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DEDICATION

We dedicate our work to God Almighty, for watching over us, for his guiding hand, and

for his bountiful blessings.

To our beloved parents, for their never-ending support, for their patience and being

understanding, and for their unconditional love.

To our dear adviser, Mrs. Velilla, for giving us the necessary confidence, for giving us

complete creative freedom, and for imparting us with knowledge and wisdom.

To our groupmates, for being with us all the way, for cooperating, supporting,

persevering, and trusting each other.

To our school, for shaping us and guiding us, giving us courage to face our futures, and

for accepting us for who we are.

And last but not the least, for ourselves. For our continued growth, for the precious

experiences both pleasant and unpleasant, for our pride, and in order to achieve greater heights.

- GRADE X - NEWTON, S.Y 2018 – 2019, Meycauayan College.

RESEARCH PAPER
VIABILITY OF TALAHIB GRASS AND CHICKEN FEATHERS AS

CARBON PAPER

GROUP 3

Alejo, Gene Cedric

Abacan, Mark Jhudiel

Arcibal, Riza Mae

Basquiñas, Marion

Diaz, Charles Darwin

Lim, Jessica Noreen

Malvar, Andrea Kate

Padilla, Bernice Fiona

Villanueva, Michaella Martin

Submitted to:

Mrs. Ma. Filipina P. Velilla

CHAPTER I:
INTRODUCTION

A. Background of the Study

Carbon paper is a thin paper coated with the mixture of wax and pigment that is used

between two sheets of ordinary paper in order to make one or more copies of an original

document.

Carbon paper is used in many ways. It has high demand in schools, offices, clerks,

accounting managements, and others. The ink used in the production of Carbon paper is truly

expensive because of the materials needed, even its pigment fades as time goes by. Therefore, it

may serve as heavy additional expense for the consumers.

Researchers found a way to help decrease the cost of the carbon paper, and to improve

the time it will last. Thus, the need of more economical replacement arises. Used batteries and

charcoal can be a substitute as a pigment for carbon paper making.

The used battery is a waste that needs effort for its disposal. Being garbage, it might

become hazardous due to the chemicals that it contains. It might also be a threat to people’s lives

and to our environment. In the other hand, charcoals are from burned woods. Therefore, these

two can be a great help in producing carbon paper in a more cost-effective way.

B. Conceptual Paradigm
Carbon Paper Made Out of
Grass and Chicken Feathers

Materials Experimentation

Phase 1: Making of Carbon


Phase 2: Testing of Carbon
Equipment Chemicals & Ingredients Paper Made Out of Grass
Paper
and Chicken Feathers

1. Stove 1. Talahib Grass


2. Mold and Deckle 2. Chicken Feathers Cutting the grass and Durability of the Carbon
3. Blender 3. Charcoal feathers into inch pieces. Paper.
4. Basin 4. Carbon Black From Used
5. Cloth Sheet and Press Batteries
6. Beater 5. Water and Glue
7. Pot 6. Washing Soda

Boiling of the materials in Writability of the Carbon


separate containers. Paper.

Beating and blending the


Longevity of the Pigment.
materials into a pulp.

Molding the paper in a


basin with the pulp with Visibility of the Text.
water and glue.

Pressing and drying the


paper into a thin sheet Overall Feasibility of
Talahib Grass and Chicken
Feathers in Papermaking

Carbonizing the paper by


mixing carbon black with a
lottle amount of water.

C. Statement of the Problem


This study on Viability of Talahib Grass and Chicken Feathers as Carbon Paper aim to answer

the following questions:

1. Can you really form paper just by using glue and water?

2. Can the paper made from grass and feathers really be carbonized?

3. Will the batteries really provide good pigment for the carbon paper?

4. Does charcoal really strengthen and improve the durability of the carbon paper?

5. Could grass and chicken feathers be really used in making carbon paper?

D. Hypothesis

1. It is not possible to form paper just by using glue and water.

2. The paper made from grass and feathers can’t be carbonized

3. The batteries won’t provide good pigment for the carbon paper.

4. Charcoal would not strengthen and improve the durability of the carbon paper.

5. Grass and chicken feathers could not be used in making carbon paper.

E. Significance of the Study


The importance of making a good quality carbon paper is the benefit it gives to workers,

clerks, students, teachers, or anyone who is using carbon paper in making copies of legal

documents or receipts. It helps them make better paper copies and lessen the number of carbon

papers being used. In this study, the researcher makes long-lasting carbon paper. The result of

using grass and chicken feathers as a replacement for trees and plastics in making the paper will

help reduce the cutting of trees and contributes in solving the problem of having too much plastic

waste in our environment. This study will show that carbon paper can last longer with a good

quality of ink and be environmentally friendly at the same time. For future researchers who will

make this study as their reference, this will give them helpful information that will help them in

researching deeper about this topic.

F. Definition of Terms

Carbon Paper

 Thin paper made from grass and coated with carbon black from batteries.

 The very product of this research.

Pigment

 A substance that imparts color to other materials.

Carbon Black

 A chemical found inside batteries that contain pigment that will be used for the

carbonizing of the product.


 It is also found in other hydrocarbons, and was used in making old carbon paper.

Talahib Grass

 A specimen of grass that is commonly found in the Philippines in fields or vacant

areas

 The fibers in this grass would be used in the creation of paper in this research.

Chicken Feathers

 A byproduct of chickens that will be used as a strengthener for the grass paper

because of its strong qualities.

Charcoal

 A residue of burned wood, that will be used to increase the longevity of the product.

Glue

 A sticky substance that will help the fibers stick together and form paper.

G. Review of Related Literature

LOCAL STUDIES

Packaging Paper from Coconut Husk and Chicken Feathers (IV - Jacinto, Meycauayan

College, 1996). In this research, it is explained that paper was discovered by the Egyptians.
The Coconut Husk has been used in several studies and experiments relating to creation of

paper. Coconut Husk and Chicken Feathers can be used as substitute over other materials in

packaging paper.

The Feasibility of Charcoal and Ink from the old Battery for the production of Carbon Paper

(Daez, 1997). This study states that carbon black pigment that can be obtained in old

batteries is passable to be a replacement for ink used in carbon paper. In the researcher's

experiment the carbon black pigment is better than charcoal.

Cogon Paper with Polystyrene (IV - Lapu-lapu, Meycauayan College, 1996). This study

stated that the Cogon grass, a fibrous material that is a very common plant in the Philippines,

can be used as an alternative in making paper. And according this study, it can help reduce

the cutting of trees.

Polystyrene-coated Paper as a Substitute for Packaging (IV - Rizal, Meycauayan College,

1996). In this research, the researchers stated that the materials used are all recycled like

Styrofoam that is used for packaging, excess gasoline, old newspaper, used paint brush and

many others. The polystyrene-coated paper is very useful nowadays. It has the characteristics

of being a plastic that can be used as packaging.

Paper out of Dayami (Eledia, 1994). In this study, the researchers stated that dayami that are

sometimes considered trash in rice fields can be useful and be made into paper.
Paper from Sawdust (Solano, et al.) This study stated that sawdust coming from wood that is

being cut can be used to make paper by recycling and using a simple drying technique with

ingredients like water, cornstarch, glue, and sawdust. In the researchers experiment the paper

becomes harder and thicker.

Handmade Paper (IV - Recto, Meycauayan College, 1997). This research stated that the

Garbage such as Rice straw that consume a lot of space in the field can be turned into more

useful paper. It can be used as an alternative in paper making.

Paper bag out of Chicken Feathers (Beley, et al.). This study stated that paper maybe flexible,

fragile, or soft, it is the cheapest and most useful material. This product is environment

friendly and does not causes pollution. In this study, the researchers aim to make a paper bag

out of chicken feathers that will be more affordable and environment friendly.

Handmade Parchment Paper (Baldivas, 1994). This research stated that wood pulp can be

used as paper-making. Pulp material are need long enough to make strong paper.

The Production of Marker Pen Ink from Carbon Black in used Batteries. (IV - Lakandula,

Meycauayan College, in this research, the researchers stated that carbon black has a great

potential as an alternative source of black pigments. The researchers have made an

alternative ink even though its quality is not the same as the commercial pens.
Production of Paper from Carabao Grass (College of Engineering and Technology Chemical

Engineering Department). This study stated that Carabao grass also known as Laua-Laua, a

gregariously stoloniferous grass, that is considered as a parasite because it is infesting a

number of crops, it absorbs the nutrients of the soil thus creating lesser yield of crops and

delayed harvest, is used by the researchers as a raw material in making paper.

The Feasibility of Bamboo Pulp as an Additive Component for Handmade Paper (IV -

Bonifacio, Meycauayan College, 2000). In this research, the researchers stated handmade

papers can be more durable if bamboo pulp and two parts of rice straw pulps, that decreases

the tear factor, is added in making paper. And helps reduce deforestation.

Wrapping Papers out of Chicken Feathers. (Macaraig, et al.). This study stated that chicken

feathers, an abundant waste in poultry, can be a good substitute for paper and packaging

material by mixing the filtered pulp of chicken feathers to starch solution and alum. It will

also lessen the solid wastes in our environment.

Production of Computer Ink from Carbon of Vehicles (Hermano). In this study, the

researchers were able to produce an alternative ink from carbon of vehicles even though it is

not 100% same as the advertised inks.

The Production of Paint from the Carbon Black in used of Batteries (Lunaria, et al. 2001). In

this study, the stability and intensity of the blackness of carbon black from used batteries are
tested. The researchers were able to produce the alternative paint qualities but it is not as

good as the qualities of commercial paint.

FOREIGN STUDIES

Production of Printing and Writing Paper grade pulp from Elephant Grass (Andrade, Federal

University of Vicosa). This study aimed to characterize chemically and morphologically elephant

grass. They evaluate the potential of its fibers for production of printing and writing paper grade

pulp. The paper is characterized for their beat ability, drain ability, and physical-mechanical

properties. The resulting pulps were fully bleached and indicates that the elephant grass has shot

fiber material similar to hardwood. It was concluded that elephant grass is suitable for the

production of printing and writing paper.

Cogon Grass as an alternative Fiber for Pulp and Industry: On Chemical and Surface

Morphological (San Mond and Mohn Aripin, Faculty of Technology Engineering University Tun

Hussein, Malaysia). This study had the goal to search for an alternative fiber to produce paper.

Good potential fiber resource from pulp and paper making analyzing its chemical and

morphological properties. It shows that Cogon Grass and long fibers provides good strength to

produce an effective paper.

Grass Species as Raw Material for Pulp and Paper (Pankala, Finland). This research says that

green canary grass that shows the short-fiber fraction obtained from birch can be used to replace
with grass in fine paper. The use of non-wood fibers as an alternative material for the production

of paper offers to sustain agriculture and in preserving forest resources’

The Perennial Grasses in the Pulp and Paper Industry (Patrick and Samson, Girouard). This study

aimed to prove that perennial grass is highly applicable to use for the production of pulp and

paper. The study states that the grass can easily be found anywhere and able to supply using a

small trucking haul. The researchers stated that the key to the production of a long term, stable,

low cost supply of agricultural fiber for the pulp and paper industry is the development of high

yielding crops adapted to lower quality farmland.

Potential of Cogon Grass as an alternative Fiber in Paper-Based Industry (Razali, Malaysia).

This study states that non-wood plants were examined as alternative fiber due to the limited

origin resources in paper production. In Malaysia, Imperata cylindrica was used as renewable

materials to obtain cellulosic pulps to produce paper and hence preventing the environmental

problems. The chemical compositions, fiber dimension, pulp and mechanical properties of I.

cylindrica were investigated for application in paper-based production. The surface morphology

of hand sheet was also visualized. The chemical compositions involved in this were determined

according to the chlorite method, Kurscher-Hoffner approach and TAPPI test method.

Meanwhile, fiber dimension was measured following the Franklin method.

Chicken Feathers Keratin to Produce Paper. (Castanano and Velasco-Santos) The study shows

that chicken feathers can be considered as a waste in poultry. In this research, the feathers keratin
and polyurethane are combined in order to synthesize hybrid synthesis-natural membrane. This

study shows that keratin is grafted in polyhesive and therefore there is an influence of carboxylic

groups (NH and COOH) into the synthetic polymer structure. According with characterization

results, the obtained membranes are functional materials that can be useful in diverse application,

among them the separation process can be emphasized. Chicken feathers keratin can produce

paper based on the results of this study.

Structure and Properties of Chicken Feather Barbs as Natural Protein Fibers (Reddy and Yang,

University of Nebraska). This study states that the structure and properties of chicken feather

barbs makes them unique fibers preferable for several applications. The presence of hollow

honeycomb structures, their low density, high flexibility and possible structural interaction with

other fibers when made into products such as textiles provides them unique properties unlike any

other natural or synthetic fibers. In this study, the researchers report the physical and

morphological structure and the properties of chicken feather barbs for potential use as natural

protein fibers. The morphological structure of chicken feather barbs is similar to that of the

rachis but the physical structure of the protein crystals in chicken feather barbs is different than

that reported for feather rachis keratin. The tensile properties of barbs in terms of their strength

and modulus are similar but the elongation is lower than that of wool. Using the cheap and

abundant feathers as protein fibers will conserve the energy, benefit the environment and also

make the fiber industry more sustainable.

Physical and Mechanical Properties of Chicken Feather Materials (Dr. Kurtis, Georgia Institute

of Technology) This study states that materials derived from chicken feathers could be used
advantageously in composite building material applications. Such applications could potentially

consume the five billion pounds of feathers produced annually as a by-product of the U.S.

poultry industry. To aid the development of successful applications for chicken feather materials

(CFM), the physical and mechanical properties of processed CFM have been characterized in

this research. Results describing the moisture content, aspect ratio, apparent specific gravity,

chemical durability, and tensile strength for processed CFM and specifically their fiber and quill

components are presented herein. Finally, a simplified approach for comparing the effective

tensile strengths of various processed CFM samples was introduced.

Strong and Super Tough Carbon Sheets at Low Temperature (University of Texas, Dallas. 2018).

This study shows how scientists developed high-strength, super-tough sheets of carbon that can

be inexpensively fabricated at low temperature. The team made the sheets by chemically

stitching together platelets of graphitic carbon, which is in certain ways similar to graphite found

in the soft ‘lead’ of an ordinary pencil.

Making Paper from Grass (Brittgow, 2013). This is an article that shows on how people can

make a paper by the use of grass. Compared to using virgin wood, paper made with 100%

recycled content uses 44% less energy, produces 38% less greenhouse gas emissions, 41% less

particulate emissions, 50% less wastewater, 49% less solid waste and — of course — 100% less

wood. It contains six steps on how to make a paper: First cut the grass and grind it with the

mortar and pestle, add caustic soda to release the cell contents, wash and rinse to remove

chemicals and cell contents, add bleach and bring to the boil, wash and rinse to remove the

bleach, and form the paper. It also includes a video that shows the demonstration of this process.
Carbon Paper made out of Used Tissue and Wax (Council of Industrial and Scientific

Research, India). A study involving the process of manufacturing carbon paper. Carbon coating

mix, coating on paper surface, cutting into standard size and packaging demand on this study.

Produced carbon paper made out from tissue and wax can be used as a stationary for your

everyday life.

Michigan State University Copy Paper Study (J. Palmer, Michigan). This study aimed to find the

ways of making an alternative to reduce the consumption of paper by using paper made from

post-consuming waste, making paper from agricultural by-products, and making paper from

sustainably harvested virgin fibers. This study determines the ways of reducing the consumption

of paper in order to reduce the negative effects of the deforestation.

A New Leaf: Making Paper from Weeds (L. Conti). This study aimed to use the “giant reed”

weed as a substitute on making paper instead of wood. The study stated that this material is a

rapid renewable source that is an eco-friendly way to produce paper that is decreasing the

processing requirement and with a 25 percent savings in terms of both energy and chemicals.

Production of Carbon Paper Using Charcoal and Black Mix of Used Battery as Pigment

(Castelo, Gonzales, Quito). This study aimed to find the ways of making an alternative way to

produce a carbon paper without using carbon black and wax. The authors stated that the ink used

in the production of commercial carbon paper is expensive due to its high production costs that’s
why they have come up for a cheaper substitute. This study also aimed to help reduce the

problems in disposing used batteries.

Carbon of Dry Celled Batteries as Pigment of Production of Carbon Paper (J. Callao).

This study aimed to find alternative materials in making Carbon Paper that you can easily found

anywhere. This study aimed to prove that carbon from dry celled batteries will be an effective

substitute in making pigment for producing carbon paper. This study also aimed to prove that

there are still other alternative uses for used batteries.

G. Synthesis

This research, is a combination of all said researches in the form of carbon paper made from

grass and chicken feathers. We gave the other researches a new purpose, an innovation which

makes use of infrequently used materials such as grass and chicken feathers, which can also help

save trees and to avoid deforestation.

The researches are proof that paper can be made from grass and/or chicken feathers, and that

used batteries can be recycled as pigment for carbon paper. All the researches show that there are

innumerable ways to recycle used items such as feathers of chickens, batteries, and grass that has

been cut. A lot of resources and materials may be saved by using these kinds of alternatives. The

studies proved that batteries have components that have the capacity to be made into pigment,

and that grass fibers and chicken feathers are suitable substitutes to trees in making paper.
All of these researches aim to use environment friendly materials than traditional materials such

as trees in order to recycle, to avoid deforestation, and to innovate. All these studies and methods

prove that our research is a feasible alternative to making carbon paper. All of the information in

their researches could help shape a better, more environmental, and more economical future.

Through these studies and this research, we can steadily improve the health of the environment

and thus ensure a brighter future. Each and every one of the researches contributes to making

game-changing discoveries for the betterment of the world.

CHAPTER II:

RESEARCH METHODS

A. Research Design

This study used experimental research design and tests methods for the researchers to fully

conduct and measure any change within subjects’ experiments. This method is the most common

way in obtaining data which includes the use to answer a particular research question. This

research is a blueprint of the procedure that enables the researcher to test their hypothesis by

reaching valid conclusions about relationships between independent and dependent variables. In

this study, the researchers need to make a lot of experiments until they reach their goal. It needs a

lot of testing to do like how many talahib grass and chicken feathers do they need to make the

paper that will answer their problems and know if their hypothesis is right and also to know the

results in each and every experiment that will determine if this research is really reliable.
B. Research Locale

The study will be conducted in the Philippines. The respondents will be

interviewed in any comfortable place that the respondent will choose to. To gather the best

results, the researchers will interview respondents who have experience with carbon paper, or

paper in general. The study is conducted during the school year of 2018 - 2019.

C. Research Participants

The participants in this research worked in various companies who considered carbon paper as

an everyday need in their work. Some of these are cashiers, accountants, clerks, and workers

(most especially in the field of numbers). The individuals in this study are considered as the

participant of this research because the carbon paper remain for them as an effective tool for

making copies in point of sale transactions, tracking slips for mail delivery services, on-the-go

copying services, duplicate checks, and money orders. Each individual of this study also looks

for this as a kind of device that is easier and more comfortable to use even though it is not nearly

popular as much. In addition, workers who are in the field of numbers were also considered as an

appropriate participant of this study area because they constitute carbon paper as the most

effective and inexpensive to duplicate important documents, receipts, checks, or papers.

Therefore, those participants are in the best position to furnish the researcher with the

information needed in able to answer the research questions of this study.

D. Research Instrument
A set of survey questionnaire was prepared for gathering data. The questionnaire consisted of 6

questions with 2 choices for each. The questions gathered data about the product’s durability,

writability, longevity, visibility, the overall efficiency and the overall feasibility of each product.

All in all, the questionnaire served to compare the quality of each product based on its

characteristics.

E. Data Gathering Procedure

The researchers gathered five people in order to gather data about the product.

The researchers asked them to compare commercial carbon paper and the research product itself

based on the following categories written below;

Durability Writability Longevity of Pigment Visibility of Text Efficiency Overall Feasibility

F. Statistical Treatment of Data

During the experimental phase of our research topic we have applied the trial and error method

in making the paper, and as a result we have observed the following and used as a guide:

BOILING PROCEDURE: KITCHEN STOVE.


Number of cups Time Duration Amount of

washing soda

2 5 minutes 16 grams

4 10 minutes 28 grams

6 15 minutes 32 grams

BOILING PROCEDURE: CHARCOAL AND WOOD FURNACE.

Number of cups Time Duration Amount of

added washing soda

5 20 minutes 30 grams

9 30 minutes 33 grams

15 50 minutes 36 grams

CARBONIZATION PROCESS

Amount of Amount of Amount of water

Product Paper Carbon Black

1 20 grams 5 tablespoons

2 40 grams 8 table spoons

3 60 grams 11 tablespoons
By using the above aforementioned tables, we therefore conclude that the best statistical method

of creating the paper is through following the instructions.

Additional Information:

These are the total amount of materials we used in the making of our experimental product.

Baking soda total amount per pack: 227g

4 grams = teaspoon

7 grams = teaspoonful

Alkaline Batteries = 23 grams

Carbon black = ~5 grams

5 cups are added after the first 10 minutes + 3 cups after every 10 minutes.

6 cups of the boiled water and the grass.

500 grams of Grass

G. Ethical Considerations

This study aims to produce a good quality of carbon paper made up of talahib grass and chicken

feathers. The researchers formed the paper using glue and water and used old batteries and

charcoal as a substitute pigment for the carbon paper. After making the carbon paper, the

researchers tested the quality of the paper and compared it to commercial carbon paper. With all

the data gathered in this study, the researchers prove that carbon paper can be environmentally

friendly and have good quality with the use grass and chicken feathers.
CHAPTER III:

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

A. Presentation of Data

Using a survey, 5 people were asked how they would rate and compare the product to the

commercial version. Here is the averaged form of the answers:

Commercial Research

Product Product

Durability 3 5

Writability 5 4

Longevity of
4 4
Pigment

Visibility of
5 5
Text

Efficiency 3 5

Overall
4 5
Feasibility

TOTAL 24 28

B. Analysis of Data

Based on the survey the researchers conducted, here are the results they’ve gathered.
According to the results the researchers conducted, using grass and chicken feathers in carbon

paper making with used batteries and charcoal as its pigment is possible although its quality

would not be as good as the quality of the commercial quality paper itself.

C. Correlation

To assess the correlation of this research, experimental analysis will determine if there's a

significant relationship between the production of Carbon Paper and the ingredients that are

included in the experiment (measurements and time duration). Based on the experiments that

have been conducted, the correlation of this research is a positive coefficient: as the amount of

Talahib grass and Chicken feather increases, the amount of water, washing soda, and carbon

black also increases. As one of these decreases you will see other variables also decreases. When

it comes to the materials, as the researcher use the kitchen stove, the shorter time and lower

amount of ingredients have been used. When the researcher used the charcoal and wood furnace,

the longer time and higher amount of ingredients have been used. As the result, the higher the

amount of the ingredients, the higher the amount of production of carbon paper.
CHAPTER IV:

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

A. Summary

The findings are summed up as follows

 Proper Paper-Molding Solution

During the experiments, the researchers have observed a change in the quality of the paper

caused by changing the mix of the formula. The more glue in the formula the thicker and harder

the paper. Adding more water means thinning out the paper. The amount of the solution is also

directly proportional to the amount of grass and feathers. The solution needs to be extremely

accurate due to it being necessary to the proper formation of paper.

 Carbonization of Grass Paper using Used Batteries

Before the experiments, the researchers were unsure about using old batteries as a substitute for

carbonizing paper. But after trial and error, a method to use carbon black was discovered. After

obtaining the carbon black, it is ground and mixed wit minimal water, then applied onto paper (in

this case, the product). Carbon Black is a recyclable, eco-friendly, and efficient substitute for

carbon paper making.

 Convenience and Efficiency of the Product


After gathering enough data, the researchers are proud to say that the product is an effective

substitute for the commercial version. It is more efficient and is more convenient, while also

helping save the environment.

 Overall cost and Environment Friendliness

This research aimed to prove if the product is a better alternative to commercial carbon paper.

The main focus was making the process low-cost and environment friendly. It was achieved

through the use of good, recycled substitute ingredients. Using grass, used feathers, used

batteries, and charcoal effectively made it more environment friendly and affordable.

 Overall Feasibility of the Product

All in all, this research proves that recycled materials can feasibly be used in the making of

carbon paper. The quality is close enough to the original. After a few years of development and

complete research, this product can successfully replace the commercial product.

B. Conclusion

Based on the information’s the researchers have gathered from the experimentation analysis, the

researchers concluded that making carbon paper using grass and chicken feathers is possible and

useful not only to those individuals who uses carbon paper in work but also it is also useful to the

environment for it uses recyclable materials such as used batteries and charcoal. The researchers
also concluded that the quality of a handmade carbon paper is could be as good as the

commercial carbon paper. Although the research can be still improved upon and perfected.

C. Recommendations

1. Better-quality feathers should be used.

2. The grass should be more thoroughly hand-picked as opposed to just picking every grass

to be used.

3. A faster more efficient heating station is needed to reduce experimentation time.

4. A larger storage for the grass and glue mixture is more appropriate than what was used.

5. A proper presser is required to be able to make the grass more paper-like in thinness

rather than just using heavy objects to flatten the grass.

6. The glue used must be stickier than the former to ensure that the grass paper is more

refined and flatter, as the grass will have bonded together more.

D. Bibliography

Well, Dulce. “Paper Made of Grass.”

https://www.dw.com/en/paper-made-of-grass/av-18928474.
December 20, 2015.

Brunner, Laurel. “Paper Made from Grass.”

https://www.fespa.com/en/news-media/blog/paper-made-from-grass.

January 2, 2019.

Colonette, Jorge. “Production of Printing and Writing Paper Grade Pulp from Elephant Grass.”

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-77602016000300325.

July 3, 2016

Gow, Brick. “Making Paper from Grass.”

http://technoscience.global2.vic.edu.au/2013/03/20/making-paper-from-grass/comment-page-1/.

March 20, 2013.

Quillen, Kristi. “Make Paper from Plants.”

https://www.motherearthnews.com/diy/making-paper-from-plants-zm0z17jjzqui.

June/July 2017.

Madeline, B. “Ask an expert: Made paper from plant.”

https://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/ask-an-expert/viewtopic.php?t=8135.

September 17, 2011.

Chea, Terence. “Chicken-Feather Paper”


https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/business/2001/05/04/chicken-feather-paper-

anyone/321fc3a1-59e7-4146-8757-0b386c581afe/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.0e711483988a.

May 4, 2001.

Tesfaye, Tamrat. “Valorization of chicken feathers: Application in paper production”

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/318249927_Valorisation_of_chicken_feathers_Applic

ation_in_paper_production. July 2017.

Greenbiz Editors. “Recycling Poultry Feathers: More Bang For The

Cluck”https://www.greenbiz.com/news/2002/03/31/recycling-poultry-feathers-more-bang-cluck.

March 31, 2002.

Weirich, Lindsay. “DIY Carbon Paper” https://youtu.be/XsSRTcmnewM. January 6, 2014