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RATIFICATION PAGE

Complete report of basic biology experiment with title “Influence of


Temperature in Organism Activity” that arranged by:
Name : Oriny Tri Ananda
ID : 1714441009
Class : ICP of Biology Education
Group : 4th
After checked by assistant and assistant coordinator. So, this report was
accepted.

Makassar, December 2017


Assistant Coordinator Assistant

Djumarirmanto, S.Pd Suciati Nurdin


NIM: 1314140006

Known,
Lecturer of Responsibility

Drs. H. Hamka L, M.S


ID : 19621231 198702 1 005
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

A. Background
Environment for all the animals are biotic and abiotic factors that are
around animals and can influence it. Each animal can only pass live, grow,
and reproduce in an environment that provides suitable conditions for him
and resource needs, and to avoid abiotic factors biotic environment maupn
graduation endanger his life. Animal abiotic environmental factors include
weather and climate (temperature, humidity, air / wind, light intensity).
Biotic environment includes other animals among animal species, different
types, the diamond species, plants and microbes.
Every living thing has certain characteristics, one of them is to receive
and respond to stimulation. When there is a change to environmental
conditions, then human beings will make adjustments (adaptation) to feel
more comfortable and move with normal bisac. When living thing are not
able to adjust, then he will experience death or hit by natural selection.
If the environment around the organism changes, then the organism
will always try to live tolerate the situation. Animals and plants live only at
a specific temperature. If the ambient temperature is lower or higher than
the optimum temperature, growth and development will be impaired. The
lowest temperature in which organisms grow and develop so-called
minimum temperature. If the ambient temperature is higher than the
maximum temperature of the organism would die because of the level of
oxygen in the environment there is very little that is not possible for
organisms to live. From this course, we want to determine the effect of
temperature on the activity of the organism. Therefore, the practical effect
of temperature on the activity of the organism.
B. Purpose
The purpose of this experiment is student expected can compare the
speed of using oxygen in different temperature.
C. Benefit
Through these experiments, students can determine the ratio of
oxygen utilization rate by organisms at different temperatures.
CHAPTER III
EXPERIMENT METHOD

a. Time and Place


Day/Date : Thursday / December 14th 2017
Time : 11.00 a.m, - 13.00 p.m.
Place : Biology Departement, 3th floor of Zoology
Laboratorium
b. Equipments and Materials
1. Equipments
- Thermometer
- Stopwatch
- Jar
2. Materials
- Cyprinus carpio
- Ice cube
- Warm water
- Tap water
c. Work Procedure
1. Entered the Cyprinus carpio which relatively similar to the beaker which
contained tap water, and let stand for 15 minutes so that the temperature
of body is same (each beaker glass containing one fish).
2. Measured the cold water temperature (16°C). Then calculated and
recorded the frequency of movement (open – close) operculum in 1
minute for 5 minutes.
3. Replaced the cold water with warm water (tap water mixed with ice) so
that its temperature becomes 38°C. Calculated and recorded the
frequency of movement (open – close) operculum in 1 minute for 5
minutes.
4. Replaced the warm water with tap water temperature 27°C. Calculated
and recorded the frequency of movement (open – close) operculum in 1
minute for 5 minutes.
5. Recorded the observation result in the observation table.
CHAPTER IV
RESULT AND DISCUSSION

A. Observation Result

Time ( minute)
Initial Total
Fish Average
Temperture Average
1 2 3 4 5

I 44 63 39 75 78 59,8
Normal
101,3
Temperature
II 150 170 145 127 122 142,8

I 40 24 18 28 30 28
Cold
54,1
Temperature
II 83 80 63 83 92 80,2

I 50 54 65 62 50 56,2
Hot
96,7
Temperature
II 159 150 136 113 128 137,2

B. Analysis Data
1. Observation of normal temperature
⅀𝑓𝑟𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦
Average operculum movement =
⅀ 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒
44+63+39+75+78+150+170+145+127+122
=
10
1013
=
10
= 101,3 movement/minute.
2. Observation of warm water with a temperature 370C
⅀𝑓𝑟𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦
Average operculum movement =
⅀ 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒
50+54+65+62+50+159+150+136+113+128
=
10
= 96,7 movement/minute.
3. Observation of cold water with a temperature 220C
⅀𝑓𝑟𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦
Average operculum movement =
⅀ 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒
40+24+18+28+30+83+80+63+83+92
=
10
= 54,1 movement/minute.
2. Graph Analysis
3. Discussion
a. Jar ( A )
When a gold fish put into jar A which contains cold water (22oC), we
can see them movement of the fish open and close the operculum.
According to the theory, the fish that was in the cold water has the
operculum is always changing, from the first minute to the last, the
frequency should be reduced. This is because fish at the maximum
temperature(cold) was notable to survive. However, from the results, the
frequency of operculum movement gold fish that last ride down. This is
because students are less crupulousin doing lab work.
b. Jar ( B )
When a gold fish put into the jar B which contains warm water (37 °
C), we can see the movement of opening and closing of the carp
operculum. Every minute of the number of open and closed operculum
movements, initially continued to rise but at five minutes to decline. And
from these observations can be seen the average frequency of movement
operculum is 96,7 times / min.
c. Jar ( C )
When a gold fish put in jar containing normal water (27◦C), we can
see the movement of the operculum unscrew the gold fish. This indicates
that gold fish have operculum continues to increase,the longer it takes, the
more rose-frequency movements. According to the theory of the fish that
were in the water faucet. Operculum movement frequency old fish should
increase. This is because the temperature of 27◦C, the fish can live and
breathe well, and from the observations it is evident that according to this
experiment with the theory.
CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

A. Conclusion
In these experiments, we can know that the temperature changes
greatly affect the activity of organisms in the process of respiration. In this
experiment, gold fish were placed in jars containing water at different
temperatures and frequencies turns in inhaling oxygen is also different.

B. Suggestion
1. For the apprentice must establish a good cooperation among friends in
the group and don’t be noisy when the practice ongoing and keep the
cleanliness of laboratory.
2. For assistants to give more good guidance to the apprentice, so that
practice can run quickly and precisely. And also, the assistant must
keep an eye to all the apprentice because sometimes there are only some
active apprentice.
3. Laboratory must prepare more equipment so that all the apprentice can
do the experiment without restlessness.
ATTACHMENT

Answer the question:


1. Why there is a difference frequency of operculum movement of fish on the
water temperature different?
Answer:
The difference frequency operculum movement of fish at water
temperature svarying as the temperature affects the activity of gold fish such as
the speed of a chemical reaction and also to determine theme tabolic activity of
organisms, for example in the case of respiration.
2. Which temperature frequency (open and closed) is the highest operculum?
Answer:
At temperature of38 °C(hot water)
3. Which temperature frequency (open and closed) is the lowest operculum?
Answer:
At temperature of16oC (cold water)
4. Why there is a difference frequency of movement(open and closed) operculum
of fish by water temperature?
Answer:
Because temperature affects the speed of chemical reactions and
simultaneously determine the metabolic activity of organisms, for example in
the case of respiration.