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CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN ENGLISH AND

INDONESIAN ADVERB OF PLACE

Submitted to the Board of Examiners in Partial Fulfilment


Of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Educational Islamic Studies
( S.Pd.I )in English and Educational Faculty

By :
MUHAMMAD NUR DA’I
NIM. 11302020

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL


FACULTY STATE ISLAMIC STUDIES INSTITUTE ( STAIN )
SALATIGA
2006

i
DEPARTMENT OF RELIGIOUS AFFAIRS
STATE ISLAMIC STUDIES INSTITUTE
(STAIN) SALATIGA
Jl. Stadion 03 Phone. 0298 323706 Salatiga 50721
Website : www.stainsalatiea.ac.id E-m ail: administrasi@stainsalatiga.ac.id

Ruwandi, S.Pd., M,A


The Lecturer of Educational Faculty
State Islamic Studies Institute of Salatiga

ATTENTIVE COUNSELOR’S NOTE Salatiga. July 10th 2006


Case : Muhammad Nur Dai's
Thesis

Dear
The Head of State Islamic
Studies Institute of Salatiga

Assalamu ’alaikum, Wr. Wb.

After reading and correcting Muhamad Nur Dai's thesis entitled


"CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN ENGLISH AND INDONESIA
ADVERBS OF PLACE". I have decided and would like to propose that if it
could be accepted by educational faculty, I hope it would be examined as soon as
possible.

Wassalamu’alaikum, Wr. Wb.

Consultant,

Ruwandi, S.Pd., MK
NIP. 150 301 297

n
DEPARTMENT OF RELIGIOUS AFFAIRS
STATE ISLAMIC STUDIES INSTITUTE
(STAIN) SALATIGA
JI. Stadion 03 Phone, 0298 323706 Salatiga 50721
Website : www.stainsalatiga.ac.id E-mail : administrasi@stainsalatiga.ac.id

STATEMENT OF CERTIFICATION

CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN ENGLISH AND


INDONESIAN ADVERBS OF PLACE

MUHAMMAD NUR DA’I


NIM. 113 02 020

Has been brought to the board of examiners in August, 05th 2006 M /


Rajab, 11th 1427 H, and hereby considered to completely
fullfillment of the requirement for the degree of Sarjana
in English and Educational Faculty.

August, 05th 2006 M


Salatiga, -----------------------------
Rajab, 11th 1427 H

Board of examiners

m
MOTTO

• Keep the spirit for fighting not fighting for the spirit.

• Life is much easier if we do not complain too much since complain is

not a solution.

IV
DEDICATION

This thesis is wholeheartedly dedicated to:

I] My beloved parents Mr. and Mrs. DJuhdi, who educate me

patiently, thank you for this warm and wonderful family.

12 My family in kacangan, thanks for accepting me whatever I am

and regard me as your own son.

'1 My dear “Ella” for all happiness and depression we come to

pass, you are the only one who always stand beside me and

support me. I believe there is bright future for us and I promise

you I will do the best.

My sweet heart “Sasha”, I lay my life on you.

12 My brothers and sisters “ bu’de Casen sekeluarga, Bu’de Nur

sekeluarga, Pa’de Mul sekeluarga, Om Thoyeb.

v
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

All praises be to Allah, The Almighty, The Lord of the world, whose

blessing make it possible for the writer to realize this graduating paper entitle”

Contrastive Analysis Between English and Indonesian Adverbs of Place There

are many kinds of helps received appreciatively from many persons.

The writer cannot realize this thesis without their helps. In this occasion, he would

like to thanks to:

1. Drs. Imam Sutomo, M.Ag., the head of State Islamic Studies Institute

(STAIN) of Salatiga.

2. Hanung Triyoko, S.S.,M.Hum., The head of The English Department of

STAIN Salatiga.

3. Mr. Ruwandi, S.Pd.,M.A., who guides the writer. The one who always be

ready to solve problems concerning this graduating paper.

4. All lectures of State Islamic Studies Institute, especially Mr. Ruwandi, Mr.

Sa’adi, Mr. Hammam, Mr. Hanung, Mrs. Woro, Mr. Ari thank for you

knowledge, motivation, advice and attention.

5. My beloved family, mom, dad, my wife, my daughter, my brothers and my

sisters, who have given me a true love, cares, prayers, supports and valuable

lesson. Thanks you for this warm and wonderful family.

6. My dearest friends in TBI’02.

7. These who cannot be mentioned one by one toward their supports to the writer

in realizing this study.

vi
Finally, the writer realizes that this thesis is still far from being perfect and

still needs many improvements. The writer gladly accepts constructive critique

and evaluation to make this thesis better.

vii
TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE..................... ........................................................................................ i

ATTENTIVE COUNSELLOR.......................................................................ii

STATEMENT OF CERTIFICATION..............................................................iii

MOTTO............................................................................................................ iv

DEDICATION................................................................................................v

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT............................ vi

TABLE OF CONTENT.......... :...................................................................... viii

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

A. Background of The Study.............................................. 1

B. The Reason for Choosing The Topic............................. 3

C. The Problem of The Study............................................. 4

D. Limitation of The Study................................................ 4

E. The Objective of The Study........................................... 4

F. The Significance of The Study....................................... 5

G. The Definition of The Key Terms................................. 5

H. Thesis Organization....................................................... 7

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 8

A. Adverb.......................................................................... 8

1. The Definition of Adverbs....................................... 8

2. The Kinds of Adverbs.............................................. 9

3. The Function of Adverbs......................................... 13

viii
4. The Position of Adverbs......................................... 14

B. Adverbs of Place........................................................... 14

1. English Adverbs of Place......................................... 14

2. Indonesian Adverbs of Place.................................... 17

CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

A. The Method Used in The Research............................... 19

B. The Object of The Research.......................................... 22

C. Method of Collecting D ata........................................... 24

D. Method of analyzing Data ............................................ 24

CHAPTER IV THE ANALYSIS OF THE STUDY

A. Data Analysis................................................................. 26

1. English Adverbs of Place................................... 26

2. Indonesia Adverbs of Place................................ 28

B. The Similarities.............................................................. 29

C. The Differences.............................................................. 30

CHAPTER V CLOSURE

A. Conclusions.................................................................... 32

B. Suggestion...................................................................... 34

ix
1

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

A. The Background of the Study

English is an international language. Most countries in the world use it

as a means of international communication, including Indonesian. It is learned

by Indonesian students from junior high school up to senior high school.

Nowadays it is also learned elementary school students.

Language is a system of sounds, words, pattern, etc used by humans to

communicate thoughts and feelings.1 Based on the statement, the writer that

language has very important roles in the human lives. Language is used to

interact not only among individuals but also among groups of people in the

world.

Every year millions of people start learning English ( a foreign

language ) but not all of them succeed to master it. The most obvious reason is

because the learners of the foreign language are interfered by their mother

language ( have had experiences on sentence structure, spelling which vary

from person to person).

Learners tend to transfers the native language systems into that of the

foreign language. Teachers must compare between the two systems in order to

be able to find out the differences and to avoid mistakes.

'AS. Hornby, O xford A dvan ced Learners D ictionary English, Oxford University Press,
Oxford, Third Edition, 1974, page 700.
2

Therefore, if the mother language is transferred into the learning of it,

problems will arise, so by comparing the foreign language systems with the

native ( first language) they will know the potential learning problems.

Obviously, learning English as a foreign language is more difficult

than that of the native language. In fact the main problems arising are not

only caused by the difficulties of the foreign language system but also from

that of the native language systems.

In addition there are many kinds of differences between the students

native and the target languages. Among others are the differences between

English and Indonesian sentence structures. In learning process, the learners

are influenced by Indonesian sentence structures, so they are confused to

construct English sentence structures correctly.

Learners tend to transfer structures of native language into the

structures of foreign language. Therefore, the learners learning foreign

language have to master the structure of the target language well to mistakes.

One of the mistakes that is easily to be formed is the use of adverb of place

because of the interference of the native adverb of place, the following are the

examples of the adverb of place English and in Indonesia:

1. Here comes the train.

2. Mrs. Person goes there.

3. Down comes the rain.


3

The next are the examples of adverb of place in Indonesian:

1. Dari sini kita harus bergerak.

2. Kita menanamkan pohon ini di sana.

3. Keluarga Ella akan pindah ke Amerika.

The phrases in underlined types above are called adverbs of place.

Indonesian adverbs of place in the examples above can be put in the beginning

or in the end of a sentence, and so can English adverb of place.

Based on the fact above, the writer would like to study one of the

adverbs that influences the mastery of English that is the adverbs of place. The

writer wants to compare English and Indonesian adverbs of place to get

differences and similarities to contribute learners to learn English.

B. The Reason for Choosing the Topic

Some reasons that encourage the writer to choose the title are as

follows:

1. It is important for the learners to know adverbs of place of English and

Indonesia, because a little mistake in using adverb of place is erroneous.

2. The writer find that in the beginning of learning English, Indonesian

students often get difficulties in using adverbs of place.

C. The Problem of the Study

The problem of this study can be formulated as follows:


4

1. What are the kind, position and function of adverbs?

2. What are the kind, position and function of English and Indonesian

adverbs of place?

3. What are the similarities and the differences between English and

Indonesian adverb of place?

D. Limitation of the Study

To avoid the misunderstanding of English and Indonesian adverbs of

place, the writer tends to limit this study, namely:

1. This study is focused on The Contrastive Analysis of Adverbs of Place

Between English and Indonesia. The English adverbs of place are here,

there, upstairs, away, inside, down, in, out, indoors, outdoors. Whereas,

the Indonesian adverbs of place are di sini, di sana, ke sini, ke sana, ke

situ, dari sini, dari situ, sampai.

2. This study is limited to describe the differences and similarities between

English and Indonesian Adverbs of place especially considering their kinds,

positions and functions in sentences.

E. The Objective Of The Study

The aim of the study are:

1. To find of the kinds, function and position of adverbs.

2. To find of the kinds, functions and positions of English and Indonesia

adverbs of place.
5

3. To identify and compare the differences and the similarities between

English and Indonesian adverbs of place.

F. The significance of the Study

The writer expects, that the result of this study can be used:

1. For the writer, it can deepen his knowledge in improving English ability.

2. For the English teacher, it can be used to make preposition in presenting

English adverbs of place.

G. The Definition of the Key Terms

To give the clearer information, the writer would like to clarify the

terms concerning with the title:

1. Contrastive Analysis

a. Contrastive is adjective taken from the word contrast. A contrast

mean to compare one thing with another, so the differences are

made clear, showing a difference when compared.2

b. Analysis is separation into part, possibly with comment and

judgment, instance of the result of doing this.3

c. Contrastive Analysis ( next contrasly mentioned as C.A )

1) Carl James state that CA is a linguistic enter price aimed at

producing inverted ( i.e; contrastive, not comparative ) two

valued typologies ( CA is always concerned with part of

2AS. Hornby, op.cit.,page 186.


J Ibid, page 29.
6

language ) and founded on the assumption that language can be

compared.4

2) CA is considered as the comparison of the structure of

language to determine the point that differ them and the

differences of the source of difficulty in learning target

language.5

3. Adverb of Place

English adverbs are closely concerned with the verb in a sentence. The

verb describe the state of things or the activity and adverbial add

information about such things as the manner, place, time, and view of the

state or action.

P.C. Wren and H. Martin state67that adverbs of place say where some thing

happen, such as in the sentence “ The children are playing upstairs”.


n
Depdikbud states in Tata Bahasa Baku Bahasa Indonesia that Keterangan

tempat adalah keterangan yang menunjukkan tempat terjadinya suatu

peristiwa atau keadaan, (Adverbs of place are adverbs that show where an

event or a condition happen) like in the sentence “ Kita meletakkan batu

pertama ini di sana

4 Carl, James, C ontrastive Analysis, Longman, London and New York, 1980, page 3.
5 Robert, Lado, L inguistic Across Culture, The University o f Michigan Press, Michigan,
1962, page 21.
6 P.C Wren and H. Martin, High School English G ram m ar and Com position, S. Chord
and Company LTD, N ew Delhi, YO, page 100
7 Depdikbud, Tata Bahasa Baku Bahasa Indonesia, Balai Pustaka, Jakarta, 1991, page
298
7

H. The Thesis Organization

In order to give a brief description to the readers and to facilitate the

thesis arrangement, the writer presents this thesis as follows:

Chapter I is introduction. It consists of the background of the study,

The reasons for choosing the topic, the problems of the study, limitation of the

study, the objectives of the study, the significance of the study, the definition

of the key terms, literature reviews, research methodology and thesis

organization.

Chapter II is review of the related literature. The chapter deals with

detailed discussion on English and Indonesian adverb of place. It consists of

definition, kinds, positions and functions of adverbs and adverbs of place.

Chapter III is Research Methodology. It consists of the meaning of

method, the type of the research, the object of the study, the method of

collecting data and the method of analyzing the data.

Chapter IV is Result of the Study. This chapter describes data analysis

the similarities and the differences between English and Indonesian adverbs of

place.

Chapter V is Conclusion and Suggestions. In this chapter the writer

give some conclusions of the study described in the previous chapter and some

suggestions for English teachers.


CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

A. Adverb

We know there are a lot of vocabularies in English and they can be

classified into two kinds namely content words and function words. Content

words consist of noun, verb, adjective and adverb. These kinds of words usually

have clear meanings. Function words are sometime called structure words. They

commonly do not have clear meanings. These include preposition ( on, in, at ),

article ( a, an, th e), and conjunction (and, but, because).

1. The Definition of Adverbs

Adverb is a word which modifies the meaning of a verb, an adjective,

another adverb.'According to Mun Fika et,al12, adverb is a word to add and to

explain verb, adjective, adverb, preposition, and conjunction. Some adverbs

have the same forms with their corresponding adjectives, Thus the words can

be used some as adjective, or adverb.

The terms adverbial is used here for such simple adverbs as now,

often, well, much, too, quite; adverbs with a suffix as quickly, probably,

briefly; phrases such as now and again, two weeks ago, since two o’clock;

and for adverbial clauses such as when I was boy.

1 P.C Wren and H. Martin, High School English G ram m ar and Composition, S. Chord and
Company LTD, New Delhi,YO, page 100.
2 Mun Fika, et.al, C om plete English G ram m ar , Apollo, Surabaya, YO, page 115.

8
9

2. The Kind of Adverbs

P.C Wren and H. Martin3 state that adverbs may be divided into the

following classes, according to their meanings.

a. Adverbs of manner

Adverbs of manner say how something happens. They are happily,

quickly, terribly, beautifully, badly, well, fast, etc.

Example:

1) The dog runs quickly.

2) Sasha sang beautifully.

b. Adverbs of time

Adverbs of time say when something happens. Among others are today,

afterward, in June, last year, daily, weekly, before, soon, still, last.

Example :

1 ) 1 am going to London today.

2) She has a new hair style every week.

c. Adverbs of degree or quantity

Adverbs of degree modify an adjective or another adverb. They are placed

before the adjective or adverb. Those adverbs of degree or quantity are for

instance absolutely, almost, barely, completely, enough, only, quite, so,

too, very, just, much, etc.

Example :

1) Mr. Da’i explained the topic so clear.

2) You are absolutely right.

3 [bid. page 115


10

d. Adverbs of frequency

Adverbs of frequency show how often something happens. The adverbs of

frequency are always, often, usually sometimes, never, etc.

Example :

1) The students never come late.

2) She often writes a letter.

e. Adverbs of place

Adverbs of place show where something happens. They are around,

upstairs, here, to bed, in London, out of the window, etc.

Example:

1) The children are playing upstairs.

2) Come and sit here!

f. Adverbs of affirmation and negation

Example :

\) Surely, you are mistaken.

2) I do not know him.

g. Adverbs of reason

Example:

He is hence unable to refute the charge.

Marcella Frank says there are many kinds of adverbs.4

1) Types of adverbs classified by meaning

a) Manner

b) Place and direction

c) Time

4 Marcella Frank, M odern English, Practical Reference Guide, Prentice-Hall. INC, 1972,
11

d) Degree or quantifier

2) Types of adverbs classified by function

a) Sentence adverbs

These adverbs modify an entire sentence.

Example: - Fortunately, the boy threw the ball quickly.

b) Conjunctive adverbs

They probably should be considered as modifying the whole

sentence or clauses rather than the verb alone. These adverbs show

such a relationship as result (therefore, accordingly), addition

(besides, moreover), contrast (however, nevertheless), condition

(otherwise), time (then).

Example:

(1) Put one box beside the other; please !

(2) I would like to go; however, I have not time.

c) Explanatory adverbs

These adverbs illustrate or enumerate : namely, for example, as,

i.e.( that, is ), e.g.( for example).

Example :

(1) He worked as he talked.

(2) I bought many things namely book, bag and pen.

d) Relative, interrogative adverbs

e) Exclamatory' adverbs ( how )

These adverbs are used with adjectives and adverbs.

Example :

(1) How beautiful she is!


12

(2) How beautifully she dresses!

Mun Fika et. al classify adverbs into three kinds;5 they are :

a. Simple adverbs ( adverbs of time, place, number, manner,

extent/degree)

b. Interrogative adverbs ( interrogative adverbs of time, place, number,

manner, degree, reason )

c. Relative adverbs ( conjunctive adverbs )

Thomson and Martinet state there are several kinds of adverbs:6

a. Adverbs of manner.

b. Adverbs of time.

c. Adverbs of degree.

d. Adverbs of frequency.

e. Adverbs of place.

f. Adverbs of sentence.

These modify the whole sentence or clause and normally express

speaker’s opinion.
&
Example :

1) They certainly work hard.

2) He actually lives next door.

g. Adverbs of interrogative ( why?, when?, where?, how? )

Why? means “ for what reason? “

When? means “ at what time? “

Where? means “ in what place? “

How? means “ in what way? “

5 Mun Fika, op.cit., page 116


6 Thomson and Martinet, P ractical English G ram m ar, Oxford University Press, London,
1986, page 47.
13

h. Adverbs of relative (when, where, why )

When can replace in/on which ( used for time)

Where can replace in/at which ( used for place )

Why can replace for which

Example:

(1) The year when he bom ( in which ).

(2) The hotel where they were staying ( in/at which )

(3) The reason why he refused is...( for which )

3. The Function of Adverbs

Marcella Frank states7 that there are three functions of adverbs. They

are as follows :

a) The modifier of a verb.

Example :

(1) The boy threw the ball quickly.

(2) They speak English fluently.

b) The modifier of an adjective and adverb

Example :

( 1 ) 1 work quite hard every day.

(2) He was clearly disappointed when he failed.

c) The modifier of an entire sentence.

Example :

(1) Fortunately, the boy threw the ball quickly.

(2) Yesterday, we submitted the report to the committee.

7 Marcella Frank, op.cit., page


14

4. The Position of Adverbs

There are three positions of adverbs :

a) Initial position before the subject.

Example : Sometimes, she comes late.

b) Mid-position with the verb.

Example : She sometimes come late.

c) Final position after the verb plus an object or an other complement.

Example : She come late sometimes.

B. Adverbs of Place

1. English Adverbs of Place

Adverbs of place say where something happens

a. Kinds of adverbs of place

1) Single word

In this division, there are a few of single words.8

For example:

Here

a) He left the box here

b) Come and sit here

There

a) I will go there

b) He will get there tonight

8 Eugene, J. Hall, Grammar for use, Oxford University Press, London, 1993, page 253.
Away

a) He sent him away

b) She wants away

Somewhere

a) I have seen that man somewhere

b) He wants to go to somewhere today

Everywhere

a) I looked for it everywhere

b) I can’t find any glasses everywhere

2) Prepositional phrase in single words

There are some kinds of prepositional phrases in adverbs of place.

For example:

Upstairs

a) The accident happened when I was upstairs

b) The children are playing upstairs

Inside

a) They are playing inside

b) There is a meditation room inside

Outdoors

a) Football is played outdoors

b) He wants to eat outdoors

Indoors

a) Badminton is played indoors

b) He likes playing indoors


16

Outside

a) In this moment, he is outside

b) I will throw it outside

3) Prepositional phrase

There are some prepositions that can be used to construct prepositional

phrase of adverbs of place, such as on, in, at.

Let’s see the following example:

a) Ring me up at my office

b) Put the books on the table

b. The function of adverbs of place

Adverbs of place function to explain the place and the direction where the

activity happens.

For example:

1) They will go abroad

2) She will come here again

c. Position of adverbs of place

There are two positions of adverbs of place. The positions of adverbs of

place is at the end of clause, but when there is a descriptive style, initial

position is used.

1) At the end of clause

a) She is sitting outside

b) There is a box inside

2) Initial position

a) Here comes your bus

b) There goes Mrs. Parson


17

2. Indonesian Adverbs of Place

Adverbs of place is Keterangan yang menunjukan tempat terjadinya

peristiwa atau keadaan.9 Adverbs of place use preposition di, ke, dari, sampai,

and pada. After those prepositions it can stand words denoting place, such as

di sini, di sana, di situ, ke sana, etc.

For example:

1) Kita meletakan batu pertama ini di sana

2) Keluarganya akan pindah ke sana

Adverbs of place are used to answer the question di sana.

For example:

1) Ia tinggal diluar kota

2) Di sana saya menunggu

Adverbs of place are used to answer the question jalan mana, mulai dimana,

hingga dimana.

For example:

1) Dari ujung gang itu para pemuda bergotong royong

2) Kami pergi ke Bandung melalui Purwakarta

a. Kinds of adverbs of place

1) Single words.

For example :

a) Ia tinggal diluar kota

b) Dia datang kemari

9 Depdikbud, Tata Bahasa Baku Bahasa Indonesia, Balai Pustaka, Jakarta, 1991, page 298.
18

2) Prepositional phrase

In Indonesian adverbs of place, there are some prepositions which

are used to make prepositional phrase of adverbs of place such as :

di, ke, dari, sampai, and pada.10

For example:

(1) Dia pergi ke Bogor

(2) Ayah meletakannya di atas meja

b. Function of adverbs of place

Adverbs of place function to describe where the activity or the condition

happens.

For example:

1) Mereka akan berlatih di sini

2) Ibu suka duduk di luar

c. The position of adverbs of place

Based on their positions, adverbs of place have two positions. They are as

follows:

1) The initial position

Example:

a) Di sana dia membeli buku

b) Di sini dia pulang dari kantor

2) The end of a clause

Example:

a) Tono akan pergi ke Surabaya

b) Dia berobat ke sini

10 Ibid., page 298


CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY OF THE RESEARCH

In order to get some data that are required in this study, the writer

conducted library research. The writer selected the grammatical data of various

English books which are obtained in the library and also other available sources.

In this chapter, the writer would like to explain the methodology of the

research which will be used. It consists of method used in the research, the object

of the research, the method of collecting data, and the method of analyzing data.

A. The Method Used in the Research

In this study, the writer uses:

1. Contrastive Analysis Method ( CA Method )

CA refers to an activity that tries to compare between English and

Indonesia language structures, to identify the differences between both

languages and their 'similarities. CA is a work procedure of language

activities comparing the structure of LI and L2 or any languages and

identifying their differences from the two languages.1 This is important

because the greatest obstacle in the process of mastering L2 is the mix up

between the system of LI into L2. CA tries to overcome this problem by

contrasting the system of both languages to predict the difficulties that

commonly happen.

1 Tarigan, Guntur, Pengajaran Analysis Konstrast i f Bahasa, Dikbud, Jakarta, 1989, page
5.

19
20

Actually, the history of CA is based on three assumptions:2

a. Teaching experiences of foreign language teachers who always find

out errors made by learners that can be detected through mother

language.

b. Interference of LI into L2.

c. Learning theory, especially transfer theory which is considered as

positive facility beside negative interference.

According to Tarigan, CA has some essential contributions in

teaching-learning process. These may be clearly seen as follows:

a. Constructing language teaching materials which are based on the

divergent aspects of the two languages being leamt.

b. Constructing the system of pedagogical language which is based on the

linguistic theory.

c. Arranging the class properly, in which the first language is applied to

help in learning the second language.

d. Presenting the language materials directly by:

1) Showing the stmctural differences between the languages.

2) Showing the structural aspects of the first language which causes

possible difficulties or errors in the second language.

3) Suggesting the ways of how to overcome the interferences.

2 Pranowo, Analysis Pengajaran Bahasa, Gajah Mada University Press, Yogyakarta,


Cet.l, 1996, page 45.
21

4) Giving the exercise intensively to the aspects which are divergent.3

The CA as one of the fields of stitches in language teaching gives

favors toward composing the grammatical education. This contrastive

attainment can give beneficial contributions for implementing the direct

instruction of language. We can predict difficulties probably found in

learning. Thus it can be used to tackle difficulties found.4

There are two polar views on this and a range of compromise position

between them:5

a. The strong claim says that the deviant behavior of the learner is the

direct result of the transfer of the ‘habit’ of the LI into L2. Those who

make the strong claim consider that CA is not as a means of explaining

error but also as a technique for predicting error. The supporters of this

are: Fries, Lado, Valaman’s.

b. The weak claim says that the structure of the LI provides only a partial

explanation of the phenomena involved in L2 learning. Those who

make this claim insist that the structure of the LI is only one of many

influences at work in the learning process. It follows that CA may be

of some value in explanation of error but cannot have a strong

predictive value. The supporters of this use Stocwell and Browen.

3 Ibid, page 50
4 Nurhadi, Tata bahasa Pendidikan, IKIP Semarang Press,Semarang, 1995, page
5 Roger T. Bell, An Introduction toapplied L in g u istic: Approachesh and Method in
Language Teaching, Bastford Academicand Education Ltd, London, 1981, page 181-182.
22

This study uses CA because it functions to provide guidelines in

analyzing of foreign language. The functions are:

a. Predictive

It means to detect the errors of students in learning foreign language.

b. Clarificative

It means to explain the errors which are made by the students.

c. Complementary

It means to complete knowledge of the candidate teachers and the

teachers who do not have experience.

d. Preventive

It means to prevent and to limit the errors done by the students.

e. Curative

It means to correct the errors and to overcome the language teaching

problems.

2. Non statistic Analysis Method ( Qualitative Method )

It is an analysis done by reading and collecting data.6 In this thesis, the

writer uses a qualitative method because it is a library research. The writer

reads and collects data from some books which relate with the study.

B. The Object of the Research

1. Data

The data of this research are English and Indonesia adverbs of place.

6 Hermawan Warsito, Pengantar M etodePenelitian, Rineka Cipta,Jakarta, 1993, page 89


23

2. The sources of the data

The research aims at to comparing English and Indonesia adverbs of place

so, the writer takes some adverbs of place as the object of the research

from both English and Indonesia literatures.

a. Depdikbud, 1992, Tata Bahasa Baku Bahasa Indonesia, Indonesia,

Jakarta: Balai Pustaka.

b. Fika, Mun, et.al., YO, Complete English Grammar, Surabaya: Apollo.

c. Homby, A.S, 1975, Guide to Patterns and usage in English, London:

Oxford University Press.

d. Frank, Marcella, 1972, Modern English: Practical Reference Guide,

Prentise-Hall. INC.

e. J. Hall, Eungene, 1993, Grammar fo r Use, London: Oxford University.

f. Keraf, Gorys, 1991, Tata Bahasa Rujukan Bahasa Indonesia, Jakarta:

PT Gramedia.

g. Muslich, Masnur, 1990, Garis-garis Besar Tata Bahasa Baku Bahasa

Indonesia, Malang: Yayasan Asih Asah Asuh.

h. Thomson, A.J., and A.V., Martinet, 1986, A Practical English

Grammar, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

i. Wren, P.C and H. Martin, YO, High School English Grammar, New

Delhi: S. Chand and Company LTD.


24

C. Method of Collecting Data

Collecting data is very a important work in this research. The writer

must determine what method used to get the data. Suharsimi Arikunto states7

that there are six method of collecting data. They are questionnaire,

observation, interview, rating scale, test and documentation.

Because this research is a literary study, the writer uses documentation

method that is taken from books that have been mentioned before.

D. Method of Analyzing Data

1. Descriptive Method

Descriptive method means the thinking of every ideology and

philosophy described clearly and completely, so the similarities and

differences can be treated clearly too. Using this description it will be

known the description of language.8

The writer only interprets and explains the collected data without

hypothesis9.

2. CA Method

The writer uses CA method in this study because it is used to

analysis between two languages. In this research, the writer works on the

data in three steps:

7 Suharsimi Arikunto, Prosedur Penelitian : Suatu Pendekatan Praktek, Rineka Cipta,


Jakarta, 1998, page
8 Anton Bekker and M. Charis Zubair, M etodology Penelitian Filsafat, Kanisius,
Yogyakarta, 1998, page 88.
9 Suharsimi Arikunto, ManajemenPenelitian, Rineka Cipta, Jakarta, 1990, page 310
a. The writer describes both English and Indonesian adverbs of place.

The description is mainly about their kinds, functions, and positions in

sentences.

b. Based on the description, the writer contrasts the characteristics of

English and Indonesian adverbs of place. He tries to go through the

possible complexities : similarities and differences between them. He

also directly predicts learning problems that are likely encountered by

Indonesian students learning English and Indonesia.

c. The writer draws some conclusions and presents some suggestions.


26

CHAPTER IV

THE RESULT OF THE STUDY

In this chapter, the writer would like to show the data analysis, differences

and similarities between English and Indonesia adverbs of place which have been

studied.

A. Data Analysis

After presenting the data of the research, the writer describes the main points

of the research as follows:

1. English adverbs of place

a. Kinds of adverbs of place

1) . Single words

In this section, there are only a few of it.

For example:

a) I have seen that man everywhere.

b) She put the books there.

2) . Prepositional phrase in single words

There are some kinds of prepositional phrases of adverbs of place.

For example:

a) He wants to eat outdoors .

b) He likes playing indoors.

3) . Prepositional phrases
27

There are some prepositions that can be used to construct

prepositional phrases of adverbs of place, such as on, in, at.

Let’s see the following examples:

a) Ring me up at my office

b) Mr. Jenkins is in the conference room

b. The functions of adverbs of place

Adverbs of place function to explain the place and the direction

where an activity happens.

For example:

1) They will go abroad.

2) I can’t find the glasses everywhere.

c. Positions of adverbs of place

There are two positions of adverb of place. Generally, the

position of adverb of place is at the end of clause, but when there is a

descriptive style, initial position is used.

1) Final position

For example:

a) She is sitting outside

b) He wants to go there

2) Initial position

For example:

a) Here comes your bus.

b) There goes Mrs. Person

oasea on their positions, adverbs of place are divided into two; they

are as follows:
29

1) Initial position

Examples:

a) Di sana dia membeli buku.

b) Di sini dia pulang dari kantor.

2) Final position

Examples:

a) Tono akan pergi ke Surabaya.

b) Dia berobat ke sini.

B. The Similarities between English and Indonesia Adverbs of Place

1. Based on their kinds, there are single-word and preposition phrase

adverbs of place in English and Indonesian languages.

English:

a. My father puts this pen here.

b. Ella has arrived there. ^

Indonesia:

a. Sha-sha datang kemari.

b. Ella tinggal di luar kota.

2. Based on their positions both English and Indonesia adverbs of place are

placed at the beginning or at the end of a sentence.

English:

a. here you watch television.

b. We like to sit here.


30

Indonesia:

a. Kakakku makan malam di rumah.

b. Di sini dia meninggalkan anaknya.

3. Based on their functions, both English and Indonesian adverbs of place

function to denote where the activity or the condition happens:

English:

a. She’ll come here again.

b. My room is upstairs.

Indonesia:

a. Mereka akan berlatih di sini.

b. Dia menyimpan mainannya di dalam almari.

C. The Differences between English and Indonesian Adverbs of Place

1. Kinds

a. Prepositional phrase in single words

English:

There are adverbs of place pronounced and written as single words

which are actually phrases. The words are compounded.

For example:

Outside, outdoors, indoor, inside, upstairs, downstairs, etc.

1) She like sitting outside.

2) My mother is upstairs.
31

Indonesia:

In Indonesia there is no prepositional phrase in single words to make

adverbs of place,

b. Prepositional phrase

English:

Constructing prepositional phrase of adverbs of place meaning di in

Indonesia needs some prepositions like: on, in, at.

1) He arrives at my house.

2) They study in the classroom.

Indonesia:

In Indonesia there is only one preposition “ di “ meaning di to

construct prepositional phrase of adverbs of place.

1) Dia bersembunyi di tempat tidur.

2) Mereka berhenti di ujung jalan itu.

2. Position

There is no difference in position between English and Indonesia adverbs

of place.

3. Function

There is no difference in function between English and Indonesia adverbs

of place.
CHAPTER V

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

A. Conclusion

Based on the data analysis of English and Indonesian adverbs of place

taken from English and Indonesian grammar books, the writer draws some

conclusion as follows:

1. The English adverbs of place are here, there, upstairs, away, inside,

down, in, out, indoors, outdoors. Indonesian adverbs of place are di sini,

ke sini, ke sana, ke situ, dari sini, dari situ and sampai.

2. Using CA method, the similarities and the differences between English

and Indonesian adverbs of place will be seen.

3. a. Kinds of adverbs: - Adverbs of manner

- Adverbs of time

- Adverbs of degree or quantity

- Adverbs of frequency

- Adverbs of place

- Adverbs of affirmation and negation

- Adverbs of reason

b. Functions of adverbs: - The modifier of a verb

- The modifier of an adjective and adverb

- The modifier of an entire sentence

32
33

c. Positions of adverbs: - Initial positions before subject

- Mid-position with the verb

- Final position after the verb plus an object or

an other complement

4. a. English of adverbs of place

1) Kinds

a) Single word

b) Prepositional phrase in single words

c) Prepositional phrase

2) Functions

To explain the place and the direction where the activity happens

3) Positions

a) At the end of clause

b) Initial position

b. Indonesian adverbs of place

1) Kinds

a) Single words

b) Prepositional phrase

2) Functions

To describe where the activity or the condition happens.

3) Positions

a) The initial position

b) The end of a clause


34

5. a. The similarities between English and Indonesia adverbs of place

1) Based on the kinds, both English and Indonesian adverbs of place

have single words and preposition phrases to make adverbs of

place.

2) Based on their positions, both English and Indonesian adverbs of

place can be placed at the initial positions or final positions of a

sentence.

3) Based on their functions, both English and Indonesian adverbs of

place functions to denote the place where the activity or the

condition happens.

b. The differences between English and Indonesian adverbs of place

Based on their kinds, in English there are prepositional phrase of

place pronounced and written as single words which are actually phrases,

but in Indonesian there is no prepositional phrase in single words.

B. Suggestion

Based on the conclusion above, the writer would like to give some

suggestion for both the teachers and learners of English, especially in teaching

and learning English adverbs of place.

1. For the teachers

The teacher should give a elear explanation about the rules of usage and

examples of English adverbs of place. They should also be able to predict

the difficulties about adverbs of place faced by the students. The teachers
35

can also explain clearly the difference and similarities between English

and Indonesia adverbs of place.

2. For the learners

a. Learning by hearts is one way to avoid errors or difficulties in learning

English, in this case the adverbs of place.

b. The learners must pay attention to the rules of adverbs of place.

c. To solve the problem in learning adverbs of place the learners have to

do many exercises in older that they can use adverbs of place correctly.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Arikunto, Suharsimi, Manajemen Penelitian, Rineka Cipta, Jakarta, 1990

________________, Prosedur Penelitian: Suatu Pendekatan Praktek, Rineka Cipta,


Jakarta, 1998

Bekker, Anton dan M. Charts Zubair, Metodologi Penelitian Filsafat, Kanisius,


Yogyakarta, 1998

Depdikbud, Tata Bahasa Baku Bahasa Indonesia, Balai Pustaka, Jakarta, 1992

Fika, Mun, et.al, Complete English Grammar, Apollo, Surabaya

Frank, Marcella, Modern English : A Practical English Guide, Prentice Hall,


Englewood Cliff, 1972

Hornby, A. S. Guide to Pattern and Usage in English, Oxford University Press,


London, 1975"

___________, Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary o f Current English, Oxford


University Press, London, 1974

J. Hall, Eugene, Grammar For Use, Oxford University, London, 1993

James, Carl, Contrastive Analysis, New York, 1980

Keraf, Gorys, Tata Bahasa Rujukan Bahasa Indonesia, P.T.Gramedia, Jakarta, 1991

Lado, Robert, Linguistic Across Culture, The University of Michingan Press,


Michingan, 1962

Muslich, Masnur, Garis-Garis Besar Tata Bahasa Baku Bahasa Indonesia, Yayasan
A3, Malang, 1990

Nurhadi, Tata Bahasa Pendidikan, IKIP Semarang Press, Semarang, 1995

Pranowo, Analisis Pengajaran Bahasa, Gajah Mada Press, Yogyakarta, 1996

Roger T. Bell, An Introduction to Applied Linguistic : Approach and Method in


Language Teaching, Bastford Academic and Education Ltd, London, 1981

Tarigan, Henry Guntur, Pengajaran Analisis Kesalahan Berbahasa, Angkasa, Jakarta,


1988.
Thomson, A. J. and A. V. Martinet, A Practical English Grammar, Oxford University
Press, London, 1976

Warsito, Hermawan, Pengantar Metode Penelitian, Rineka Cipta, Jakarta,1993

Wren, P.C. and H. Martin, High School English Grammar, S. Chand and Company
Ltd, New Delhi
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mor: ST.27/K-1/PP.00.9/1-1.3.073/2006 17 April 2006


p. : Proposal Skripsi
: Pembimbing dan Asisten
Pembimbing Skripsi

Yth. 1. Ruwandi, S.Pd., M.A.


2 .

Assalamualaikum w. w.

Dalam rangka penulisan Skripsi Mahasiswa Program Sarjana (S.l). Saudara ditunjuk sebagai
Dosen Pembimbing / Asisten Pembimbing Skripsi mahasiswa :

N a ma MUHAMMAD NUR DA’l


NIM 11302020
Jurusan TARB1YAH
Judul Skripsi CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN ENGLISH AND
INDONESIA ADVERB OF PLACE

Apabila dipandang perlu Saudara diminta mengoreksi tema Skripsi di atas.

Demikian untuk diketahui dan dilaksanakan.

W'assalamualalkum w, h>.

_ Ketua,
sV!iM^P^feant^Ketua Bidang Akademik

mam Sutomo, M.Ag


. 150216814

nbusan : Yth. Ketua STAIN Salatiga (sebagai laporan)


DAFTAR NILAI SKK

Nama : Muhammad Nur Da’i


NIM -.11302020
No Jenis Kegiatan Pelaksanaan Jabatan Nilai
1 ORMASS 19-22 Agustus 2002 Peserta 3
2 English Festival (CEC) 22 September 2002 Peserta 3
3 Konser Musik Amal (SMC) 30 September 2002 Peserta 3
4 Latihan Kader 1 (LK I) HMI 4-6 Oktober 2002 Peserta 4
5 Friendship Camp 11-13 Oktober 2002 Peserta 3
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7 Diskusi ITTAQO 10 Nopember 2003 Peserta 3
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9 Study Compare (CEC) 6 April 2005 Peserta 3
10 Bersih Kota dan Kampanye Polusi Udara 12 Juni 2005 Peserta 3
(MAPALA)
11 Seminar Lokakarya STAIN Salatiga 16 Juni 2005 Peserta 3
12 Bedah Buku/Film dan Jurnal Mahasiswa 29-30 September Peserta 3
2005
13 Diskusi ITTAQO 14 Oktober 2005 Peserta 3
14 Diskusi Inggris HMI 25 Oktober 2005 Panitia 4
15 Parade Musik Pelajar Salatiga (SMC) 5 Maret 2006 Panitia 4
16 Fun Climbing Mahasiswa (MAPALA) 18 Maret 2006 Peserta 3
17 Seminar HMJ Tarbiyah 15 Mei 2006 Panitia 4
18 Festival Rebana III STAIN Music Club 9 Juli 2006 Panitia 4
(SMC)
Jumlah 59

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