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ABSTRACT

One of the most critical areas of the finance function is to make decisions about the firm’s
capital structure. Capital is required to finance investments in plant and machinery, inventory,
accounts receivable and so on. Capital structure is the part of financial structure, which
represents long term sources. It is the permanent financing of the company represented
primarily by shareholders’ funds and long term debt and excluding all short- term credit. To
quote Walker, “The term capital structure is generally defined to include only long term debt
and total stockholder’s investment” (Walker).It refers to the Capitalization of long term
sources of funds such as debentures, preference share capital, long term debt and equity share
capital including reserves and surplus (retained earnings). According to Bogen, “The capital
structure may consist of a single class of stock, or it may be complicated by several issues of
bonds and preferred stock, the characteristics of which may vary considerably”. In other
words, “capital structure refers to the composition of capitalization i.e., to the proportion
between debt and equity that make up capitalization” (Philips).
Weston and Brigham have indicated the capital structure by the following equation (Weston):
Capital Structure = Long term debt – Preferred stock + Net worth (or)
Capital Structure = Total Assets – Current Liabilities.
In this Project, an attempt has been made to study the “Pattern of Capital Structure in SME
at NSIC. An analysis of long-term solvency, assessment of debt-equity, debt to total fund
and justification for the use of debt through the application of ratio analysis and statistical
test has been undertaken. The time period considered for evaluating the study is four years.

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Chapter-1
INTRODUCTION
Introduction of capital structure
The financing decisions occupy a pivotal role in the overall finance function in a corporate
firm which mainly concerns itself with an efficient utilization of the funds provided by the
owners or obtained from external sources together with those retained or ploughed back out
of surplus or undistributed profits. These decisions are mainly in the nature of planning capital
structure, working capital and mechanism through which funds can be raised from the capital
market whenever required. The financing decisions explains how to plan an appropriate mix
with least count, how to raise long term funds, and how to mobilize the funds for working
capital within a short span of time. Such a financing policy provides an appropriate backdrop
for formulating effective policies for investment of funds as well as management of earnings.
It contributes to magnifying the earnings on equity as profitability (expressed as return on
equity), to a large extent, is dependent on the degree of leverage in the capital structure.
Besides, the valuation of the structure of physical assets depends fundamentally on the
financing mix. This makes it necessary for the management of a firm to pursue a well thought
out of financing policy, which ought to be framed initially, incorporating, among other things,
the proportion of the debt and equity, types of debts and own funds to be used and volume of
the funds to be raised from each source or combination of sources, to enable the firm to have
a proper capitalization. In the absence of this, the firm may face the problem of either over-
capitalization or under-capitalization impeding its smooth financial functioning.
It is obvious that functioning decisions are extremely important for corporate firms. Such
decisions, in management parlance, are termed as capital structure decisions. The term capital
structure is used to describe the combination of various sources of finance employed to raise
funds. It implies, in other words, that when a firm chooses to use a group of sources in certain
proportions the resulting pattern is referred to as capital structure of the firm. The sources of
finance could be divided in terms of ownership of funds and duration of funds. The former
comprises owned and borrowed funds while the latter includes long, medium and short term
funds. Of the two, the duration-based classification is useful for preparing.

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Plan to meet long term as well as short term capital requirements while ownership-based
classification is useful for selection of specified sources, determining debt-equity ratio and
analyzing impact of capital structure decisions on the earnings on equity. As the ownership
based classification suggests that there are two types of sources of finance, namely owned and
borrowed funds, the capital structure represents the component relationship between owned
and borrowed funds. The owned funds which are also described as equity fund may be defined
as funds provided by or belonging to the share-holders. In the opinion Raj want Singh and
Brij Kumar, the capital structure is made up of the long term borrowings, the preferred stock
and the common stock equity including all related net worth accounts. Similarly, Morarka.R
observes that the capital structure implies a degree of permanency and normally omits short
term borrowings of less than one year but would include other intermediate and long term
borrowings. The financial institutions consider only long term sources of finance for
computing the debt-equity ratio of corporate firm.
1.1 Definition
A mix of a company's long-term debt, specific short-term debt, common equity and preferred
equity, the capital structure is how a firm finances its overall operations and growth by
using different sources of funds. Debt
comes in the form of bond issues or long-term notes payable, while equity is classified as
common stock, preferred stock or retained earnings. Short-term debt such as working capital
requirements is also considered to be part of the capital structure
1.2 Theories of capital structure
Different kinds of theories have been propounded by different authors to explain the
relationship between capital structure, cost of capital and the value of the firm. The main
contributors to the theories are Durand, Ezra, Solomon, Modigliani and Miller.
The important theories are discussed below:
 Net Income Approach
 Net Operating Income Approach.
 The Traditional Approach.
 Modigliani and Miller Approach.

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1. Net Income Approach. According to this approach, a firm can minimize the weighted
average cost of capital and increase the value of the firm as well as market price of
equity shares by using debt financing to the maximum possible extent. The theory
propounds that a company can increase its value and decrease the overall cost of
capital by increasing the proportion of debt in its capital structure. This approach is
based upon the following assumptions:
 The cost of debt is less than the cost of equity.
 There are no taxes.
 The risk perception of investors is not changed by the use of debt.
2. Net Operating Income Approach. This theory as suggested by Durand is another
extreme of the effect of leverage on the value of the firm. It is diametrically opposite
to the net income approach. According to this approach, change in the capital structure
if a company does not affect the market value of the firm and the overall cost of capital
remains constant irrespective of the method of financing. It implies that the overall
cost of capital remains the same whether the debt- equity mix is 50:50 or 20:80 or
0:100. Thus, there is nothing as an optimal capital structure and every capital structure
is the optimum capital structure. This theory presumes that:
 The market capitalizes the value of the firm as a whole.
 The business risk remains constant at every level of debt equity mix;
 There are no corporate taxes.
3. The Traditional Approach. The traditional approach, also known as intermediate
approach, is a compromise between extremes of net income approach and net
operating income approach. According to this theory, the value of the firm can be
increased initially or the cost of capital can be decreased by using more debt as the
debt is a cheaper source of funds than equity. Thus, optimum capital structure can be
reached by a proper debt-equity mix. Beyond a particular point, the cost of equity
increases because increased debt increases the financial risk of the equity
shareholders. The advantage of cheaper debt at this point of capital structure is offset
by increased cost of equity. After this there comes a stage, when the increased cost of
equity cannot be offset by the advantage of low-cost debt.

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Objectives
The present study aims at endeavoring the following objectives:
 To analyze the pattern of capital structure;
 To assess of long-term solvency; and
 To ascertain the justification for the use of debt.
Capital structure means the mixture of share capital and other long term liabilities. In capital
structure, we include equity share capital, preference share capital, debenture and long term
debt. Some of companies want to become smart. They slowly decrease equity share capital
and increases loan excessively which may be very risky because these company has to pay
fixed cost of interest and has to manage repayment of loan after some time. Some mistake in
it, may be risky for its solvency. So, decision relating to capital structure is very important for
company
Need for capital structure
For the real growth of the company the financial manager of the company should plan an
optimum capital for the company. The optimum capital structure is one that maximizes the
market value of the firm. There are significant variations among industries and companies
within an industry in terms of capital structure. Since a number of factors influence the capital
structure decision of a company, the judgment of the person making the capital structure
decisions play a crucial part. A totally theoretical model can’t adequately handle all those
factors, which affects the capital structure decision in practice. These factors are highly
psychological, complex and qualitative and do not always follow accepted theory, since
capital markets are not perfect and decision has to be taken under imperfect knowledge and
risk.
An appropriate capital structure or target capital structure can be developed only when all
those factors, which are relevant to the company’s capital structure decision, are properly
analyzed and balanced. The capital structure should be planed generally keeping in view the

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Interest of the equity shareholders and financial requirements of the company. The equity
shareholders being the owner of the company and the providers of risk capital (equity), would
be concerned about the ways of financing a company’s operations. However, the interest of
other groups, such as employee, customers, creditors, society and government, should be
given reasonable consideration when the company lays down its objective in terms of the
shareholder’s wealth maximization, it is generally compatible with the interest of other
groups. The management of companies may fix its capital structure near the top of this range
in order to make maximum use of favorable leverage, subject to other requirements such as
flexibility, solvency, control and norms set by the financial institutions- The Security
Exchange Board of India (SEBI) and Stock Exchanges.

Scope and coverage


The present study is confined to Small Medium Enterprise. This study is restricted to assess
the pattern of capital structure in Small Medium Enterprise with the help of the ratio analysis.
The time period considered for evaluating the study is four years

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Chapter-2
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Study on capital structure has become one of the most significant subjects of interest in
modern finance. It has acquired lot of recognition from researchers during recent years. There
exists a vast body of literature that has examined the determinants of the capital structure of
companies in developed economies. Empirical works based on theories of capital structure
has been previously conducted for Australia (Cassar and Holmes, 2003; Johnsen and
McMahon, 2005), Spain (Sorgorb, 2005), UK (Hall et al., 2000) and the US (Gregory et al.,
2005). However, studies on capital structure have been extended to the developing economy
contexts only in recent past. The level of development of a country’s legal and financial
systems has been shown to influence the capital structure of its enterprises (Fan et al., 2006).
In economies with relatively weak investor protection, enterprises are more likely to employ
short-term debt than long-term debt in their capital structure. This is in contrast to enterprises
in economies with active stock markets and large banking sectors which have more long-term
debts (Demirguc-Kunt and Maksimovic (1999). Despite of the growing volume of literature
on the determinants of capital structure in the developing economy context is available, there
has been limited work conducted on SMEs in these countries. One possible reason for this
discrepancy is that SME data is often scarce and sometimes not reliable, since these firms are
not officially required to disclose detailed information or to have their reports audited. Some
preliminary work has been carried out for Poland (Klapper et al., 2006), Vietnam (Nguyen
and Ramachandran, 2006), and Ghana (Abor and Biekpe, 2007). All these studies imply to
the fact that the that theories of capital structure developed to explain the financing decisions
of SMEs in developed economies are not equally applicable in developing economies, due to
their institutional and organizational differences. Many authors suggested the firm size as a
potential determinant of capital structure decision.

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Determinants of capital structure of Chinese-listed companies.
Jean J. Chen in his paper develops a preliminary study to explore the determinants of capital
structure of Chinese-listed companies using firm-level panel data. The findings reflect the
transitional nature of the Chinese corporate environment. They suggest that some of the
insights from modern finance theory of capital structure are portable to China in that certain
firm-specific factors that are relevant for explaining capital structure in developed economies
are also relevant in China. However, neither the trade-off model nor the Pecking order
hypothesis derived from the Western settings provides convincing explanations for the capital
choices of the Chinese firms. The capital choice decision of Chinese firms seems to follow a
“new Pecking order”—retained profit, equity, and long-term debt. This is because the
fundamental institutional assumptions underpinning the Western models are not valid in
China. These significant institutional differences and financial constraints in the banking
sector in China are the factors influencing firms' leverage decision and they are at least as
important as the firm-specific factors. The study has laid some groundwork upon which a
more detailed evaluation of Chinese firms' capital structure could be based.

“Determinants of capital structure of Chinese-listed companies, December 2004

-Jean J. Chen”

Small and medium-size enterprises: Access to finance as growth constraints


Thorsten Beck in his paper presents recent research on access to finance by small and
medium-size enterprises form a large part of private sector in many developed and developing
countries. While cross-country research sheds doubt on a causal link between SMEs and
economic development, there is substantial evidence that small firms face larger growth
constraints and have less access to formal sources of external finance, potentially explaining
the lack of SMEs’ contribution to growth. Financial and institutional development helps
alleviate SMEs’ growth constraints and increase their access to external finance and thus
levels the playing field between firms of different sizes. Specific financing tools such as
leasing and factoring can be useful in facilitating greater access.

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The Determinants of Capital Structure Choice

Sheridan Titamin and Robert Wessel’s in his paper analyzes the explanatory power of some
of the recent theories of optimal capital structure. The study extends empirical work on capital
structure theory in three ways. First, it examines a much broader set of capital structure
theories, many of which have not previously been analyzed empirically. Second, since the
theories have different empirical implications in regard to different types of debt instruments,
the authors analyze measures of short-term, long-term, and convertible debt rather than an
aggregate measure of total debt. Third, the study uses a factor-analytic technique that mitigates
the measurement problems encountered when working with proxy variables.

“Determinants of Capital Structure Choice, March 1998

By Sheridan Titamin and Robert Wessel’s”

SME Capital Structure: The Dominance of Demand Factors

In this study, Kenny Bell and Ed Vos has described Small Medium Enterprise capital structure
behavior is found typically to follow pecking order behavior. However, the theoretical
underpinnings of the pecking order theory are doubted in the case of SMEs as SME managers
highly value financial freedom, independence, and control while the pecking order theory
assumes firms desire financial wealth and suffer from severe adverse selection costs in
accessing external finance. Alternatively, the contentment hypothesis of Vos, et al (2007)
contends the reason Small Medium Enterprise exhibit pecking order behavior is the aversion
to loss of control to outside financiers and the preference for financial freedom. This paper
develops the capital structure predictions of the contentment hypothesis, reviews the
predictions of the tradeoff and pecking order theories for relevant variables, reviews the
findings of existing Small Medium Enterprise capital

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Impact of Capital Structure on Firm Performance: Evidence from Manufacturing Sector
SMEs in UK

D K Y Abeywardhana states in his study is to investigate empirically the impact of capital


structure on firm performance. This study examined the impact of capital structure on firm
performance of manufacturing sector SMEs in UK for the period of 1998-2008. The authors
hypothesize that there is a negative relationship between capital structure and firm
performance. To examine the association, the authors run a Pearson correlation and multiple
regression analysis. Results of this study reveals that there is a significant negative relationship
between leverage and firm performance (ROA, ROCE), strong negative relationship between
liquidity and firm performance and highly significant positive relationship between size and
the firm performance. This study concluded that firms which perform well do not rely on debt
capital and they finance their operations from retained earnings and specially Small Medium
Enterprise have less access to external finance and face difficulties in borrowing funds. It is
recommended that firm should establish the point at which the weighted average cost of
capital is minimized and to maintain the optimal capital structure and thereby maximize the
shareholders wealth.

“Impact of Capital Structure on Firm Performance: Evidence from Manufacturing Sector


SMEs in UK, November 2015
-D K Y Abheywardhana”

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COMPANY &INDUSTRIAL PROFILE
An ISO 9001:2008 Company

Industry profile
To collect and disseminate both domestic as well as international marketing
intelligence benefits of MSMEs. This cell, in addition to spreading awareness about various
programmers/schemes for MSMEs, will specifically maintain database and disseminate
information on the following.
National small industries corporation (NSIC), AN ISO 9001: 2008 certified company
and a govt. of India enterprise has been working to fulfill its mission of promoting, aiding and
fostering the growth of micro, small & medium enterprises in the country. Over a period of
five decades of transition, growth and development, NSIC has proved its strength within the
country and abroad by promoting modernization, up gradation of technology, quality
consciousness, strengthening linking with large and medium enterprises and enhancing
exports-projects from small industries.
NSIC operation through country wide network of 123 offices and technical centre’s
in the country. In addition, NSIC has 48 training cum incubation centers & with a large
professional manpower; NSIC provides a package of services as per the needs of MSME
sectors. To manage operations in African countries, NSIC operates from its office in
Johannesburg, South Africa.
This cell provides a single point contact to collect database relating to bulk buyers in
government, public and private sectors, the detail of exporters, international buyers and
technology suppliers. Besides, the information on trade leads and products wise buyers and
sellers as well as database relating to DGS & D suppliers with prices of their products, shall
also be provided by this NSIC marketing intelligence cell to help MSMEs in getting done.

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MSMEs need to be provided with market related information, new avenues for their products,
new business practices, both domestically as well as overseas. MSMEs are handicapped
because of non-availability of information pertaining to central government / state government
policies and programs, the support schemes and services of central /state PSUs availability of
new technologies, international and national tenders, opportunities available in various
countries for products and project exports. The NSIC marketing intelligence cell will integrate
the available information at one strengthen their efforts in focused manner.

Schemes of NSIC:
The national small industries corporation limited an ISO 9001: 2008 certified company
established in 1955, has been working to fulfill its mission of promoting, aiding and fostering
the growth of micro and small enterprises in the country.
NSIC carries forward its mission to assist micro and small enterprises with a set of specially
tailored schemes designed to put them in a competitive and advantageous position. The
scheme comprises of facilitating marketing support, credit support, technology support and
other support services.
Marketing is a strategic tool for business development and survival of the enterprises in
today’s Competitive era. NSIC acts as a facilitator to promote micro and small enterprises
products and has devised a number of schemes to support in their marketing efforts both in
the outside the country. Some of the schemes are briefly described an under.

Single point registration for government purchase:


Government is the largest buyer of product from micro and small enterprises. In order
to meet its requirement of purchase, NSIC operation a single point registration scheme under
the government purchase program, where in NSIC issue registration to eligible micro and
small enterprises for the purpose of suppliers to the government departments. The registration
is par with DGS & D, the unit registration under this gets the following facilities.

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• Issue of tender sets free of cost
• Exemption from payment of earnest money
• Waiver of security deposit up to the money limit for which the unit is registered
• Issue of competency certificate in case the value of an order exceeds the
monetary limit, after due verification.
Infomediary services:
Information plays a vital role in the success if any business. Keeping in mind the
information needs to micro and small enterprises. NSIC has launched its infomediary services.
A one stop, one window bouquet for aids that will provide information on business,
technology, finance and also exhibit the core competence of Indian micro and small
enterprises in terms of price and quality internationally as well as domestically.
Some important services provided are:
• Tender information in your e-mail box and web based browsing
• Banner display on NSIC’C website
• Accesses to wide range of technologies from India and abroad
• Joint venture opportunities and information on of trade and events
• Comprehensive information on government policies rules, regulations, schemes
and incentives.
Raw material assistance:
NSIC extends short term financial assistance to micro and small enterprises for procurement
of raw material on need basis.
The salient features
• Financial assistance for procurement of raw material up to 90 days
• MOU with NALCO, HCL, SAIL, RINL FOR supply of bulk materials
• Easy and quick disbursement
• Flexibility of repayment
Tender marketing:
The corporation participates in bulk global tender enquiries and local tenders of central &
state government and public sector enterprises on behalf of micro and small enterprises.

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Benefits:
NSIC will provide all financial support depending upon the unit’s individual requirements
like purchase of raw materials and financing of sale bill. Enhance business volume helps micro
and small enterprises to achieve maximum capability utilization. Micro and small enterprises
are exempted from depositing earnest money. It ensures fair margin to micro and small
enterprises for their production.

Performance and credit rating scheme for micro and small enterprises:
To ensure micro and small enterprises to ascertain the strength and weakness of their existing
operation and to take corrective measures to enhance their organization strength, NSIC is
operating performance and credit rating scheme through empanelled agencies like ICRA;
ONICRA, DUN & BRAD STREET, CRISIL, FITCH, CARE and SNERA. Micro
and small enterprises has the liberty to choose among any of the rating agencies empanelled
with NSIC. The rating agencies will charge the credit rating fee according to their policies.
The benefits to small enterprises are as follows.
• An in dependent trusted third party opinion on capabilities and credit-worthiness of
micro and small enterprises
• Availability of credit at attractive interest
• Recognition in global trade
• Prompt sanctions of credit from banks financial institutions.
Facilitation of credit support through banks:
Any kind of financial assistance i.e., terms loan, working capital loan, bill
discounting facility and export finance can be arranging through united bank of India, UCO
bank, oriental bank of commerce, central bank of India, bank of Maharashtra, YES bank and
HSDC at the most competitive interest rates. The terms and condition of finance shall be of
individual bank. NSIC will undertake the follow up the proposals with the bank selected .

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Company profile - About serwel electronics ltd.
Serwel Electronics was established in 1996 with a vision to provide Power Solutions. Sewell
is committed to excellence in the areas of Designing, Manufacturing and Development of all
types of power products which is a Power and Distribution Transformers, Servo Voltage
Stabilizers, UPS, Variac's etc. Sewell products are appreciated for its Efficient Performance,
Long Service Life, Reliability, Sturdy Construction and Dimensional Accuracy.

Infrastructure Set Up and Our Team


Serwell products are manufactured on state-of-the-art machines with latest technology, we
deliver zero defect power products. This is achieved through team of experts and streamlined
production process. With synchronous approach, we strive to deliver quality proven power
products meeting our customer’s expectations. Our plants are well equipped with most modern
Machinery & Testing Equipments to conduct tests as per IS: 5142 with an installed capacity
of 100000 units per annum. Serwel operations includes 3 manufacturing facilities, two
facilities located in Hyderabad and one in Bangalore. We provide sales and support services
from marketing offices spread across pan India.

Quality
Serwell is an ISO 9001:2000 certified company with a commitment of well defined quality
systems that ensures quality products and services are delivered to our customers. R & D is a
continuous process in Sewell and we are committed to introduce new products which can be
customized as per Customers request and configurations. All products are tested on various
parameters like safety, electricity consumption, durability, maintainability, etc. The stringent
quality check imbibed by us assures conformance of products in relation to international
quality standards.

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Products
 Electronic voltage stabilizers.
 Power & Distribution Transformers.
 Automatic power Factor.
 LT panel boards.
 Energy saver.
 UPS.

Infrastructure
We possess a state-of-the-art manufacturing units, which are facilitated with the latest
machinery, equipment and technology. With these facilities, we are able to meet the bulk
requirements of our clients. We make sure that we upgrade our machinery from time to time
for the smooth functioning of our manufacturing process.

Profile
Serwell is one of the leading manufacturers of Servo Stabilizers, Distribution and Power
Transformers, Ultra Isolation Transformers, APFC Panels, Auto Transformers and Power
Savers. Sewell constantly adds new products every year to existing product line and is in
business to address electrical needs of customers from more than 16 years.

Company Profile

Basic Information
Business Type
 Supplier
 Manufacturer
 Service provider

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Ownership & Capital
Year of Establishment 1996
Ownership Type Private Limited Company

Trade & Market


Annual Turnover Rs. 50lakhs – 100 Cr.
Export Percentage 20-40%

Quality & Certification


Trade Memberships Enclosed

Team & Staff


Total Number of Employees 101 to 500 People

Company USP
 Experienced R&D  Good financial position
Primary competitive Department &TQM
advantage

 Large production  Provide customized


capacity solutions

Statutory Profile
PAN No. AAECS3499J
Registration Authority Hyderabad
Registration No. AAECS3499JXM003
TIN No. / VAT No. 28250204177V

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Packaging/Payment and Shipment Details
Payment Mode  Cheque  Credit card

 DD  LC

Shipment mode  By air  By cargo

 By road  By sea

Core Value
Serwell Electronics Private Limited values its customers and enjoys working side-by-side
with them in delivering solid business value. We believe in respecting our customers, listening
to their requests and understanding their expectations. We strive to exceed their expectations
in affordability, quality and on-time delivery.
For our employees, we treat them with respect and trust, and lead through competence,
creativity and teamwork

Our Infrastructure
Serwell Electronics Private Limited processes modernized and sophisticated infrastructure
that spread across a widespread land area. To accomplish bulk demands with utmost ease,
we have segregated our infrastructure into a number of specialized departments. These
departments are well-equipped with modernized machines and requisite tools to timely
execute our work processes with utmost precision. Our manufacturing cum designing
department is installed with hi-tech machines and sophisticated equipment and designing
patterns to ensure that dimensionally accurate and robust range of products in the market
Quality Policy / Processes
Premier aim of our organization is to offer quality-assured range of products to our worldwide
customers. To manufacture our exclusive product range, we make use of finest grade
components and material that are sourced from trusted sources. Besides the product
development is carried under strict surveillance of experienced quality inspectors. These
professionals ensure that the product range is developed as per the agreed demands and
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Regulatory specifications. Not only this, our ardent quality inspectors have proper
arrangement to cautiously check these products on the basis of varied quality checks. Owing
to robust and never failing quality control, we are able to offer internationally acclaimed range
of products to our customers.

Production Capacity
With installed modernized machines and sophisticated tools and equipment, we are able to
furnish bulk demands of our customers with utmost ease and within the constraints of time.
Besides, machines installed aids in conduction of thorough testing as per IS: 5142 norms.
Owing to the use of modernized machines and tools, we are able to produce around 35000
units per year. Our manufactured products are safely stored in our capacious warehousing
facility. Owing to proper segregation into various sections, our warehouse aids in storing range
as per proper nomenclature and labeling, thereby ensuring quick retrieval and timed dispatch.
minimum turnover as of the eligibility criteria for MSE's.

RaghuVamsi Machine Tools Pvt Ltd

Company Profile

About the company


Incorporated in 1992 RaghuVamsi Machine Tools Pvt. Ltd have created an enviable niche in
industry for our products’ excellence in all across the nation. The company is engaged in
manufacturing, exporting and supplying a wide assortment of Aero Engine Components, Aero
structure Components, Avionic Components, Defense Components, Oil & Gas Components
and Power Transmission Components. Our company has earned a dignified position by
efficiently serving to its valuable clients’ with qualitative products. We develop
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Products incorporating advanced technologies and better quality material, which have enabled
us making best products available to the customers. The material, we use in the production
process, is sourced from trustworthy vendors, whom we have chosen conducting stringent
surveys of industry. We work in close proximity with the customers, in order to comprehend
their aspirations and offer products accordingly. As a result, we have acquired the trust of
maximum customers and expanded our base of satisfied clients from all across the country.
Our company possesses team of extremely dedicated and talented professionals, who
dedicatedly perform the whole task and ensure accomplishing the specific targets successfully.
They cordially perform the whole operations and ensure to achieve the predetermined
objectives of a company successfully.
Mr. G.Vamshi Vikas is the managing director of our organization, who have helped us
growing and achieving a desired niche in industry. All these are just because of his sound
managerial qualities, business acumen, foresightedness, industrial experience and sincere
business approach.
Company Mission
To create value and make a difference in the field of Precision Manufacturing by using world
class machine shop, best quality methods, up to date technology - achieving consistent
delivery and zero-defect parts to our customers at competitive prices.

Company Core Values


Reliability: To be Reliable towards Quality and Delivery to enhance customer satisfaction
Integrity: Our Integrity towards Work, Values & Customers
Social Responsibility: Responsible towards society - Primary focus on Education &
Environment.

Company Management
Raghu Vamsi’s Management Team is comprised of Professional & Highly experienced
leaders from a variety of industry backgrounds. They have a comprehensive vision of the

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Aerospace industry and understand the strategic business needs of our customers. Together
they continue to drive our integrated vision of growth.
Vamshi Vikas Ganesula - Managing Director
Vamshi vikas Ganesula is managing director of raghuvamsi reporting to the board of directors
provides leadership to ensure the organization achieves its mission and vision while meeting
the expectation of all stakeholders. He heads the strategy &business development of the
company.
A business graduate from IIM-C took over the business in 2004 at an age of 23 after the sudden
death of the founder. In spam of 8 years company grew from 15 employees to 200 entering
important sectors of Aerospace, Defense and oil &gas.
Reporting to the Managing Director, Mr.Subba rao heads the Sales & Coordination Team. He
ensures the customer requirements are met and bridges the customer with the company to
ensure 100% quality & on time delivery.
A Master’s graduate in Mechanical Engineering from MIT, Chennai joined Raghu Vamshi in
2008. He has over 40 years of experience in Aerospace industry and has worked in various
senior management disciplines including Operations, Marketing, and Customer Coordination
in Hindustan Aeronautics Limited before retiring as AGM, Production in 2004.
He also Served as Secretary HAL in Indian Embassy, Moscow coordinating all aerospace
industries in Russia with all HAL’s in India.
Mallikarjuna Swami – General Manager Mallikarjuna Swami is General Manager -
Operations of Raghu Vamsi mechanical engineer having 42 years of experience and worked
as a senior management member in HAL – koraput division and in reputed automotive
component manufactures like range engine valves, range Die cart and Synergies Casting Ltd.

Company Future Plans


Raghu Vamshi, in a short span of time, has evolved as a successful manufacturing partner to
its customers by providing High Precision machining and Engineering CAD/CAM
Services.
A strategically defined plan till 2015 will further enhance our current capabilities.

21
Our future plans include value-added services like:

 Sheet Metal
 Welding
 NADCAP NDT
 NADCAP Plating
 Assembly Services
 EMS Activity

Awards and Achievements


Managing Director of Raghu Vamshi, Mr.G.Vamsi Vikas was honored with “Bharat Guarav
Award” in 2007 by All India Business and Community foundation in the 37th National
Seminar on “outstanding contributions to National development”.
He was honored with “Bharat vikas rattan award” in 2009. He was honored with “Rashtriya
udyog samman puraskar” in 2006. He was also honored with young enterprising award “for
the year 2005 by Fenner India Ltd.

ISO Certification

Click to Zoom
An ISO 9001:2008 Certified Company

22
CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH METHDOLOGY

“Research Methodology is a systematic and objective process of identifying and formulating the
problem by setting objectives and methods for collecting, editing, calculating, evaluating,
analyzing, interpreting and presenting data in order to find justified solutions.”
Research design:
The Descriptive research design has been using in this study. Descriptive research studies,
which are concerned with describing the characteristics of a particular individual or of a group
or a situation. Studies concerned with specific predictions, with narration of facts and
characteristics concerning individual, group or a situation are examples of descriptive research
studies.in this project, income and balance statements are evaluated to know the state of affairs
as it existed during the years 2013-2017. This helps to know the performance of the schemes.
Sources of Data:
There are two sources of data namely:
1. Primary data
2. Secondary data
Primary Data:
Primary data are those which are collected for the first time and so are in crude form. They
are original in character. If an individual or an office collects the data to study a problem, the
data are the raw material of the enquiry. Primary data are always collected from the source. It
is collected either by the investigator himself or through his agents.

Secondary Data:
Secondary data are those which have already been collected by someone for the purpose and
are available for the present study. The choice to a large extent depends on the preliminaries
to data collection some of the commonly used methods are discussed below;
In this research, the various sources of secondary data, which are used, are:-

23
• Literature Reviews
• Journals
• Magazines
• Balance sheets
Tools of analysis
The present study is confined to SME. This study is restricted to assess the pattern of capital
structure in SME with the help of the ratio analysis. The time period considered for evaluating
the study is four years
Limitations
It requires a small business to make regular monthly payments of principal and
interest.
Availability is often limited to established businesses.
Since lenders primarily seek security for their funds, it can be difficult for unproven
businesses to obtain loans.
Very complicate and expensive to administer.


SAMPLING DESIGN
Sampling is a method of selecting experimental units from a population so that we can make decision about
the population.

Sampling Design is design or a working plan that specifies the population frame, sample size, sample
selection, and estimation method in detail. Objective of the sampling design is to know the characteristic of
the population.

SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
Convenience sampling method is used to collect the data.
A statistical method of drawing representative data by selecting people because of the ease of their
volunteering or selecting units because of their availability or easy access. The advantages of this type of
sampling are the availability and the quickness with which data can be gathered.

SAMPLE SIZE
A sample size is taken out of 10 samples taken 4 samples for consideration.

24
CONCEPTUAL

Capital structure theories


The financing decisions occupy a pivotal role in the overall finance function in a corporate
firm which mainly concerns itself with an efficient utilization of the funds provided by the
owners or obtained from external sources together with those retained or ploughed back out
of surplus or undistributed profits. These decisions are mainly in the nature of planning capital
structure, working capital and mechanism through which funds can be raised from the capital
market whenever required. The financing decisions explains how to plan an appropriate mix
with least count, how to raise long term funds, and how to mobilize the funds for working
capital within a short span of time. Such a financing policy provides an appropriate backdrop
for formulating effective policies for investment of funds as well as management of earnings.
It contributes to magnifying the earnings on equity as profitability (expressed as return on
equity), to a large extent, is dependent on the degree of leverage in the capital structure.
Besides, the valuation of the structure of physical assets depends fundamentally on the
financing mix. This makes it necessary for the management of a firm to pursue a well thought
out of financing policy, which ought to be framed initially, incorporating, among other things,
the proportion of the debt and equity, types of debts and own funds to be used and volume of
the funds to be raised from each source or combination of sources, to enable the firm to have
a proper capitalization. In the absence of this, the firm may face the problem of either over-
capitalization or under-capitalization impeding its smooth financial functioning.
It is obvious that functioning decisions are extremely important for corporate firms. Such
decisions, in management parlance, are termed as capital structure decisions.

25
Capital structure is used to describe the combination of various sources of finance employed
to raise funds. It implies, in other words, that when a firm chooses to use a group of sources
in certain proportions the resulting pattern is referred to as capital structure of the firm. The
sources of finance could be divided in terms of ownership of funds and duration of funds. The
former comprises owned and borrowed funds while the latter includes long, medium and short
term funds. Of the two, the duration-based classification is useful for preparing a plan to meet
long term as well as short term capital requirements while ownership-based classification is
useful for selection of specified sources, determining debt-equity ratio and analyzing impact
of capital structure decisions on the earnings on equity. As the ownership based classification
suggests that there are two types of sources of finance, namely owned and borrowed funds,
the capital structure represents the component relationship between owned and borrowed
funds. The owned funds which are also described as equity fund may be defined as funds
provided by or belonging to the share-holders. In the opinion Raj want Singh and Brij Kumar,
the capital structure is made up of the long term borrowings, the preferred stock and the
common stock equity including all related net worth accounts. Similarly, Morarka.R observes
that the capital structure implies a degree of permanency and normally omits short term
borrowings of less than one year but would include other intermediate and long term
borrowings. The financial institutions consider only long term sources of finance for
computing the debt-equity ratio of corporate firm.
Definition
A mix of a company's long-term debt, specific short-term debt, common equity and
preferred equity, the capital structure is how a firm finances its overall operations and
growth by using different sources of funds.
Debt comes in the form of bond issues or long-term notes payable, while equity is classified
as common stock, preferred stock or retained earnings. Short-term debt such as working
capital requirements is also considered to be part of the capital structure
Theories of capital structure
Different kinds of theories have been propounded by different authors to explain the
relationship between capital structure, cost of capital and the value of the firm. The main
contributors to the theories are Durand, Ezra, Solomon, Modigliani and Miller.

26
The important theories are discussed below:
 Net Income Approach
 Net Operating Income Approach.
 The Traditional Approach.
 Modigliani and Miller Approach.
1. Net Income Approach. According to this approach, a firm can minimize the weighted
average cost of capital and increase the value of the firm as well as market price of
equity shares by using debt financing to the maximum possible extent. The theory
propounds that a company can increase its value and decrease the overall cost of
capital by increasing the proportion of debt in its capital structure. This approach is
based upon the following assumptions:
 The cost of debt is less than the cost of equity.
 There are no taxes.
 The risk perception of investors is not changed by the use of debt.
2. Net Operating Income Approach. This theory as suggested by Durand is another
extreme of the effect of leverage on the value of the firm. It is diametrically opposite
to the net income approach. According to this approach, change in the capital structure
if a company does not affect the market value of the firm and the overall cost of capital
remains constant irrespective of the method of financing. It implies that the overall
cost of capital remains the same whether the debt- equity mix is 50:50 or 20:80 or
0:100. Thus, there is nothing as an optimal capital structure and every capital structure
is the optimum capital structure. This theory presumes that:
 The market capitalizes the value of the firm as a whole.
 The business risk remains constant at every level of debt equity mix;
 There are no corporate taxes.
3. The Traditional Approach. The traditional approach, also known as intermediate
approach, is a compromise between extremes of net income approach and net
operating income approach. According to this theory, the value of the firm can be
increased initially or the cost of capital can be decreased by using more debt as the
debt is a cheaper source of funds than equity. Thus, optimum capital structure can be

27
Reached by a proper debt-equity mix. Beyond a particular point, the cost of equity
increases because increased debt increases the financial risk of the equity shareholders.
The advantage of cheaper debt at this point of capital structure is offset by increased
cost of equity. After this there comes a stage, when the increased cost of equity cannot
be offset by the advantage of low-cost debt. Thus, overall cost of capital, according to
this theory, decreases up to a certain point, remains more or less unchanged for
moderate increase in debt thereafter; and increases or rises beyond a certain point.
Even the cost of debt may increase at this stage due to increased financial risk.

How can financial leverage affect the value?


One thing is sure that wherever and whatever way one sources the finance from, it cannot
change the operating income levels. Financial leverage can, at the max, have an impact on the
net income or the EPS (Earning per Share). The reason is explained further. Changing the
financing mix means changing the level of debts and change in levels of debt can impact the
interest payable by that firm. Decrease in interest would increase the net income and thereby
the EPS and it is a general belief that the increase in EPS leads to increase in the value of the
firm.

Concept of optimal capital structure


Optimal capital structure may be defined as that relationship of debt and equity which
maximizes the value of company’s share in the stock exchange.
Kulkarni and Satyaprasad defined optimum capital structure as ‘the one in which the
marginal real cost of each available method of financing is the same’. They included both
the explicit and implicit cost under the term real cost.
According to Prof Ezra Solomon, ‘Optimal capital structure is that mix of debt and equity
which will maximize the market value of a company’. Hence there should be a judicious
combination of the various sources of long-term funds which provides a lower overall cost
of capital and so a higher total market value for the capital structure. Optimal capital
structure may thus be defined as, the mixing of the permanent sources of funds used by the

28
Firm in a manner that will maximize the company’s common stock price by minimizing
the firm’s composite cost of capital.
The concept of optimal capital structure has drawn a great deal of attention in accounting
and finance literature. Capital structure means the proportion of debt and equity in the total
capital of a firm. The objective of a firm is to maximize the value of its business.
This is done by maximizing market value of the shares and minimizing the cost of capital of
a firm. An optimal capital structure is that proportion of debt and equity, which fulfils this
objective of a firm. Thus an optimal capital structure tries to optimize two variables at the
same time: cost of capital and market value of shares.
frame work of capital structure: FRICT analysis
A financial structure may be evaluated from various perspectives. From the owner’s point of
view, return, risk and value are important considerations. From the strategic point of view,
flexibility is an important concern. Issue of control, flexibility and feasibility assume great
significance. A sound capital structure will be achieved by balancing all these considerations:
 Flexibility: the capital structure should be determined within the debt capacity of the
company, and this capacity should not be exceeded. The debt capacity of a company
depends on its ability to generate funds cash flows. It should have enough cash to pay
creditor’s fixed charges and principal sum and leave some excess cash to meet future
contingency. The capital structure should be flexible. It should be possible for a
company to adapt its capital structure with a minimum cost and delay if warranted by
a changed situation. It should also be possible for the company to provide funds
whether needed to finance its profitable activities.
 Risk: the risk depends on the variability in the firm’s operations. It may be caused by
the macroeconomic factors and industry and firm specific factors. The excessive use
of debt magnifies the variability of shareholders’ earnings, and threatens the solvency
of the company.
 Income: the capital structure of the company should be most advantageous to the
owners (shareholders) of the firm. It should create value; subject to other

29
Considerations, it should generate maximum returns to the shareholders with
minimum additional cost.
 Control: the capital structure should involve minimum risk of loss of control of the
company. The owners of closely held companies are particularly concerned about
dilution of control.
 Timing: the capital structure should be feasible to implement given the current and
future conditions of the capital market, the sequencing of sources of financing is
important. The current decision influences the future options of raising capital.
The FRICT (flexibility, risk, income, control and timing) analysis provides general framework
for evaluating a firm’s capital structure. The particular characteristics of a company may
reflect some additional specific features. Further the emphasis given to each of these features
will differ from company to company.

Factors affecting capital structure theories:


Debt and equity differ in cost and risk. As debt involves less cost but it is very risky securities
whereas equity is expensive securities but these are safe securities from companies’ point of
view. Debt is risky because payment of regular interest on debt is a legal obligation of the
business. In case they fail to pay debt security holders can claim over the assets of the company
and if firm fails to meet return of principal amount it can even go to liquidation and stage of
insolvency. Equity securities are safe securities from company’s point of view as company
has no legal obligation to pay dividend to equity shareholders if it is running in loss but these
are expensive securities.
Capital structure of the business affects the profitability and financial risk. A best capital
structure is the one which results in maximizing the value of equity shareholder or which
brings rise in the price of equity shares. Generally companies use the concept of financial
leverage to set up capital structure.
The various factors which influence the decision of capital structure are:
1. Cash Flow Position:
The decision related to composition of capital structure also depends upon the ability of
business to generate enough cash flow.

30
The company is under legal obligation to pay a fixed rate of interest to debenture holders,
dividend to preference shares and principal and interest amount for loan. Sometimes company
makes sufficient profit but it is not able to generate cash inflow for making payments.
The expected cash flow must match with the obligation of making payments because if
company fails to make fixed payment it may face insolvency. Before including the debt in
capital structure company must analyze properly the liquidity of its working capital.
A company employs more of debt securities in its capital structure if company is sure of
generating enough cash inflow whereas if there is shortage of cash then it must employ more
of equity in its capital structure as there is no liability of company to pay its equity
shareholders.
2. Interest Coverage Ratio (ICR):
It refers to number of time Companies earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) cover the
interest payment obligation.
ICR= EBIT/ Interest
High ICR means companies can have more of borrowed fund securities whereas lower ICR
means less borrowed fund securities.
3. Debt Service Coverage Ratio (DSCR):
It is one step ahead ICR, i.e., ICR covers the obligation to pay back interest on debt but DSCR
takes care of return of interest as well as principal repayment.

If DSCR is high then company can have more debt in capital structure as high DSCR indicates
ability of company to repay its debt but if DSCR is less then company must avoid debt and
depend upon equity capital only.
4. Return on Investment:
Return on investment is another crucial factor which helps in deciding the capital structure. If
return on investment is more than rate of interest then company must prefer debt in its capital
structure whereas if return on investment is less than rate of interest to be paid on debt, then
company should avoid debt and rely on equity capital. This point is explained
earlier also in financial gearing by giving examples.

31
5. Cost of Debt:
If firm can arrange borrowed fund at low rate of Interest then it will prefer more of debt as
compared to equity.
6. Tax Rate:
High tax rate makes debt cheaper as interest paid to debt security holders is subtracted from
income before calculating tax whereas companies have to pay tax on dividend paid to
shareholders. So high end tax rate means prefer debt whereas at low tax rate we can prefer
equity in capital structure.

7. Cost of Equity:
Another factor which helps in deciding capital structure is cost of equity. Owners or equity
shareholders expect a return on their investment i.e., earning per share. As far as debt is
increasing earnings per share (EPS), then we can include it in capital structure but when EPS
starts decreasing with inclusion of debt then we must depend upon equity share capital only.
8. Floatation Costs:
Floatation cost is the cost involved in the issue of shares or debentures. These costs include
the cost of advertisement, underwriting statutory fees etc. It is a major consideration for small
companies but even large companies cannot ignore this factor because along with cost there
are many legal formalities to be completed before entering into capital market. Issue of shares,
debentures requires more formalities as well as more floatation cost Whereas there is less cost
involved in raising capital by loans or advances.
9. Risk Consideration:
Financial risk refers to a position when a company is unable to meet its fixed financial charges
such as interest, preference dividend, payment to creditors etc. Apart from financial risk
business has some operating risk also. It depends upon operating cost; higher operating cost
means higher business risk. The total risk depends upon both financial as well as business
risk.
If firm’s business risk is low then it can raise more capital by issue of debt securities
whereas at the time of high business risk it should depend upon equity.

32
10. Control:
The equity shareholders are considered as the owners of the company and they have complete
control over the company. They take all the important decisions for managing the company.
The debenture holders have no say in the management and preference shareholders have
limited right to vote in the annual general meeting. So the total control of the company lies in
the hands of equity shareholders.
If the owners and existing shareholders want to have complete control over the company, they
must employ more of debt securities in the capital structure because if more of equity shares
are issued then another shareholder or a group of shareholders may purchase many shares and
gain control over the company.
Equity shareholders select the directors who constitute the Board of Directors and Board has
the responsibility and power of managing the company. So if another group of shareholders
gets more shares than chance of losing control is more.
Debt suppliers do not have voting rights but if large amount of debt is given then debt- holders
may put certain terms and conditions on the company such as restriction on payment of
dividend, undertake more loans, investment in long term funds etc. So company must keep in
mind type of debt securities to be issued. If existing shareholders want complete control then
they should prefer debt, loans of small amount, etc. If they don’t mind sharing the control,
then they may go for equity shares also.
11. Regulatory Framework:
Issues of shares and debentures have to be done within the SEBI guidelines and for taking
loans. Companies have to follow the regulations of monetary policies. If SEBI guidelines are
easy then companies may prefer issue of securities for additional capital whereas if monetary
policies are more flexible, then they may go for more of loans.
12. Stock Market Condition:
There are two main conditions of market, i.e., Boom condition. These conditions affect the
capital structure especially when company is planning to raise additional capital. Depending
upon the market condition the investors may be more careful in their dealings.

33
During depression period in the market business is slow and investors also hesitate to take
risk so at this time it is advisable to issue borrowed fund securities as these are less risky and
ensure
Repayment and regular payment of interest but if there is Boom period, business is flourishing
and investors also take risk and prefer to invest in equity shares to earn more in the form of
dividend.
13. Capital Structure of other Companies:
Some companies frame their capital structure according to Industrial norms. But proper care
must be taken as blindly following Industrial norms may lead to financial risk. If firm cannot
afford high risk it should not raise more debt only because other firms are rising.

Essential features of a capital mix


A sound or an appropriate capital structure should have the following essentials features:
1. Maximum possible use of leverage.
2. The capital structure should be flexible so that it can be easily altered.
3. To avoid undue financial/business risk with the increase of debt.
4. The use of debt should be within the capacity of a firm. The firm should be in a position
to meet its obligations in paying the loan and interest charges as when due.
5. It should involve minimum possible risk of loss of control.
6. It must avoid undue restrictions in agreement of debt.
7. It should be easy to understand and simple to operate to the extent possible.

EBIT –EPS Analysis:


EBIT-EPS analysis gives a scientific basis for comparison among various financial plans and
shows ways to maximize EPS. Hence EBIT-EPS analysis may be defined as ‘a tool of
financial planning that evaluates various alternatives of financing a project under varying
levels of EBIT and suggests the best alternative having highest EPS and determines the most
profitable level of EBIT.

34
The EBIT-EBT analysis is the method that studies the leverage, i.e. comparing alternative
methods of financing at different levels of EBIT. Simply put, EBIT-EPS analysis examines
the effect of financial leverage on the EPS with varying levels of EBIT or under alternative
financial plans.
It examines the effect of financial leverage on the behavior of EPS under different financing
alternatives and with varying levels of EBIT. EBIT-EPS analysis is used for making the choice
of the combination and of the various sources. It helps select the alternative that yields the
highest EPS.
We know that a firm can finance its investment from various sources such as borrowed
capital or equity capital. The proportion of various sources may also be different under
various financial plans. In every financing plan the firm’s objectives lie in maximizing EPS.
Advantages of EBIT-EPS Analysis: We have seen that EBIT-EPS analysis examines the
effect of financial leverage on the behavior of EPS under various financing plans with
varying levels of EBIT. It helps a firm in determining optimum financial planning having
highest EPS.
Various advantages derived from EBIT-EPS analysis may be enumerated below:
Financial Planning:
Use of EBIT-EPS analysis is indispensable for determining sources of funds. In case of
financial planning the objective of the firm lies in maximizing EPS. EBIT-EPS analysis
evaluates the alternatives and finds the level of EBIT that maximizes EPS.
Comparative Analysis:
EBIT-EPS analysis is useful in evaluating the relative efficiency of departments, product lines
and markets. It identifies the EBIT earned by these different departments, product lines and
from various markets, which helps financial planners rank them according to profitability and
also assess the risk associated with each.
Performance Evaluation:
This analysis is useful in comparative evaluation of performances of various sources of funds.
It evaluates whether a fund obtained from a source is used in a project that produces a rate of
return higher than its cost.

35
EBIT-EPS analysis is advantageous in selecting the optimum mix of debt and equity. By
emphasizing on the relative value of EPS, this analysis determines the optimum mix of debt
and equity in the capital structure. It helps determine the alternative that gives the highest
value of EPS as the most profitable financing plan or the most profitable level of EBIT as the
case may be.
Limitations of EBIT-EPS Analysis:
Finance managers are very much interested in knowing the sensitivity of the earnings per
share with the changes in EBIT; this is clearly available with the help of EBIT-EPS analysis
but this technique also suffers from certain limitations, as described below
No Consideration for Risk:
Leverage increases the level of risk, but this technique ignores the risk factor. When a
corporation, on its borrowed capital, earns more than the interest it has to pay on debt, any
financial planning can be accepted irrespective of risk. But in times of poor business the
reverse of this situation arises—which attracts high degree of risk. This aspect is not dealt in
EBIT-EPS analysis.
Contradictory Results:
It gives a contradictory result where under different alternative financing plans new equity
shares are not taken into consideration. Even the comparison becomes difficult if the number
of alternatives increase and sometimes it also gives erroneous result under such situation.
Over-capitalization:
This analysis cannot determine the state of over-capitalization of a firm. Beyond a certain
point, additional capital cannot be employed to produce a return in excess of the payments
that must be made for its use. But this aspect is ignored in EBIT-EPS analysis.

Pattern of Capital Structure


The term ‘capital structure’ refers to the relationship between the various long-term forms of
financing such as debenture, preference share capital and equity share capital. Financing the
firm’s assets is a very crucial problem in every business and as a general rule there should be
a proper mix of debt and equity capital in financing the firm’s assets. The use of long-term
fixed interest bearing debt and preference share capital along with equity shares is called

36
Financial leverage or trading on equity. In case of new company the capital structure may
be of any of the following four patterns:
 Capital structure with equity shares only
 Capital structure with equity as well as preference shares
 Capital structure with equity shares and debt capital
 Capital structure with equity shares, preference shares and debt capital.

Approaches to establish target capital structure


The capital structure should be planned initially when a company is incorporated. The initial
capital structure should be designed very carefully. The management of the company should
set a target capital structure and the subsequent financing decisions should be made with a
view to achieve the target capital structure. The company needs funds to finance its activities
continuously. Every time when funds have to be procured, the financial manager weighs the
pros and cons of various sources of finance and selects the most advantageous sources keeping
in view the target capital structure and financial manager deals with existing capital structure.
Thus the capital structure decision is a continuous one and has to be taken whenever a firm
needs additional finances.
Three common approaches to decide about a firm’s capital structure
EBIT-EPS approach for analyzing the impact of debt on shareholders’ return and risk.
Valuation approach for determining the impact of debt on the shareholder’s values
Cash flow analysis for analyzing the firm’s ability to service debt and avoid financial
distress.

Changes in capitalization
No scheme of capitalization or capital structure can be said to be of permanent character or
of static nature in the fast changing world of business. The initial patterns of capitalization,
however planned, can never fully anticipate the efforts of these changes in the economy. The
scheme of capitalization may become outmoded with the changing conditions of the financial
markets. Thus it may become necessary to make changes in the scheme of

37
Capitalization to suit the present needs of a company. A sound capital structure is one which
can be adjusted according to the needs of the changing conditions.
 The following are the main reasons necessitating change in capitalization:
 To restore balance in the financial plan: if the financial structure of a company has
become top heavy with fixed cost bearing securities resulting into a great strain on the
financial position of the company ,the company may readjust its capital structure by
redeeming the preference shares or debentures out of the proceeds of new issue of
equity shares. This will lead to easing out the tension or reduce the strain and restore
the balance in the financial plan.
 To simplify the capital structure: when a company has issued a variety of securities at
different points of time to raise funds at difficult terms, it may need to consolidate such
securities to simplify the financial plan as and when the market conditions are
favorable.
 To suit investor’s needs: a company may have to change capitalization to suit the needs
of its investors. The companies often resort to split up of its shares to make these more
attractive especially when the market activity in the company’s share is limited due to
high face value and wide fluctuations in its market prices.
 To write off the deficit: In case a company has not been doing well and book value of
its assets is overvalued as compared to their real worth or when there are accumulated
losses ,it is better for the company to reorganize its capital by reducing book value of
its liabilities and assets to their real values such reorganization is also necessitated,
because, otherwise the company cannot legally pay dividends to its shareholders even
in future when it makes profits without writing off the losses.

38
Chapter-4
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
Ratio analysis:
Ratio analysis is one of the oldest methods of financial statements analysis. It was developed
by banks and other lenders to help them chose amongst competing companies asking for their
credit. Two sets of financial statements can be difficult to compare. The effect of time, of
being in different industries and having different styles of conducting business can make it
almost impossible to come up with a conclusion as to which company is a better investment.
Ratio analysis helps creditors solve these issues.
Ratio analysis is a tool that was developed to perform quantitative analysis on numbers found
on financial statements. Ratios help link the three financial statements together and offer
figures that are comparable between companies and across industries and sectors. Ratio
analysis is one of the most widely used fundamental analysis techniques.
However, financial ratios vary across different industries and sectors and comparisons
between completely different types of companies are often not valid. In addition, it is
important to analyze trends in company ratios instead of solely emphasizing a single period’s
figures.
What is a ratio? It’s a mathematical expression relating one number to another, often providing
a relative comparison. Financial ratios are no different—they form a basis of comparison
between figures found on financial statements .As with all types of fundamental analysis, it is
often most useful to compare the financial ratios of a firm to those of other companies.
Financial ratios fall into several categories. For the purpose of this analysis, the commonly
used ratios are grouped into four categories: activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability.
Following ratios have been used to analyze and interpret the result of the study:
 Debt – Equity ratio.
 Solvency ratio.
 Interest coverage ratio.
 Earnings per share ratio.

39
Computation of ratio
Debt-equity ratio
The main object of calculating the debt-equity ratio is to measure the relative interest of
owners and creditors in the firm. From the creditors’ point of view, it measures the extent to
which their interest is covered by owned funds. A standard debt-equity norm for all industrial
units is neither desirable nor practicable. Different standard debt-equity ratios are used for
different industry groups. However, in less developed countries, such standards cannot be
accepted. Therefore, this ratio depends upon industry, circumstances, and prevailing practices
and so on. The generally accepted standard norm of debt-equity ratio is 2:1. The ratio may be
calculated in terms of the relative proportion of long term debt i.e. borrowed funds and
shareholders' equity i.e. net worth. This is a vital ratio to determine the efficiency of the
financial management of business undertakings (Roy Chowdhary).

Debt - equity ratio is calculated by using the following formula:

Debt – Equity Ratio = Long Term Debt / Net Worth.

The debt - equity ratio of Serwel private Limited and Raghuvamsi private limited is
presented in

Table -4.1

Serwel private Ltd. Raghuvamsi private Ltd.

Year Debt Equity Ratio Year Debt Equity RATIO


( in Rs) (in Rs) (in Rs) (in Rs)

12-13 90194572 80883376 1.11 12-13 25361218 19017075 1.33

13-14 18201951 142525426 12.7 13-14 20800000 20915100 0.99

14-15 28083967 20292436 1.38 14-15 28083967 20292436 1.38

15-16 44902047 269394812 0.41 15-16 42042434 51438286 0.81

16-17 87183784 208336107 0.41 16-17 39409580 58572104 0.67


17-18 288095383 97369359 2.95 17-18 47741624 31786007 1.5

40
4.1(a)Graph showing the variation of ratios between serwel and raghuvamsi

4.1(b) Interpretation:
 Table 1 shows Debt-Equity ratio of Serwel pvt. Ltd. And Raghuvamshi pvt.Ltd. The
Debt-Equity ratio is calculated by dividing the long term debt and Net worth.
 It is evident that long term debt of the company serwel decreased remarkably from
Rs.90194572 in 2013 to 87183784 in 2017 and again a rapid increase of Rs.288095383
in 2018. Net Worth had a gradual rise of Rs.80883376 in 2013 and a rapid fall in 2017
by Rs. 26939481 and again rose by Rs. 97369359 in 2017. In other words Net Worth
is fluctuating in the entire study in serwel electronics pvt.Ltd.
 It is evident that long term debt of the company raghuvamshi increased remarkably
from Rs. 25361218 in 2012 to Rs.47741624 in 2017. Net worth is also rapidly
increasing from Rs.19017075 in 2013 to Rs.31786007 in the year 2018.
 Debt-Equity ratio had varied from the higher of 1.3 times in 2013 to the lowest 2.9 in
2018. The ratio is well slight above than the standard ratio of 2:1. It means that the
debt employed by the company was slight high from the point of view as the standard
ratio. However, the interest of the debt-holders of the company was well protected.

41
Solvency ratio
Solvency is the term which is used to describe the financial position of any business which is
capable to meet outside obligations in full out of its own assets. So their ratio establishes
relationship between total liabilities and total assets.
Solvency ratio is calculated by using the following formula:
Solvency ratio = total liabilities / total assets.
The solvency ratio of Serwel private Limited and Rraghuvamshi private limited is presented
in
Table – 4.2

SURWELL PVT. LTD. RAGHUVAMSI PVT. LTD.


Year Total liabilities Total assets Ratio Year Total Total assets Ratio
(in Rs.) (in Rs.) liabilities (in Rs.)
(in Rs.)
12-13 172610403 172610403 1 12-13 57368776 5736776 1
13-14 327250093 327250093 1 13-14 8495300 8495300 1
14-15 927662724 9277662724 1 14-15 102138072 102138072 1
15-16 1225470915 1225470915 1 15-16 116767188 116767188 1
16-17 1311264590 1311264590 1 16-17 114422012 114422012 1
17-18 1074191635 1074191635 1 17-18 110996369 110996369 1

42
4.2(a) Graph showing solvency ratio of serwel and raghuvamshi pvt.Ltd.

4.2(b) Interpretation:
 Table 2 shows solvency ratio of Serwel pvt. Ltd. And Raghuvamshi pvt.ltd.
Solvency ratio is calculated by dividing total liabilities by total assets giving 1 as
ratio from the year 2013 to 18.
 Total assets and liabilities had a gradual rise in 2013 of Rs.172610403 and a rapid
fall in 2018 by 1074191635 in serwel electronics and also it is rise from
Rs.5736776 in 2013 to Rs.110996369 in 2018 in raghuvamsi electronic Pvt. Ltd.In
other words Net Worth is fluctuating in the entire study.

Interest coverage Ratio = EBIT/interest


Interest Coverage Ratio, sometimes called Times Interest Earned Ratio and the abbreviation
TIE is used. It is a term that indicates how many times the total income covers interest
payments. The interest coverage indicates the size of safety cushion for creditors. The
indicator is one of the balance sheet debt ratios (of long-term financial stability).
Calculation: Interest Coverage Ratio = EBIT / Total Interest Payable

43
The interest coverage ratio of Serwel private Limited and Rraghuvamshi private limited is
presented in
Table - 4.3
Serwel Pvt.Ltd. Raghuvamsi Pvt.Ltd.
Year EBIT (in Interest Ratio Year EBIT Interest Ratio
Rs.) (in Rs.) (in Rs.) (in Rs.)
12-13 36095913 9945333 36.2 12-13 5477108 3839642 1.42
13-14 71508287 16491369 11.32 13-14 3689174 3515770 1.04
14-15 89018291 4294877 20.74 14-15 5665064 4580779 1.23
15-16 111747738 60437125 1.85 15-16 10277314 6699981 1.53
16-17 152821207 69432605 2.26 16-17 10736974 5462317 0.31
17-18 951254340 91997441 10.32 17-18 8524233 4841782 1.76

4.3(a) Graph showing variation in EBIT ratios in serwel and raghuvamshi electronics
pvt.Ltd.

4.3(b) Interpretation
 Table 3 shows EBIT ratio of Serwel pt. Ltd. And Raghuvamshi pt. ltd. EBIT ratio is
calculated by dividing EBT by interest from the year 2013 to 2018.
 EBIT had a gradual rise in 2013 of Rs.71508287 and increasing gradually to
Rs.951254340 in 2017 in Serwel electronics Ltd. In the same way RAGHU VAMSI
company has rise from Rs.5477108 in 2013 to Rs. 8524233.In other words EBIT has
been increasing from past few years.

44
 Graph shows that Serwel Company has decreased EBIT ratio from year 2013 of 36.2
to 2018 of 10.3 where as raghuvamshi company has increased EBIT ratio from 2013
of 1.4 to 1.7 in 2018.

Earnings per share


The portion of a company's profit allocated to each outstanding share of common stock.
Earnings per share serve as an indicator of a company's profitability.
Calculated as = Earnings after tax
No. of shares
The EPS of Serwel private Limited and Raghuvamsi private limited is presented in table
Table – 4.4
Serwel pvt.Ltd. Raghuvamshi pvt.Ltd.
Year EAT No. Of Ratio Year EAT (in No. of Ratio
(in Rs.) shares Rs.) shares
12-13 20161351 1863300 108.2 12-13 590475 190170.7 3.1
13-14 33191254 186330 178.1 13-14 1160252 202925.3 5.7
14-15 57590554 321920 178.8 14-15 113017 201795.1 5.6
15-16 40278831 417370 96.5 15-16 246608 257191.4 0.9
16-17 84683957 417370 202.8 16-17 3566909 292860.5 12.1
17-18 22058556 973693.59 22.6 17-18 2544574 317860 8.05

45
4.4(a) Graph shows EPS ratio of serwel and Raghuvamashi pvt.Ltd.

4.4(b) Interpretation
Table 4 shows EPS ratio of Serwel pt. Ltd. And Raghuvamsi pvt. ltd. EBIT ratio is
calculated by dividing EAT by no. of shares.EPS is calculated here from the year 2013
to 2018.
EAT had a gradual rise in 2013 of Rs. 20161351 and is being increasing in 2018 by
22058556 in serwel electronics and in Raghuvamsi company Rs. 590475 in 2013 rose
to Rs. 2544574 in 2018. In other words EAT has gained profits in entire study.
Earnings per share ratio is 108.2 in 2013 and has increased to 22.6 in 2018 in serwel
and 3.1 in 2013 and raised to 8.05 in 2018 in Raghuvamsi company.

46
Chapter-5
FINDINGS, SUGGESTIONS &CONCLUSIONS

FINDINGS
 The average ratio of debt and equity is better in serwel as compared to raghuvamsi
electronics. It shows that serwel is more using debt financing in its capital structure
pattern as compared to raghuvamsi electronics. It implies that company is adopting
NOI approach of capital structure. The more use of debt financing in this industry is
increasing the value of the firm and minimizing the cost of capital resulting in overall
wealth maximization of shareholders.
 It has been found from the study that average of debt equity ratio of serwel in 2017-
18 i.e. 2.97 whereas the average of debt equity ratio in Raghu vamsi pvt.Ltd. is only
1.5 As per the standard norm of 2:1 of debt equity ratio for the industries.
 It has been found from the study that the average solvency ratio is maintained as 1:1
from the last five years in both raghuvamsi and serwel electronics.
 The average EBIT ratio of serwel is better compared to Raghuvamsi in past few years
and the ratio has been declined from 36.2 in 2012 to 10.6 in 2018, whereas raghuvamsi
is maintained with 1.4 in 2013 to 1.7 in 2018.
 The EPS of Serwel private Limited is far better compared to Raghuvamsi private
limited in the year 2014-15 is 22.6 and 8.05 respectively.
 The rising overall average of trend of debt and equity in case of both the SME’s this
implies that these industries have access to market for both equity and debt financing.
Initially, companies were raising maximum debt fund to reduce the cost of capital but
which resulted in increase in financial risk. So they shifted to equity financing also.
They are maintaining a trade-off between debt and equity.

47
SUGGESTIONS
 The SERWEL and Raghuvamsi industries should improve their debt equity ratio as it
is not as per the standard norm. These industries are not using as much debt as expected
from them.
 The average ratio of debt and equity is not better in raghuvamsi industry as compared
to serwel industry. The Raghuvamsi industry should pay more attention towards their
reserves and surpluses, because due to this they are not getting higher profits. They
should more focus towards debt financing to maximize the wealth of shareholders.
 Both the SME’s are advised to maintain a trade –off between debt and equity in future
also so as to achieve the objective of optimum capital structure.
 The solvency ratio of Serwel private Limited and Raghuvamshi private limited
presented is good and if maintained in the same manner would be profitable.
 The EPS of Serwel private Limited and Raghuvamsi private limited presented shows
that serwel has better yields in as profits, if Raghu vamshi shareholders investment is
to be increased in coming years then this would excellent opportunity for raghuvamsi
to maximize the profits.
 The interest coverage ratio of serwel is great compared to raghuvamsi capital structure
of Raghuvamsi is to be increased for good profit returns.

48
Chapter-6
CONCLUSION

Results of the present empirical study revealed that long term funds had apportioned nearly
two-third of total funds when compared to short term funds in the Small Medium Enterprises
selected for the study. The firms had utilized more owned funds than borrowed funds. The
Small Medium Enterprises had shown an inclination in strengthening long term funds
consisting of both shareholders’ funds as well as long term borrowed funds in order to finance
its assets requirement. The financial risk of the firms is comparatively low since it mostly
depended on equity financing. The mobilization of the debt funds by the company means that
it could raise the external funds to bring the optimum capital structure i.e. minimize the cost
of capital and maximize the share value of the firm. This may due to the tax deductibility of
the interest paid on debt. Thus the benefits of financial leverage can be reaped for improving
the financial performance of the firm. The behavior of the interest coverage ratio was
unpredictable. The interest charges are fully covered by the earnings before interest and taxes.
A higher interest coverage ratio is desirable, but too high ratio indicates that the firm is very
conservative in using debt, and it is not using debt to the best advantage of the shareholders.
Hence, it is suggested that Small Medium Enterprises shall tap the debt funds optimal to
maintain a balanced capital structure. The financial performance of a firm is greatly influenced
by its capital structure. An optimal capital structure maximizes the shareholder’s wealth with
best combination of debt and equity mix thereby minimizing the cost of capital

49
BIBLIOGRAPHY
References
1. Khan M Y., Financial Services, Tata McGraw Hill Education Private Ltd. Fifth
Edition, 2010.
2. I M Pandey., financial management, vikas publishing house Pvt Ltd.,Tenth
edition,2010.
3. Gordan E ., Natrajan K., Financial markets and services, Himalaya publishing
house,2013
4. Jean J. Chen-Determinants of capital structure of Chinese-listed companies., Journal of
business research,2004
5. Thorsten Beck, Small and medium-size enterprises: Access to finance as a growth
constraints, Elsevier publications, Journal of business research.2006
6. Sheridan Titman and Roberto Wessel’s., The Determinants of capital structure
choice,Weily Publications,1998.
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2328319
7. Kenny Bell and Ed Vos., SME Capital Structure: The Dominance of Demand
Factors,SSRN,August,2009.
Stable URL: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1456725

8. D K Y Abeywardhana, Impact of Capital Structure on Firm Performance: Evidence from


Manufacturing Sector SMEs in UK,WBI conference., November 2015.
Stable URL: http://www.wbiworldconpro.com/pages/paper/melbourne-conference-2015-
november/3392

WEBSITES
 http://www.nsic.co.in/

 http://www.raghuvamsi.com/

 http://serwel.com/

 http://www.moneycontrol.com/

50
Balance Sheets and Profit & Loss Statements of Raghuvamsi Pvt. Ltd.
BALANCE SHEET AS ON MARCH 31, 2013

Schedule As on march 31, 2013

I. Source of funds

(1) Shareholders funds


16746600
(A) Capital
590475
(B) Reserves

(C) share allotment money 1680000

(2) Loan funds

(A) Secured loans 25361218

(B) Unsecured loans 12990483

TOTAL 57368776

II. Application of funds

(1) Fixed assets


38594750
(A) Gross blocks
9586815
(B) Less : Depreciation
29007935
(C) Net block

(2) Investments 1000

(3) Current assets, loans and advances


9444873
(A) Inventories
18388963
(B) Sundry debtors
603310
(C) Cash and bank balances 8308260
(E) Loans & advances 7887281
Less : current liabilities

TOTAL 57368776

51
PROFIT N LOSS AS ON MARCH 31, 2013

Schedule As on march 31, 2013

INCOME

Turn Over 59794835


449546
Other In come
1283520
Accretion/Desertion to shock

TOTAL 61527902

EXPENDITURE
9991134
Manufacturing Expenses
2030565
Personnel Expenses
2351540
Administrative Expenses

TOTAL 12573239

Profit before Finance Charges, Depreciation & 7271529


Taxation
3839642
Less : Finance charges
3431887
Profit before Depreciation & Taxation
1794421
Less : Depreciation
1637466
Profit before Taxation

Less : Provisions for Taxation


265000
(a) Income Tax
276281
(b) Fringe benefit tax 505710

Add loss from last year

TOTAL 590475

52
BALANCE SHEET AS ON MARCH 31, 2014

Schedule As on march 31, 2014

I. Source of funds

(1) Shareholders funds


16746600
(A) Capital
2488500
(B) Reserves
1680000
(C)Share application money

(2) Loan funds


20800000
(A) Secured loans
17400000
(B) Unsecured loans

TOTAL 59115100

II. Application of funds

(1) Fixed assets


40594800
(A) Gross blocks
11466900
(B) Less : Depreciation
29107900
(C) Net block

(2) Investments 1000

(3) Current assets, loans and advances


9625000
(A) Inventories
20145000
(B) Sundry debtors
94000
(C) Cash and bank balances
7929000
(D) Loans & advances
7840000
Less : current liabilities &

Provisions

TOTAL 59115100

53
PROFIT N LOSS AS ON MARCH 31, 2014

Schedule As on march 31, 2014

INCOME

Turn Over 64000000


Other In come 1258100
6000000
Accretion/Desertion to shock

TOTAL 88741900

EXPENDITURE
10718900
Manufacturing Expenses
6606000
Personnel Expenses
3084000
Administrative Expenses

TOTAL 20408900

Profit before Finance Charges, Depreciation &


Taxation 8253000

Less : Finance charges 3655000


Profit before Depreciation & Taxation 4598000
Less : Depreciation 1800000
Profit before Taxation
2698000
Less : Provisions for tax

Income Tax 800000

TOTAL 1898000

54
BALANCE SHEET AS ON MARCH 31, 2015

Schedule As on march 31, 2015

I. Source of funds

(1) Shareholders funds


18426500
(A) Capital
1865936
(B) Reserves

(2) Loan funds


28083967
(A) Secured loans
19807055
(B) Unsecured loans
512483
(3) Deferred tax liability
30442131
(4) Other liabilities

TOTAL 102138072

II. Application of funds

(1) Fixed assets


35743383
(A) Gross blocks
1000
(2) Investments

(3) Current assets, loans and advances

(A) Investments 2900000

(B) Inventories 24547739

(C) Sundry debtors 34312372

(D) Cash and bank balances 48537


(E) Other current assets 3097176
(F) Loans and advances
1487864

TOTAL 102138072

55
PROFIT N LOSS AS ON MARCH 31, 2015

Schedule As on march 31, 2015

INCOME
57176277
Turn Over
1168669
Other Income

TOTAL 58344946

EXPENDITURE
48200537
Manufacturing Expenses
5197285
Personnel Expenses
5300974
Administrative Expenses

TOTAL 58698796

Profit before Finance Charges, Depreciation & 77111662


Taxation
4580779
Less : Finance charges
2530883
Profit before Depreciation & Taxation
2046598
Less : Depreciation
484285
Profit before Taxation

Less : Provisions for Taxation


26600
(a) Income Tax
344668
(b) Fringe benefit tax

TOTAL 113017

56
Balance Sheets and Profit & Loss Statements of Raghuvamsi Pvt. Ltd.
BALANCE SHEET AS ON MARCH 31, 2016

Schedule As on march 31, 2016

I. Source of funds

(1) Shareholders funds


16746600
(A) Capital
590475
(B) Reserves

(C) share allotment money 1680000

(2) Loan funds

(A) Secured loans 25361218

(B) Unsecured loans 12990483

TOTAL 57368776

II. Application of funds

(1) Fixed assets


38594750
(A) Gross blocks
9586815
(B) Less : Depreciation
29007935
(C) Net block

(2) Investments 1000

(3) Current assets, loans and advances


9444873
(A) Inventories
18388963
(B) Sundry debtors
603310
(C) Cash and bank balances 8308260
(E) Loans & advances 7887281
Less : current liabilities

TOTAL 57368776

57
PROFIT N LOSS AS ON MARCH 31, 2016

Schedule As on march 31, 2016

INCOME

Turn Over 59794835


449546
Other In come
1283520
Accretion/Desertion to shock

TOTAL 61527902

EXPENDITURE
9991134
Manufacturing Expenses
2030565
Personnel Expenses
2351540
Administrative Expenses

TOTAL 12573239

Profit before Finance Charges, Depreciation & 7271529


Taxation
3839642
Less : Finance charges
3431887
Profit before Depreciation & Taxation
1794421
Less : Depreciation
1637466
Profit before Taxation

Less : Provisions for Taxation


265000
(a) Income Tax
276281
(b) Fringe benefit tax 505710

Add loss from last year

TOTAL 590475

58
BALANCE SHEET AS ON MARCH 31, 2017

Schedule As on march 31, 2017

I. Source of funds

(1) Shareholders funds


16746600
(A) Capital
2488500
(B) Reserves
1680000
(C)Share application money

(2) Loan funds


20800000
(A) Secured loans
17400000
(B) Unsecured loans

TOTAL 59115100

II. Application of funds

(1) Fixed assets


40594800
(A) Gross blocks
11466900
(B) Less : Depreciation
29107900
(C) Net block

(2) Investments 1000

(3) Current assets, loans and advances


9625000
(A) Inventories
20145000
(B) Sundry debtors
94000
(C) Cash and bank balances
7929000
(D) Loans & advances
7840000
Less : current liabilities &

Provisions

TOTAL 59115100

59
PROFIT N LOSS AS ON MARCH 31, 2018

Schedule As on march 31, 2018

INCOME

Turn Over 64000000


Other In come 1258100
6000000
Accretion/Desertion to shock

TOTAL 88741900

EXPENDITURE
10718900
Manufacturing Expenses
6606000
Personnel Expenses
3084000
Administrative Expenses

TOTAL 20408900

Profit before Finance Charges, Depreciation &


Taxation 8253000

Less : Finance charges 3655000


Profit before Depreciation & Taxation 4598000
Less : Depreciation 1800000
Profit before Taxation
2698000
Less : Provisions for tax

Income Tax 800000

TOTAL 1898000

60
BALANCE SHEET AS ON MARCH 31, 2018

Schedule As on march 31, 2018

I. Source of funds

(1) Shareholders funds


18426500
(A) Capital
1865936
(B) Reserves

(2) Loan funds


28083967
(A) Secured loans
19807055
(B) Unsecured loans
512483
(3) Deferred tax liability
30442131
(4) Other liabilities

TOTAL 102138072

II. Application of funds

(1) Fixed assets


35743383
(A) Gross blocks
1000
(2) Investments

(3) Current assets, loans and advances

(A) Investments 2900000

(B) Inventories 24547739

(C) Sundry debtors 34312372

(D) Cash and bank balances 48537


(E) Other current assets 3097176
(F) Loans and advances
1487864

TOTAL 102138072

61
62
63