r ¼ 2ðP2 Pv Þ=qVh2 KLh ). The data of Fig. 11 illustrates the

three regimes described in the previous descriptions of Figs. 2 and

6. This behavior prevails for the data of all six plates shown in

Fig. 11 and for all 14 plates explored where cavitation occurred.

In general, A0 increases with increasing hole velocity (decreasing

r) and at points of cavitation inception and critical cavitation the

slope of the A0 versus Vh data changes markedly. It is the point of

occurrence of cavitation inception and critical cavitation that is of

interest in this section. Considering the four plates with Ah/Ap

0.44, the average hole velocity at the points of cavitation inception

and critical cavitation increase with decreasing hole size. Further-

more, the data show that for a constant hole size of d 0.5 cm,

that these two critical points increase with increasing Ah/Ap. Here-

after, we choose to identify these critical points in terms of the

corresponding nondimensional r values instead of the dimen-

Fig. 12 Incipient (top) and critical (bottom) cavitation numbers

sional average hole velocities, recognizing the inverse relation as a function of t/d for 14 perforated plates at three nominal

between r and velocity. free-area ratios as shown in the legend. Data of Tullis [11] for a

Shown in Fig. 12 are the incipient (ri—top panel) and critical single hole orifice are also shown.

(rc—bottom panel) cavitation numbers as a function t/d for the 14

different plates of this study where cavitation was occurring for

ues of pressure loss across the plate. For a fixed t/d, Ah/Ap can be

nominal free-area ratios of 0.11, 0.22, and 0.44. Also shown are

varied by simultaneously varying the number of perforation holes

values from Tullis [11] for “knife-edge” single hole orifice plates

and the plate thickness. Thus, at fixed t/d, increasing the number of

where t/d ! 0 for Ah/Ap 0.22 and 0.44. The data of Tullis show

holes in the plate leads to an earlier onset of incipient and critical

good agreement with the trends and magnitude of our data. In gen-

cavitation (larger ri and rc). Interestingly, at Ah/Ap 0.11 the criti-

eral, the ri and rc data exhibit similar variation with t/d, with ri

cal cavitation number exhibits little variation with t/d, while the de-

being modestly greater as required.

pendency is stronger for the 0.22 and 0.44 area ratios.

The data of Fig. 12 reveal that as Ah/Ap increases, for a fixed t/d,

At fixed Ah/Ap, ri increases initially with increasing t/d up to a

incipient and critical cavitation occurs at increased values of r.

maximum dependent on Ah/Ap, but then decreases with further

Increasing ri generally signifies cavitation occurring at lower val-

increases in t/d. For fixed Ah/Ap, increasing t/d corresponds to

more and smaller holes if the plate thickness remains constant, or

to an increasing plate thickness if the hole count is fixed. Thus, at

small t/d (less than 0.5–1.0), increasing the plate thickness or the

number of perforation holes has the same impact; an increase in ri

and rc. Conversely at large t/d (greater than 1.0), increasing the

plate thickness or the number of perforation holes results in a

decrease in ri and rc with the onset of cavitation delayed.

Comparison of the results of Fig. 12 with the loss coefficient

data (Figs. 7–9) reveals that ri and rc exhibit somewhat opposite

dependency on t/d compared to the loss coefficient. The loss coef-

ficient decreases with increasing t/d until t/d 1, after which it

then slightly increased with increasing t/d due to frictional losses.

Conversely, the incipient and critical cavitation points occur at

increasing cavitation numbers with increasing t/d, until t/d 1,

where they then decrease with further increases in t/d. This behav-

ior is consistent with the regime where the KLh data suggest the

jets are transitioning from a detached to an attached state in the

perforation holes as t/d increases. The loss coefficient also

decreases with increasing Ah/Ap and fixed t/d, whereas the ri and

rc points are at increasing values with increasing Ah/Ap.

Fig. 11 A0 as a function of Vh for six perforated plates as ri and rc are important design points in systems where cavita-

described in the figure legend tion prevails and the relation between these values and the

Fig. 13 Incipient (top) and critical (bottom) cavitation number

as a function of discharge coefficient for 14 multiholed perfo-

rated plates. Data of Testud et al. [2] and Tullis [11] are also Fig. 14 r*i (top) and rc* (bottom) as a function of discharge

shown for comparison. coefficient for 14 multiholed perforated plates. Data of Testud

et al. [2] and Tullis [11] are also shown for comparison.

discharge coefficient are now explored. Recall that Cd is inversely cavitation inception and critical cavitation that multihole plates

related to the loss coefficient as shown in Eq. (5). Shown in Fig. 13 show similar behavior (at the same discharge coefficient) as

are ri (top panel) and rc (bottom panel) as a function of the plate single-hole orifice plates when the plates are thin. Based on lim-

discharge coefficient. Data from Testud et al. [2] for a single hole ited previous data, it was suggested by Tullis [11] that ri and rc

orifice plate and a thick multiholed plate are also shown, in addition for multiholed plates can be predicted by determining the corre-

to single hole orifice plate data from Tullis [11]. sponding Cd value and considering the plate to be a single-holed.

The ri and rc data from the present experiments follow the Our present data reveals that while this approach may be accepta-

same general trend as the single hole data of Tullis, with increas- ble for t/d ratios smaller than 1.0 and at small Cd, at t/d greater

ing Cd leading to an increase in both ri and rc. As illustrated by than 1.0, the deviation of ri and rc from single-hole behavior

the data, ri is greater than rc at all discharge coefficients, as becomes significant. Consequently, approximating a multiholed

required (cavitation inception occurring at lower velocity). At low plate as a single hole plate is discouraged for t/d > 1.0, as reflected

values of Cd, all of the multiholed ri data show excellent agree- by our results shown in Fig. 13 at t/d 1.6 and 3.2.

ment with the single hole data of Tullis [11] and Testud et al. [2]. As noted in the discussion related to Fig. 13, the largest contrib-

However, as Cd increases above a value of nominally 0.2, greater uting variable to the variation of the data in Fig. 12 is the t/d ratio.

deviation exists. Also, at Cd < 0.1, both ri and rc increase sharply Thus we introduce a correction factor to account for the variability

with increasing Cd, whereas at Cd > 0.1 the increase is more grad- in ri and rc with t/d and propose modified cavitation numbers as

ual. The present perforated plate data that show the greatest depar-

ture from the single hole data correspond to the plates with the ri ¼ ri =ð1 0:1t=dÞ (16)

largest t/d, where for a given discharge (or loss) coefficient

increased t/d results in lower values of ri and rc. From a practical rc ¼ rc =ð1 0:1t=dÞ (17)

point of view, the implication is that increasing the thickness to

diameter ratio for fixed loss coefficient delays the onset of both in- The constant factor 0.1 is used because it yields the best self-

cipient and critical cavitation, generally a desirable result in sys- collapse of our data and Eqs. (16) and (17) are appropriate for all

tem design. Recall from the previous section that increasing the perforated plates considered in this study.

t/d ratio also acts to decrease the overall loss coefficient up to t/d Shown in Fig. 14 are the data of Fig. 13 recast in terms of ri

1.0, although minimizing loss is often not the primary purpose and rc as a function of Cd. In this form, the ri and rc data each

of a perforated plate type application. collapse to a nearly single representative curve, while also show-

The plates from this study that had the smallest t/d form the ing good agreement with the data of Tullis [11] and Testud et al.

upper bound of the data of Fig. 13 and track closely the results of [2]. The significance of the collapse is that the data represents per-

Tullis [11], which correspond to a very thin orifice plate. This is forated plates with hole number ranging from 1 to 1800, for free-

an important result and confirms that with regard to the points of area ratios ranging from 0.07 to 0.64, and for plate thickness to

hole diameter ratios ranging from very small up to 3.5, although decrease from their maximum values. For all t/d, increases in the

the data are limited to plates with nonchamfered holes. Further- free area ratio lead to increases in the inception and critical cavita-

more, at least over the range of parameters we have explored, the tion numbers, while the loss coefficient decreases. An empirical

ri and rc data do not exhibit dependency on the Reynolds num- model was presented that allows determination of the loss coeffi-

ber. Shown in Eqs. (18) and (19) are least squares fits to the data cient in terms of the plate geometric parameters and is valid for

of Fig. 14 and the equations are also shown graphically on the perforated plates with total hole number in the range considered

figure. here (4–1800). In general the manner the critical cavitation num-

bers and the loss coefficient vary with the plate thickness to hole

ri ¼ 50:2C3d 53:1C2d þ 25:5Cd 0:31 (18) diameter and the flow area to pipe area ratios are opposite. Empir-

ical models to allow prediction of the point of cavitation inception

rc ¼ 23:5C3d 29:6C2d þ 17:9Cd 0:30 (19) and the point where critical cavitation begins are also presented.

The models presented herein allow a system designer to design a

Equations (18) and (19) exhibit good agreement with the data and system incorporating perforated plate type geometries to meet

allow straightforward estimation of the points of cavitation incep- specific pressure loss requirements while avoiding operation in a

tion and critical cavitation in terms of the discharge coefficient for cavitating flow regime.

any sharp-edge perforated plate. It should be noted that while

these fit-equations provide general good agreement with the data,

they do not capture the sharp rise in ri and rc that prevails in

Acknowledgment

range 0.07 Cd 0.1. Otherwise, they are recommended for gen- The authors acknowledge Control Components Inc. for their

eral use. These empirical expressions can be implemented during support of this work.

system design to evaluate whether or not cavitation will exist at

specified flow conditions, and the design can then be adjusted Nomenclature

accordingly. How this would be done in practice is discussed A0 ¼ rms of pipe wall acceleration (m/s2)

below. Ah ¼ total flow hole area, pNd2/4 (m2)

In practical system design, perforated plates are implemented to Aj ¼ total area of vena-contract jets (m2)

yield a specific pressure drop (pressure let-down) at a given flow Ap ¼ pipe cross-section area (m2)

rate to meet system needs. Thus, P1 – P2 and the volumetric flow Cd ¼ discharge coefficient

rate are specified quantities. By specifying a diameter the designer CV A ¼ control volume for region A

in essence also fixes the design average pipe velocity. The loss CV B ¼ control volume for region B

coefficient for the perforated plate is determined from Eq. (4) to D¼ pipe diameter (m)

meet system pressure let-down requirements at the design point. d¼ perforation hole diameter (m)

Combining Eqs. (12), (13), and (15) yields the following expres- KLh ¼ loss coefficient based on Vh, 2ðP1 P2 Þ=qVh2

sion for the pipe loss coefficient in terms of the free-area and the KLp ¼ loss coefficient based on Vp, 2ðP1 P2 Þ=qVp2

plate thickness to hole diameter ratios. KLA ¼ theoretical loss coefficient for a thick plate based on Vh

" # KLD ¼ theoretical loss coefficient for a thin plate based on Vh

Ap 2 2 1 Ap N¼ number of perforation holes

KLp ¼ 2 þ 2 2 þ 1 Fð/Þ (20) le ¼ length of the developing section (m)

Ah a a Ah

P1 ¼ upstream static pressure (Pa)

P2 ¼ downstream static pressure (Pa)

F(/) is given by Eq. (15) and depends on whether the plate is thin P2i ¼ downstream static pressure at cavitation inception (Pa)

or thick as discussed in Sec. 4.1 and a ¼ 0.75. t/d and Ah/Ap are Pj ¼ jet pressure (Pa)

then chosen to match KLp for the perforated plate with the design Pv ¼ vapor pressure (Pa)

system value. The discharge coefficient can then be readily deter- ReD ¼ Reynolds number, qVhD/l

mined from Eq. (5) once KLp is known. Subsequently, Eqs. (18) t¼ plate thickness (m)

and (16) can be used to find the inception cavitation number, ri. Vh ¼ average perforation hole velocity (m/s)

From the ri value the pipe velocity where cavitation inception Vp ¼ average pipe fluid velocity (m/s)

starts can be determined from Vp ¼ average pipe fluid velocity at cavitation inception (m/s)

sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ Vj ¼ average jet velocity (m/s)

2ðP2 Pv Þ a¼ vena-contracta contraction ratio, Aj/Ah

Vpi ¼ (21) /¼ (t/d)(Aj/Ah)1/5

ri qKLp

q¼ fluid density (kg/m3)

r¼ cavitation number, ðP2 Pv Þ=ðP1 P2 Þ

The velocity value determined from Eq. (21) can then be com- rc ¼ critical cavitation number

pared to the design pipe velocity to see if changes to the system rch ¼ choked cavitation number

pipe diameter or perforated plate characteristics need to change to ri ¼ incipient cavitation number

avoid operation in a cavitation regime. In a similar manner the ve- rv ¼ cavitation number, 2ðP2 Pv Þ=qVp2

locity where critical cavitation will occur for a given perforated r*c ¼ rc/(1 – 0.1t/d)

plate can be estimated using Eqs. (19) and (17). r*i ¼ ri/(1 – 0.1t/d)

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