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CLB20903 Engineering Statistics Tutorial

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CHAPTER 4
CONFIDENCE INTERVAL & HYPOTHESIS TESTING

1. The random variable X has a normal distribution with mean  and variance 9. A
random sample of 10 observations of X has mean 8.2.
Find:
a. a 95% symmetric confidence interval for 
b. a 99% symmetric confidence interval for 

Solution::
normal distribution

2 9 
 3 

X  8 .2  Case____

n  10

a. interval for 
a 95% symmetric confidence

Z α  1.96
2

 
95% confidence interval,  x  Z . σ  =  8.2  1.96 3 

 α 
 2 n   10 

=  8.2  1.859 

=  8.2  1.859 , 8.2  1.859 

=  6.341 , 10.059 

b. a 99% symmetric confidence interval for 

Z α  2.5758
2

 
99% confidence interval,  x  Z . σ  =  8.2  2.5758 3 

 α 
 2 n   10 

=  8.2  2.444 

=  8.2  2.444 , 8.2  2.444 

=  5.756 , 10.644 

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2. The random variable X has a normal distribution with mean  and unknown variance.

A random sample of 200 observations of X gives x i  541.2 , x i


2
 1831.42 .
Find:
a. a 90% symmetric confidence interval for 
b. a 98% symmetric confidence interval for 

Solution::

normal distribution 

unknown variance,  2 
 Case _____
n  200 


Sample mean, x   x  541.2  2.706
n 200

 x  2

Sample variance, x 2

n
s2 
n 1
541.2 2
1831.42 
 200
199
 1.84388

Sample std. dev., s s2

 1.84388  1.358

a. a 90% symmetric confidence interval for 


Z α  1.6449
2
 
90% confidence interval,  x  Z . s  =  2.706  1.6449 1.358 
 α  
 2 n   200 

=  2.706  0.158 

=  2.548 , 2.864 

b. a 98% symmetric confidence interval for 


Z α  2.3263
2
 
98% confidence interval,  x  Z . s  =  2.706  2.3263 1.358 
 α  
 2 n   200 

=  2.706  0.223 

=  2.483 , 2.929 

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3. The random variable Y has a normal distribution with mean  and unknown variance.

A random sample of 150 observations of Y gives y i  1601 , y i


2
 18048 .
Giving your answers to 2 decimal places, determine:
a. a 90% symmetric confidence interval for 
b. a 95% symmetric confidence interval for 
Solution::

4. The weights of 10-month-old cats are known to be normally distributed with standard
deviation 2 kg. A new diet is suggested and a sample of 25 cats given this new diet has

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an average weight of 30.42 kg. Determine a 99% confidence interval for the mean weight
of 10-month-old cats that are fed this diet.
Solution::

5. A plant produces steel sheets whose weights are known to be normally distributed with a
standard deviation of 2.4 kg. A random sample of 36 sheets had a mean weight of 31.4
kg. Determine the 99% confidence interval for this population mean.
Solution::

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6. A machine is regulated to dispense liquid into cartons in such a way that the amount of
liquid dispensed on each occasion is normally distributed with a standard deviation of 20
ml. Calculate 99% confidence limits for the mean amount of liquid dispensed if a random
sample of 40 cartons had an average content of 266 ml.

Solution::

7. An experiment was conducted to compare the efficacies of two drugs in the prevention of
tapeworms in the stomachs of a new breed of sheep. Samples of size 5 and 8 from each
breed were given the drug and the two sample means were 28.6 and 40.0 worms/sheep.
From previous studies, it is known that the variances in the two groups are 198 and 232,
respectively, and that the number of worms in the stomachs has an approximate normal

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distribution. Calculate a 95% confidence interval for the difference in the mean number of
worms per sheep.
Solution::

t - Statistics
8. The random variable X has a normal distribution with mean  . A random sample of 10

observations of X is taken and gives x i  83.3 and x i


2
 721.41 . Find:

a. a 95% confidence interval of 


b. a 99% confidence interval of 
Solution::

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normal distribution

unknown variance,  2 

 t - distribution
n  10  30  small sample




First, find sample mean and sample standard deviation:

Sample mean, x   x  83.3  8.33


n 10

 x  2

Sample variance, x 2

n
s2 
n 1
83.3 2
721.41 
 10
9
 3.05789
Sample std. dev., s  s 2

 3.05789
 1.749

a. a 95% confidence interval of 


tα  2.262
,v
2

 
95% confidence interval,  x  t . s  =  8.33  2.262 1.749 
 α  
 2
,v n   10 
=  8.33  1.251
=  7.079 , 9.581
b. a 99% confidence interval of 
tα  3.250
,v
2
 
99% confidence interval,  x  t . s  =  8.33  3.250 1.749 
 α  
 2
,v n   10 

=  8.33  1.798 

=  6.532 , 10.128 

9. The quantity of milk in a bottle may be assumed to have a normal distribution. A random
sample of 16 bottles was taken and the quantity of milk was measured, with the following
results, in ml.
1005, 1003, 998, 1001, 1002, 999, 1000, 1001,
1007, 1003, 1010, 1001, 1003, 1002, 1005, 995
Determine a 99% confidence interval for the mean quantity of milk in a bottle, giving
your answers to 2 decimal places.
Solution::

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10. The random variable of 12 hollyhock plants, grown from seeds in a particular packet, was
taken, and the height of each plant was measured, in m. The results are summarized by

 xi  28.43 and  xi 2  88.4704 . Making a suitable assumption about the

distribution of heights, which should be stated,


a. determine a 90% confidence interval for the mean height of hollyhock plants
grown from that packet.
b. Interpret interval in (a).
Solution::

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11. The total costs (in RM) of the telephone calls from an office during six randomly chosen
weeks of the year are given below.
113.20, 87.60, 109.40, 131.20, 201.10, 142.90
Regarding these values as being independent observations from a normal distribution,
obtain a symmetric 99% confidence interval for the mean weekly cost of the telephone
calls made from the office.
Solution::

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12. Two machines are used to fill plastic bottles with dishwashing detergent. The standard
deviations of fill volume are known to be 0.10 fluid ounces and 0.15 fluid ounces for
machines 1 and 2. Two random samples of 32 bottles from machine 1 and 30 bottles from
machine 2 are selected, and the sample mean fill volume is 30.87 fluid ounces and 30.68
fluid ounces.
a. Construct a 90% confidence interval on the mean difference in fill volume.
b. Interpret interval in (a).
Solution::

13. The viscosity of two different brands of car oil is measured and the following data
resulted:
Brand 1 10.62, 10.58, 10.33, 10.72, 10.44, 10.74
Brand 2 10.50, 10.52, 10.58, 10.62, 10.55, 10.51, 10.53

a. Calculate a 99% confidence interval on the difference in mean viscosity. Assume


that both population variances are equal.
b. Calculate a 90% confidence interval on the difference in mean viscosity. Assume
that both population variances are unequal.
Solution::

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14. Two different analytical tests can be used to determine the impurity level in steel alloys.
Eight specimens are tested using both procedures, and the results are shown in the
following tabulation

Specime Test 1 Test 2


n
1 1.2 1.4
2 1.3 1.7
3 1.5 1.5
4 1.4 1.3
5 1.7 2.0
6 1.8 2.1
7 1.4 1.7
8 1.3 1.6

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Calculate a 90% confidence interval on the mean difference for test1 and test 2.
Solution::

4. Outcome
Z 0  2.179 falls under rejection region.

We reject H 0 at 5% significance level.


HYPOTHESIS TESTING

15. Jar of honey are filled by a machine. It has been5.found that the quantity of honey in the
Conclusion:
jar has mean 460.3 g., with standard deviation 3.2 g. It is believed that the machine
The mean of honey have changed.
controls have been altered in such way that, although the standard deviation is
unaltered, the mean quantity may have changed. A random sample of 60 jars is taken
and the mean quantity of honey per jar is found to be 461.2 g. State the suitable null and
alternative hypotheses, and carry out a test using a 5% level of significance.
Solution::
  460.3
  3.2
x  461.2
n  60
  5%
keyword : change

Hypothesis testing – Follow the general procedure:

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1. Hypotheses
H 0 :   460.3
H1 :   460.3

2. Test Statistics

X 
Z

n
461.2  460.3
Z0 
3 .2
60
 2.179

3. Acceptance & rejection region


Significance level,   5%

Acceptance
region

2.5%
2.5%

- 1.96 1.96
Rejection region

16. A light bulb manufacturer has established that the life of a bulb has mean 95.2 days with
standard deviation 10.4 days. Following a change in manufacturing process which is
intended to increase the life of a bulb, a random sample of 96 bulbs has mean life 96.6
days. State the suitable hypotheses. Assuming that the population standard deviation is
unchanged, test whether there is significant evidence, at the 1% level, of an increase in
life of bulbs.
Solution::

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17. The distance driven by a long distance lorry driver in a week is a normally distributed
variable having mean 1130 km and standard deviation 106 km. New driving regulations
are introduced and, in the first 20 weeks after their introduction, he drives a total of
21900 km. Assuming that the standard deviation of the weekly distances he drives is
unchanged, test, at the 10% level of significance, whether his mean weekly driving
distance has been reduced. State clearly your hypotheses.
Solution::

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18. Climbing rope produced by a manufacturer is known to be such that one-metre lengths
have breaking strengths that are normally distributed with mean 170.2 kg and standard
deviation 10.5 kg. A new component material is added to the ropes being produced. The
manufacturer believes that this will increase the mean breaking strength without
changing the standard deviation. A random sample of 50 one-metre lengths of the new
rope is found to have a mean breaking strength of 172.4 kg. Perform a significance test
at 1% level to decide whether this result provides sufficient evidence to confirm that the
mean breaking strength is increased. State clearly your hypotheses.
Solution::

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19. An inspector wishes to determine whether eggs sold as Size A have mean weight 70.0 g.

She weights a sample of 200 eggs and her results are summarized by x  13824,

and x
2
 957320, where x is the weight of an egg in grams. Test whether there is

significant evidence, at 5 %, that the mean weight is not 70.0 g.


Solution::

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20. A supermarket manager investigated the lengths of time that customers spent shopping
in the store. The time, x minutes, spent by each of a random sample of 150 customers

was measured and it was found that x  2871, and x


2
 60029. Test, at 5 %

level of significance, the hypothesis that the mean time spent shopping by customers is
20 minutes.
Solution::

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21. A manufacturer claims that the mean lifetime of the light bulbs he produces is at least
1200 hours. A random sample of 10 bulbs is taken and the lifetimes are observed. The
result are:
1190 1201 1195 1205 1180 1175 1200 1199 1179 1160
Assuming the lifetimes of the bulbs to be normally distributed, and using 5 % significance
level, test whether there are grounds to dispute this claim.
Solution::
normal : distribution 
  1200 
 2 unknown  estimate s 2 

n  10  small sample  Case ___
  5%



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Calculate sample mean and sample standard deviation:

 x  11884
 x 2  14124818
Sample mean:

x
 x  11884  1188 .4
n 10

Sample variance:
 x  2
2
x 2

n
s 
n 1
11884 2
14124818 
 10
9

 208.0444

Sample standard deviation:


s  208 .0444  14.424

Hypothesis testing – Follow the general procedure:

1. Hypotheses
H0 : μ  1200
H1 : μ  1200

2. Test Statistics

X 
T 
s
n
1188 .4  1200
T0 
14.424
10
 2.543

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3. Acceptance & rejection region


Significance level,   5%

  n 1 9
Acceptance
region

5%

- 1.833

Rejection region

4. Outcome
T0  2.543 falls under rejection region. We reject H 0 .

5. Conclusion:
The mean lifetime of the light bulbs produced by the manufacturer is less than
1200 hours.

22. The compressive strength of concrete is being tested by civil engineer. He tests 12
specimens and obtains the following data:
2216 2237 2249 2204 2225 2301
2281 2263 2318 2255 2275 2295
Test the hypothesis that the mean strength of concrete is 2250 psi, using 5%
significance level.
Solution::

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23. A marmalade manufacturer produces thousands of jars of marmalade each week. The
mass of marmalade on a jar is an observation from a normal distribution having mean
455 g and standard deviation 0.8 g.
A slight adjustment has been made to the filling machine during maintenance. A
random sample of 10 jars is found to contain the following masses (in g) of marmalade:
454.8 453.8 455.0 454.4 455.4
454.4 454.4 455.0 455.0 453.6
a. Assuming that the variance of the distribution is unaltered by the adjustment,
test, at 5 % significance level, the hypothesis that there has been no change in
the mean of the distribution.
b. Assuming that the variance of the distribution may have altered by the
adjustment, test, at 5 % significance level, the hypothesis that there has been no
change in the mean of the distribution.
Solution::

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24. A manufacturer of gunpowder has developed a new powder that is designed to produce
a muzzle velocity of 250 meters per second. Ten shells are loaded with the charge and
the muzzle velocities measured. The resulting velocities are shown below.
248 246 253 251 247
252 245 251 249 248
Do the data provide sufficient evidence to indicate that the average velocity differs from
250 meters per second? Use 1 % significance level.
Solution::

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25. The breaking strength of a special cable is normally distributed with mean and standard
deviation of 800 pounds and 12 pounds respectively. A researcher selects a sample of
20 cables and the average breaking strength is determined to be 793 pounds. Test the
claim at 5 % significance level that the mean breaking strength is 800 pounds.
Solution::

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26. An insurance company wants to know if the average speed for men drivers’ car is higher
than women drivers. The company took a random sample of 37 cars driven by men on a
highway and found the mean speed to be 72 miles per hour with standard deviation of
2.2 miles per hour. Another sample of 38 cars driven by women on the same highway
gave a mean speed of 68 miles per hour with a standard deviation of 2.5 miles per hour.
Assume that the speeds at which all men and all women drive cars on this highway are
both normally distributed with unequal population variances. Test at 1% significant level
whether the mean speed of cars driven by all men drivers on this highway is higher than
women drivers.
Solution::

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27. Two machines are used to fill plastic bottles with dishwashing detergent. The standard
deviations of fill volume are known to be 0.10 fluid ounces and 0.15 fluid ounces for
machines 1 and 2. Two random samples of 15 bottles from machine 1 and 12 bottles
from machine 2 are selected, and the sample mean fill volume is 30.87 fluid ounces and
30.68 fluid ounces.
a. Test the hypothesis that both machines fill to the same volume. Use 5%
significant level.
b. Construct a 90% confidence interval on the mean difference in fill volume.
c. Interpret interval in (b).

Solution::

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28. The viscosity of two different brands of car oil is measured and the following data
resulted:
Brand 1 10.62, 10.58, 10.43, 10.72, 10.44, 10.64
Brand 2 10.50, 10.52, 10.58, 10.62, 10.55, 10.57, 10.53

a. Test the hypothesis that the mean viscosity of the two brands is equal, assuming
that the populations have normal distributions with equal variances.
b. Test the hypothesis that the mean viscosity of the two brands is equal, assuming
that the populations have normal distributions with unequal variances.
Solution::

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29. The following are percentages of fat found in 5 samples of each of two brands of ice
cream:
A 5.7 4.5 6.2 6.3 7.3
B 6.3 5.7 5.9 6.4 5.1

a. Do the data support the claim that the average fat content in the two types of ice
cream is equal for both solutions. Use  = 0.05 and assume that both population
variances are equal.
b. Do the data support the claim that the average fat content in the two types of ice
cream is equal for both solutions. Use  = 0.05 and assume that both population
variances unequal.
c. Determine a 95% confidence interval on the difference in mean fat content in the
two types of ice cream. Assume that both population variances are equal.

Solution::

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30. A farmer has decided to use a new additive to grow his crops. He divided his farm into
10 plots and kept records of the corn yield (in bushels) before and after using additave.
The results are shown below.
Plot 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Before 9 9 8 7 6 8 5 9 10 11
After 10 9 9 8 7 10 6 10 10 12

Test the hypothesis that the new additive gives the same mean yield with crops without
additive. Use 5% significance level.
Solution::

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31. Two different analytical tests can be used to determine the impurity level in steel alloys.
Eight specimens are tested using both procedures, and the results are shown in the
following tabulation

Specime Test 1 Test 2


n
1 1.2 1.4
2 1.3 1.7
3 1.5 1.5
4 1.4 1.3
5 1.7 2.0
6 1.8 2.1
7 1.4 1.7
8 1.3 1.6

Is there sufficient evidence to conclude that both testes give the same mean impurity
level? Use 1% significance level.
Solution::

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32. The following data give uric acid levels (in milligrams per 100 milliliters) for 5 subjects
before and after a special diet.
Subject Before After
1 5.2 5.2
2 6.3 6.2
3 6.4 6.3
4 5.5 5.6
5 5.9 5.6

a. Test the hypothesis that the diet reduces the uric acid level, using 1%
significance level.
b. Construct a 95% confidence interval on the mean difference in the uric acid
levels.
Solution::

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33. Two different emission-control devices were being tested to determine the average
amount of nitric oxide being emitted by an automobile over a 1-hour period of time.
Twenty cars of the same model were selected for the study. Ten cars were randomly
selected and equipped with Type-A emission-control devices, and the remaining cars
were equipped with Type-B devices. Each of the twenty cars was monitored for a 1-hour
period to determine the amount of nitric oxide emitted. The results are as shown below.

N Mean StDev SE Mean


Type A 10 12.350 0.650 0.21
Type B 10 9.970 0.306 0.097

Difference = mu (Type A) - mu (Type B)


Estimate for difference: 2.38000
95% CI for difference: (1.90266, 2.85734)
T-Test of difference = 0 (vs not =):T-Value = 10.48 P-Value = 0.000 DF = 18
Both use Pooled StDev = 0.5080

c. Calculate the degree of freedom of the given output.


(2 marks)
d. Using 5% level of significance, determine if the mean for the amount of nitric oxide
emitted using both devices are equal.
(4 marks)
c. Construct a 90% confidence interval for the differences of means for the amount of
nitric oxide emitted.
(4 marks)
Solution::

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34. An experiment was conducted to compare the performance of two potato peelers, and
in particular to discover whether the typical user might be able to peel potatoes faster
than the other. Ten volunteers were used, and each was given both peelers for a period
before the experiment in order to gain familiarity with them. In the experiment the
volunteer subjects used both peelers on standardized amounts of potatoes. The data
was calculated using MINITAB and output are as follows:

Paired T for Peeler A - Peeler B

N Mean StDev SE Mean


Peeler A 10 2.14300 0.33866 0.10709
Peeler B 10 2.15600 0.33860 0.10707
Difference 10 -0.013000 0.017670 0.005588

95% CI for mean difference: (-0.025640, -0.000360)


T-Test of mean difference = 0 (vs not = 0): T-Value = -2.33 P-Value = 0.045

a. Based on the information given, at the 5% level of significance, test whether the
peelers differ in their efficiency.
(5 marks)
b. Calculate 99% confidence interval.
(4 marks)
Solution::

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