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No.6 Price: 50 den.

February, 2010
ISSN: 1857-6710

M aaga
g a z iine
n e ooff tthe
h e M iinistry
n i s t r y ooff D eefense
f e n s e ooff tthe
h e R eepublic
p u b l i c ooff M aacedonia
cedonia

Eighth rotation of the ARM


in ISAF - Afghanistan

WITH THE SUN AND


THE MYTHICAL “LEOPARD”
MEDIA
SUPPORT
KEY FACTOR FOR PROMOTION OF MOD AND ARM

Sports – ARMY OLYMPIANS


OUR BIATLON COMPETITORS AMONG
THE FIRST ONE HUNDRED IN THE WORLD
ARM-NATO REPORTING WEAPONS MILITARY HISTORY GAMES AND SIMULATIONS
member of the first mechanized
infantry brigade „scorpions“
Content:
S H I E L D
KRIVOLAK BREATHING FREELY

The future of our planet is in our hands.


The more we take care of it, the more it
will return the favor. We have inherited it
from our ancestors and we should pass
it on to our future generations as such.
Therefore, nowadays, in conditions
when our mother, the planet, is being
ruthlessly polluted, each day we are
more and more threatened by the worst
– its disappearance, together with all the
wildlife, so it is more than necessary to
be aware and to fully devote ourselves
Page to the salvation of the human race.
As in the other fields, in the field of de-
8 Interview
with Zoran Ljutkov, actor
fense as well, the question of protecting
the army life environment is an impera-
tive, having in mind that all sorts of arti-
ficial means such as ammunition, mines
The Contribution of and explosives etc., as potential pollut-
Page ants, are being used. This especially re-
the Republic of Macedonia fers to the environment in and around
4 Concrete Confirmation of the Success
in the Defense Reforms
army areas like “Krivolak”, our largest
training area, which having in mind the
capacities and the conditions it provides
can grow into a Regional Training Center.
For the implementation of this idea, at
Page FIRE IN THE SKY the beginning of last year, the Minis-

15
try of Defense prepared a project and
Space Militarization - II placed due importance to its implemen-
tation. For that purpose, in addition to
creating military preconditions for an
uninterrupted operation of the area as
a Training Center for the needs of our
Page FLYING AFICIONADOS army, and the armies in the region, we
Page

28
placed due importance to creating an
Training Squadron at the Air Force WING
Per Aspera Ad Astra 11 environmental study for the protection
of the environment inside the military
range itself, as well as around it.
As part of the project of the Ministry
of Defense for promoting the military
Page SERVING HUMANITY range “Krivolak” into a Regional Training

34 From a peacekeeper’s journal


Center, in cooperation with the Ministry
of Environment and Physical Planning
and corresponding to the Ministry of
Ecology and the Ministry of Defense of
the Republic of Slovenia, there was a
requirement for developing a study was
Page UNITED FOR HUMANITY received recently as a draft. The study

37 Page showed that there was no pollution on

22
THE ROLE OF THE UN the military range itself, that is, that the
IN REFUGEE PROTECTION pollution was within the proper limits.
“Today, we have officially received an
acknowledgment and I can freely say
that we have received the environmen-
Page THE MACEDONIAN ROOM tal constitution for further utilization and

44 A synonym for recognizing


the ARM “scorpions”
operation of the military range Krivolak.
That is a very important document which
paves the future of the military range
and it proves that we have been using
it properly so far, but it is also a com-
Page FEAR OF THE UNKNOWN mitment for its proper use in future”,
Page stated the Minister of Defense, Zoran

48 Retrospective – the accident of the


American Three Mile Nuclear Power Plant 54
Konjanovski, after the meeting with his
colleague, the Minister of Environment
and Physical Planning, Nexhati Jakupi.
The serious approach to this issue is
SHIELD - Year II, issue 6, February 2009, published monthly also confirmed by the fact that the
PUBLISHER - MINISTRY OF DEFENSE OF THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA Ministry of Defense and the Ministry of
Environment and Physical Planning have
PUBLISHING BOARD established working groups, which will
Emil Dimitriev (Chairman, chief) carry out additional analyses of all the
Major general Naser Sejdini, Sashko Dimov, Lieutenant Colonel Mirce Gjorgoski, Lieutenant Colonel Zdravko Rizovski,
Lieutenant Colonel Meri Rindzova, Ph.D. Gorgi Malkovski material that has arrived from Slovenia.
After the working groups finish their
EDITOR-IN-CHIEF work in coordination and cooperation,
Lieutenant Colonel Zdravko Rizovski they will start developing rulebooks for
a 24-hour monitoring and further utiliza-
EDITORIAL BOARD tion and protection of the army environ-
Biljana Ivanova (Copy Editor, Art and Graphic Editor), Ivan Petrushevski (Associate Journalist) Ksenija Miteva (Lector), Aleksandar ment in the future, including the military
Atanasov (Photographs) range “Krivolak”.
CONCEPTUAL CONSULTING, ART OFFICE AND DESIGN One thing is obvious. We have a commit-
Zarko Stojanovik, Oliver Kurciev, Vesna Vujadinovik, Stefan Smiljanoski ment to build a future for the army envi-
ronment, as well as for the military range
Printed by: ”Evropa 92” Kocani Krivolak. Concrete precautious have been
taken concerning this issue. That ad-
ADDRESSS ditionally is a huge achievement in the
MINISTRY OF DEFENSE - Magazine “SHIELD” promotion of the military range “Krivolak”
“Orce Nikolov” bb 1000 Skopje
Phone: 02 038 24 17; 02 328 20 58 into a Regional Training Center.
Fax: 02 3113 527; 02 3128 276
www.morm.gov.mk; E-mail: stit@morm.gov.mk Zdravko Rizovski

3
The Contribution
of the Republic
of Macedonia
Concrete Confirmation of the Success in the De
he Republic of Macedonia ing its contribution to global
is an example of the huge security and world peace.
transformation power Macedonia is one of the first
of its strategic goals to countries in the region that
achieve membership in NATO joined the Partnership for
and the European Union. Peace Initiative (1995) and the
Since its independence (1991) first country in the region that
to date, Macedonia has man- signed the Stabilization and
aged to become a factor of Association Agreement (2001).
regional cooperation and a Persistent defense reforms
serious contributor not only to enabled achievement of the
regional but also global secu- necessary standards and ca-
rity, peace and stability. pacities to contribute to peace-
Firmly committed to the ef- keeping operations worldwide.
forts for European and Euro- Achievements in defense re-
Atlantic integrations, Mace- forms and in establishing the
donia aims at integrating the contemporary Macedonian
Region as a whole and enhanc- Army give a strong contribu-

4
of Macedonia built a modern army mont, will participate in the mission
which soon contributed to trans- for training and mentoring the Af-
forming itself from a global security ghan Security Forces. With this in-
consumer to a security provider. The crease in Afghanistan for about 50
first contribution of the Republic of percent, the Republic of Macedonia
Macedonia abroad began in 2002 as will contribute to peacekeeping op-
part of the NATO –led ISAF mission erations with a total of 260 soldiers,
in Afghanistan. Afterwards, Macedo- which indeed is a serious and a sig-
nia expanded its contribution through nificant contribution amounting up
participation in the “Iraqi Freedom” to 4% of the ARM forces.
mission (from June 2003 to Decem-
ber 2008), the EU military operation UNIFIL-LEBANON
in BiH “Althea” (from July 2006), and In May 2007, the Republic of Mace-
in the United Nations UNIFIL mission donia, started its contribution to-
in Lebanon (from May 2007). More- wards the effective multilaterism
over, the Republic of Macedonia pro- by the participation of one staff
vides continuous support to NATO- officer in the UN-led UNIFILI mis-
led KFOR mission in Kosovo, with the sion in Lebanon. The mission of the
functioning in the Host Nation Sup-
port Coordination Center (nationally
managed as of July 2007).
“ IRAQI FREEDOM “
After the completion of the major
combat operations in Iraq, toppling
of Saddam Hussein and the adop-
tion of Resolution 1546 by the Se-
curity Council of the United Nations,
the Republic of Macedonia decided
to start contributining to the mission
“Iraqi Freedom” in June 2003. The
initial contribution, which consisted
of a declared special purpose pla-
toon (about 40) in 2008 was further
strengthened by another platoon (or
approximately 80). The Republic of
Macedonia participated in the “Iraqi
Freedom” mission from June 2003
to December 2008, with a total of 11
completed rotations or a total figure
of 490 people who participated in
this mission.
AFGHANISTAN
The participation in the NATO-led
ISAF mission in Afghanistan was the
first contribution of Macedonia to
peace and stability beyond its bor-
ders. The contribution which began in
August 2002 with a symbolic depar-
ture of two officers within the Turkish
contingent, gradually evolved into the
rotation of 1109 Macedonian peace-
keepers to date, and a national con-
tribution which today is one of the
largest (per capita) in Afghanistan. In
its current contribution to ISAF, the
Republic of Macedonia was part of
fense Reforms the Joint Medical Team as part of A-3
(Macedonia, Albania, Croatia), which
from August 2005 to July 2009 has
successfully worked through eight ro-
tion to the overall integration efforts tations at the Kabul airport. Today, the Macedonian UN peacekeeper within
of the Republic of Macedonia. In addi- Republic of Macedonia has deployed the UNIFIL Headquarters in Nagura
tion to the extremely successful (10) a total of 163 soldiers in the ISAF mis- is one year and the third rotation is
MAP-cycles, as well as after receiving sion in Afghanistan - a company that underway.
candidate country status (2005) and provides security to the ISAF HQ in
a positive recommendation by the Kabul (147), Staff Officers ISAF HQ ALTHEA
European Commission for a starting (4), Staff Officers in the OMLT (5), and The contribution of the Republic of
date of negotiations with the Union from December 2008, the Republic Macedonia in Althea was the first
(2009), the actual contribution of the of Macedonia (6) together with the contribution of the country in a mili-
Republic of Macedonia to peacekeep- Kingdom of Norway contributes to tary operation led by the European
ing operations in the world is a visible the Joint Medical Surgical Team in the Union. The contribution to the EU
proof that Macedonia has managed Norwegian Provincial Reconstruction operation in Bosnia and Herzegov-
to evolve into an equal and worthy Team (PRT) in Meymanah. ina, Althea, began (from July 2006)
partner of NATO and the European As of February 2010, Macedonia will by declaring the helicopter detach-
Union. additionally increase its contribution ment composed by two Mi-8/17 he-
Despite all the challenges, from its to Afghanistan by about 80 soldiers. licopters (and a personnel consisting
independence to building a functional The Macedonian soldiers, together of 21 people). After three rotations of
multiethnic democracy, the Republic with the US National Guard of Ver- the helicopter detachment and the

5
fourth rotation (January-July
2008) which started with only Countries which Popu- Contri- Partici-
one transport Mi-8/17 helicop- contribute in ISAF lation bution pation
ter (and with a personnel of in ISAF
12 people), the helicopter con- Troops
tribution of Macedonia to the
EU-led operation Althea end- 1 United Kingdom 61,11 9000 1,47%
ed in July 2008. After the im- 2 The Netherlands 16,72 2160 1,29%
mense loss of 11 Macedonian
peacekeepers in a helicopter 3 Denmark 5,50 690 1,25%
accident returning from a suc-
cessfully completed helicopter 4 Macedonia 2,07 243 1,18%
mission in Althea, the contri-
bution (a total of 12 people) of 5 Estonia 1,30 150 1,15%
the Republic of Macedonia to 6 USA 307,21 34800 1,13%
the EU operation Althea con-
tinues with a ROLE 1 medical 7 Norway 4,66 480 1,03%
team (10 people) in Camp But-
mir (from November 2006), a 8 Canada 33,49 2830 0,85%
legal adviser (1), a preventive 9 Latvia 2,23 175 0,78%
medicine sergeant (1) in com-
mand of EUFOR. 142 Mace- the country for membership
10 New Zealand 4,21 300 0,71% in NATO and the European
donian peacekeepers have
participated, in the EU-led 11 Lithuania 3,56 250 0,70% Union. Today, Macedonia con-
operation, Althea, thus sym- tributes to three international
bolizing the Macedonian con- 12 Albania 3,64 250 0,69% operations abroad (NATO, EU
tribution to the European Se- and UN led operations - ISAF,
13 Slovenia 2,01 130 0,65% Althea, UNIFIL- Lebanon) and
curity and Defense Policy and
regional peace and stability. leads the fourth operation to
14 Croatia 4,49 290 0,65% provide continuous logisti-
HOST NATION SUPPORT 15 Australia 21,26 1350 0,63% cal support to NATO forces
Macedonia provides constant in Kosovo through the KFOR
logistical support to the Al- 16 Bulgaria 7,97 460 0,58% operation of Host Nation Sup-
liance or the NATO-led op- port Coordination Center (HN-
17 Germany 82,33 4365 0,53% SCC).
eration in Kosovo (KFOR),
through the independent op- 18 Belgium 10,41 530 0,51% Today’s total global contribu-
eration (from July 2007) of the tion of the Republic of Mace-
Host Nation Support Coordi- 19 Poland 38,48 1910 0,50% donia is 178 peacekeepers
nation Center (HNSCC). The deployed in operations led by
20 Italy 58,13 2795 0,48% NATO, EU and UN. Including
Host Nation Support Coordi-
nation Center initially began to the host country contribution,
21 France 64,42 3095 0,48% the Republic of Macedonia
operate in April 2005 as a part
of the NATO Headquarters in 22 Sweden 9,06 430 0,47%
Skopje, a project which was
first implemented by a Mem- 23 Czech Republic 10,21 480 0,47%
ber Country in the Partner- 24 Slovakia 5,46 245 0,45%
ship for Peace. In addition to
the permanent engagement 25 Romania 22,22 990 0,45%
of the HNSCC (total staff 13),
the ARM also provides medi- 26 Hungary 9,91 360 0,36%
cal assistance to KFOR, as 27 Finland 5,25 165 0,31%
well as fuel, escort, and pro-
tection of NATO KFOR tran- 28 Iceland 0,31 8 0,26%
siting through the territory of
Macedonia. The Support Co- 29 Spain 40,53 1000 0,25%
ordination Center is involved
in the establishment of the 30 Luxemburg 0,49 8 0,16%
Logistics Support Command 31 Portugal 10,71 145 0,14%
of the ARM General Staff. Due
to the importance of providing 32 Greece 10,74 145 0,14%
logistical support to the Alli-
ance for the NATO mission in 33 Azerbaijan 8,24 90 0,11%
Kosovo, Macedonia considers 34 Turkey 76,81 720 0,09%
the functioning of the Host
Nation Support Coordination 35 UAE 4,80 25 0,05%
Center a concrete contribution
as a the fourth mission (in ad- 36 Bosnia and Herzegovina 4,61 10 0,02%
dition to Afghanistan, Althea
and Lebanon) in support of 37 Singapore 4,66 9 0,02%
NATO KFOR. 38 Ireland 4,20 7 0,02%
CONCRETE 39 Jordan 6,27 7 0,01%
CONTRIBUTION, FUTURE
PROJECTIONS AND 40 Austria 8,21 4 0,00%
SIGNIFICANCE 41 Ukraine 45,70 10 0,002%
The contribution of the Re-
public of Macedonia in interna- 42 Georgia 4,62 1 0,002%
tional operations is a concrete
confirmation of the success * according to NATO web page, dd.22 of October 2009,
of reforms in the defense and and according to the announced contribution of the
the solid strategic goals of Republic of Macedonia from 2010

6
and its contribution is immedi- 1. & 3. ARm
ued partner. The best proof
ately alongside that of UK, the of this is the recognition of
US, Norway, the Netherlands, began con- the Macedonian flag and its
and Denmark. The Republic of tributing identification with peacekeep-
Macedonia is committed to to ISAF in ers who possess the highest
further strengthening of its august 2002 standards. An additional con-
future contribution to global firmation are the highest dec-
security and peace, by gradu- 2. The Re- orations that our peacekeep-
ally increasing the contribution public of ers have regularly received
in international operations and macedonia in all previous contributions
according to predictions by was part of (120 medals from Iraq, 1109
2018 the armed forces of the “Iraqi Free- from Afghanistan, 68 from
Republic of Macedonia would dom” from our helicopter contribution in
have reached a deployment Althea, 60 from the medical
of 8% of the ARM forces. The june 2003 contribution in Althea), medals
financial implications of the to decem- of honor for excellence were
contribution of the Republic of ber 2008 awarded to 4 Macedonian
Macedonia are very significant peacekeepers for outstand-
and are projected to amount 4. the heli- ing contribution to the mis-
to EUR 8 million in 2010. copter de- sion “Iraqi Freedom“, and 6
contributes with about almost What makes us particularly tachment Macedonian peacekeepers for
3% of its overall land forces. proud is the fact that during of the arm outstanding merit in the ISAF
With the announced increase Macedonia’s current overall was part mission in Afghanistan.
in contributions as of the be- contribution to operations led of “Althea” With 18 years of independence
ginning of 2010, Macedonia by NATO, EU and UN, mem- from july and 7 years of contribution to
will reach its planned level of bers of the ARM have proven 2006 to july
world peace, Macedonia has
contribution for about 260 and demonstrated to be wor- contributed to previous rota-
thy of the granted trust. With 2008 tions in international missions
peacekeepers, reaching de-
ployment of 4% of the ARM their dedication, profession- with a total of 1744 Macedo-
forces in peacekeeping opera- alism, discipline and commit- 5. The Re- nian peacekeepers (a quarter
tions worldwide. ment to assigned tasks, they public of of our Army), who reached the
This percentage of contribu- represent their country in the macedonia highest standards in the coun-
tion is serious and still not most dignified manner. Our is part try and returned to the coun-
reached even by many mem- peacekeepers are the pride of the un try with huge accumulated
bers of NATO and the Eu- of our country and its ambas- forces in experience.
ropean Union. Thus, only in sadors who have confirmed lEbanon The Macedonian peacekeep-
Afghanistan, per capita, the that Macedonia deserves the from may ers who in 2002 were the
Republic of Macedonia con- equal membership to which it 2007 first to symbolically mark the
tributes more than all coun- strives. beginning of our contribution
tries in the region and more Macedonian peacekeepers are to peacekeeping operations
than many members of NATO, a proven, honored and val- worldwide, waving the flag of
the Republic of Macedonia in
Afghanistan precisely on the
day of its independence – the
September 8, continue to rep-
resent our ambassadors who
best promote the Republic of
Macedonia in building peace
and stability in the world.
The diplomat and the sol-
dier, the two symbolic fig-
ures of international affairs,
work together. In pursuit
of achieving the strategic
priorities of the Republic
of Macedonia for member-
ship in NATO and the Euro-
pean Union, the Macedonian
peacekeeper gives its largest
contribution.
Departement of
international cooperation

7
THE SOLDIER ON
THE THEATRICAL STAGE
Interview

with Zoran Ljutkov, actor


Have you had the opportunity Soldiers are people as well. But, we must not forget
to glance at “Shtit”, the new that most people have felt the weight, and pride,
MoD magazine? wearing the uniform of the Army of the Republic of
Macedonia. We interviewed actor Zoran Ljutkov,
– A while ago, I had the opportu- who began his acting career in the Veles Theater,
nity to look through “Shtit” mag- and has been playing on the stage of the Macedo-
azine and I must say that there
has been a big progress over pre- nian theaters for ten years now. Three years ago,
vious editions by the Ministry of he started working in the Drama Theater in Skopje.
Defense, concerning the graphics In 1996, he briefly felt the army life. His success in
as well as the content aspect. acting - numerous major and supporting roles in the
theater where he is employed, participating in sev-
Which content attracted your eral international theater festivals and TV projects,
attention the most? two awards (the Best Young Actor Award “Trajko
Chorevski” in 2002 and the Audience Award for
– There are many interesting the role of the boy Lysistrata at the Stobi Festival -
topics in the magazine that are Stobi), are the fruits of success from the time of his
worth looking at. I would men- “being a soldier”

8
tion the section “Charger and Software”,
where you can read very interesting in-
formation about innovations in military
technology, then the technology of our
army, drawing parallels to older models
of weapons and, of course, the part of
the section 24 hours a soldier, which is
particularly significant and dedicated to
our peacekeepers who had been in vari-
ous missions.

Tell us something about your military


days?

– I joined the ARM in 1996 when con-


scription was nine months. The first thing
that impressed me in terms of the army
was the uniform itself. I must mention
that the first uniform I wore was called
battle dress uniform, if I remember well,
because the first month and a half I had
training in infantry, and then I took a driv-
ing test for category C in Gjorce Petrov
in Skopje and I became a truck driver.
Because of the successful results as a
driver, I was the head of the automotive
unit for a long time. Then, at the request
of the superiors, I was returned to the
garrison in Shtip, where I stayed for six
months.

When we speak of the military service,


tell us what did those several months
spent in the Army uniform mean to
you?

– They really meant a lot. After complet-


ing high school, I had to wait one year
until I started the faculty education sim-
ply because the Faculty of Dramatic Arts
did not take in student that particular
year. In fact, I had two options: to en-
roll at another university and feel life in
Skopje, or start the military service which
was the obligation to the country. I have
to say that I did not make a mistake for
having chosen the second option. It was
a decision that changed many things in
my life. The military means maturing of
a man, separating him from his home,
and getting used to a new way of living.
I learned a lot of things about infantry
training and training in the traffic service

9
when I took the category C driving test tions timely - all that prepares you for completely different profession, which
for. Very often, I was able to go to the the future. The military prepared me for actually happens frequently.
shooting ranges together with new re- the obligations which I now have in my
cruits where I had the opportunity to fire everyday life. Let’s talk about your career a bit. Has
with different weapons. the experience gained from serving in
You have certainly been familiarized the armed forces been helpful in play-
Can you share with us the incident from with Macedonia’s participation in mis- ing any of the roles?
the period of being a soldier which will sions abroad. What is your opinion on
remain in your memory forever? Macedonia’s contribution in achieving I have played a role of a soldier twice.
and maintaining world peace? It happened for the first time in my first
– I have to say that there were pleasant professional performance where I was
and unpleasant things which, of course, – I think that that is a huge contribution playing a soldier. That was three years
were a kind of experience and a lesson with respect to the size of our country after serving in the military when I was
for the future. I must mention that peo- and population per capita. Isn’t it obvi- in the third year of my university stud-
ple socialized a lot. One of the interest- ous how much we contribute to peace- ies. That role for me was the first pro-
ing events was that there I was one of keeping missions? I had no doubt that fessional and the first major role. In this
the youngest truck drivers because I had we would be so successful and I hope play, the soldier had lost his battalion
taken the test for category B on 11 Octo- and was left on his own, with nowhere
ber, and on October 16, I joined the Army to go further in his life. Something like
where after three months I passed the “survivor”. The external evaluation of the
test for category C. Once, we went to critics was that the role in the uniform
the shooting range “Penush” with about suited me, and I got great comments for
seven or eight trucks. The first truck fol- handling the weapons, too. The military
lowed by the other trucks got stuck in service helped that look quite authentic.
the mud. Many experienced drivers, both The second experience was in the movie
officers and soldiers, tried to pull out the “Dust” by Milcho Manchevski, where we
trucks, but none of them succeeded. I played in a brutal scene with many mur-
volunteered to help and as luck was by ders, and we had only one hour to shoot
my side, I managed to pull out all trucks the scene. I remember that there was
out of the mud, one by one. There was a a specialist in weapons from the ARM,
round of applause afterwards and, natu- who was supposed to show me how
rally, a reward. to handle weapons. I asked him first if
I could show him what I could do with
Nowadays, young people don’t have weapons. He was really surprised and
the opportunity of getting to know the pleased by the manner I handled the
beauties of army life. According to you, weapons. I had, I would say, good timing
how would that affect their future lives? for disassembling the gun. But because

that we will continue to be an example


of the amount of responsibility a country
should have in addressing world peace
and prosperity of all nations.

On one side a driver in the army, and on


the other a professional actor. It’s an
interesting combination, isn’t it?

– I’ve never thought that I would be a


driver in the army, nor have I thought
which branch of service would be the
most interesting for me. Therefore, I left
other people to decide for me in terms
of my recruitment. The success I had as
a driver in the ARM came to me sponta-
neously, when a man has just as people
say – a sense for something. In that
period, there had been no connection
between the army and my acting, but I
must say that there were times when I of that, Manchevski reacted that the film
– I’m sorry that the younger generations started thinking whether to continue my does not require a good soldier, but rath-
will not have the opportunity to do the focus on acting, or to try to find a way to er a cowardly one.
military service as an experience in life join the army, because some of my supe-
they will never go through. A person re- riors told me they were ready to help me Have you, in your past career, played
ally matures by serving in the military. At if I chose that option. However, my first some of the famous military leaders,
first, the military, for all of us as young love was acting and I decided to follow and who do you wish to bring to life on
people, was a real torture, but after the that path. stage?
training, especially after several years, I Art with defense as professions appar-
realized that the military experience is ently have no similarities, but actually So far, except for a soldier, I haven’t
a kind of a springboard for the future. acting alone has similarities with all other played another military person. I haven’t
There, you mature both mentally and professions. An actor must have experi- been thinking a lot about that. Anyway,
physically. You acquire certain stability in ence in all areas in order to prosper fur- it is very difficult to play such a character
life because you don’t have the comfort ther. As actors, we have visited barracks on stage.
you have in your home. The rhythm of and hospitals and many other places so
life, getting up at five o’clock in the morn- that we would be able to experience Zdravko Rizovski /
ing, going to breakfast, lunch and dinner every profession which helps us a lot if Ivan Petrushevski
at certain times, performing work obliga- we need to play a character that has a

10
Info
Execution of Military Health Priorities
On January 12, the Min- level, for as many rotations as ning, Nexhati Jakupi. The main topic of discussion
ister of Defence, Zoran needed. That will be one of the The topic of discussion on the during the meeting of the Army
Konjanovski, visited the priorities in the military health meeting was the continuation leaders from NATO and the PfP
Military Medical Centre lo- for 2010. At the same time, the of the successful cooperation members was the analysis of
cated in the former Military Hos- cooperation with the Ministry of in the field of protection and the conditions in Kosovo and Af-
pital in Skopje. The Minister held Defence of Norway continues; promotion of the military envi- ghanistan and the participation
a working meeting with the new we will accept the donation of ronment, particularly regarding in the KFOR and ISAF missions
Military Medical Centre execu- the light manoeuvre field hospi- activities for the project: “The as the largest operations where
tive, Colonel Andreja Naumovs- tal, after which we will provide Analysis of the Environmen- NATO and PfP member armies
ki, the director of the civilian part an appropriate training for the tal Impact Assessment on the participate.
of the former Military Hospital, personnel that will work there, Military Range ‘Krivolak’ and its At the meeting, the Alliance
Colonel Sasho Stojchevski, and in order to be capable to fulfil Management”. once more directed its atten-
with a part of the management tasks outside the Republic of The Minister of Defence, among tion to the contribution of the
in these institutions. During the Macedonia. The third issue we other things, emphasised that PfP member armies in NATO-
meeting they discussed the discussed was to launch the the scientific study prepared as led operations, and looked into
reached level of transformation Regional Centre for Medical part of the Project will to a great the lessons learned that have a
of the former Military Hospital, Personnel Training in the near extent facilitate the promotion direct influence on the training
as well as the completion of pri- future, which, as we believe, is of the Military Range “Krivolak” and preparation of the units for
orities in the military health for an excellent opportunity for pro- as a Regional Training Centre, a successful conduct of the mis-
the current year. moting the Ministry of Defence and that the directions for pro- sions.

4
After the meeting, the Minister and the Military Health Centre spective management of the
made an announcement for the on a regional level. We will func- training area derived from the
public in which, among other, he tion as two separate subjects, above-mentioned will be fol-
stated: “Today we had a useful however, we are prepared to lowed and improved, among Noble Remembrance
working meeting. We reached assist each other in order to other things, by environmental of the Fallen Heroes
an agreement regarding the meet the demands of those we monitoring. On the occasion of marking the

3
work principles and the opera- exist for – the citizens, i.e. the Elizabeta Tashkovska two years of the helicopter ac-
tion in 2010. On the subject of patients.” cident in which eleven members

2
the Military Medical Centre, we of the ARM Air WING tragically
will face new challenges that EAPMS/CS Meeting lost their lives, a ceremony was
stand before the Ministry of De- An ARM delegation led by the held on January 12, by which dig-
fence. We have to attend to the Protection and Chief of the General Staff of the nified respect was paid to the
partnership goal 4244 for estab- Promotion of the ARM, Lieutenant General Miro- fallen heroes. On that occasion,
lishing a ROLE-2 medical protec- Military Environment slav Stojanovski, participated delegations from the Ministry
tion level, and in that context, On January 26 the Minister of on the Euro-Atlantic Partnership of Defence, President of the
in accordance with the Army Defence, Zoran Konjanovski, Military Committee in Chiefs-Of- Republic of Macedonia, Joint
Service Law, through the active had a meeting in the Ministry Staff (EAPMC/CS), which was Operations Command of ARM,
reserve we will establish one re- of Defence with the Minister of held on January 26 and 27 in ARM Air WING, Special Opera-
serve medical team on a state Environment and Physical Plan- NATO HQs in Brussels. tions Regiment of the ARM, the

11
and Commander in Chief of the Mechanized Infantry Brigade
ARM, Gjorgje Ivanov. of ARM, for the members of
To the pleasure of the young- the local self-government units,
est - the children, the event was governmental and nongovern-
enriched with the play “Santa mental organizations and insti-
Claus, Piggy, Donkey and Icicle”, tutions in the unit’s area of re-
played by actors from the ART sponsibility.
Theatre “Veni, vidi”. The reception program included
After the play was over, Santa a reception with the Brigade’s
Claus gave children New Year’s Commander, Colonel Metodija
presents. Velichkovski, presentation of the

7
unit’s status with an emphasis
on the civil-military relations and
the unit’s contribution to the
Meeting with Former peace support operations, visit-
Chiefs of GS of the ing the Command’s premises
ARM and Retired ARM and a New Year’s cocktail.
Generals The guests followed the pre-
On December 24, in the prem- sentation with great attention,
ises of the General Staff of the and its purpose was to famil-
ARM, the Chief of General Staff iarize them with the numerous
Mayor of the municipality of Macedonian peacekeepers from of the ARM, Lieutenant Gen- possibilities for cooperation
Petrovec, as well as members the helicopter accident in 2008, eral Miroslav Stojanovski, held a with ARM units. After the pre-
from the families of the fallen the children of the ARM mem- meeting with the former Chiefs sentation, the Brigade’s Com-
peacekeepers paid respect and bers who were killed on official of GS of the ARM and retired mander awarded certificates of
laid wreaths of fresh flowers duty, as well as the children of ARM generals on the occasion acknowledgment to the civilian
on the memorials before the the ARM members who are cur- of the forthcoming New Year’s structures representatives with
Air WING Command and on the rently on peace missions out- and Christmas holidays, attend- which the unit had a productive
location of the tragic helicopter side Macedonia. ed by the Minister of Defence, cooperation. It was hard to de-
accident at Katlanovsko Blace. The President and Commander Zoran Konjanovski. cide which institutions will be
The Minister of Defence, Zoran in Chief of the Armed Forces During the meeting the Chief of awarded with certificates. This
Konjanovski, gave a public an- of the Republic of Macedonia, GS of the ARM informed the re- year certificates were awarded
nouncement, in which he em- Gjorge Ivanov, and the Minister tired generals about the degree to: REK “Oslomej Kichevo”, ele-
phasised: “I personally and on of Defence, Zoran Konjanovski of achieved reforms in the de- mentary school “Hristo Uzunov”
the behalf of the Ministry of attended the reception. fence, the transformation of the from the village of Drugovo, and
Defence, together with the “I remember that when I was a ARM, the participation in mis- the Veterans Association from
Chief of the GS of the ARM, we child, the holidays were the hap- sions abroad, the current status Kichevo. In its speech, the repre-
came to pay our respect to the piest moments for me. May you of the units, the accomplished sentative from the elementary
heroes - our peacekeepers who have good health, happiness plans and achieved results in the school “Hristo Uzunov” from the
were on a peace mission in Bos- and welfare. May you grow in last year, as well as the plans village of Drugovo expressed his
nia and Herzegovina, who came peace and prosperity an rejoice and challenges of the ARM in gratitude to the Brigade’s Com-
to their fatherland, returned to life in the new 2010,” said the the forthcoming year. mand, and emphasised that the
the Republic of Macedonia, but Minister of Defence, Zoran Kon- The meeting of the Chief of GS cooperation with the unit will
never reached the doorstep of janovski to the children of the of the ARM with the retired continue and new forms of co-
their homes. Tragically, the ac- ARM members. ARM generals has traditionally operation will be introduced.
cident prevented them in this. “It is our obligation to eternally being realized in the previous That was not the end of the New
We witness that the pain will remember and pay respect to years in the eve of the New Year’s reception. The guests vis-
never fade away. The Ministry all the Macedonian heroes that Year’s holidays. ited the Command’s premises,

8
of Defence and the Army of the gave their lives for their country and they had the opportunity
Republic of Macedonia will give – the Republic of Macedonia. to see the picture decorations
their best to discover the truth Their deeds will permanently on the walls, resulting from the
and to find the reasons for the remain embossed in the latest New Year’s Reception cooperation with the schools
helicopter accident, and we will Macedonian history. These are The end of the year is a period in the unit’s area of responsibil-
continue with the aid for the moments when we should be for analyzing what has been ity. The visit ended with a New
families as much as we can.” with you and share the joy of done, and at the same time, pe- Year’s cocktail organized in the
On January 12, 2008, return- New Year’s and Christmas holi- riod for drawing conclusions on Command’s classroom. During
ing home after the successfully days. Respect your parents and how to improve the efficiency in the cocktail, the guests had an
completed mission ALTHEA in their heroic deeds because you the forthcoming year. opportunity to see a slide show
Bosnia and Herzegovina, the are their pride”, emphasised in A New Year’s reception with a presenting a part of the unit’s
following persons tragically lost his speech, among other things, presentation was organized in activities realized in 2009.
their lives: Lieutenant Colonel the President of the country the Command of the Second Mice Koteski
Toni Spasovski, Major Goran
Ristovski, Captains Brane Spa-
sovski and Igor Gjoreski, Mas-
ter Sergeants Slavcho Vasilev
and Toni Davitkovski, Staff
Sergeants Janko Shiric, Miki
Ivanovski, Aleksandar Taskovski
and Aleksandar Vasic and Cor-
poral Zlatko Veljanovski.

5
New Year’s Reception
for the Children
of ARM Members
On December 28 in the Army
Home in Skopje, a New Year’s
reception was held for the chil-
dren of the fallen ARM mem-
bers from the military conflict in
2001, the children of the fallen

12
9
successful individuals, local in- New Year’s presents are; they edge outside of Macedonia.
stitutions, public enterprises, presumed that some of the One of them is Lieutenant Rob-
private enterprises and other presents must be very big and ert Mitrovski, who after achiev-
With the ARM “Scorpions” organizations in the municipality heavy, because Santa needed a ing excellent results during the
of Radovish, for their contribu- helicopter to bring them. training for the airplane type
Dynamic, Productive and tion in the activities and imple- With red cheeks and sparkle “ZLIN 242 L”, was sent to a fur-
Successful Cooperation mentation of planned projects in their eyes, the children were ther training for flying helicopter
The meeting of the partners that contribute to improving the thrilled by the big helicopter type “Bell 206” in the Croatian
from the civilian structures with overall situation in the munici- that brought Santa, as well as Air Force and Air Defence.
the Commander of the First pality. This prize was awarded by the strength of its vanes Lieutenant Mitrovski is the first
Mechanized Infantry Brigade is to the brigade by the Mayor of which spun and produced a very Macedonian pilot to be educat-
a traditional annual activity. The the municipality of Radovish, Mr. strong wind which the children ed in Croatia, who completed
continuation of the success and Robert Velkov, and accepted by felt, surprised by the helicopter’s the full flying training for the
given support in the field of civil- the Deputy Commander, Colo- strength and power. abovementioned helicopter last
military cooperation with civilian nel Zoran Djambaski. One by one, every kid sat in San- December; currently, he is at-
structures in the area of responsi- At the end of the meeting, the ta’s lap to be photographed with tending a specialized course for
bility, which in the past period was Commander of the First Mecha- everyone’s favourite old man a flying instructor, which ends in
dynamic, fruitful and successful, nized Infantry Brigade, Briga- dressed in red, and all of them re- July this year.
speaks for itself about the impor- dier General Dimche Petrovski, ceived their presents. Their faces Lieutenant Mitrovski, after gradu-
tance of this cooperation. were showing their happiness. ating from the Military Academy
This ceremony, which was held in Skopje, department of aviation,
in the military section of the air- started working in the Air WING
port “Alexander the Great”, in in 2004 as a pilot in the Second
the “Strasho Pindjur” Barracks in Flight, Combat Helicopter Squad-
Petrovec, Skopje, turned into a ron in the Joint Operations Com-
tradition that is organized every mand in GS, ARM, where he com-
year by the ARM Air WING and pleted the training for the airplane
the Autonomous Union of De- type “ZLIN 242 L”.

12
fence Employees. New Year’s
packages were given to the
children of the fallen members
of the ARM Air WING, children From the Activities of the
of the employees from this unit, Training Command
and for the first time this year
packages were given to several First Non-Commissioned
blind children from the Home for Company Officer Course
Blind Persons in the municipality The Course for First Non-Com-
of Kisela Voda, Skopje. missioned Officer in a Company
Satisfied, overjoyed with the for the first time was success-
New Year’s atmosphere and fully organized and completed
by the Training Command, from
December 1 to December 22,
awarded certificates of appreci- 2009, with 19 attendants. The
The First Mechanized Infantry ation for the successful civil-mili- plan and program for this course
Brigade under the command of tary cooperation in 2009 to: the was designed in the Training
Brigadier General Dimche Petro- local self-government in Shtip, Command, and it arises from
vski is characterized by a high the N.U. Institute for Protection the necessity of personnel for
level of training, discipline, orga- of Monuments and Culture, the the positions of first non-com-
nization of work, vocational-pro- Museum of the Town of Shtip, missioned officers in a company.
fessional competence, the suc- the Fire-Fighting Unit from The course lecturers were in-
cessful presentation of the unit Shtip, and the local media - TV structors from the Training Com-
and the Army with the participa- “Iris” and TV “Star” from Shtip. mand, including the Chief Non-
tion in multinational exercises The noble Latin words “Honor Commissioned Officer from the
and peacekeeping missions led et fortitude” are with a good Training Command.
by NATO and PfP, participation reason written on the emblem Within the course, the atten-
in disaster relief operations, as of Macedonian “Scorpions”. The dants learned about the place,
well as providing support for the success follows our “Scorpions”, role and duties of the first non-
civilian structures according to since “Honour and Strength” are commissioned officers. Follow-
its opportunities and resources. always with them. ing topics were also taught on
These are the most significant Zoran Janakievski the course: leadership skills,

10
parameters of the required communications and training
standards for building a small, management.
mobile and modern unit. In fact, this is the highest level of
In addition to the civilian repre- Santa Claus Arrived with a big smile on their faces, education for non-commissioned
sentatives, the ceremony was on a Helicopter the children went back home. officers in accordance with the
attended by Deputy Chief of the On December 26, 2009, the This event will always remain in Concept for Development of
General Staff of the Army, Gen- first Santa Claus arrived in their memories. Non-Commissioned Officers. Af­
eral Major Naser Sejdini, Com- Macedonia, on a military helicop- Biljana Stevcevska ter the successful completion
mander of the Joint Operations

11
ter. The excited children were of the course, the non-commis-
Command, General Major Zoran waving their hands, greeting sioned officers are fully compat-
Dimov, Deputy Commander of the helicopter and calling Santa, ible with the NATO standards,
the Joint Operations Command, who greeted all of them, and af- The First Macedonian and acquired the necessary
Brigadier General Kiro Galazovski terwards circled another round Pilot Training in Croatia leadership skills, knowledge and
and other high guests from ARM. with the helicopter, increasing The quality of the personnel abilities, which is an especially
The civilian representatives their desire and expectation. who completed their education important category in the ARM;
awarded the “Scorpions” many With a leap from the helicopter, in the Republic of Macedonia is that will help them become
certificates of acknowledge- Santa found himself surrounded undisputable. Namely, the Army successful performers of the
ment for the successful civil- by many children. They immedi- of the Republic of Macedonia upcoming missions in their units.
military cooperation and the ately started touching his long can be proud with the large
unit’s assistance. The “Golden white beard and moustache, number of members who man- Working Visits
Plaque” is the 6th of November asking what kind of presents he aged to demonstrate and prove Three official working visits by
annual award given to the most has for them and how big their their acquired skills and knowl- foreign delegations were com-

13
During the tree months training and will contribute to a better ties in view of strengthening the
approximately 200 soldiers, out functioning of the society. defence system of the Republic
of whom 20 girls achieved very Elizabeta Tashkovska of Macedonia.

14
good results. The practical part The participants and the guests
of the training was realized on of the Assembly followed the
the ranges in the barracks, as letter of welcome from the Presi-
well as on ARM terrains in the From the activities of ORORM dent and Supreme Commander
surroundings of Veles. During of ARM, Gjorgje Ivanov, with a
the training, priority was given Promoter of Euro special attention; in the letter,
to the practical part for weap- Atlantic Values among other things, the follow-
ons handling and tactical com- During the working part of the ing was stated: “The Officers in
bat behaviour. Session of the Assembly of Of- the Reserve Organization is an
On that occasion, in its speech, ficers in the Reserve Organiza- example of modern acting as pro-
Lieutenant Colonel Trajancho tion of the Republic of Macedo- moter of Euro-Atlantic values and
Petrovski said, among other nia (ОRОRМ), held in Radovish, contemporary perceiving of the
things: “I express my belief that several important documents armed forces’ role in the society”.
you, as previous generations were adopted, among which: The President of ОRОRМ, Pro-
did, will join our professional Report on Activities of the As- fessor Gjorgji Malkovski gave
Army in a large number.” sembly of ОRОRМ and its Or- a speech of welcome after the
At the ceremonious ending, gans and Bodies in 2009; Work- abovementioned documents
words of encouragement for ing Program for 2010; Decision were adopted. He pointed out
pleted in the Training Command the rewarded and lauded sol- on Amending the Statute of that the planned activities of the
in the past period. diers, as well as for the part of ОRОRМ, as well as Decision on Organization for 2009 were suc-
The first visit was a delegation the officers from the Centre Abolishing Eight Municipal Orga- cessfully achieved. He put em-
from the Peace Operations were read. nizational Units. phasis on several of the concrete

13
Training Centre from Sarajevo, Slavica Nikolovska Presidents of the municipal or- tasks and activities as more
Bosnia and Herzegovina, led ganizational units took participa- significant: strengthening of the
by the Centre Commander, tion in the activities of the high- condition regarding organization
the Brigadier General Michael Scientific Advancement est organ of this Association, as and personnel; recording of more
Lollesgaard. Also, a delegation in the Field of Public well as great number of guests: than 10.000 members; delivering
from Hungary paid a visit, led by Health Deputy Minister of Defence, Emil 4500 membership cards; consol-
the Commander of the Military On January 11 the Chief of the Dimitriev; Deputy Chief of the idating the financial state; results
Training Centre “Bakony”. The Hygienic-Chemical Department GS of the ARM, General major achieved in the applied part of
third visit to the Training Com- in the Preventive Medicine Cen- Naser Sejdini; aid de champ of the training (three state compe-
mand by a foreign delegation tre at the Military Medical Centre the Supreme Commander of titions, gun shooting and great
was the delegation from Mon- in GS, ARM, Lieutenant Colonel ARM, Brigadier General Goran- number of stamina marches), in
tenegro. Dr. Branko Karovski, defended cho Kotevski; Commander of the which mainly young officers took
Colonel Ljupcho Kostovski, his Master’s Thesis on the First Mechanized Infantry Bri- part.
Commander of the Training topic: “Defining and Managing gade, Brigadier General Dimche Prof. Dr. Trajche Manev, MSc
Command, was the host of Environmental Health Risks in Petrovski; Chief of Staff of the Dushan Madjoski, Rozeta Ra-
these visits. He introduced the the Treatment of Urban Waste- Joint Operations Command, Col- dojnichic and Dr. Dragi Jovevski
delegations with the mission of waters and their Safe Use for onel Stojan Dimchov; Command- had constructive and productive
the Training Command, the cur- Irrigation in Agriculture in the er of the Training Command, discussions at the session, ad-
rent and prospective organiza- Republic of Macedonia”. Thus Colonel Ljupcho Kostovski; Dean dressing current issues.
tional and formational structure, Dr. Karovski, otherwise special- of the Military Academy, Colonel During the ceremonial part of
execution of the courses and ist in hygiene and environmental Professor Doctor Rose Smileski; the session, the MOD represen-
seminars in the current and up- health, obtained a scientific de- representative of the Crisis Man- tative in the Assembly and in
coming year. The visitors were gree Master of Medical Science agement Centre, Dushko Petro- the ОRОRМ Executive Board,
particularly interested in the in the field of hygiene and envi- vski, as well as Mayors of the Lieutenant Colonel Zlatko Kuz-
observation of the construction ronmental health. municipalities of Radovish, Staro
and development of the infra- manov, launched the Proceed-
The presentation of the thesis Nagorichane, Konche and Vinica. ings of the Panel on the follow-
structure of the military range was held in the Deanery of the At the beginning, the Mayor
“Krivolak” as a Regional Training ing topic: “Strategy for a Further
Medical Faculty in Skopje, be- of the Municipality of Radov- Development of ОRОRМ in
Centre. fore a committee consisting of ish, Robert Velkov, welcomed
The purpose of the military del- Accordance with NATO Policy
three members: Prof. Dr. Dragan the attendants wishing them for Officers in the Reserve”. The
egations working visits was Gjorgjev – President, from the a successful work, after which
to promote friendship and Vice President of ОRОRМ, MSc
Public Health Institute, Prof. Dr. the Deputy Minister of Defence, Riste Petkov, launched the first
exchange the acquired experi- Jovanka Karadjinska Bislimovska Emil Dimitriev, welcomed the
ences regarding the Training – member, from the Occupation- attendants on the behalf of issue of the “Officer”, publica-
Centre’s activities. Within the al Health Service Institute – col- MOD, and emphasised the sig- tion of the Officers in the Re-
frameworks of these visits the laborative centre of WHO, and nificance of the ОRОRМ activi- serve Organization.
guests visited the archaeo- Prof. Dr. Pavle Filjanski – mem- Zhivko Trajanovski
logical site “Stobi”, located near ber and mentor, from the Pub-
“Krivolak”. lic Health Institute. In the final
speech after the presentation of
Ceremonious the thesis, the members empha-
Training Ending sised the special significance of
The training of soldiers at the the research and analysis made
Individual Training Centre within for the purpose of the thesis, as
the Training Command for the well as the significance of the us-
ninth generation of voluntary age of treated and cleaned urban
army service was ceremoniously wastewaters, especially with re-
marked on January 11. Lieuten- gards to the general problem of
ant Colonel Trajancho Petrovski, the humanity with the increasing
Commander of the Individual deficiency of clean water and
Training Centre, was the Com- the emphasised European stan-
mander of the ceremony, and dards for production of healthy
guests were the Commander of food, among which the HACCAP
the Training Command, Colonel requirements as one of the more
Ljupcho Kostovski and his Depu- significant ones, because by pro-
ty, Colonel Toni Poposki, as well ducing healthy and ecological
as the Mayor of municipality of food from the field to the table
Veles, Mr. Goran Petrov. people can protect their health

14
FIRE
IN THE SKY
Space Militarization - II
HAT AFTER THE COLD WAR? believed to be a consequence of the
The disintegration of the power- “It’s politically sensitive, South African nuclear bomb explosion.
ful USSSR was “royal flush” in- but it’s going to happen… These satellites were used in the op-
formation for the USA. The USA some people don’t want eration “Desert Storm” as warnings for
was the only country on the top to hear this, and it launching of the Iraqi SCUD missiles to
of all countries, as the wealthiest and sure isn’t in vogue, but - Israel.
technologically most superior country. absolutely - WE’RE GOING 2. The extensive use of GPS (Global
Anyway, the story is completely dif- TO FIGHT IN SPACE. We Positioning System) is considered an
ferent in terms of space domination. will engage terrestrial element of space militarization. The US
From scratch, but with the speed of targets someday—ships, Army relays on “NAVSTAR GPS”, char-
light other countries like China, India, airplanes, land targets— acterized with a high accuracy object
Japan; and even the European Union from space” position regarding on Earth or in the
started their development and became Earth’s orbit. This system works with
world centers of power. Although the the help of 24 satellites stationed in
disoriented Soviet forces were consid-
Joseph Ashy, the Earth’s orbit directly controlled by
ered totally dysfunctional, the estab- Commander in Chief of the US the US Department of Defence. Apart
lishment of the Russian Armed Forces Strategic Command from the basic use of these satellites-
created the so called “Russian Space (1994 – 1996) accurate positioning, they are also
Forces” (in 1992), which after several used for “smart” bomb and cruise mis-
transformations were reorganized in sile guidance. It should be also stressed
the same way again in 2001. that these satellites are equipped with
The new development in the area a nuclear detonation detection system.
called “space militarization” divides in The frequent announcement for admin-
three branches. istrative control over the use of the
1. Permanent development of spy GPS by the civilians, after 2001, made
satellites, which meet a big number Europe claim it is going to use the
of needs – extremely high resolution so-called Galileo system (usable after
photographing (IMINT), communica- 2013) while Russia on the other hand
tion bugging (SIGINT), as well as hid- already uses its own GLONASS.
den communication (HUMINT). These 3. The third element is based on the
satellites are also used for detection of new US Department of Defence doc-
nuclear explosions as a result of nucle- trine, called network-centric warfare.
ar tests conducted on the ground sur- The main hypothesis of this doctrine
face. Incident “Vela” is worth mention- is a robust net which maximizes the
ing, when a nuclear explosion detection information transmission that leads to
satellite detected a nuclear explosion information quality improvement and
in the Indian Ocean in 1978, which was full awareness about the current situ-

15
ation, which on the other hand worry in the near future because
is a condition for accomplishing it is still more powerful than
the final goal – better interac- China. The worries should be
tion, self synchronization and directed towards the long term
maximum mission efficiency. actions and certain steps should
In reality, this doctrine enables be taken (the American-Indian
the war zone communication friendship and cooperation),
of the soldier with the satel- because the aim for economic
lite’s camera in the orbit, thus development of the Chinese
photographing enemy positions authorities should be taken into
around him, and if necessary, consideration. A big amount
sending their coordinates by of Chinese budget is allocated
mail to the bombers or carriers. to the army budget, which al-
This is all shown on the screen in though mostly used for mod-
front of the mission commander ernization, is spent on Chinese
who can be miles away from the space activities.
battle field. This could be done
by a communications satellites
combination which will create
full information net above a cer-
tain area.

CHINESE TIGAR
When we speak about the pro-
cess of space invasion, after the
end of the Cold War, we would
not have a complete analysis if
the space invasion of China, the
biggest population country is not
mentioned. Although the current
Chinese position is not different
from its former position – total
ban of space use in military pur-
poses, it is more than obvious
that it could be considered a se-
rious USA space opponent. The
power that China clearly demon-
strated, destroying part of its
satellites with a medium range
ballistic missile, made it a seri- THE FIRST “SPACE” WAR
ous candidate among the coun- The main characteristic of Oper-
tries for space invasion. This is ation “Desert Storm” (1991) was
very similar to 1980s when the the extensive usage of infor-
same was done by the USA mation gathered by the space
and the former USSR. However, installation in war time, and is
what remains the biggest worry considered to be the first “space
is the fact that China remained war”. In 1991, all space installa-
closed in revealing information tions were used for the first time
regarding its planned actions in getting tactical advantage
in this respect. Others, on the over the enemy. This was vividly
other hand, think that this suc- demonstrated with the “Patriot”
cessful ballistic trial was a total interceptors against the mis-
Chinese hypocrisy, advocating sile SCUD system. The obvious
openly a ban on space milita- tactical advantage when having
rization. The Chinese and USA developed space systems gave
relationship in terms of militari- importance to the Strategic De-
zation could very easily be com- fence Initiative as well as the de-
pared to a mouse and cat rela- cision of the American Congress
tionship. Here is the explanation for installation of large Earth
why. The Chinese “provocation” systems, which on the other
could be characterized as an an- hand breaches the 1972 agree-
swer to the statements given ment for ABM missile system
by former US President Bush on restriction.
American space domination, on What is the significance of this
one hand, and the global agree- operation for future warfare?
ment for weapons ban in space, Certain politicians compare this
on the other hand. This came warfare with the introduction of
as a reaction to the increased the armoured vehicles in World
Chinese interest in stepping War II or the introduction of the
into the big vacuum. When this machinegun in World War I. They
becomes stabile, the final result even go further in comparing the
is very simple – actions to dis- use of gun powder in military
courage the enemy in following purposes with modern warfare.
its policy for space militarization Others have a completely differ-
could lead to this. ent opinion about achieving the
To conclude, the USA should not final goal. According to the sec-

16
SPY SATELLITE LIST

USA
Lacrosse/Onyx, Misty/Zirconic, Samos, Quasar, Vela

USSR
Cosmos, Almaz, Yantar, Zenit

GREAT BRITAIN
Zircon (canceled), Skynet

FRANCE
Helios 1B (destroyed), Helios 2A

GERMANY
SAR Lupe 1-5

ITALY
COSMO SkyMed

CHINA
Fanhui Shi Weixing

INDIA
Technology experiment satellite

ond group of annalists the victory of the The Outer Space Treaty (1967) has a ma- Final Report to the President on the
coalition forces is not a result of space jor importance and consists of several US Space Program published by Bush
superiority, but a result of political and basic principles: Administration, the US “space control”
military incompetence of Iraqi officials. – Exploring and using space for the ben- is clearly stated. Here are the few ba-
The weak moral of the Iraqi Army and efits of the human race; sic facts- during the report preparation
the minor efficiency of the SCUD sys- – Complete openness of all nations in six nations had the technological pos-
tem are one of these qualifications. using space; sibility for launching satellites in Earth’s
The so-called third perspective of the – Outer space could not be a subject for orbit (EU-1), a number which could be
Gulf War which is placed between the expressing somebody’s sovereignty; doubled in a short time according to
previously established two. The basis – A prohibition for installation of nuclear the report (today more than 50 coun-
of this perspective is the fact that the weapons and weapons of mass de- tries have their own satellites in the
technological “input” of the space sys- struction in the orbit or on any space orbit). In this case, space domination
tems warfare could easily be identified, objects or stations; is the only choice, bearing in mind the
in comparison to the prediction of the – The moon, as the sole Earth’s natural fact that the USA can not allow hostile
increased “output” as a result of the satellite could be only used for peace observation satellites to over fly USA
use of these systems. In reality this time goals; territory” (final report), although the
is expressed as followed: the number – All countries are responsible for main reason for satellites installation
of used satellites could be easily pre- their activities in space; regardless was the territorial sovereignty bypass
dicted (as well as the GPS-navigation of whether they are conducted by a of the countries and them being ob-
receivers), but it is very difficult to pre- governmental or non-governmental served from space.
dict how big the influence in the usage institution. The intention to dominate the space is
of these satellites was upon a certain This agreement was signed by the USA, not limited only to domination with spy-
decision regarding a military operation Great Britain, the USSR and additional monitoring satellites, but by using weap-
(the existence of Earth systems which 120 other countries. ons, which will lead to real space domi-
give the same or similar data should At the end of 2000, the General Assem- nation over the fourth warfare arena
be taken into consideration). The final, bly voted the resolution known as “Pre- – space (other three are: land, water; air).
fourth position, shows that certain vention of an arms race in outer space” Another issue altogether is what this
conclusions from the extensive use of with 163 votes “for”, 0 votes “against” plan will bring to the global scene. The
space installations have to be drawn, and 3 “abstain” – Micronesia, Israel and most probable scenario is that it will
despite the fact that, as I have previ- USA. The way the USA voted for this lead to a new armament race, however
ously mentioned, the true progress is resolution highlights the traced direc- due to previously described facts this
difficult to measure. tion regarding its space program. race will not be bipolar. Some addition-
al key players like the EU, China, India,
LAW AND ORDER NEW WINDS Japan, and even Canada will take part
The current legal framework is primarily The administration of former US in this race. Still, the financial power
based on using space for peace time president George Bush senior clearly of each of these countries is another
goals and for improving the life of the showed the world that they are aim- topic of discussion.
entire civilization. ing towards space militarization. In the Ivan Petrushevski

17
KALASHNIKOV
THE STORY ABOUT MODEL M-95
he family of automatic rifles, ture, especially for a professional rifle, but the machine gun and au-
Kalashnikov, is large and wide- army such as the ARM today. tomatic gun with 5.56 caliber as
spread throughout the world. well. Due to personal participation
“Members” of this large family TESTING in these tests, the readers have a
are often out of both military The automatic rifle M-95A is made rare opportunity to get acquainted
stores and regular armies. There in the factory “Red Zastava”, but 1. model м-72 with some of the history of this
are countless examples in the its roots date back from the fed- rifle.
world where “derivatives” of the eral army. Namely, one of shooting 2. the defer- During the testing, the gun was
AK-47 with 7.62 caliber or 5.45 ranges in the Sarajevo area, during ence be- left for a few days without being
mm were used by various terrorist the period from May to August tween 5.56 cleaned after firing, then it was
groups, but the freedom fighters 1991, a committee of three senior and 7.62 can re-used and did not show any
as well. Many armies in the world officers (colonels) of YNA moni- be seen in weakness. Tests included firing
use this rifle with little changes, tored the testing of the automatic the front under slope, and marksmanship
improved, adapted to their needs, rifle, but this time with 5.56 caliber. part of the aimed at targets uphill and vice
but basically (and a little more than The testing was carried out by se- gun versa. In a certain time determined
the base) it is still a well recogniz- lected soldiers, including a mem- 3. the back in advance (they were given one
able design and construction of ber from Macedonia, who person- part of the minute), the marksmen shot at tar-
the AK-47. ally participated in the testing, but CLIP gets at different distances. Each
One automatic rifle that is also in not only to the new automatic marksman had approximately five
use in our army is the model M-95
with a 5.56 mm caliber. One part of
the ARM uses this rifle which with
its caliber (using 5.56 mm NATO-
standard ammunition), opened
a new page in the Macedonian
military history. Accepting this cali-
ber, the unit that uses this rifle to
chart the road to NATO standards,
at first by probably accepting the
standard bullet that is used in the
Alliance to which we strive. This
weapon is manufactured with a
more sustainable, chrome barrel,
something that could not meet
the standard M70 (A, B or AB-2
models) produced by “Zavodite” in
Kragujevac. This brings a new mo-
ment - all weapons should have
a satisfactory quality of manufac-

18
pieces of weapons that were given to – It uses the NATO-standard 5.56 mm In this model, the grenade sight is not in-
them for testing. caliber bullet, 5:56 mm x 45 mm SS 109 tegrated, but it is assembled separately.
In addition to testing the bullet, in the (or M193) respectively; It can fire cumulative grenade launcher
new caliber for the YNA, the gun was – starting speed of the bullet is 915 me- TKM-M60 and scatter mines and TTM-
tested with a training grenade launcher ters per second M-61.
as well, afterwards with an impact and Feeding: two row magazine with a capac-
cumulative grenade launcher. ity of 30 rounds THE FUTURE OF THE MODEL
They fired with the gun in daytime and Combat kit: 5 frames The model M95-A is still in use in the ARM.
nighttime conditions using a passive night The barrel is with 6 grooves to the right The rifle is praised by those who have
sight that the YNA used at that time (PN in a coil of 177.8 mm (1 / 7, according to used it. The modern way of warfare and
5x80). They used original US imported NATO) the lessons learned from various conflicts
ammunitions 5.56 x 45 mm. (.223 caliber) * This means that the bullet passes a suggest the need for modern platforms
Results are as follows: the rifle showed distance of 177.8 mm in one rotation that support setting grenade launcher
excellent precision and persistence. With around its axis. sights, laser pointers, tactical lights, and
minimal maintenance, sometimes even Firing Speed other devices that this rifle cannot carry
for several days without cleaning, the rifle – 120 rounds per minute - practical speed because of lack of Pikatini mounting rim.
functioned excellently. – 600 rounds per minute - theoretical This model, like all models in the time
speed produced by the former Yugoslav factory
M-95 in the ARM
This model is not massively represented,
but still used. Those who use this rifle
have a positive opinion about it. As a piece
of wood and metal, it is worth as much
as any other, but as a “tool” it is worth
much more in the hands of professionals.
M-95 has an honorable place in the mod-
ern Macedonian military history. From the
time the ARM had no aircrafts, armored
vehicles and other means now in posses-
sion of new units, when it only had brave
soldiers and their rifles, including M-95.
The ARM personnel were frequently re-
located from one unit to another. They
wanted to keep their M-95 rifle, or at least
be charged with the same model.
As a model, the M-95 was used in all situ-
ations that had to be solved with the use
of firearms. It was used in the defense of
national borders and to defend the sov-
ereignty and integrity of the Republic of
Macedonia, where it showed excellent
performance and persistence in real com-
bat conditions. In addition to the tests
made before its production, it was tested
in combat, by which it fully justified the ex-
pectations of the final user.
Asides to the use on the territory of the
Republic of Macedonia, this model was
used and is still used in the ARM missions
in Iraq and Afghanistan.
RIFLE DATA
This rifle, is designed to disable live enemy
force with a bullet or discharge of an anti-
personnel grenade in the open or unpro-
tected shelters (e.g. trenches and machine-
gun nests), and the protected, i.e. armored
targets - with a cumulative grenade launch-
er (TTM-M60 and M60P1 TKM and M-60).
In order to illuminate the battle field, it
launches an illuminating grenade (TOM
M-62), and in order to mask the smoke –
a smoke grenade launcher (smoke TDM The rifle works on the principle of borrowing “Red Zastava”, was not prepared for such
M-62). In the discharge of these grenades, on the part of powder emissions (through an adjustment, but it was equipped with
it uses grenade bullets. In addition, it can which the gas chamber suppresses the gas a sliding rim on the left side which, in par-
use cumulative training grenade M-68 clip back, which is part of the bolt carrier). ticular, was intended for a limited number,
and M66 impact training grenade. The acceleration is done by a rotary (spin- and type of optical and passive sights.
Best results are achieved: ning) bolt. However, many workshops in factories
– with a single fire at 400 meters; The entire system is based on the sys- for weapon equipment in the world and
– with short bursts up to 300 meters; tem M-70 (“Kalashnikov” system), but the our surrounding make improvements and
– with long burst up to 200 meters; parts are not identical: adaptations of compatible parts such as
– with a group of marksmen up to 600 – The bolt together with the bolt carrier front plastic coating with a handle or with
meters (the term a group of marksmen and piston are smaller and lighter, a rim instead of the standard wooden
implies concentration of fire from two – The chamber is dimensioned for a 5.56 coating or cover of the magazine where
or more marksman at one end); caliber and is made by chrome there is a Pikatini rim. With this adapta-
– on targets in air up to 300 meters. – It possesses a cylindrical regulator of tion of the rifle M95, not only its active
emissions with 3 positions, 1, 2 and T lifetime is extended, but it also becomes a
TT Characteristics: (tromblon) which closes the flow of very dangerous competitor in the modern
– when the rifle is empty, it weighs around gases towards the piston for firing gre- world of “plastic” automatic rifles.
3.2 kg; nade launchers. Zoran Krstevski

19
FIREARM
UNDERWATER

ARSENAL FOR SPECIAL UNDERWATER ACTIONS OF THE FROGMEN


abotage and anti-sabotage
actions exist in peace and
in war, all through the ter-
ritory of the parties at war.
The term territory does not
imply only land but also air and
water, if available. All the coun-
tries in the world have units that
conduct sabotage, anti-sabotage
and other specialized actions un-
der water. The members of these
units are predominantly divers.
They are very sensitive when un-
derwater.
Before underwater firearms were
invented the main defence and at-
tack armament of frogmen were
the steel bolts fired from of the
shelf underwater rifles. These
rifles had many shortages such
as: range, precision, individual bolt the constructor noticed the pre- 1. и 2. HECK- dle-like, drag-stabilized projectile
firing, an delayed action time, etc. decessor of today’s revolver at LER UNDER- which when ignited goes through
that time called Peper–box, which WATER PIS- the thin plastic membrane with
HECKLER consisted of several circularly put which that barrel is sealed. Pow-
TON der charges are ignited using elec-
UNDERWATER PISTON barrels with individual charging.
When the western countries de- The mutual feature was the pistol 3. и 4. RUS- tricity, stored in a sealed container
cided to attend seriously to the grip and the firing mechanism. SIAN UNDER- in the grip of the pistol. The weap-
problem with armament of the The firm “Heckler and Koch” did on is marked as “P11 H&K“
WATER PISTOL The pistol is 200 mm long, and
underwater soldiers, the first to the same thing. On the plastic pis-
offer help were the constructors tol grip there is a plastic change- 5. и 6. UNDER- when loaded with steel darts it
from the prominent German com- able container consisting of five WATER KA- weighs 1.2 kg, and the battery
pany “Heckler and Koch”. They barrels sealed with plastic, with weights 700 gr. It has been used
LASHNIKOV ever since 1976 first by the Ital-
have not reinvented the wheel by 9.5 mm caliber. Each barrel is
trying to find a compact, power- loaded with projectile bolt from ian Comsubin, then by German
ful and safe construction which tungsten carbide, with 7.62 mm Kampfschwimmer, then by the
enables several shots one after caliber. It is located in a three- British SAS and SBS. Eventu-
another. The solution was already piece plastic holder-sabot with ally the Americans purchased 100
there. Checking through old books length 117 mm. That is a long, nee- pieces for their Special Forces. P11

20
H&K was a mythical weapon for a long lized. It has greater power than any oth- It is a simplified version of ‘Kalashnikov”
period and its characteristics were only er underwater firearms. According to the with flat barrel and it weights 2.4 kg,
guessed. There was not even a photo naval plates TL-7 at the depth of 5 me- without ammunition cartridges. To-
of it. With the publishing of the Navy ters its range is 17 meters, at the depth gether with the cartridges with 26 pro-
plates TL-7 some of its characteristics of 20 meters its range is 12 meters, and jectiles the weight is 3.4 kg. Projectiles
were discovered. Its range is 5 meters at at the depth of 40 meters its range is are needle like darts, 120 mm long, made
the depth of 15 meters, at a depth of 20 slightly bigger than the younger genera- of medium hard steel and hydrodynamic
meters the range decreases to 9 meters, tion of “H&K”, which is 6 meters. Above shape. When the barrel is packed the
and at a depth of 40 meters the range water it can be used at a distance of 30 length of the weapon is 615 mm. With
rapidly decreases to 4 meters. Above the meters but with lower accuracy since it an open barrel the length is 823 mm. It
water, the effective range is around 30 does not have grooves. has an automatic gas valve which en-
meters. The sound of “P11 H & K” is simi- The sights are ordinary, mechanical. On ables the weapon to be used at various
lar to the sepulchral H&K MP-5 SD. the left side of the pistol there is a brake depths underwater as well as above wa-
The underwater pistol P11 H&K has a with a double role. The first role is to lock ter. As an automatic weapon its velocity
bad record. After the final steel dart is the pistol and prevents shots from any and range depend on the depth at which
shot the reloading of the container takes barrel, and the second is to unlock the it is used. At the depth of 5 meters the
several days. Why? It depends how far bloc of barrels which overlap, the same range is 30 meters, at a depth of 20
the pistol is from the Heckler and Koch as with hunting rifles. When blocs of meters the range is 20 meters and at a
factory since the empty containers must barrels overlap the slings easily throw depth of 40 meters the range is 11 me-
be reloaded there. Despite this unusual away the empty rounds, and not used ters. It hits the target exceptionally well
record, the pistol is very safe, since it projectiles remain in the barrels, due to and it penetrates even plastic protection
doesn’t have movable parts which can their length. The reload of the weapon layers of the diving vehicles.
cause delay while used. lasts around ten minutes, and depends It is interesting to mention that due to
the length of
the needle like
darts the de-
signer’s main
problem was
the magazine.
It was the
most complicated part of the weap-
on. It has a mechanical sight, which
can be used at a range of 10 me-
ters on land, although the distance
is doubtful due to the length of the
needle like dart, and due to the bar-
rel without grooves. We normally ask
ourselves how does it work under
water then? Well, it is much easier
since in such conditions the projectile
RUSSIAN UNDERWATER PISTOL is stabilized with the so-called hydro-
After the Berlin Wall had been torn down on the training of the soldier and not on dynamic cavitation effect.
many secrets appeared in public, espe- the craftsmen in the factory. All this was Of course the change of magazine and
cially those of the USSR. Among those developed years before the “H&K”. speed depend on the skills of the marks-
secrets were the ones about the arma- men since we previously mentioned that
ment of the frogmen. UNDERWATER KALASHNIKOV the magazine is the most complicated
The underwater 4.5 mm x 40 caliber This weapon threw a shade on many part of that weapon, due to its size. It is
pistol was developed in the late 60’s, weapon manufacturers. The Russians not as easy as with the standard Kalash-
marked as SPP-1 (special underwater pis- took a step ahead and put their famous nikov model. Apart from the magazine
tol). The pistol has four barrels, divided in “Kalashnikov” underwater. another problem for the designers was
pairs -one above the other. The weapon It is a specialized underwater automatic to bring the projectiles in the barrel. That
has double-action trigger which rotates rifle marked as APS. It was developed in is the second complicated system of the
under 90 degrees. It weighs slightly less the early seventies. It is a 5.66x39mm weapon which initiated design of spe-
than 1 kg., exactly 950 g. The dimensions caliber underwater automatic gun and its cialized ammunition.
are 244х138х23 mm. The barrels are 203 design is derived from the popular “AK- It should be emphasize that although
mm long, smooth, without any grooves. 47”. this wepon can be used on land it should
The projectile, i.e. the caliber steel dart It has been part of the Russian arma- be avoided. Finally, the APC is a very use-
is 10 mm long, hydrodynamic and stabi- ment since 1975, mostly used by the ful underwater firearm, where it is effi-
Special Forces. cient and perfect.
Aleksandar Stojcevski

21
WITH THE SUN AND
THE MYTHICAL “LEOPARD”

Eighth rotation of the ARM in ISAF - Afghanistan


nce again the Republic of Macedonia gent of the Armed Forces of the United the ceremony and wished the best
has confirmed its active participation Kingdom, where they will be responsible of luck to the soldiers, characterizing
in the ISAF mission in Afghanistan for providing security to the ISAF HQ in them as the best representatives of
by sending the new, eighth rotation Kabul. In addition, the ARM peacekeep- our country. “Esteemed soldiers and
in these forces. Namely, the sendoff ers in Kabul will also carry out complex officers, allow me first of all to wish
ceremony of the contingent of 149 mem- assignments like: patrolling and securing you luck and success in your upcom-
bers of the Army of the Republic of Mace- the army base and facilities that are of ing mission. On behalf of all citizens of
donia, a part of the Second Mechanized vital importance to the lives of the Af- Macedonia I can say that we are proud
Infantry Brigade, which will be deployed ghans, providing combat security of the and deeply grateful. I am aware of the
together with the senior national repre- communications and areas and different personal sacrifice that each one of you
sentative and the two staff officers in the tasks depending on the requirements of has decided to endure by throwing
ISAF headquarters in Kabul, started at the mission. aside family and the hardships which
noon on January 8 in the Military Barracks are expected in the following months.
“Kuzman Josifovski – Pitu” in Tetovo. UNITED IN THE DEDICATION FOR The Republic of Macedonia made a de-
In the following six months, the experi- FREEDOM AND DEMOCRACY cision to participate in a mission in a far
enced “Leopards” of the Second Mecha- The President of the Republic of Mace- away country well aware of its serious-
nized Infantry Brigade will carry out donia and Commander-in-Chief of the ness”, said President Ivanov to the par-
assignments in the frames of the contin- Army, Gjorge Ivanov was present at ticipants of the contingent.

22
Moreover, he added that the strength of this global alliance
present risks clearly demon- and its longevity, the hope to
strate that there is no such thing many people around the world.
as an isolated and closed area, Therefore, we are proud of our
and therefore Macedonia itself soldiers”, the President of Re-
has been exposed to threats, public of Macedonia, Gjorge Iva-
thus we know how to appreci- nov, finished his address.
ate security and safety. The mission of the “leopards”
“We have decided to give this will be conducted in the period
mission special significance from January to July 2010, and
compared to our real power the preparations of the mem-
and size. Macedonia proves its bers of the contingent lasted 6
friendship and affiliation to the full months.
coalition of democratically gov-
erned countries not only with READY TO FACE
words, but also with deeds. THE CHALENGES
The coalition led by the USA “It gives me great honor and
has the power and determina- pleasure to lead this group,
tion to fulfill its goal. We are a which in the course of the prep-
part of an alliance of countries arations achieved high scores in
united among themselves by their training to carry out peace
their common values, united in support tasks. The achieved re-
the commitment to freedom sults, the efforts and the com-
and democracy. And as a result mitment to the task give me the
of the high goals and ideals, this right to believe in the readiness
mission enjoys the large sup- of the members of the contin-
port of the Macedonian citizens, gent in carrying out assignments
politicians and the public. The in the upcoming peacekeeping
mission to Afghanistan is well mission. We are ready to prove
understood in the international that the members of the unit
community and by the citizens are equal to their colleagues
of that proud, but tormented from the other armies currently
country. Our forces are there to serving in the ISAF mission. On
help the Afghans to easily build my behalf and on the behalf of
their own democratic and free the entire personnel of the con-
future. The countries that par- tingent I express gratitude to
ticipate in that mission ask for the superior command and to
nothing in return. Our reward all who supported us during this
is knowing that we have done period in order to finish the prep-
everything in our power to help work together, that we can rely arations with success. I would
in need. Afghanistan is a coun- 1. FROM THE on one another in the most dif- like to express our tremendous
try with exceptional history and SEND OFF OF gratitude to all present guests,
THE NEW ARM ficult and serious assignments.
rich cultural and religious tradi- Our example of living together relatives and friends for the hon-
tion. Macedonia has a deep and CONTINGENT or you have given us with your
IN ISAF is recognized and is valued by
long multicultural tradition in our allies as our contribution presence to the ceremony. As a
respecting and valuing different towards resolving the issues Commander of the contingent,
religions, nations and cultures. 2. REPORTING I assure you that we will carry
TO THE HIGH of the modern world. Macedo-
That tradition can be particularly nia with its participation in the out our duties conscientiously,
seen in the Army of the Republic COMMANDER responsibly, with discipline and
OF THE ARMY peacekeeping missions in Iraq,
of Macedonia. Therefore, I am AND PRESI- Bosnia, Lebanon and Afghani- with pride and dignity we will
sure that they will be especially DENT OF THE stan has shown that it is equal present the Army of Republic of
good and worthy ambassadors REPUBLIC OF and integrated with the other Macedonia outside the borders
of the entire country. This is MACEDONIA, countries form the Euro-Atlantic of our country. In the course of
an opportunity to show to the GJORGE IVA- family of nations. Macedonia is the training we learned how to
members of the great interna- NOV a full-fledged member in accept- face the risks and challenges
tional coalition that in Macedo- ing the responsibilities. With our that our colleagues face in Af-
nia the soldiers of different eth- commitment we invest in the ghanistan and I believe that
nical and religious communities we are absolutely prepared.

23
We will make maximal efforts to put do everything to fulfill your assignment “THE LEOPARDS” WILL
the safety first and to return safe and and you all return safe and sound to JUSTIFY THE GIVEN TRUST
sound in our units and our families, your units, to your fatherland and to As a representative of the Ministry of
while carrying out the tasks,” said the your families, to where you really be- Defense, the Deputy Minister Emil Dim-
Commander of the contingent, Major long. At this moment, I want to say a itiev in his statement underlined that
Blaze Nikolovski, who also mentioned few words to your families, at one time the Ministry has always supported the
that “the contingent is psychologically on this same place the soldiers depart- activities of the ARM which were in line
and physically prepared for completing ed with tears and messages from their with the execution of the long termed
this mission and a large number of the families: “Son, return from the quest determination of the Republic of Mace-
members have the experience because with your shield or on it”. Esteemed donia – a full-fledged membership to
they have already been in a mission”. families, I assure you that our soldiers the NATO alliance. In his statement he
don’t have an alternative. They must agreed that the “Leopards” are highly
SOLDIERS WITH A BIG HEART return only as winners. As peacekeep- trained soldiers who will justify the giv-
The Commander of the Second Mecha- ers. They know that the sarissa, the en trust and preserve the honor of Re-
nized Infantry Brigade, Colonel Meto- spear of success of the Macedonian public of Macedonia and the ARM, and
dija Velickovski, clearly pointed out contingent is raised high. I assure you after the mission we will witness their
that the members of the contingent, in that on the ceremony after they return successful return. Also, he addressed
whose honor the ceremony was held, we will congratulate them on the suc- the families of the members of the con-
were the best soldiers in the brigade. cessfully completed mission”. tingent as follows: “Congratulations on
“I assure you that at this moment in the the courage and we want to wish you
line up in front of you stand the best patience and support to the members
soldiers of the Second Mechanized of your families for a successful realiza-
Infantry Brigade. In front of you now tion of the mission”.
stand the finest “Leopards”. I support The fact that the ARM members that
that with the fact that this soldiers in go in mission are aware that they are
front of you have passed through a the direct and the biggest ambas-
painstaking, uncompromising period of sadors of our country has also been
training during which only the finest, proven from the words of the Sergeant
toughest and the most prepared stand Aleksandra Dimevska: “I am proud and
in the line up. I assure you that during honored to be a part of this mission
the mission you will have a chance to and to be one of the ambassadors of
read the reports of their work, by which our country. This is my second mission.
you will be proud of your soldiers”, I have returned from the first in July
stated Colonel Velichkovski. 2009. The motive for going again is
He addressed the members of the clear – to represent our country with
contingent and their families with the dignity honor and responsibility. We
following: “Members of the contingent, have a responsible work ahead of us
ahead of you is one difficult and very and we have to complete it with suc-
dependable task. There is a challenge cess”.
ahead of you. It is a challenge to walk Among those attending the ceremony
in Afghanistan, in the country where were the Chief of the General Staff,
the phalanges of Alexander the Great Lieutenant General Miroslav Stojanovs-
walked long ago, led by the Macedo- ki, Deputy Chief of the General Staff
nian flag. Today, it is the Macedonian General Major Naser Sejdini, the ARM
flag and the mythical leopard are the Joined Operational Command Chief -
very symbols on your uniform. I expect General Major Zoran Dimov, local au-
you to fulfill all the given assignments thorities, family members and relatives
in full, with quality and right on time. of soldiers and other guests.
I believe in the Commander of the The ARM has been taking part in the
contingent, I believe in you, but what biggest NATO mission in Afghanistan
I want from you now is to do every- with a mechanized infantry company
thing in your power to show the other ever since June 2006, when members
armies that are part of ISAF mission, of the 1st mechanized infantry brigade
that the Republic of Macedonia might were deployed in the first rotation, and
be small, that the Army of Republic of later in the next rotations they alter-
Macedonia might be a small army, but nated with their colleagues from the
that great soldiers serve in it, soldiers 2nd mechanized infantry brigade.
with big hearts, ready to fulfill every
given assignment. You must justify the Ivan Petrushevski
unit’s logo “Force for Peace”. You must

24
MEDIA
SUPPORT
KEY FACTOR FOR PROMOTION OF MOD AND ARM
he year that has passed will certainly the Republic of Macedonia, the general of the finances, didn’t stop the realization
be remembered as one of the tough- economic condition of the country was of the already started projects of the Min-
est since the establishment of the the cause for reducing the budget in the istry of Defense and the ARM which to
ARM and the independence of the defense as well. Nevertheless, the things our satisfaction didn’t stay unnoticed by
Republic of Macedonia in general. This that cheer us up are the economic index- the public in the Republic of Macedonia.
statement is supported by many facts in- es at the end of the previous year; accord- Bearing successfully with the burden im-
dicating that 2009 is the year in which the ing to which this year we should expect posed by the world economic crisis, both
world economic crisis was a top issue in an economic growth. institutions left a successful year behind
the whole world because of its devastat- them in which some of the projects were
ing effect on the economy in global terms A SUCCESSFUL YEAR completely finished, and some are wait-
and even the most powerful economic Without an intention to go into any fur- ing their finalization.
countries were not spared. However, the ther economic analyses (as I am not an What marked 2009 in the defense as
Republic of Macedonia with its modest expert on this issue), at the beginning I a whole and why we should be satisfied.
potentials succeeded in getting out of the wanted to underline one of the most sen- First of all, I must point emphasize the
economic “depression” which reflected sitive problems today and a problem the big projects such as: Promotion of the
negatively on its economy less painfully. entire international community is still fac- Training Area “Krivolak” into a Regional
Considering the fact that the MoD and ing. Nevertheless, the imperative for sav- Training Center; the restart of the Military
the ARM are a part of the institutions of ing, rationalization and at times reduction Academy “Mihailo Apostolski”; the suc-

25
cessful continuation of the the NATO,
EU and UN led peacekeeping missions
and the forthcoming enlargement of the
ARM contingency in the ISAF mission in
Afghanistan; the finalization of the ARM
new uniforms project; the legislation of
the new ARM Service Law; the beginning
of the project “ARM-My true home” for re-
solving the housing problem of the ARM
members and many others. Here, we
must not forget the numerous exercises
which the ARM had realized successfully
despite the decreased budget, such as:
“Macedonian Flash”-5 as an exercise with
the greatest number of participants with
a level-2 self-evaluation of the Declared
Medium Infantry Battalion and the rest
of the declared ARM units; the Multina-
tional Logistics Staff Exercise “LOGEX”;
the promotion exercise of the Air Force
WING of the ARM and the new capacities
for training at the Training Area “Krivolak”
and many other national and international
exercises in which a great number of ARM
members participated in.

CONTINUOUS, CORRECT
AND TIMELY REPORTING
Everyone who is involved in the realization
of the planned activities more in depth is
aware that one of the major priorities is
the presentation of the successfully com-
pleted job, where if we want to achieve
success, the media support is more than
necessary. Therefore, I would publicly like
to thank them for their support, because
without their support the citizens of the
Republic of Macedonia wouldn’t be able
to see and hear originally about our activi-
ties and achievements, and most impor-
tantly how the budgetary finances for the
defense are spent. In fact, the Public Rela-
tions Office of the General Staff of ARM
and the Public Relations Section of the
Ministry of Defense have an obligation to
inform the public continuously, correctly
and timely. In accordance with the direc-
tions and the standard operational pro-
cedures of NATO which the ARM entirely
applies in the process of planning and
execution of exercises, the practice of es-
tablishing a Public Relations Center during
all bigger exercises has been introduced
a long time now, and such practice has
proven to be of great advantage for the
Army affirmation. Nonetheless, the exer-
cises are only one important segment of
the work and functioning of the ARM. As
an army considered by the NATO alliance
as a full-fledged member (according to
the achieved reforms and practically dis-
played compatibility and operational ca-
pability), the ARM has demonstrated its
efforts for attaining greater transparency
with the performed work by the Public
Relations Office within the General Staff
of the ARM, as well as through the work
of the Public Relations Officers within
the subordinate units, through which the
great number of events and activities are
covered by the media, given in figures,
only in 2009 more than 120 announce-
ments have been sent to the media. This
certainly cannot give the real idea behind
the “ocean” of activities that the Army
has successfully realized in the past year,
because to the figures mentioned above
we should also add the announcements

26
sent to the local media which rep- one, however, requires certain
resent approximately less than conditions with, above all, legal
half of the previously mentioned and financial nature which by the
due to the fact that they refer to way have an interinstitutional na-
the national media only. ture that at the same time is con-
nected with the necessary process
TRANSPARENCY AND of training and familiarization with
AFFIRMATION OF ARM the ARM contingents which is a
According to the analysis of the key factor for the security of the
published articles on the ARM by reporters.
the media in the Republic of Mace- In addition to the efforts for
donia done by the Public Relations achieving greater transparency of
Office within the General Staff of the MoD and the ARM in the previ-
ARM, 1930 articles were published ous year, we must not forget the
in the last year, 980 in the elec- promotion of the new magazine
tronic media and 950 in the print- “Shtit” which imposed itself as a
ed media. The analysis also offers magazine that seriously aspires to
certain classification of everything achieve high rating in the big me-
that was published, as contents dia family in the country. And just
with positive influence on the one of the main characteristics of
ARM, contents with negative in- “Shtit” is the openness not only
fluence and neutral contents. Due to the members of the MoD and
to the effort for objective consid- ARM, but also toward the larger
eration of the data concerning the readership which is already its rec-
issued articles and avoiding the ognizable image.
subjective approach toward them,
this part of the data according to LESS RESTRICTIONS
me is not interesting for the public, In the year to come there are
and as a result that not in a single many challenges ahead of us in
moment would I like to be under- the field of public relations. Here,
stood as directed against the free- moreover, we must point out that
dom of the media. Nonetheless, by putting into force the new ARM
for example it is very positive that forces structure, there will be new
more than half of the published public relations officers in the units
articles are with neutral content, structure. The continuation of
which says a lot about our efforts training of the ARM members in
to provide the necessary transpar- Media Training Instructors who will
ency and affirmation of the Army, acquire high professional skills and
without any influence on the me- knowledge with the new training
dia. However, we must point out program sponsored by the King-
that without the presence of the dom of Norway at the Regional
media, without the eye of the Communications Training Center
video camera and the camera, it at the MoD Nothing is no less im-
would be very hard for the Ministry portant. We will certainly continue
of Defense and ARM to be able to with the media training intended
start a more significant activity of for the key personnel at the MoD
any kind, regardeless of whether it and ARM, as well as the prepara-
is about an exercise, a conference, tions in the filed of media commu-
a meeting or any other event or nications for the key personnel of
activity. This is especially true for the ARM contingents prior to their
the ARM as one of the strategic deployment in missions.
goals set by the ARM is bringing In the end, I would like to em-
the soldier and soldier’s profession phasize the effort of the ARM to
closer to the “ordinary citizen” of continue the cooperation with the
the Republic of Macedonia. media and further intensify this co-
operation in the year ahead of us.
ERA OF THE MEDIA That means that the due respect
It is more than obvious that we toward the media representatives
live in a new, modern and dynamic and the correct attitude towards
world where the media are on top them will be an obligation for ev-
of the priorities of the agenda of ery member of the ARM and due
all world leaders, countries, institu- to that, the media are welcome to
tions, organizations, firms and ev- attend our activities as in the past
ery individual who wants to work and with “less restrictions” when
successfully. Today, it is true when they are to see the presented ex-
we say that we are living in the era ercise. We are committed with the
of the media, a fact that is special- fact that the greatest part of the
ly appreciated by the Alliance and affirmation the ARM, no matter
all its member-countries, which is whether it refers to a domestic ter-
clearly defined in the new Public rain or abroad, is done by nobody
Diplomacy Strategy of NATO. I else but the media. Therefore, we
believe that the day is not so far will not be making a mistake if
when reporters from our country we say that a significant part of
will deploy together with the ARM our achieved success has been
contingents headed in NETO, EU achieved through media support.
and UN led missions, following the
example of the NATO member- Mirche Gjorgoski
countries. A challenge like this

27
AFICIONADOS
F LY I N G

Training Squadron at the Air Force WING


Per Aspera Ad Astra
he famous legend about Dae- Cayley, Langley, Lilienthal, Ader, the Internet or came across maga-
dalus and his son Icarus clear- right to the first flight performed zines specialized in that field. Nev-
ly demonstrates the primeval in 1903 by the brothers Wilbur и ertheless, they had to go through
human desire to construct a Orville Wright, when the aeronau- the system of pilot selection and
device so as to conquer the tical revolution officially began. training for the requirements of
space in its three dimensions. the air force WING. The carrier of
The Chinese were familiar with PILOT SELECTION this activity is the Training Squad-
the flight of the kites through the AND BASIC TRAINING ron, whose responsibility is pilot
air by using the wind as early as Today, when the dream of the selection and basic training for
in 200 AD. mankind is coming true, even in pilots who afterwards continue
The dream come true in the real beyond the initial ideal, only the their flying career in the Combat
sense of the word is a long term dream of the individual remains and Transport Helicopter Squad-
process. It started during the 13 to be fulfilled. A part of these afi- ron. The Squadron has been
century with the ideas by Roger cionados fulfill their dream in the performing this duty since the
Bacon, followed by the draw- ARM units. Some of them have very establishment of the Mace-
ings by Da Vinci, the balloons by had the desire ever since they donian Air Force through various
the Montgolfier brothers, dealing were a little, some of theme have forms of existence and designa-
with flying problems by numerous relatives in the air force, others tion. Initially, the Air Force was
scientists and constructors like have discovered it by browsing equipped with planes of the type
“Utva-75”. In the course of 1996, it
1. The check was equipped with the plane Zlin-
up before 242L, which remained a part of
take-off is the Squadron and even today has
a regular the main function in carrying out
commit- the mission. All candidates who
ment of the wish to become military pilots,
air force
after successfully passing the
medical examinations where they
technical prove their health conditions and
personnel psycho-physical capabilities, come
a precondi- in the Squadron to be trained and
tion for the begin a journey full of hardships
function- called selective flight. During the
ing of the selection, each one of them is first
Squadron introduced to the unit, the work
atmosphere, the setting up of ac-
2. Pair tivities and only afterwards they
landing continue to learn issues related to
flying. They learn about the basic
principles of flight, aerodynamics

28
and flight mechanics, the characteristics
of flying and the method behind fling the
aircraft Zlín-242L. Those who will suc-
cessfully acquire the theoretical part of
training, start flying. Although flights last
for half an hour on average, the prepa-
ration for the flight requires great effort,
time and energy, knowing that the flight
is preceded by an executive training
where the candidate will need to show
to the instructor that he had completed
each element of the exercise perfectly
and that he is really ready for flying. Cer-
tainly, this is where the old proven rule
stating that the “excellent” readiness on
the ground is barely enough for “good”
in the air. Therefore, the candidate is
required to know for at least a “four”,
otherwise a flight ban follows that is not
helpful for the successful completion of
the entire process. The candidates who T T c h aracteri s tic s of t h e aircraft Z L I N - 2 4 2 L
will meet the strict criteria and success-
fully complete the selective flying will Wing Span 9.34 m
obtain the title of “pilot-listener”. Those The aircraft Zlín-242L is a two-
Length 6.94 m seater, one engine, with low
who will not succeed in that or if it does
not meet their expectations and assess Height 2.75 m positioned wings and a metal
that the stakes in the whole thing are structure, with a tandem-seat
bigger than the profits, they should be Wing Surface 13.86 m² and a tricycle static landing
honest to themselves and seek another Degree of dihedron 6º gear type. It is designed for
solution, and experience and understand basic and advanced training,
the passed period as an extraordinary Limits of g од -3.5 до during day and night, in visual
adventure that only a few could afford. 6.0 g and instrumental conditions,
Pilot-students in their further stay in Maximum flight height 4500 m for acrobatic flight and towing
the Squadron obtain all the necessary sailboats and banners. The
knowledge and skills that will allow them Maximum weight at 1090 kg
taking-off machinery group consists of a
to perform the flying tasks flawlessly valve engine with four cylinders,
and build a successful pilot career. As Total Engine Volume 5920 cm³ measuring a maximum of 200 hp at
the pilot profession is not easy at all and 2700 spins/min and a three-blade
requires a lot of renouncements, work Maximum speed 315 km/h
rotor with variable speed.
and constant improvement, all pilots by
the end of their career will have to cul-
tivate the work habits that they had ac-
quired during the training. Moreover, that
means an enormous respect towards
the means they fly, correct and complete
flight preparation, their own health care,
rest and satiety, keeping the proper pi-
lot documentation, loyalty to colleagues,
and respect for the team that provides
for the flight.
OBSERVING THE PRINCIPLES
For the Squadron to achieve the desired
and expected results, it should respect
the principles of flight training. It is inad-
missible to perform any activity in the pro-
cess of planning, organizing and carrying
out the flight training of any sort which
will jeopardize these principles. Train-
ing focus is seen in the clearly specified
final results that must be reached in the
conduct of training and taking all mea-
sures to achieve these results. Clearly the Training Squadron, the pilot-students traditional kicking, a manner of congratu-
defined standards and requirements in receive their deserved “wings” and the lating - the new pilot leans on the wing
the execution of flight tasks enable the flight title - pilot. These pilots are fully of the plane and gets a kick for good luck
achievement of the desired quality in trained to fly the aircraft Zlín-242L in and congratulations by the older pilots.
training. Security is achieved with qualita- visual and instrumental conditions, day The rule here is – only those who have
tive preparation, proper implementation and night, and fully prepared to deal been kicked have the right to kick. Re-
of the planned tasks, observance of rules with new challenges that are awaiting ceiving the “wings” for the completion
and norms. Gradualness and systematic in the transfer to other squadrons and of training and the promotion to pilot
behaviour are achieved by gradual and in helicopter retraining. In addition to which is regularly celebrated with a cer-
systematic adoption of knowledge and the acquired knowledge and experience, emony for the entire squadron is an un-
skills, by respecting the methods of flight they will take the memories of beautiful forgettable experience itself. However,
training and grouping of certain types by moments that marked their lives forever the achieved results are the result of
tasks and time. The Economy in training with them. The first flight is an experi- teamwork in the squadron, starting from
is accomplished by the achievement of ence which is never forgotten. Followed the soldiers, technicians, instructors and
objectives with a minimum expenditure of by the first solo flight which opens new teachers, and up to the command. They
material and financial resources and time. horizons for them all, concerning the pro- all go on to reaching new professional
fession and the acceptance of the cock- achievements and producing additional
FIRST INDEPENDENT FLIGHT pit as the main environment for every generations of new pilots.
After the successful implementation of pilot. The successful implementation of
the overall process of flight training in the independent flight is followed by the Borce Manev

29
A SUCCESS STORY
BUILDING A MODERN SLOVENIAN AIR FORCE
lovenia is the only republic dent in Poland, 23 January, 2008 1. ATMS placed the procurement of the tactical
from the Former Yugoslav when the Polish plane CASA on the sub transport fixed wing in 2012. The
Federation which got an invita- C-295 crashed while landing and wing carrier Air Force School, which is directly
tion to join the NATO Alliance 20 members of the Polish armed of PC-9 subordinated to the Command
at the Prague Summit in 2002 forces lost their lives, among for Doctrine, Development, Train-
and it has been its member since which high ranking officers, the ing and Education, has the planes
November, 2003. Unlike the rest Slovenian order was stopped and Zlin-242L and Zlin-143L for basic
of the countries from the region, postponed. Slovenia is planning and advanced flying training, for
Slovenia, released from the bur- advanced combat training, as well
den of loss and damages caused as enabling fire support to the
by the war, immediately after its rest of the units using the planes
independence started to build its Pilatus PC-9 and PC-9M. The pur-
air force. At the same time, this chase of these planes started
marked the establishment of the with the purchase of three used
Slovenian Air Force which today is PC-9 planes from the USA Air
united in an Air Defense Brigade Force followed by the order nine
and an Air Force and is posted in new PC-9M planes in December
two military bases, the airports 1997 directly from the manufac-
“Brnik” and “Cerklje on Krka”. The turer (www.pilatus-aircraft.com)
Slovenian Air Forces have Bell-412 in Switzerland, which were deliv-
and AS-532 Cougar Helicopters in 2. Front ered in less than a year. The num-
the 15th Helicopter Battalion and cockpit of the ber is now reduced by one plane
Bell-206 Jet Ranger Helicopter in Slovenian PC-9 as a result of the accident in 2004
the Air Force School. The Air Force at Lenart where Major Drago
base is equipped with Pilatus 3. A Slovenian Svetina lost his life. In 2008 there
PC-6 Porter and Let L-410 Turbo- pilot in PC-9 was another unpleasant incident
let fixed wing transport. The Slo- which luckily ended without any
venian Ministry of Defense is seri- victims when the pilot trainee
ously considering the purchase of catapulted himself, and the dam-
a tactical transport fixed wing and aged plane was returned to the
as a result, in 2007 at the Cerk- base at Cerklje by the other pilot.
lje base the planes EADS CASA
C-295 and C-27J Spartan were Protection of
tested. The plane CASA C-295 its own air space
was selected and the plan was to The fundamental assignment of
procure two planes, one in 2008 the Slovenian Air Force is protec-
and the other one in 2010. How- tion of the sovereignty of the
ever, immediately after the acci- Slovenian air space. Since it is

30
still not equipped enough for an inde- tion included the analyses, installation and 2. Safety and maintenance:
pendent and successful completion of ground and air tests. One of the greatest – no moving parts and secures great
this assignment, Slovenia is doing this benefits of the modernization is the devel- (MTBF-Mean Time Between Failures)
in segments, assigning a part of this opment of a modern system for air com- period between failures;
assignment to neighboring Italy. Secur- bat simulation-ATMS. – easy to maintain, no need of cooling
ing the Slovenian air space at medium gas for the elements;
and high altitudes is the authority of ATMS – Advanced – easy to detect the malfunctions and
the Italian hunters that act from the Training Missile System control of the device by using a lap-
Air Force base Cervia at San Giorgio. “RADOM Aviation Systems” completed the top-terminal with an adequate soft-
Low altitudes and tactical level action development of a uniquely modern training ware.
are assigned to the Slovenian forces. system. ATMS-system is an advanced so- 3. Flexibility:
A part of this assignment belongs to phisticated training system which simulates – placing the ATMS device at different air
the 9th Air Defense Battalion which is use of AIM-9 Sidewinder air to air missiles in force platforms is easy and efficient.
equipped with the AD systems “Strela- all operational aspects. The ATMS system – the ATMS device can be placed at the
1M”, “Strela-2M” and “Igla”. The readi- enables the pilot (it doesn’t matter wheth- existing carriers for AIM-9-missiles or at
ness of this unit was obvious to us at er he is a cadet trainee or a combat pilot special systems for adaptation which
the end of September, 2009 when to- trainee) to drill air combat while operating are prepared by the RADOM engineers.
gether with the ARM Air Defense Bat- with a modern system of air to air missiles, The ATMS device by RADOM is designed
talion they performed the joint military without causing great expenses which are and tested to satisfy the requests of ev-
exercise “Challenge 09” at the Training otherwise made with the real ones. ery aircraft and it is entirely certified for
Area “Krivolak”, a tactical military live fir- The ATMS system is composed of three the use of the PC-9M plane.
ing exercise with the light transportable major components: This kind of an equipped aircraft rep-
rocket AD system “Igla”. A supplemen- – FLIR-an electric optical device that sim- resents the pride of the Slovenian Air
tary segment in protecting the air space ulates the bearing of the detector of Force and one of the appliances which
is the task of the PC-9M planes. the AIM-9 missiles; Slovenia uses in its participation in mul-
– The body of ATMS where the electronic tinational exercises. Its started proving
Modernization of PC-9M planes elements are located; interoperability immediately after join-
For a successful realization of the as- – The ABRS system (Airborne Radiation ing NATO by taking part in the exercise
signments and achieving modernity and System), source of IR (infrared) rays “Adriatic Rescue 04” in October, 2004.
compatibility with the rest of the NATO- activated when necessary. In this exercise the Slovenian PC-9M
partners, Slovenia carried out moderniza- The ABRS system provides high emis- were “aggressors” which were sup-
tion of these planes and gained a modern sion of IR-rays for a greater range of de- posed to destroy the helicopters escort-
training-combat plane. The modernization tection by other ATMS-devices. It can be ed by the F-16 planes from the Aviano
is the work an Israeli company “RADOM removed, leaving the device only with its base. Representatives of the armies of
Aviation Systems” (www.radom-aviation. basic detecting opportunities. Macedonia, Croatia and Albania partici-
com). The plane is equipped with an oxy- The ATMS system provides the following pated as observers in this exercise.
gen system OBOGS for flying at high al- advantages: Naturally, the development of the Slo-
titudes and with a HUD for a successful 1. Air combat exercise: venian Air Force doesn’t stop here. Since
operation with the armament which the – as it is software controlled, the sen- the agreement on cooperation with Italy
plane carries. It can be armed with tacti- sitivity of the detector and the false re- expires very soon, Slovenia is seriously
cal armament such as a machine gun 12.7 sistance can be adjusted with an aim to considering providing independent protec-
mm, bombs Mk81/82 or launch mecha- simulate a different generation of IR-led tion of its own space. And to that aim, it
nisms with unmanned rockets 70 mm. missiles. is expected that by 2015 Slovenia would
The modernization of the planes covered – the ABRS creates a unique opportunity for be equipped with
installation of modern aviation devices, a exercising with the IR-detector and against modern jet planes.
navigation system, a redesigned modern targets without jet engines due to its capa- This determination of
cockpit, a new HUD, a HOTAS system for bility for high transmission of IR-rays. theirs confirms the
display data management, an NVG sys- entire renovation and
tem and an armament installation. The moder­nization of
system uses the familiar MIL-STD-1553B the systems on the
and RS422/ARINC429. The moderniza- Cerklja on Krka base
which has recently
been completed.

Borche Manev

31
SPECIAL
REACTION TEAMS

Фото: Ryan Walker

MILITARY POLICE OF THE UNITED STATES ARMED FORCES


he last few decades of the twen- in the base, also known as Provost lease of hostages; isolating/contain-
tieth century a wave of violent Marshal (PM), is in charge for the or- ing the incident; gathering informa-
protest and viscous terrorist at- ganization, equipment, training and tion/intelligence; protecting property/
tacks swept across the Western maintenance of the special team. The equipment, preventing escape escape
world. Many of these incidents SRT is a specially trained team of mili- of suspects; apprehending offenders,
were specifically directed at the US tary or security personnel armed and conducting an assault (only if all other
Army personnel and installations, i.e. equipped to isolate, contain, gather alternatives have been exhausted, no
the US Armed Forces HQs. These information for, and, if necessary, neu- other assistance is expected, and a
attacks, coupled with the increased tralize a special threat. Specific mis- threat to human life exists).
amount of violent crimes being en- sions and response capabilities are The above mentioned priorities must
countered by the Army Military Police determined by the threat and avail- be well planned and constantly ob-
(MP) personnel, caused great concern ability of equipment and training time. served by the command in charge
amongst senior Army law enforce- When major disruptions or special in order to assure complete success
ment officials. As a result, the De- threats occur (to include acts of terror- while solving crisis. Each Military in-
partment of the Army mandated that ism), resources must be committed in stallation has specific needs deter-
Army Military Police (MP) units form a graduated response to resolve the mined by constant analysis of threats
specially trained units to respond to situation and restore law and order. and its vulnerable points. Detailed
any potential crisis situation. Guided SRTs are one of the commander’s analysis of threats is the essential
by this directive, all major Army posts principal response forces in the event to identify the desired capabilities of
now maintain the ability to deploy a of a major disruption or special threat, the Special Reaction Teams. On one
MP Special Reaction Team, or an SRT. and as such, are an integral part of hand a threat analysis can indicate
SRTs correspond to the civilian police an installation’s security. Some situa- low level threats which require basic
SWAT teams. tions requiring Special Reaction Team equipment and training of the Special
There are official data about the mis- are: barricaded criminals, barricaded Reaction Team. On the other hand
sion, organization and equipping of criminals who keep hostages, snipers if the threat analysis shows pres-
the special reaction teams in the Army incidents, counter terrorist operations, ence of sophisticated threats, this
Guide of the USA 19-10 (Military Police VIPs protection( as a force for reac- indicates that the installation must
Law and Order Operations). In the tion) threatened suicide incidents, bar- have Special Reaction Team with
chapter dedicated to the Special Re- ricaded mentally ill people etc. During advanced equipment and training.
action Teams it is stated that basis’s hostilities, SRTs may be required to The command and control of actions
commanding offices must provide an perform similar missions in a combat performed by the Special Reaction
installation SRT capable of providing environment. Teams are planned, coordinated and
an enhanced response to developed conducted by the operating centre
threats in their area of responsibility PRIORITIES DURING INCIDENTS for emergency situations, which is
within two hours of initial notification. SRT priorities during an incident are: activated upon information for a po-
The Commander of the highest- protection of lives of those connected tential threat. Special Reaction Team
ranking unit of the Military Police to the incident; securing the safe re- as well as other MP units present at

32
the place of the incident are tacti- MASTERS AT ARMS service teams. The organization,
cal element of the operation centre As written in the title of the text we training and equipment are similar to
led by the Provost Marshal–officer would shortly address Special Re- the ones of their colleagues (mem-
or his deputy who have the opera- action Teams which are part of the bers of the SRT) as well as other
tional control of the reaction forc- Military Police in the Navy and AAF. types of armed forces and adjusted
es. Tactical elements have internal In the USA Navy, the Military Police to the needs to the Army Air Force. It
and external perimeters, special re- is called, Master-at-Arms. In the last is not known in public that during the
action team, negotiation team and years, or since the USA armed forc- visit of the Iranian Shah, Mohammad
investigation team. es are in a war against terrorism the Reza Pahlavi in the USA, beside the
members of the NAVY Military Po- federal agents and other services,
STRICT CRITERIA lice participate in the counterterror- members of the SRT were respon-
FOR PERONNEL SELECTION ist attacks. Special Reaction Teams sible for the security of the shah.
When personnel for Special Reac- together with Special Forces par- Also as part of Security Police of the
tion Team is selected the most ticipate in counter terrorist actions Army Air Force of the USA starting
qualified volunteers are those who in the so called expedition mission. in the 80’s there is a flying squad for
meet the following requirements: These special teams have been re- emergency situations, which would
– One year of experience in military cently put under the Navy Combat go help the local teams from other
police Command, under the newly formed installations on call. The members of
– Е4 rank (corporal, specialist) or a Military Police whose training cen- the Emergency Situation Teams are
higher rank; tre is in Lackland, Texas. The special also trained in the Lackland Base,
– Highly disciplined and motivated; teams receive training lasting 50 Texas. Special Reaction Teams are
– Experienced and able to work un- days and they further develop by at- equipped with special equipment,
der pressure; tending other courses and schools which should help them complete
– Passed the Physical Test in the in the related area. We would herein their tasks. Here we would like to
Army
mention the specialized teams of list ballistic helmets, ballistic shields,
– To have minimum excellent
Marine Corps which are trained in waterproof specialized uniforms,
marksman qualification with the
entrusted weapon; the base “Fort Leonard Wood” in standard Kevlar protection vests,
– To posses individual special skills Missouri, as well as their colleagues night vision equipment, protecting
– To have combat experience or from the US Army. communication equipment. From the
participation in operation con- In the Army Air Force the Military used weapons we would list : ’M-
ducted in small units; Police is known as Security Police. 9”, Berretta 9mm pistol, „М-16А2“
– To have experience with law en- At the end of the 70’s there was an , rifles “The Remington 870 shot-
forcement; initiative to form teams for rapid re- gun”, Remington “M40 sniper rifles
– To be team players; action, lately known as emergency ”, Heckler and Koch sub machine
– To have an excellent vision; guns, mortars and other objects like
– Not to have criminal records or flesh and shock bombs. In necessary
disciplinary procedures. situations they use light machine gun
In addition, all the volonteers who M249, M240 and M1940.
apply for Special Reaction Teams As stated above the members of
should be psychologically checked the Army’s and Marine Corps’ SRT
before assuming the new duty. receive basic training in “Fort Leon-
Special Reaction Teams consist ard Wood”, in the state of Missouri.
of minimum 9 people. It is consid- The course is divided in two phases.
ered that one or two nine-member In the first phase the candidates
teams should be equipped and are trained for: selective shooting,
trained on an installation. The aim physical condition training, rope de-
is to have one Special Reaction scending, intelligence techniques and
Team around the clock. In addition, tactics, direct fight, shooting with
depending on the situation it might limited vision, night shooting, first
be necessary to use more than one aid, tactical planning and other skills.
team. According to the guide book In the second phase specialized skills
FM 19-10, Special Reaction team required for marksman- snipers and
consists of: observes are taught. In addition to
а) Element for an attack (entrance): this the members of the SRT attend
– team leader, Е6 or higher rank; other military and civilian courses.
– guide-pointer, Е4 or higher rank; During my stay in the above men-
– two members for protection, Е4 tioned installations I had an oppor-
or higher rank; tunity to see the training centre for
– one member for joint protection, special tactics. It is a modern training
Е4 or higher rank. centre with all the necessary ameni-
б) Element for protection-covering/ ties, equipped without having saving
second element for attack (if nec- any money. A confirmation about the
essary): reputation and the organization of
– two pointers-snipers, Е4 or high- this training centre is that members
er rank; of the specialized federal teams of
– two observers, Е4 or higher rank. the State of Missouri attend courses
A crucial point for proper function- there.
ing of Special Reaction Teams is
interoperability of its members i.e. Borce Jakimov
to be trained for minimum one or
more position in the team. The
team leader must know tasks and
obligations of each member.

33
HUMANITY
SERVING
From a peacekeeper’s journal
acedonia has demonstrat- This month treated us to a captain Elizabeta Petru-
ed and proven its capa- shevska-Mihajlovska,
bilities and qualities in the few sunny days. It reminded and to our pleasure, we had a
rocky, sandy, and less fa- us of how beautiful the very pleasant interviewee.
miliar regions in Middle Asia, in
Afghanistan and Iraq, as well as feeling to live in peace and FIRST STEPS IN THE ARMY
in its extended neighborhood. freedom is. It reminded Captain Elizabeta Petrushev­
Macedonian peacekeepers ska-Mihajlovska told us about
have already been giving their us that those elements the beginnings of her military
active contribution to maintain- are the most important in career. “Although I have been
ing peace and stability of one formally in active service in
of the former Yugoslav repub- life, as only then man can the army since the end of
lics, Bosnia and Herzegovina, concentrate himself on 2002, I have worked as a
for four years. Our brave nurse in the internal ward at
peacekeepers, who have been discovering the road to the Military Hospital since
part of the ALTHEA mission true happiness 1997. While working, I stud­
under the auspices of the Euro- ied at the Medical faculty as
pean Union auspices, have not a logical continuation of my
faced the cultural shock that education, after graduating at
the other peacekeepers have, the medical high school “Dr.
while serving in Iraq and Af- Panche Karagjozov” in Sko­
ghanistan. Although they have pje. I worked as a nurse until
not felt cultural differences and 2000 when I went to work in
much change in the way of life, the military barracks in Veles
nevertheless, they have played as a doctor where I worked as
an important role in a multicul- a doctor until 2007”, captain
tural environment, where each Petrushevska-Mihajlovska
one is a representative of one’s started explaining about the
country and the flag which one beginning of her career.
proudly wears on one’s sleeve. During the conflict in Mace­
Moreover, the responsibility - donia, at the beginning of the
to take care of the most valu- new millennium, she worked
able thing to man, his health, is in the military barracks in
a great one. Veles. “I worked in Veles dur­
ing the conflict. I went to Mat­
We visited the Military Hos- ka, Rashche and Karpalak to­
pital in Skopje to interview gether with the people from

34
the reserve unit from Veles. At the erything turned out well. We often
end of 2001 I was transferred to the had exercises, training and contacts
military barracks Ilinden in Skopje. I with other contingents stationed at
worked as a civilian doctor until the the base. Furthermore, we went to
end of 2002 when I went into ac- see other working points of other
tive service and got the rank of lieu- armies stationed in different cities
tenant”. In 2005 Dr. Petrushevska- in the Bosnian Federation and Re-
Mihajlovska attended a two-week publika Srpska. I visited the hospi-
course on Military Medical Care tal in Tuzla in order to improve our
Management. cooperation”. She characterized
Captain Petrushevska-Mihajlovska the attitude of the other armies
volunteered to take part in a mis- towards the Macedonian medical
sion and she got a chance to show team as especially friendly, based
her skills and capabilities as a part on complete mutual cooperation.
of the Macedonian contingent in the “We had excellent cooperation with
ALTHEA mission in Bosnia and Her- all contingents, but I would like to
zegovina. “In October 2007, while mention our cooperation with the
German and the Spanish medical
teams”.
and two drivers. The team was re-
sponsible for providing a 24-hour PROFESSIONALISM IN ACT
medical support on the base, seven The facts show that the tasks and
days a week. We worked in shifts, responsibilities of the members
alternatively every 24 hours. There of Macedonian contingent are not
were doctors from Germany, Po- easy. During her work, as a doctor,
land and Hungary on the base but Captain Petrushevska-Mihajlovska
they were responsible only for the has experienced a few situations
units from their countries, whereas, which she remembers and will con-
we gave medical support to our tinue to remember. “We had a few
unit as well as to the entire base, critical and difficult cases. In one of
even when our colleagues were not the cases a patient was choking,
there”, Captain Petrushevska-Mi- he had a swollen tongue, swollen
hajlovska enthusiastically explained. breathing tube, difficult breathing
Despite the great responsibilities etc. The patient was Hungarian, and
regarding the activities on the base, his doctor was not on the base, but
the Macedonian contingent also luckily we reacted on time. He was
had tasks off base. They provided given everything he needed; he was
medical support to a great number resuscitated and started breathing.
of training, cultural and sport activi- Afterwards, he was transported to
ties. “There was a period when we Sarajevo. In ten days, he was re-
took part in the MEDEVAC training leased from hospital and came to
- for about two months, because thank us”.
at that time the Macedonian pilots Constant readiness to take over
and helicopters took part in it. The any cases that needed medical at-
team itself consisted of not only tention was a priority to our team.
Macedonians, but also German The team proved many times that
medical technicians, with whom we they can give medical assistance
had excellent cooperation, I must quickly and timely. “There was a pa-
say. Afterwards, the Spanish teams tient from Bulgaria who accidently
with their helicopters and pilots caught fire from petrol, and at that
took over the responsibilities for time the Bulgarian doctor was not
the activities. We went to Jahorina, on the base. We took all necessary
when we had a case with an Aus- actions, i.e. cleaning the wound,
trian officer who hurt his leg while administering painkillers, analge-
skiing. He was transported to the sic, and then the patient was sent
medical center with our vehicle and to the surgical ward of the medical
thanks to our timely intervention ev- center in Sarajevo for further treat-
ment of the wound”, explained cap-
tain Petrushevska - Mihajlovska.
Unusual and out of the routine
working in “Ilinden”, I received both events are everyday reality to our
my specialization and an order, of peacekeepers. The way they ex-
course after I volunteered, to go on ecute the tasks, by taking full re-
a mission in B&H”, she continues. sponsibility and absolutely respect-
ing the ethics and moral, show the
ON A MISSION professionalism of the Macedonian
“I was on a mission in Bosnia as part army and its peacekeepers, rep-
of the ALTHEA mission from 15 No- resenting our country in missions
vember 2007 to 15 May 2008. I was abroad. Captain Mihajlovska told us
accommodated in the base Butmir about an event of different nature.
in Sarajevo. There were 2500-3000 “The regulation manual in the base
people and soldiers from 37 coun- provides regulations which tell you
tries. exactly how to react in case of an
Macedonian team worked in the in- air raid of the base, or if a suspicious
firmary. It consisted of ten people cargo arrival etc. Once, when I was
– two doctors, four nurses, one lab on duty, the duty officer on the base
technician, one logistics provider called our team, which consisted

35
of a nurse, a driver and I, to tol. I started target shooting
check a suspicious cargo that completely by chance - I had
had arrived on the base. They a chance to try my abilities
suspected that it might have in shooting while I was on
been anthrax; therefore we duty as medical support at a
took all prescribed measures shooting competition in the
– putting on the protective ARM. That is how I joined their
suit, and all additional pro- team. There is one thing that
tective gear. Our task was to I have learned from shooting,
take care of the people from and that is, calmness is very
the counterterrorist unit, who important, not only in shoot-
were examining the suspi- ing but in life in general”, Cap-
cious cargo, in case their sus- tain Mihajlovska finished.
picions of anthrax have been
confirmed. Fortunately, at the THE HOME COMES FIRST
end, their suspicions were not We wanted to find out some-
confirmed; nevertheless, the
entire procedure for such cas- thing about the private life of
es was duly followed”. our peacekeeper. Her story
The dedication and the out- confirmed that a man can be
went to Norway, in 2006, In- 1. MEDALS FOR
standing work performance dia, and in 2007, Sweden. In completely fulfilled provided
A SUCCESSFULLY he is successful in his ca-
of the tasks assigned did not 2005 and 2007, I participated COMPLETED
go unnoticed. On the contrary, in the world championships reer as well as in his private
MISSION
the commander of the base in shooting, and in 2006, the life. She is a happily married
awarded the Macedonian fourth Military Championship 2. EVACUATION mother of two. “I am mar-
team. “Having successfully re- in a number of disciplines OF INJURED ried. My husband’s name is
acted in several cases which in India, which is similar to PEOPLE Ilija Mihajlovski. He works as a
needed medical assistance, the Olympic Games. In that Chief in the MoI. We have two
our team was presented with huge competition I won the children, a daughter, Tamara
a medal by the commander 30th place. For three years I who is thirteen years old and
of the base. The Irish contin- kept winning the first place a son, Stefan, who is seven
gent presented me a certifi- in shooting competitions for years old. When I was in Bos-
cate of gratitude because all women in the ARM. In 2007, nia my daughter was eleven
logistical support concern- I was part of the team that and my son five. During that
ing the medical support was won the first place. In the period of our lives, my chil-
provided by the Macedonian first year I used a small cali- dren and I had a difficult time.
team, since they did not have ber gun and a pistol, later on Nevertheless, they somehow
a doctor on their team. They I used only a small caliber pis- managed without me, thanks
had frequent health problems to the resourcefulness of my
and they were very content husband”. The children take
with the way we provided the after their mother, when it
medical assistance”. comes to the love of the
When we asked Dr. Petru- army, which is very interest-
shevska-Mihajlovska about ing. “Stefan wants to become
the most stressful day during a soldier and he often puts on
the mission, without hesita- my hat. I take him with me
tion, she answered that it had when I go to practice target
been the 12 January. It was shooting and he is already
the day of the helicopter ac-
cident near Katlanovo Blace, showing his talent. On the
where eleven peacekeepers other hand, Tamara is more
from the ARM died in a heli- inclined to my husband’s pro-
copter accident during their fession”, she said.
flight home from Bosnia and At the end of our interview
Herzegovina. “Those days we had the same impres-
were the hardest. We were sion as we did at the begin-
together there, you know, ning, we were sorry to leave
we helped each other as pro- her pleasant company. We
fessionals, as colleagues, as had the honour of meeting
people, as members of the a wonderful person who has
Macedonian team. Those demonstrated her profession-
days, that period was really alism many times. She has
difficult”. been to survival courses to-
gether with the “wolves” and
TARGET SHOOTING – “rangers”, and many exercis-
SECOND LOVE es in Macedonia and abroad.
Our interviewee, Captain The doctor, who has changed
Elizabeta Petrushevska-Mi- her specialization in the new
hajlovska loves sport. Her Military Medical Center where
favorite sport is target shoot- she will work in the psychiatric
ing, which she took up abso- ward, is the pride of the Army
lutely buy chance. “I took up of the Republic of Macedonia
target shooting in 2004. I like all of her fellow Macedo-
started my “shooting” career nian peacekeepers.
in the shooting team in the
ARM. Since then, I have taken Zdravko Rizovski/
part in several international Ivan Petrushevski
championships. In 2005 I

36
UNITED
FOR
HUMANITY

THE ROLE OF THE UN IN REFUGEE PROTECTION


he United Nations (UN) Organiza- the battle field, and the civilians were in comparison to the number of soldiers
tion was established in San Francis- rather less endangered and didn’t feel directly involved in the military activities.
co, the USA, on 24 October, 1945. the horrible consequences of the military A consequence of the use of sophisticat-
In addition to its fundamental aim conflicts directly. Along with the develop- ed technology and the weapons of mass
to maintain peace and security in ment of technology and the advance of destruction, in addition to the great num-
the world and seek preventive solution the military industry, starting from World ber of civilian casualties, is that a lot of
to the potentially armed conflicts, one War I, and especially in World War II, as civilians are forced to leave their homes
of the more important assignments of well as the wars waged afterwards, in search of salvation.
this organization is to take protective the civilian population was seriously
measures and support the great number threatened by military activities. If the The UN Refugee Agency
of refugees fleeing conflict regions and number of the dead civilians resulting Today, more governmental and non-
areas. from the armed conflicts had been minor governmental organizations deal with
Armed conflicts have been character- compared to the battle field fighters in resolving the problems of the refugees
istic for humanity ever since the very World War I, this ratio had rapidly been resulting from military conflicts, as well
existence of the world. However, in the changing, and in the armed conflicts fol- as with the refugees fleeing certain ar-
early phase of military technology devel- lowing World War I the number of dead eas in case of crisis and immediate com-
opment, the wars were waged only on and wounded civilians was much higher bat danger. Directly in charge of this as-

37
signment is the United Nations tive Committee composed of cover photo provided the living conditions are
High Commissioner for Refugees representatives of 64 member- (pg. 37): improved and provided they al-
(UNHCR), appointed by the Sec- countries of the UN, meeting From low it, so as to integrate in the
retary-General of the UN. annually in Geneva. Another Horror to country where they had received
The UN Agency for refugees working group in this agency is Hopelessness: asylum or to move to third coun-
was founded by the General As- the Standing Committee which tries.
Kenya’s
sembly of the UN in 1950, as a assembles a number of times
result of a multiyear effort of the per year. The High Commissioner Forgotten Wide range of activities
international community to pro- for Refugees as the Head of the Somali The first mandate of the UN
vide protection and support the Agency submits a report about Refugee Crisis Refugee Agency right after its
refugees. This institution has an its work to the General Assembly establishment in 1950 was a kind
assignment to lead and coordi- of the UN once a year. of a three-year program, geo-
nate the measures, activities and graphically limited mainly to Eu-
the efforts of the international Refugee Status 1. Refugees rope with an aim to protect the
community to protect the refu- The refugees, according to the who fled numerous refugees from World
gees and to resolve their prob- law, are defined as people who the conflict War II. However, in the following
lems worldwide. The primary goal are out of their countries be- in Sudan's years and decades the problem
of this UN institution is to pro- cause of their fear of repression western with the refugees became more
tect the rights of the refugees, to and endangering of their lives Darfur region
secure correct behavior towards based on their race, religion, na- peek through
them and protect the right to tionality, political definition or a hole in
seek asylum and personal safety affiliation to some social group a shelter
in another state with an option who can’t or don’t want to come to watch a
for a voluntary returne home, back to their homes. The 0N circumcision
to enable the refugees to stay Agency for protection of refu- ceremony
in the country where they fled gees, as an apolitical and unprof-
at Djabal
to or to be relocated to a third itable humanitarian organization,
country. Ever since its establish- has two fundamental and closely camp near
ment, in the period of almost 60 related aims-to protect the refu- Gos Beida in
years, this Agency of the UN has gees and seek ways for them to eastern Chad
helped to more than 50 million continue living in normal condi-
refugees to start a new life. tions. Apart from that, the refu-
However, the first attempts to gees should be provided with a
establish a body for protection complete international protec- 2. Afghan
of refugees were in the remote tion of the basic human rights returnees
1921 when in the League of Na- and not even a single person walk through
tions, the former organization of can be returned to their country the rubble of
the UN, the Norwegian scientist of origin if they don’t voluntarily their village
and explorer Fridtjof Nansen was agree. The Agency asks every
appointed High Commissioner country of asylum to respect the
for Refugees. rights of the refugees. People
Today, the UN Agency for pro- from this agency are engaged on 3. People
tection of refugees is one of the different locations, starting from queuing for
major world humanitarian orga- the capital of the country where food and
nizations with more than 6 200 the refugees are staying, in the water outside
employees, engaged in 120 coun- camps where the refugees are
Goma
tries assisting a great number of placed which are usually located
people (about 17 million) with a near the border zones, in order
refugee status. In its almost 60- to protect the refugees from
year history this UN Agency has violence, including sexual harass-
protected and helped more than ment, which very often happen in
50 million people worldwide. This the country where the refugees
agency has received two Nobel have received asylum as well.
Prizes for its successful work, The Agency is looking for a long-
one in 1954 and in 1981. term solution to the problems of
The working program of the the refugees and the displaced
Agency for protection of refu- with an aim to secure their re-
gees is approved by the Execu- turn to their country of origin,

38
complex on global world level. The attempts to provide normal living condi- untary basis by the governments of the
Refugee Agency had to be adjusted tions in the affected regions and directly member-countries of UN, and also from
to the newly arising conditions and to engages in restoration of their ruined other nongovernmental organizations,
increase its capacities and capabilities. homes, schools, roads, bridges, medical corporations and individuals. Moreover,
This agency has been transformed from institutions as well as groceries for the the Agency receives less than two per-
a relatively small and specialized agen- refugees, medical assistance and pro- cent from the UN budget.
cy to a new organization with offices tection, other necessities of vital impor-
in 115 countries all over the world with tance for the civilian population, support Providing assistance
an annual budget of about one billion and assistance of certain projects such to the internally
American dollars. Today, the agency’s as the development of the economy, displaced people
main concern is not only the rights of culture and education in the affected The Agency mainly engages in protect-
the refugees, but also the improving of regions. ing those refugees who have left their
material living conditions in the refugee Only in the last fifteen years the Agency fatherland and are situated in another
camps and taking steps in providing has helped millions of refugees in: Iraq, country. However, naturally, it takes
conditions for their returne home. But, Afghanistan, Western Africa, Timor, care of the internally displaced people
in order to return to their homes, the Kosovo and Central America and other who haven’t left their fatherland, but
agency, together and in coordination regions in the world. who live in similar conditions to the ref-
with other humanitarian organizations The Agency is financed mostly on vol- ugees in other countries. It is assumed
that there are 20 to 25 million so called
internally displaced people in the world,
people who have left their homes usu-
ally due to civil wars.
Today, the Agency is helping more than
six million internally displaced people,
however since their number is increas-
ing, the international community is seek-
ing a way to help these people as well.
For that purpose, today the Refugee
Agency closely cooperates with many
other sisterly organizations of the UN,
such as WFP-Word Food Program,
UNICEF-United Nations Children’s
Fund, WHO-World Health Organization,
UNDP- United Nations Development
Program and UNHCHR-United Nations
High Commissioner for Human Rights,
as well as with many other international
organizations such as the ICRC- Inter-
national Committee of the Red Cross,
the IFRC-International Federation of the
Red Cross, and more than 570 non-gov-
ernmental organization.
According to the security evaluations in
the world, it is assumed that the activi-
ties in the UN Refugee Agency will not
be decreased, since there are still many
crisis regions and potential outbursts
of war that will influence the number of
refugees to go up. It is hard to predict
whether this agency will stay without
an engagement in the more distant fu-
ture, as this seems very unlikely. This
would be a great success in achieving
peace in the entire world.

МA Stojan Dimchov

39
DOG CARE
SOLDIERS AND THEIR BEST FRIENDS - DOGS - IV
puppy with gentle and soft hair, but in winter we must be cautious be- ingredients in the right proportion. If
like a velvet toy, quickly grows cause even though it seems that its we feed the dog only with meat, the
into a clever young dog with nice hair is dry, the dog remains sensitive hair becomes bristly, loses it shine,
and glossy hair. We should know to cold. In that case, we should wait dandruff itching and hair loss occur.
that shiny hair does not serve only for a while and only afterwards allow the This type of disease is known to vet-
beauty, it also reflects the health of dog to go out. erinarians as “only meat – syndrome”.
our four legged friends. In addition to The ears should be inspected once a Those owners that feed dogs with
the necessity of movement, cleanli- week. There are special liquids that are food disposals, among other symp-
ness and care of the body are a guar- sprayed into the outer channel when toms produce changes in the hair.
antee for dog’s longevity. cleaning the ears. The dog’s sensitive Dogs should be given food with
To remove dust and dirt from the hair ears should never be cleaned with a proper regard to protein, fats, carbo-
of the dog, we should brush it daily, sticks, water and soap. If the dog of- hydrates, mineral salts and vitamins.
or at least once a week, depending on ten shakes his head or scratches its If we prepare the food ourselves, we
the type of hair. For long hair dogs, ears, it is necessary to immediately should look after its contents, and
we need a brush and a comb, for mid- visit the veterinarian. should take into consideration that
dle long hair we need a metal brush, Teeth need to be reviewed occa- by digestion many nutrients especial-
and for short hair we need a brush by sionally. We should look after dental ly vitamins are lost. The provision of
choice. plaque, especially molars because vitamin and mineral substances in the
Dogs are always brushed from dental plaque causes inflammation meal will provide the necessary nutri-
head to tail and from back to stom- and periodontitis. For regular care, ents to the dog. Parallel with care and
ach. Knots that can not be combed, you can purchase teeth cream, also proper diet, the dog will literally shine
should be cut. In spring and autumn, different types of vitamin sticks, artifi- in new splendor.
when the dog changes its hair, for cial bones and other items for gnaw-
combing we should use a special ing which clean teeth are useful. FEEDING THE PUPPY
comb, instead of a brush. If the dog moves enough, its nails are Feeding the puppy in the apartment,
Dogs should be rarely bathed because the proper length and do not need even if it is in a box in the yard, is a
by bathing the hair loses its moisture, cutting unlike dogs which are perma- very important act in his upbringing.
and dust and dirt are caught on the nently closed. It is often necessary The dog sees us and our family like a
dog very quickly. Thorough bathing is to clean its paws because there are pack where, of course, there are su-
necessary only if the dog is complete- a lot of stones, earth, etc. between periors and subordinates in mutual re-
ly dirty. For bathing use only shampoo his paws. The dog informs about the lations, so it is important to place the
for dogs and never use people prod- presence of a strange object by lick- dog on the lowest scale of this rela-
ucts. Shampoos should not enter ing his paw. tionship. This goes hard with children
the eyes and ears of the dog. After We already said that hair reflects the who can hardly understand the time
bathing, it is recommended to dry the health of the dog. The hair shows playing with the dog, rest, praise and
dog with a cloth. When the weather whether the dog is fed well and punishment and have problems with
is good, the dog can walk outside, whether it contains all the necessary the intonation of the commands.

40
Instinct for food is the biggest in- it. When the puppy will be taken out- needs that. We must follow the pup-
stinct in a dog’s world. It is a re- side we will see that it will finish after py and when it is prepared and knelt,
flexion of excretion of saliva on the several minute. Then you need to give we should react with strong “no”,
appearance of the food which is an it a little more time to play, and then shake it and immediately take it out.
unconditioned reflex which can eas- return home. But what happens lat- If it behaved as we planned, we take
ily be used to be dominant over the er? The little “genius” will realize that it back home and give it a toy. If this
dog. There are several rules that after relieving itself it is carried back “game of nerves” continues, we must
must be respected. The dog must indoors. Therefore, the time for play be persistent to the end and always
not eat before the owners because will be prolonged more and more. It do it “our way”. If it happens that the
in the pack, leaders eat first, then could be tolerated if we do not work, puppy makes “trouble” at home, we
lower hierarchical units. While the but imagine how it would be when soak a towel in vinegar and water and
owner is eating, the dog should be in it is raining, when there are high or clean the excrement. The goal is to
its place. We should not attract the low temperatures, or if you are late take the smell off of the place where
dog with food, allowing it to come for work. To stop this practice, , if we the puppy would return again to do
under the table or climb into the lap notice that the puppy is fooling us the same.
of the owner. If we allow this, it will by thinking that it has invented the
cost the owner more money and right formula for endless play, we re- YOUNG PUPPY IN THE STREET
nerves because it is difficult to repair turn it home without any delay, but In city traffic, an inexperienced dog
that. we must be careful because its body is a great danger, both for the owner
and for other participants. Any neg-
FOOD QUANTITY FOR DOGS WITH DIFFERENT WEIGHT PER DOG PER DAY ligence by the owner and his dog
leads to disaster. If our dog leaps in
Powder or dry plum Tins in gr. the street, the surprised driver will
Dog’s weight food in gr. always instinctively suddenly break,
in kg. and may result in a direct frontal or
Life support Life support
food Growth food food Growth food side collision, which leads to damag-
es and costly repairs and, worse, to
2 80 160 200 400 various injuries to people in the au-
5 150 300 400 800 tomobiles. When the dog comes out
for the first time, it reacts fearfully,
7,5 180 360 550 1.100 which is very dangerous because it
10 220 430 680 1.300 can be released from the leash with
strong traction, or push the owner,
15 280 520 850 1.600 or get foul up its owners legs. This
25 450 800 1.250 2.200 fright of the dog is innate only in rare
cases. This always happens because
35 600 800 1.600 2.200 of negligence of the puppy in the
50 800 800 2.600 2.600 first 12 weeks of its life, since what
is experienced in that period remains
engraved in the dog’s brain by the
When the puppy is being fed, we end of its life. Everything that the
must set a specific location where puppy has not experienced or has
it will always eat. The dog must not not come in contact with, may sur-
be brought to the plate and immedi- prise it and cause a panic reaction.
ately be given to eat, but it should If the puppy grows in a corner of an
be made to sit and wait to be given apartment on some floor, it cannot
the command “eat” or some other learn to become a good dog.
command which the owner himself When the puppy passes the street
will choose for the puppy. To make with its owner, it should stop and sit.
the puppy to sit, it is still early to be We should ask that from it from the
forced to sit down with force (e.g. first time so that it becomes a habit.
pressing the hips), for which it is We will do it on the other side of the
necessary to use wiliness. How? We street as well, and the order of pass-
will call the puppy holding the plate ing should be the following:
of food in hand and when it comes, 1. Come to a sidewalk end, then stop
the plate that the puppy smelled will and sit.
be raised slowly to vanish from sight 2. In the sitting position, at a sound
and it will sit. For starters, it is time signal to pass we move together on
to praise the puppy with “Bravo,” Sit the command “come”.
“and give them the food. The plate 3. We cross the street and again sit,
should be left for 15 minutes and but with its back turned towards the
no matter how much the dog ate it traffic for greater safety of the puppy.
should be removed and the puppy 4. The puppy sits until the next com-
should not be given anything to eat mand “come.”
until the next meal. At the beginning, This may seem complicated, but
the feeding should be done by one when you try you will see that it is
member and then by other family simple and safe. Of course, if we are
members, so that the dog learns its persistent, we will soon be happy
place in the family. with the collaboration with the young
and temperament puppy. However,
PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS we must constantly observe and act
When the puppy comes home, physi- as by a pattern because the sooner
ological needs are the biggest prob- the puppy learns to pass the street
lems from day one. At the beginning the quicker it will forget. Therefore,
it is necessary for the puppy to be what was learned should always be
taken outside on grass or soil more repeated.
frequently in order to acquire the hab- Riste Giovski

41
Sports – ARMY OLYMPIANS
OUR BIATLON COMPETITORS AMONG
THE FIRST ONE HUNDRED IN THE WORLD

2
ur two Olympians from the Brigade, Colonel Metodija jkirhen in Germany, the Army
the 2nd Mechanized In- Velichkovski, where they talked World Championship in mara-
fantry Brigade are finish- about their achievements and thon running in Belgrade, the
ing their preparations the training conditions with NEW YEAR’S CROSS COUN- Regional Skiing competition in
for the Winter Olympic modestly and reservation. TRY COMPETITION Alta Val Pusteria, Italy as well
Games to be held between 12 Prior to their leaving to the Macedonian Army personnel as the regional competition in
and 28 February in Vancouver, Olympic Games, the Brigade completing the sports activities futsal which took place in April in
Canada. The professional sol- Headquarters and representa- for this year Belgrade, Serbia. Out of the do-
diers Darko Damjanovski and tives from the Kicevo municipal- On 28 December, last year, a mestic competitions we should
Gorgi Icoski will be part of the ity organized a small ceremony cross country running competi- mention the Regional ARM Bi-
Macedonian National Olympic on this occasion and the rep- tion was held on the bank of athlon Cup which was held on
Team. resentatives from the Mace- the River Vardar. This race was the ski-slopes of the mountain
Participating in the Olympic donian Orthodox Church from the last of the many sports ac- Bistra in Mavrovo, the athletic
Games is a success for every the Kichevo Eparchy gave their tivities of the Macedonian Army marathons in Skopje and Ohrid
athlete, and only a few get the blessings. This small ceremony personnel for 2009. which were the second regional
opportunity to fulfill this dream. is a way of honoring our brave As most significant we would ARM marathon competition.
Darko Damjanovski comes from army Olympians and at the like to mention the international The Macedonian Army also or-
the village Mavrovo and he has same time an incentive for the cross country competitions in ganized sports activities on the
been active in cross-country ski- other representatives from the Lausanne, Switzerland and No- occasion of marking the day of
ing ever since 1996. So far, he unit to follow their example.
has been awarded many times Both of them will represent the
for his achievements among Republic of Macedonia in the
which he modestly mentions most military discipline- Biathlon
the first place of the Mavrovo at the Winter Olympic Games as
Cup in 2007 and the two second members of the Macedonian Ski
places at the European Biathlon Team.
Cup. We are all familiar with the fact
The 26-year-old, Gorgi Icoski that in order to achieve the high-
from Krushevo has been skiing est results hard work and a lot
ever since his early childhood. of sacrifices are required, how-
His biggest achievements are ever there are also other pre-
third place at the European Bi- conditions which are no less im-
athlon Championship and the portant and the country should
first place in cross-country skiing provide for the best.
on the Balkans. In 2009, at the If the necessary training condi-
very end of his military service, tions are provided we are most
he won first place in the Interna- certain that from the Olympic
tional Army Cup in Mavrovo. Games in Sochi in 2014 they will
The Army Olympians were re- return with a medal.
ceived by the Commander of Mice Koteski

42
the International Military Sports Moreover, this competition was the previous time the first place was fourteenth.
Council (IMSC), the second a selective competition for the went to Marija Pelikon from the At 12:30 the winners received
military championship in cross ARM members who will partici- Honours Battalion, while Elena symbolical prizes for their
country running and events or- pate in the World Military Com- N. Simonovska won second achievements and the names of
ganizes for the Army Day -18 petition in cross country which place and Violeta Lazarovska the winners of the entire round
August. will take place between 9 and 11 third place both from the LSC. were announced. The winning
As for the New Year’s Cross March in Oostende, Belgium. We should also mention the team for 2009 was SC”18 Au-

3
which is taking place for the sec- Goran Astargiev award given to Biljana Si- gust” from Skopje, second place
ond time and has a potential to monovska from the Logistic went to SC” Izgrev” from Veles
become a traditional competi- Battalion for the most promis- and third place went to SC” Del-
tion, in addition to the competi- BOWLING TOURNAMENT ing result. At the end we would ta” from Skopje. The first place
tors from the Macedonian Army, The traditional bowling tourna- like to express our gratitude for in men’s competition went to
civilian athletes from the Sport ment sponsored by the Logistic the excellent organization of Srgan Miloshevski with a total
Clubs” Delta”, SC” 7 May”, SC Support Command (LSC) and in this event and invite everyone of 484 points in ten competi-
”Bezbednost”, SC “SOFKA”, SC cooperation with the bowling interested in this sport to take tions, second was Dobre Kuz-
”Magari” and many others par- club BC “18 August-Ading” was part next year. manovski from MSC “18 August”

4
ticipated as well. The athletes held for the fourth time on 5 Lj.Ј. from Skopje with 421 point and
competed in 5 000 meters for January this year in the bowling third place went to Vase Janaki-
women and 10 000 meters for club Musandra, in the basement ev from the same club with 421
men. In an exciting and tense of the City Shopping Center Tenth round of points. The Macedonian champi-
race in women’s competition (CSC). This event which became the Mountain Running on for 2009 in women’s compe-
the winner was Enisa Tasevska an annual event is among the League tition was Jasna Angelova from
from SC” 7 May” followed by Kat- first sports events at the level The tenth round of the moun- “18 August” , 16 year old Matija
erina Dimovska also from SK” 7 of the Macedonian Army with a tain running league was the Stojcevska from the same club
May” and Vesna Kiragieva from purpose of recreation and build- last sports competition held won third place and Vesna Ki-
SC” Bezbednost”. In the men’s ing sportsmanship of the partici- last year. Early in the morning in ragieva from SC”Bezbednost”
competition the first place went pants. Participants with limited front of the Ministry of Defence from Skopje was second.
to Aleksandar Kiragiev from SC” or no experience have the right building about 14 competitors As a reminder, the first round
Security” followed by the ath- to take part in this interesting gathered and were transported of the mountain running league
letes from SC” SOFKA”, Sasho sport. to the recreation site Matka took place on 8 March, starting
Danevski and Stojan Popovski. Around 60 participants, both where the race was to start at from the Elementary School
Out of the representatives from women and men participated 09:30. The participants ran 15 “Koco Racin”- the peak of Vodno
the Macedonian Army the most on the event. The criteria for kilometers ending the race at and the finish line was at Sred-
successful was the profes- both men and women were the Sredno Vodno. Zoran Dimov no Vodno. The second round
sional soldier Verica Paraskova same. 15 bowling balls were from the Sport Club “Izgrev” was from the village Skocivir
from VP 4834/4 from Skopje. thrown twice meaning there was the first to cross the fin- to the mountain Nige, the third
The second and the third place were a total of 30 throws in ish line at 11.00. The second from the village of Papradishte
among the women went to rep- each lane. The total number of was Jovica Ristovski at 11:09 to Veles, the fourth Tajmishte
resentatives from VP 2733 from collected pins was the criteria from SC” Delta” from Skopje –Kichevo, the fifth Karagica-
Veles, Sergeant Jasna Angelova for determining the best scores. and third was Ivan Ristov from Dracevo, the sixth Plackovica
SC” Kochani” from Kochani. The –Shtip, the seventh on Slavej
fourth and the fifth place went Planina, the eighth on Shar
to Vase Janakievski and Dobre Planina and the tenth from Tres-
Kuzmanovski, both from the kavec to Prilep.
mountain sports club “18 Au- The Macedonian Team that will
gust “from Skopje and the sixth represent our country at the
place was won by Srgan Milo- Second Balkan Championship
shevski from AK” Izgrev” from in mountain running in Teteven,
Veles. The seventh, eight, ninth the Republic of Bulgaria was
and tenth place went to the comprised from the above-men-
members of MSC” 18 August”, tioned competitors. This team
Branislav Jargich, Jasna Angelo- also participated in the 25th
va, Blaze Ristov and Marija Sto- Word Championships in Italy
jcevska. Vesna Kiragieva from where they came last in all dis-
SC” Bezbednost” arrived as the ciplines. Unlike the other World
eleventh and in twelfth place Championships where this dis-
was Aneta Bozinovska from ciplines have longer traditions,
MSC”Kitka” from Skopje. Mile the mountain running league in
Milcev from SC“Tranferzalec” Macedonia has been held only
from Skopje was thirteenth and five times.
Boro Ilievski from Sveti Nikole Sinisha Aleksovski

and Lieutenant Irena Stojkoska. The event was successful


In the men’s competition cap- thanks to the BC “18 August-Ad-
tain Vase Janakiev from VP ing” and the trainers who were
7925/12 from Kumanovo won ready to assist the participants
first place, the second went to and explain the rules of the
the professional soldier Igor game whenever necessary.
Cvetanovski VP 8043/4 and the During the five hours of compe-
third to arrive at the finish line tition there was music, taking,
was captain Igor Jakimovski VP picture taking and of course at
8043/3 from Skopje. the end awards for some of the
Before the beginning of the race participants. Among the men
the participants were greeted the first place went to Labinot
by the Chief of the General Staff Nebiu from the LSC for the sec-
of the Macedonian Army Lieu- ond time, Ljupco Spasovski also
tenant General Miroslav Sto- from LSC was second and the
janovski who welcomed them third place went to Kamenko
and wished them a successful Avramovski.
race and even better result in There were no surprises in the
the next 2010. women’s competition and as

43
THE MACEDONIAN ROOM

A synonym for recognizing the ARM “scorpions”


n the military barracks “Jane Sandan- and lively colors. wooden eaves or, in general, the great use
ski” in Shtip there is a beautifully dec- The look of the “Macedonian room” itself of the wood and the stone as a basic ele-
orated part in traditional Macedonian portrays the traditional look of the rooms ment in the Macedonian architecture. That
style with elements of our everyday in the Macedonian houses with no regards is why today the Macedonian folklore and
life from the past as well as from the to the location. What is specific is the mak- architecture are considered to be one of
present, and that is the famous “Macedo- ing of all the tools for agriculture and farm- the richest in the world, and we should
nian room”. That is an additional segment ing, which are basic branches of our region. preserve that and pass the tradition on to
that gives it dimension and makes the There are also the tools for home use of our future generations.
First Mechanized Infantry Brigade recog- wool and carpets, all the clay and metal The greatness and the meaning of the
nizable in nurturing our rich tradition. pots which were used in our kitchens, our “Macedonian room” by itself is demon-
In its wealth of vast cultural heritage, the structures of the already brought drinking strated by the visits of high military in-
citizens of the Republic of Macedonia have water, like the well - build on stone base, ternational and state delegations, by rep-
created and developed a rarely surpassed wooden roof and clay roof tile. Thus, we resentatives of the civilian structures and
rich material and spiritual culture in the form can say that the architecture as well has authorities from the zone of responsibility
of music, dance, folk embroidering, archi- a special characteristics in the Macedonian and beyond. It is used for working meet-
tecture and such. The people through the works. Most characteristic were porches, ings on several levels, and its openness
centuries have passed on the gained skills gateways, wooden fences and fences has made it attractive for classes for the
in the area of folklore and architecture. build out of stone, tiles out of dried clay, pupils of the elementary schools, in pre-
There are samples of the traditional work paring project activities of the students of
of the national entities from different re- the Faculty of Tourism and Management
gions of our country in the “Macedonian in Shtip, in organizing performances for
room”. In the modeling and gathering of the needs of the Macedonian-Croatian
the attractive and completely prepared association, as well as other ceremonies
collections of the most interesting works, and activities.
in addition to the “scorpions”, there was “The Macedonian room” represents the
a great number of volunteers from the ci- brigade, the Army of the Republic of
vilian structures and citizens, who unself- Macedonia and the region as a devel-
ishly donated a part of their own cultural oped cultural environment, and thus, a
family heritage. The exhibited artifacts humble contribution is made in preserving
which were formed through decades of a part of our rich cultural heritage from
and centuries, created by skillful hands, oblivion, and the military barracks “Jane
product of the homeland speak about the Sandanski” has gained its reputation,
collected rich cultural heritage that left a fame and in the army circles it is known
mark through the centuries in that room. as an example of openness, cooperation
A special expression and mark of the dis- and transparency to the public. Simply,
played artifacts is also given by the deco- “The Macedonian room” is a synonym for
rative folk embroiderings, which specifics recognizing the “scorpions” of the ARM.
can be seen in extremely complex forms Zoran Janakievski

44
WILD
ANIMALS
SURVIVAL FOOD OF ANIMAL ORIGIN
an needs food rich in protein, there- because at that time, the fish looks for peace of cloth, feathers, or shiny metal, cut
fore, whenever there is lack of pro- warm water. in the shape of a fish or insect. Whenever
tein rich food from domestic animals, According to the rule, fish eat bait that artificial bait is used, a fisherman should be
wild animals such as fish, game birds originates from the fish environment, careful to make it as close to a natural one
and game (hare, doe, deer, chamois, therefore, crayfish, spawn or small fish as possible, moreover, he should pull the
wild boar, etc.) need to be provided. Other can be collected by the shore and worms bait slowly imitating the movements of
wild animals that can be used by man un- and insects can be collected on the shore. natural bait.
less the previously mentioned animals are The stomach of the fish, which has been
unavailable, are, wolves, foxes, badgers, caught, should be examined, in order to BIRDS
snails, frogs, snakes, grasshoppers, ant lar- see what it has eaten, and consequently, All bird flesh and eggs are edible. Catch-
vae, etc. Game meat is cooked in the same such food should be used as bait. In case ing birds is not easy because they have
way as meat from domestic animals. Be- of lack of bait, the entrails of the fish or the an excellent hearing and sight, therefore,
fore consuming, you need to make sure eyes of the fish can be used as bait. When they can sense human presence and fly
that the food is well boiled, grilled, or fried, worms are used as baits the top of the away. In the period of laying eggs birds
in order to eliminate the possible parasites. worm should be out of the hook (it should are less afraid of people, thus, at that time,
be put loosely), on the other hand, when in spring and summer, they are easier to be
FISH small fish are used as bait, they need to caught. If you follow the direction of flight
There is a substantial variety of fish in natu- be firmly pierced along the spine, so that of grown up birds, you can easily find the
ral watercourses (rivers and streams) and the spine should be intact. The artificial nests with nestlings. Birds are hunted with
lakes in Macedonia. Fishing is not easy, es- baits should be made of brightly colored a gun or improvised traps.
pecially if the person who is fishing is not
a fisherman or they need to improvise the GAME
fishing rod. In case of improvising, the fol- Game hunting is not easy either. Their
lowing rules should be kept in mind. sense of sight, hearing and smell is very
The best time for fishing depends on the keen so it can sense human presence very
type of fish; nevertheless, usually the best easily. First, it is important to track the trail
time for fishing is at dawn or dusk, right be- the animal used (footprints or feces) and
fore it rains, and at moonlit night. places it drank water or had meals. In the
The fishing place depends on the type of immediate vicinity of these places, a trap
water and the period of day. The best fish- should be placed opposite the wind, so
ing places are: fast rivers and streams at that the animal cannot smell the pres-
midday, deep rivers at nightfall, rapids and ence of the hunter. The hunter needs to
next to the shades in the rivers made of wait patiently, sometimes even for hours,
branches hanging over rivers, at the crack and while waiting, they need to be quiet,
of dawn. In the lakes, the best fishing place especially when the game approaches.
in the summer heat is in the bigger depths Furthermore, they need to be motionless
where the water is cooler; moreover, in the until they have a clear shot or until the
evening and in the morning, you should game is trapped, then they need to re-
fish by the shore because the fish eats in act. If the hunter creeps up on the game,
the shallow waters. In spring and autumn, they have to move in the direction of the
fishing is good by the shore of the lakes wind, slowly and quietly, while the game is

45
ing is at night with a special light (a 1. BIRDS CAN
lamp). The back legs of the toad are BE HUNTED
edible, as well as the body and the WITH A
front legs which can be made into a GUN OR AN
delicious stew. IMPROVISED
Green lizards are the biggest and TRAPS
a most striking lizards which can be
easily noticed as can grow up to 2. HUNTING
40 cm. It is very fast and it lives in WILDLIFE IS
sunny dry places, by thorn bushes, NEVER EASY
bushes, rocks, fences and roads.
It lives in mountainous regions as 3. SNAIL’S
well as in plains all over Macedonia. FOOT: A
The lizard can be caught by hitting GOOD MEAL
it with a long elastic pole or a small
noose attached to the end of a long
pole and carefully putting it around
its neck and swiftly tightening. Its

eating, drinking water or looking in They can be caught by hitting with


the opposite direction. Whenever a sling shot or pressing behind the
the game looks at their direction head and killed immediately. The
they have to stop immediately. meat is very tasty for eating and
The best time for hunting is early in they can be grilled, fried or boiled.
the morning or before nightfall. Big Grass snake (water snake). This is
game need to be shot in the neck, the most widespread non-venom-
chest or head. A wounded animal ous type of snake in Macedonia
runs away, therefore, its bloody trail which lives by swamps, lakes, and
needs to be followed. If it is heavily rivers, as well as by fast moun-
wounded, it will lie down, and un- tain streams. It can be 1.5 meters
less it senses that it is followed, it long, with green-grayish or dark
will not be able to get up and run gray skin. It is a very skittish animal
away due to profuse blood loss. which releases an unpleasant odor
The game can be hunted with im- in self defense. After stripping the
provised traps. skin, the meat can be very tasty. It
is very difficult to catch it because it
OTHER TYPES OF ANIMALS is an excellent swimmer and it can
Snails are widespread all over move pretty fast. Its favorite hiding
Macedonia, including the areas in places are the reedy river banks,

flesh is very tasty, but prior to being 4. Toads CAN


eaten, it should be stripped off its BE EASILY
skin, after which it can be grilled or HUNTED
boiled. Edible parts of the lizard are AT NIGHT
the entrails and the head. WITH A
Tortoises live in dry and rocky re- FLASHLIGHT
gions of plains, hills and mountains
of up to 1000 m altitude. It is caught 5. SNAKES
from spring till early autumn. It is ARE FULL
easily caught because it is very slow. OF nutRIT-
Its meat is very tasty, but in order to MENTS
eat it, it has to be separated from its
hard shell at the joints. 6. THE
Snake. All types of snakes in Mace- TURTLE’S
donia are edible and their meat is MEAT IS
nutritious. QUITE TASTY
The most common types of snakes
in Macedonia are: 7. ALL KINDS
Boa. This type of snake is wide- OF grASS-
spread in Macedonia. Some of HOPPERS
them can grow up to 2 meters KNOWN IN
the high mountains. It wakes up long. It can be easily caught, with
in early spring after winter hiberna- MACEDONIA
bare hands or sling shot as it is ARE EATABLE
tion and comes out on rainy days harmless, non-venomous, never-
of early spring. It is difficult to find theless one should be careful when
in the summer and in the period of catching it because it can wrap
drought. The best places to look for around the opponent and smother
snails are cool and wet ones, and it. Its meat is very tasty and after
the best time is in the early morn- stripping off the skin it can be grilled
ing. The only edible part of the snail on ember or boiled.
is the foot, which can be removed Horned viper, adder. These types
by putting it in scalding water or of snakes are very venomous and
ember. It can be grilled, roasted in they live in dry and rocky regions
oil, or put in a stew. Prior to cook- of Macedonia, where the sun con-
ing, the slime should be removed stantly shines as they love sun.
by rinsing it a few times with water. They rest during the day and hunt
Toads live in or by water and have at night. In summer, they can ap-
long back legs for jumping. It can pear by streams and by the sides
be caught with a small net or a of rocky mountain streams. They
fish hook on which a red cloth is can climb trees and it is easy to
attached. The best time for hunt- catch them as they are very slow.

46
scirpus, under rocks and roots of trees. – the animal trails would tell whether there Hanging noose is made in different ways
The venomous snakes are different from is game, the game species, its hiding so that one end of it is tied to a bent
non-venomous ones in many ways, for in- place, its movement, its food, and where branch and the other end of the rope
stance, venomous snakes are not longer it drinks water; is tied to a fixed mechanism. When the
than 90 cm, and they are fat and ponder- – before hunting the game, a decision game touches the noose or puts its head
ous. The horned viper and adder have a should be made concerning: the species through the noose, the trap is set loose,
short tail, and their triangular heads are of the game which would be hunted, the and then it tightens around the game and
separated from the body. Non-venomous best places, the best hunting tools, and lifts it into the air.
snakes are thin and long, therefore they the best bait; Nets for game are 50 m long, entwined
are agile and fast. Before preparing food – the traps should be set at the entrance of with rope or nylon, and are set on places
with snake meat, strip the skin, take the the den, on narrow passageways where where there are a lot of hares. While some
entrails out, and cut the head. The meat fresh trails can be seen and around the are looking for food in the area others will
needs to be washed and cut, and then it feeding places. If carnivores need to be get into the net. The doe is hunted in the
can be grilled or boiled. caught, then the traps should be set same way, but the hunt is more successful
Wood ants live in coniferous woods and where cattle have been slaughtered in the woods than in the open area.
mixed forests, in ant-hills which can be up before, or the entrails of other animals
to 1 m high. In spring and summer there should be used as bait; Improvised bird hunting
are larvae in the ant-hills, called ant eggs. – game can be driven out of the den with Hunting by hand is done by sitting in the
The easiest way to collect larvae is to take smoke and traps set at the entrance of ambush next to a tree or another place
out in the sun a part of the ant-hill together the den; where bird nests can be seen and wait-
with the ants, and put it in a box with small – rodents hiding in the burrows can be ing for the bird to come back to its nest to
holes made on its bottom. In order to pro- forced out by putting water in them, and sleep. When it is dark you point light from
tect the larvae from the sun, the ants put caught at the entrance by hand or by a torch towards the bird and catch it with
the larvae in the shade, in this case - in the noose; bare hands.
box. In this way, there will be a big amount – hares and other rodents are easy to hunt Noose is very convenient for catching
of larvae at the bottom of the box. The lar- because they have habits and limited birds. How, when and where to set the
vae are very nutritious and tasty. They can area of movement; noose and the type of noose, depends on
be fried in oil or animal fat. Ants are fully – the game traps should be set in the eve- the routine of the birds which are hunted.
protected by law, and it can be eaten only ning and checked in the morning because Bird traps can be made in many different
in extreme situations, such as, in wartime. animals look for food in the evening, at ways:
Grasshoppers. All types of grasshoppers night, and early in the morning. а) You can dig out a shallow pit in the
are widespread all over Macedonia, espe- shape of a funnel, and put some seeds or
cially the big ones. When fried, they are Improvised tools other bait for birds. You put a flat stone
nutritious and tasty. for hunting game over the pit supported by 3 small branches
Nooses are traps made of wire, rope or leaned on a plank placed on a heavy stone.
IMPROVISED FISHING entwined horse hairs. It is used for hunt- Instead of using a stone you can use a
Improvised fishing is done in several ways: ing birds and game. The size of the noose plank or a wicker basket pressed with a
Hand gathering. Gathering fish by hand is should be big enough to slip the head of the stone.
done in the fast mountain streams. Trout is animal but not the whole body. It tightens b) You can dig out a deep pit, where you
caught under big stones and holed up plac- at one end of the rope and the loose end of put bird seed or other bird food. The low
es at the sides of the stream. At the eaves the rope should be held tightly by hand or end of the pole, which supports the stone,
(holed up places at the sides of the streams) is tied, and the stone will fall as soon as the
of mid flow of the mountain streams, bar- bird touches the food.
bell and chub can be gathered by hand un- c) A net for catching birds can be made of
der the stones. The fisherman should move a rectangular frame or a bent branch on
upstream. When they sense the fish in their which you can put a net. One end of the net
hands, they have to move their hands along is tied to small pickets which are placed in
the body of the fish, and if it is calm they the ground, and the other end is supported
should grab it quickly at its gills. by a branch, tied with a cord. The other end
Redirecting of streams. The flow of a of the cord is held by the concealed hunter,
stream could be redirected at a convenient who pulls the cord and closes the net when
place by throwing stones, dirt or something the birds are at the trap.
else. A part of the stream is emptied; there- d) A paper cone can be covered with
fore the fish stays on dry land or gathers in mistletoe glue from the inside. The glue is
small pools where it is easy to catch. made from the fruit of the mistletoe, re-
“Poisoning” with mullein. In spring and sembling white berries, they are crushed
in autumn, when the level of the water is and boiled. The mixture is kneaded until it
low, the fish can be successfully caught becomes smooth and thick, then it is used
with the plant called mullein. The plant is to cover the paper cone from the inside.
picked with its flowers and crushed with a You can put a few grains of corn in the pa-
smooth stone on the side of the stream. per cone and spread a few grains of corn
The smashed plant is put in the stream and on the ground around the paper cone. This
the water becomes white and foamy. In this is the easiest way to catch birds from the
way, the fish is disoriented and comes out tied to a tree, or a sharp pole dug into the crow family. When the bird tries to take a
on the surface and it is easy to catch. ground so as to prevent the trapped animal grain, the beak sticks to the paper cone
Fishing with wicker baskets. Different to escape. and it covers the bird’s eyes, causing it
types of wicker baskets can be used (Im- Noose on a stick is used to hunt green liz- to fly hectically making it is easy to catch.
age 1.), which are usually made by willow ard and birds, by skillful creeping on to the Instead of a paper cone this kind of glue
branches, in order to get fish easily. This is animal, carefully putting it over its head and can also be applied to sticks or branches,
a primitive tool which everybody can make, swiftly tightening it. placed on a clearing or a quiet place where
and once the fish is in, it cannot get out. Noose for rodents is set at the exit of the the birds would come and get stuck.
The baskets are put downstream in the burrow and the other end is tied to a pole e) Hooks. You can put a grain of corn or a
river or in a lake where the water flows which is placed by the hole. In order to catch worm on a hook and tie it to a fishing line
out, or in places where you think the fish hares, the noose is set by hay stacks or a or any other cord. In this way you can en-
swims. If it is a small stream the basket fence opening where the hare could pass tice and catch doves, wild ducks, partridges,
can be put along the whole width, so the on his way while looking for food. In order crows and pheasants. The hooks can be tied
fish has to get in the basket. to catch doe, the noose is set on narrow on a hoop which floats on the surface of the
passageways of the trails. water. The hoop should be tied to a stone
IMPROVISED HUNTING Fixed noose is made of hardwire tied to or a small log. When the duck is caught on
OF BIRDS AND GAME a tree trunk or a sharp pole buried in the the fishing line, it pulls the stone which falls
These are general rules which should be fol- ground and set on the trails where the in the water and drowns the duck.
lowed when improvising the hunt of game: game moves. Igor Jovanov

47
FEAR OF
THE UNKNOWN
Retrospective – the accident of the American Three Mile
ecember, 1951. Idaho, USA. Four tory of the American nuclear power gen- cident, I will briefly explain the process
light bulbs illuminate the room and erating industry happened. of generating energy in a nuclear plant.
for the first time the source of the Basically it is a very simple concept.
electricity was nuclear fusion. Un- THE NIGHTMARE BEGINS – DAY 1 There are three major water/steam
til then uranium was considered to be The dreadful event happened on 28 loops (systems) in most pressurized
an element of lesser importance, and March, 1979, at 03:58. A routine clean- water reactors: the primary loop, the
it was used for colouring porcelain and ing of one of the filters in the non-nucle- secondary loop, and the condenser
glass. After this its value changed sig- ar secondary system of the plant, with feedwater (cooling tower) loop. The pri-
nificantly. compressed air, caused a small amount mary loop runs through the reactor. It
A relatively new Nuclear Generating of water to enter the secondary cooling consists of purified, demineralized wa-
Station – TMI-2 (Metropolitan Edison system. This small amount of water was ter to which a small, variable amount
company was operating the plant) built registered by the computer as a poten- of boron has been added for reactivity
on an island called Three Mile, in the vi- tially hazardous, causing the pressure in control. It is the primary thermal energy
cinity of Middletown and Harrisburg in the valves and the pumps to increase to transport loop of the thermal neutron
Pennsylvania, soon became notorious. a critical level, and thus endanger the en- fission heat energy. The primary loop
It will be remembered as the plant were ergy production. runs at a temperature far higher than
the most significant accident in the his- In order to explain the reasons for the ac- the boiling point of water at standard

48
spins a turbine that is connected
to the electrical generator. Once
its energy has been expended,
the steam flows through a con-
denser, which is another type of
heat exchanger that changes the
steam back to feedwater.
The sound of the alarm at 04:00
was nothing new for the opera-
tors of the night shift but they
could have never imagined the
events that followed.

COOLING SYSTEM
After the small amount of water
was detected the computer shut
down the pumps in the conden-
sate polishing system and the
main feedwater pumps. This au-
tomatically triggered the turbine because the instruments were
to stop working and the reactor designed to measure the level of
to scram: control rods were in- water in the core, solely by the
serted into the core and fission level in the pressurizer. Since it
ceased. But the reactor contin- was high, they assumed that the
ued to generate decay heat, and core was properly covered with
because water was no longer coolant, unaware that because
flowing through the secondary of the voids forming in the reac-
loop, the steam generators no tor vessel, the indicator provided
longer removed that heat from false reading. This was a key
the reactor. Once the primary contributor to the initial failure
feed water pump system failed, to recognize the accident as a
three auxiliary pumps activated loss of coolant accident, and led
automatically. However, because operators to turn off the emer-
the valves had been closed for gency core cooling pumps, which
routine maintenance, the system had automatically started after
was unable to pump any water. the initial pressure decrease, due
Due to the loss of heat removal to fears the system was being
from the primary loop and the overfilled.
failure of the auxiliary system to At that moment the core tem-
activate, the primary side pres- perature was above 1000 °C.
sure began to increase, trigger-
ing the pilot-operated relief valve CHINESE SYNDROM–AVOIDED
(PORV) to open automatically. The possibility of core melting
The PORV should have closed was becoming reality. The shift
again when the excess pressure change in the control room no-
had been released and electric ticed that around 120 m³ of cool-
power to the solenoid of the pi- ant had already leaked from the
lot was automatically cut, but in- primary loop and the core temper-
stead the main relief valve stuck ature had reached- 2200°C which
open due to a mechanical fault. is 500 degrees less than the
The open valve permitted cool- critical temperature which would
ant water to escape from the cause the cataclysmic “Chinese
primary system, and was the Syndrome”. According to “Chi-
principal mechanical cause of the nese Syndrome” hypothesis the
crisis that followed. The situation melted core would also melt the
Nuclear Power Plant became even more complicated protective sphere around it and

atmospheric pressure, and if this 1. THE FRONT


primary loop water is lost, neu- PAGE OF
tron moderation will stop and THE “TIME”
self sustaining fission in the re- MAGAZINE,
actor core will be halted. This is DESCRIBING
not desirable under operating (or THE ACCIDENT
AT TMI-2
recently shutdown) conditions,
since decay heat alone is suffi- 2. THE
cient to melt the fuel. The second- PRESIDENT
ary loop resembles the steam cy- OF THE USA,
cle in a conventional power plant. JIMMY CARTER,
The feedwater pump moves cool VISITING THE
water into the steam generator, DAMAGED
a heat exchanger which uses NUCLEAR
heat from the primary loop to REACTOR
boil the water in the secondary
loop. The resulting steam then

49
the core will sink due to gravity, boring a they speculated that some of the urani- an amount of oxygen could cause the
hole into the ground creating radioactive um rods were broken and thus radioactiv- hydrogen bubble to explode and lead
geysers around the nuclear plant. If this ity was released to the reactor coolant of to large scale release of radiation into
kind of nuclear catastrophe had occurred the primary loop. To determine the level the atmosphere. Fortunately, it was
it is supposed that around 40.000 peo- of radiation of the water in the primary determined that there was no oxygen
ple in the area around the plant would be loop it was necessary for someone from present in the pressure vessel. Imme-
exposed to extreme radiation. the staff to enter the containment build- diate steps were taken to reduce the
A few hours after the accident the situ- ing and to obtain a sample of primary hydrogen bubble, and by the following
ation in the control room became even loop water. Ed Hauser was the one who day it was significantly smaller.
tenser – there was another alarm. The took over the risk and was the first one to
radiation levels in the primary coolant see the devastating state of the reactor. THE EFFECT OVER
water were around 300 times expect- The water sample was light green and it THE NUCLEAR INDUSTRY
ed levels, and the plant was seriously was vibrating. It emitted a radioactivity The Three Mile Island accident was a
contaminated. The plant supervisor, of 1250 rems -lethal enough if being ex- significant turning point in the global
Gerry Miller declared General State of posed to it more than half an hour. development of nuclear power. From
Emergency and the WKBO radio stated When this information reached the op- 1963 to 1979, the number of reactors
broadcasting news about the further erators in the control room it was clear under construction globally increased
development of the situation. enough that their presumptions were every year except 1971 and 1978. How-
The most important event happened at incorrect and that the reactor was in a ever, following the event, the number
07:30 when after numerous attempts the much worse state than predicted. An- of reactors under construction declined
operators finally got in touch with the de- other problem was the radioactive water every year from 1980 to 1998. Many
signers of the reactor. Their reaction was: gathered in the basement of the plant similar (TMI-2) Babcock and Wilcox reac-
“Forget about going solid. Get water to that created radioactive gases. Aware of tors on order were canceled. The 1979
the reactor”. The primary loop pumps were the danger the operatives gave an order TMI accident did not, however, initiate
turned on once again, and the core tem- the gasses to be vented into the atmo- the demise of the U.S. nuclear power in-
perature began to fall and the pressure sphere gradually. dustry. At the time of the TMI incident,
was stabilized. Catastrophe was avoided. 129 nuclear power plants had been ap-
BLACK FRIDAY proved; of those, only 53 (which were
THE PUBLIC FINDS OUT – 08:33h On the third day following the accident, not already operating) were completed.
After the announcement of the general there were some terrifying announce- Federal requirements became more
state of emergency, there were many ments. The first one was made early in stringent, local opposition became
contradictory statements made by the the morning when the Governor Richard more strident, and construction times
officials. Namely lieutenant governor Thornburgh, ordered evacuation of the were significantly lengthened.
William W. Scranton held a press con- inhabitants who lived nearest to the
ference at which he stated that there plant. He also advised the evacuation TODAY
was a small release of radiation and no of pregnant women and pre-school age Three Mile Island currently uses only
increase in normal radiation levels had children within eight-kilometer radius of one nuclear generating station, TMI-1. Al-

D ECONTAM I NAT I ON
July 1980 – 1591 TBq (Tera Becquerel
– SI radioactive unit) krypton were re­
lea­sed from the reactor building and
people entered for the first time
July 1984 – The reactor vessel head
(top) was removed.
October 1985 – Defueling of TMI-2
began (completed in January 1990).
January 1991 – The evaporation
of accident-generated water began
(completed in August 1993)
December 1993 – TMI-2 Post-De­
fueling Monitoring Storage began.

been detected. This was contradicted the Three Mile Island facility. The state though the citizens of the three coun-
by statements from Met Ed, the TMI of the core, at that time, was still poten- ties surrounding the site voted by a
operator, who claimed that no radiation tially hazardous- the radioactive steams margin of 3:1 to permanently retire
had been released. Metropolitan Edison were still being vented into the atmo- Unit 1, it was permitted to resume op-
notified the Pennsylvania Emergency sphere and the core temperature was erations in 1985 (the permit stands till
Management Agency (PEMA), as well critical and there was a possibility the 2034). On the other hand, TMI-2 has
as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission protective layer around the core to melt. not been used since the accident and
(NRC). After receiving word of the acci- The second event that was announced it is in Post Defueling Monitored Stor-
dent from Met Ed, the NRC had activat- made the local authorities to think about age. Today, the TMI-2 reactor is perma-
ed its emergency response headquar- evacuating the whole population within nently shut down and defueled, with
ters in Bethesda, Maryland and sent wider radius of the plant. NCR engineer the reactor coolant system drained,
staff members to Three Mile Island. Roger Manson, using computer data, the radioactive water decontaminated
discovered a hydrogen bubble in the and evaporated, reactor fuel and core
THE NEXT DAY dome of the pressure vessel. The reason debris shipped off-site to a Department
After 24 hours since the beginning of the for this was the burning of the nuclear of Energy.
accident the operators could still not fully fuel rod cladding which released hydro- Ivan Petrushevski
determine the core damage, although gen gas. According to his calculations

50
CONTEMPORARY PERSPECTIVES
IN PLANNING COIN

COUNTERINSURGENCY OPERATIONS – VI
fter the conventional and un- success. The complete success requires to bear in mind that a pure military so-
conventional approach of strat- a creative imagination for understanding lution o the problem, especially during
egy building has been resolved, the the complex image in theatre for which COIN, is lethal in the achieving of a final
topic of our interest in this edition the COIN has been designed, and after- success.
of “Shtit” will be the strategy ele- wards apply modern elements in building Direct approach. The goal of this ap-
ments. Future warriors engaged in plan- the strategy which will direct COIN to- proach is to secure the population and
ning and conducting counterinsurgency wards success. The question that needs create conditions for isolating the insur-
operations (further as COIN ops) should to be answered now is: Which are the gents. According to the language of the
bear in mind that the appropriate COIN elements of a successful COIN strategy? operators this means that offensive
strategy should consist of several ele- warfare activities have been conducted
ments. The form of the strategy and, Main elements and on the spot in order to create condi-
as previously mentioned, the success approach in conducting COIN tions for area domination. These offen-
of the COIN depends on the setting At the outset, it should be underlined sive warfare activities include tactical
and application of these elements. On that the leader and the planners of the warfare actions such as: ambush, raid,
the other hand, blind clinging to the el- COIN strategy, should fully be aware of hasty check points, force demonstra-
ements which have proven well in the the fact that these operations cannot tion etc. Nevertheless, isolating the in-
past is good, but not good enough for be immediately resolved, so they have surgents from the population, with the

51
exception of operations aimed message can be mobile or fixed,
at “creating a discomfort zone”, physical or cognitive.
the insurgents have to include The mobile “knots” for informa-
defensive warfare activities. tion transmission are usually or-
The aim of these operations in ganized by the Macedonian Army
this phase is to support the idea and in a case of international mili-
of isolating the insurgents by tary operations, by the host na-
providing areas and directions. tion security, or as a combination
The colour of these operations is of both. The same refers to the
“defensive”. fixed knots.
Tactical warfare actions enabling The fixed knots are usually fa-
the activities in this area are, for cilities where you can go and get
example: patrolling to show pres- the information, or where the
ence and terrain reconnaissance, information is provided (for ex-
setting up check points (not hasty ample the media).
but mobile and permanent) etc. In this sense both mobile and
However, the indirect approach fixed knots can be cognitive.
is necessary at this stage for a This physically means there is a
way for information transmission
viding medical assistance to (public-address system, printed
the local population, assisting in 1.the war- or electronic media). The cogni-
building schools, roads, bridges riors of tive knot is far more complex and
or other facilities important for the future” requires more serious approach
should be by the leaders and planners. This
the locals, holding meetings the ones to
with the local leaders in order is due to the abstractness of its
deal with nature.
to allocate the centers of grav- the chal-
ity in the area and first-hand In other words, in other to
lenges of achieve (establish) this knot, it
information about the needs of the IV gen-
the locals etc. These activities is necessary to understand the
eration of
are accomplished by conducting warfare culture of the local population,
tactical warfare actions (in this so that they could be informed in
context considered as warfare 2. MEMBERS the best possible way. The exam-
actions) which include medical OF THE SPE- ples so far indicate that the right
assistance, logistic support, en- CIAL FORCES identification has a huge impact
gineering activities, psychologi- WITH THEIR and is key to the future COIN.
cal operations, mil-civilian rela- MOST SOFISTI- For example, in Afghanistan, the
tions operations etc. CATED BATTLE coalition forces took all the pos-
In order to achieve these activi- EQUIPMENT sible measures to fully inform
ties and take over the initiative, the local population (to win them
in context of enemy isolation 3. THE US over on their side) for all the ac-
(insurgents), regardless of the “SEALS” with tivities taken by the coalition
the new forces. The failure to identify the
approach (direct or indirect), vehicles for
there is a need of establishing right cognitive image concerning
patrolling in the best possible manner the in-
information transmission knots. desert condi-
These knots should provide the formation is received, led to the
tions failure of the entire element of
delivery of the message to the
locals concerning the activities of COIN. Thus, although numerous
the COIN (regardless of whether activities were taken for build-
the COIN are conducted sepa- ing facilities in Afghanistan, and
rately, as a support to the main although local radios, TVs and
warfare activities or as leading printed media were established,
operations which include both the local population was not very
offensive and defensive warfare well informed.
activities, which on the other The problem had two dimen-
hand depends on the overall idea sions. Most of the population
of the operational design). The was not used to be informed
knots whose aim is delivering the through the media (due to long-
time fighting and poverty). On
the other hand, the tribal sys-
tem of social organization im-
complete initiative takeover as posed the need of identifying
well as creating conditions for the tribal leaders (in this case a
winning over the neutral ele- physical-mobile knot) who had
ment and having them on our the key for information delivery
side (this implies the local popu- to the local population, thus
lation). In this stage the indirect holding the key to winning their
approach is still not dominant. hearts and minds concerning the
This approach means that from coalition forces, and building the
the strategic point of view the trust with the Afghan adminis-
following approaches are con- tration and security forces.
ducted: building the capacity The identification of the above-
of the local population, the lo- mentioned is predominantly
cal security forces - army and done through the activities (ap-
police (in case of international propriate tactical warfare ac-
military operations) etc. The tions) of the direct and indirect
accomplishment of these ini- approach, including the detailed
tiatives becomes operational analysis made before conducting
through activities such as: pro- this kind of activities. This means

52
that during the intelligence preparation systematic approach which means or- words provoke conflict. So, it should
of the theatre (This term is new and is ganizing a campaign (as a number of be taken into consideration that rapid
taken from intelligence preparation of operations aiming towards ultimate reaction forces and forces ready for
the battle field the idea of which is to success), the need of applying an op- the next stage should be considered in
stress the “change of terrain” in which erational design is more than obvious. this stage (these forces should not be
the warfare operations are conducted, Before we give an explanation to the mixed with the classic understanding
as well as the change of the “actors” in- abovementioned phases we should say of the rapid reaction forces, although
volved in these operations. The original a few things about the designing and they have similar tasks, or generally
term is: Intelligence Preparation of the framing of the appropriate strategy. speaking, they would have the same
Battle space-IBP). role). Leaders, planners and forces
Each planner and leader who takes part COIN and shaping should use this stage to get acquaint-
in the design of the operational plan of At this stage in the design of COIN ed with the operational environment,
a certain operation, especially in de- the leader and the planners should be to create conditions for operational
signing certain campaign, has to bear aware of the fact that this type of op- approach and to prepare the environ-
in mind that this operation-campaign erations could not be resolved immedi- ment for potential or future COIN. This
should endure certain stages. Accord- ately. Thus, it should be clear to them is a common approach for operations
ing to the political and military direc- that a pure military solution to the prob- conducted on your own territory or on
tions (which in turn are in accordance lem, particularly concerning COIN, could a foreign territory, during international
military operations (when describing
the operations as part of the global
fight against terrorism a huge mis-
take is made in mistaking them with
the peacekeeping operations).

COIN and deterrence


Deterrence is mostly a phase of indi-
rect approach. Classically speaking, the
deterrence should be maneuvering to
demonstrate strength and power to
the potential enemy. The aim of this
kind of operations is more than obvi-
ous; the problem should not be re-
solved in a military way. Measures that
could help in deterrence of the potential
enemy are task and actions which could
show the potential enemy that the cost
of becoming involved in a conflict with
us does not pay off. Furthermore, tak-
ing measures or tasks that will prevent
the possibility of an easy arrival to the
center of gravity (hereinafter: CoG),
which in most cases are the people.
The people at this stage (especially in
international military operations) are
still neutral.
The next measure that must be taken
into consideration is the possibility of
encouraging the potential enemy to
constrain from further actions. This
could be achieved with a proper and
fair treatment of the local population.
This is far more important because the
potential enemy-insurgent tries to gain
the trust or claims to protect the local
population).

COIN and seizing the initiative


Entering this stage in a campaign dem-
onstrates that the enemy was not will-
ing to act according to the offered mea-
with the aspirations towards the Euro be deadly in achieving final success. sures for deterrence, or in other words,
Atlantic structures), the source or direc- Hence, the long term focused actions- the offered deterrence measures were
tion of how to form the operational de- tasks should be taken into consider- not successful. Although in this stage,
sign could be found in the manuals of ation in the shaping before or during as a part of a comprehensive campaign
the “western armies”. The closest one the crisis-conflict. The main focus should mostly Major Combat Operations-
in our experience to date, and a leading aim towards building partnership, influ- MCOs are conducted, the COIN ops are
source, at least in the current design- encing the neutral elements-actors and as well conducted (as a logical line of
ing practice of almost all modern NATO potential enemies as well as moder- operations in the area of the operation
manuals and principles, is the US De- ating the reasons behind the conflict design).
partment of Defence, JP-5-0, CJCSM and extremism. This means that in this In this stage, these operations, pre-
Manual, 29 September 2005). Accord- phase tasks should be concentrated on dominantly in the context of COIN,
ing to these documents, when building the phase before the conflict break out most frequently (though not always)
the operational design the following (prediction is that the conflict is an ex- are marked by the direct approach.
stages should be taken into consider- treme stage of a crisis). Still, it definitely The next stages will be discussed in the
ation: shaping, deterrence, seizing would be not serious if the leader and next edition.
the initiative, domination, stabiliza- the planners do not know that the un-
tion and enabling civilian authorities. predictable character of the crisis could PhD Metodi Hadzi-Janev
Having in mind that the COIN requires easily reach its culmination, or in other

53
Review of the fascinating

THE RED
ARMY
MARCH
54
“World in Conflict”
Every gamer in his “gaming career”
tries to find his heaven, to experi-
ence the gaming nirvana. And he of-
ten succeeds, having in mind the per-
fect “meals” that the big software
companies “serve”. I have stumbled
into something completely unexpect-
ed. The idea that an RTS – simulation
can satisfy my needs only if it has
a great balance between the three
basic strategy elements harvest-
build-destroy, went down the drain.
Way down. Who would have thought
that commanding dozen units can
be just as fun as commanding huge,
great armies (Sins of a Solar Empire,
Supreme Commander). The great RTS
– simulation simply called “World in
Conflict“(WiC) has changed my entire
perception of what makes the strate-
gic simulation fun and worthy

55
THE OTHER FACE OF THE RTS nated target. I would say that the In- to killing a certain enemy, overtaking
What is the essence of WiC? Forget terface is more concentrated towards some buildings, repairing some ve-
about setting up your own base. For- functionality, rather than graphics. As hicles and such. What is the purpose
get about creating additional tech- a result, everything is really handy. The of these points? They are the reason
nologies. Forget about the classic commanding of the units is real easy, that this “cake” has such a beauti-
collecting resources. Looking at the and it’s very simple to “search” the ad- ful “icing”. With them you can call air,
end result, all those elements would ditional units. The inevitable small map chemical and artillery attacks, as well
be useless, they would even diminish for orientation is also present. There is as attacks with napalm and nuclear
the value of the strategy. Instead of also a good quality system for mes- bombs. My recommendation is – the
wasting the energy on settling in one sage sending between the gamers cherry is the most important. First
place, which later will be the center of provided the strategy is played as a chance you get, activate the nuclear
creating some future powerful force, multiplayer campaign. bomb and enjoy the view. The mush-
WiC offers the concept of full mobility, rooms have never looked so good!
which gives results only if we respect “REAPING” POINTS
the basic characteristic of this game – When I mentioned the additional LIVE FOR A….MULTIPLAYER
teamwork. Isn’t teamwork necessary troops, I would like to explain the new This strategy is originally created for
in resisting the Red Army, marching concept of “collecting” and manag- playing a multiplayer campaign. Only
through Seattle, city in the northwest ing resources. Every “commander” then everyone can see the core of
of the USA? has the possibility of purchasing ex- commanding fewer units on the
Yes, yes, “The Red” are invading the tra units, for what he “pays” with a battlefield, which do not depend only
American soil! I have to admit, the sto- certain number of points. Of course, on themselves, but on the units be-
ry immediately got my full attention. the power of the unit depends on the ing commanded by the other players.
Using elements as “command points”, “price” of the unit. The points on the The taking of every command point
which are the objective in conquering other hand will never run out. Name- depends directly on the support of
or overtaking during the campaigns, ly, the points used for the additional your teammates. I would say that, at
gives a kind of order in the chaos. And unit, after its destruction, are slowly the beginning, the gamer can choose
to tell you the truth, the display really refunded, thus enabling purchase of between the four roles he can have
turns into chaos. The graphics is the other units. Hence, in a way, the gam- – “infantry”, “armor”, “air”, and “sup-
best I have seen so far. The engine er will never have trouble getting extra port”. The availability of certain units
“MassTech” allows an absolutely real forces, though in the heat of the mo- depends on choosing the role – the
demolishing of everything that is on ment it doesn’t necessarily mean that role “infantry” enables choosing ba-
the map, even forests, bridges, hous- every unit will be always available, just sic ground forces, the role “air” gives
es…literary everything! Every gamer because of the slow “refunding” of the us a big number of helicopters at our
can comfortably plunge into the mix- points. disposal, “armor” – number of tanks,
ture of colors and explosions on every There are also the so-called “points for where as “support” gives access to
field, artillery barrages…nuclear ex- tactical help”, which are gained always the vehicles for repairing, antiair-
plosion. For your information only, you when, you have achieved vital maneu- craft vehicles, but also a pos-
have no idea how long and patiently ver for positive campaign score with sibility to call for an artillery
I have waited to mention the impres- some fulfilled objective. That refers
sive nuclear explosion. It is magnifi-
cent! You will see with your own eyes
a real thermonuclear explosion and
won’t feel its negative elements.
The camera is not at all far behind the
perfect graphics. Coming in touch with
this strategy, for the first time I have
experienced what it fells like not to
care where is left, where is right, is the
map correctly positioned or not. Not to
be misunderstood – it is of vital impor-
tance in WiC to know the exact posi-
tion of your troops, and of the enemy
as well. That is crucial in achieving the
planed primary and secondary goals.
Thus, the possibility of a 360 degree
rotation of, as well as the view, which
can easily be set toward the sky or the
ground, enables us complete informa-
tion of the position of the next desig-

56
attack. Each of the roles has
its advantages and disadvan-
tages. The infantry is not very
resistant to any kind of attack,
but it can successfully hide in
a forest and in buildings. The
armored vehicles are great for
defense at a certain command
point, but are susceptible to
air raids. The helicopters have
great combat power, but are an
easy target for the antiaircraft
weapons, and cannot overtake
even a command point. “The
support” consists of a diversity
of vehicles that have a vital role,
but no combat power when in
direct contact with the enemy. 1. 2. и 3. only if you take your chances the great Soviet Union as well.
Therefore, the existence of a THE GRAPHICS IS with an enthusiastic group of Unlike the multiplayer, in this
functional team that can simul- SO GOOD THAT unrepentant gamers, not a bad campaign you’ll find yourself
IT MAKES YOU thought comes on my mind in a situation when under your
taneously handle any enemy FEEL INSIDE THE
is vital in WiC. Picture this tac- about the single player cam- command you’ll have units of
BATTLEFIELD paign. The artificial intelligence different arms, like tanks and
tics for overtaking a command
point: the infantry enters the is excellent, and the story is helicopters. In this case, the
4. TOTAL one of the most interesting I basic component – teamwork
forest around the command DESTRUCTION
point and concentrate their fire IN FRONT OF
have came across in strategic is just as important as in the
to the antiaircraft installations, THE GAMER’S simulations. Since the initial multiplayer, but it is developed
set as their defense. When they EYES: A NUCLEAR sequence in which the Soviets by artificial intelligence. Name-
are destroyed, the helicopters EXPLOSION IN (Russian) invade the USA, the ly, many times, your task will
empty their entire arsenal onto WiC eyes “focus” on the screen, mix up with the tasks of the
the heavy artillery stationed at and the pulse rises. There is a “artificial” teammates. Thus, in
the command point, while in 5. WAR RAGING Third World War happening in the campaign itself, the gamer
the meantime the infantry re- IN URBAN front of them! The campaign feels as a part of a big, mas-
treats, so it is not destroyed by ENVIRONMENTS will take you to the “Big Apple”, sive operation. And in addition
the chemical or napalm bomb. in parts of the “Old Lady”, and to that chaotic image of explo-
Meanwhile, you can also call for sions and cannonade, at the
an artillery attack. Your own an- same time you can call for air
tiaircraft units would be set to bombing and massive artillery
defend against possible air raid attacks…Beauty…
of the enemy, while the vehicles
for maintenance wait for the ANY FINAL WORDS?
damaged vehicles of the team- WiC proves that there are other
mates. After the annihilation of ways in which RTS – simula-
the enemy forces, the armored tions can successfully develop.
vehicles enter that command Although I believe that a big
point, and the air defense and number of the “strategists” pre-
the infantry still serve as their fers the fact that at least in the
defense. The helicopter squad- imaginary gaming world they
ron can be used for defense, can create their own kingdom,
and as an offensive force that this is a new dynamic game
will continue to attack enemy and it could be established
forces during their retreat as among the most wanted. And
well. the answer of the gamers was
Doesn’t a battle like this sound and still is loud and clear – we
rather fun? want to see more strategy
I would also like to mention simulations of this kind. And I
the communication system be- am not saying that the big soft-
tween the gamers that are part ware companies didn’t take this
of a team, because it plays a gladly. “Massive Entertainment”
vital role in the coordination of and “Ubisoft Sierra”, last 2009
a multidirectional attack. Thus, treated us with an extension
the game has VoIP (Voice over called World in Conflict: Soviet
IP), through which, in order to Assault, where you can be a
establish a voice communica- part of the occupational soviet
tion, it is sufficient to have a mi- force and fight for dominance
crophone. One multiplayer cam- of the red color. The disappoint-
paign supports 16 players that ment in the expansion is that
can connect via Internet or LAN, there are no new units. But, I
where both sides can be played am over that now, and so can
– USA (NATO) and SSSR. you. The recipe for calming
down is very simple. Each day,
FIGHT FOR FREEDOM twice a day, click on the button
(SINGLE PLAYER CAMPAING) for dropping a nuclear bomb.
Even though the game can It’s working, isn’t it?
be experienced in its true light Ivan Petrushevski

57
Julie Morgenstern
TIME MANAGEMENT FROM INSIDE OUT

Press: NAMPRES – Skopje 2009

„A secure system to control your schedule and your life”.

ulie Morgenstern is the author of In her bestseller Julie Morgenstern sets HOW IS THE BOOK ORGANIZED?
the New York Times Bestseller– a new standard in the category of time
“Time management from inside management by developing a system The book is divided in 5 parts, so you
out” and the founder of “Task mas- which considers individual needs. By ap- can adjust your program and focus on
ters“, a professional company for plying her proven three-step program your problematic areas.
organization which provides consulting – Analyze, Strategize, Attack – and Part 1: Laying the foundation. This part
services to individuals and companies following her effective guidelines, read- helps you define your motivation, diag-
like “American Express” and “Sony Mu- ers will find more time for work, self- nose your specific challenges and learn
sic”. She is a columnist in “O”, Ophra’s improvement, or whatever is important the most important skill, which will as-
magazine, a frequent guest on TV and to them. This skill, which can be easily sure you good time management. You
radio shows such as the Ophra Winfrey acquired by everyone, is learnt from the must read this part.
Show, the Today Show, Good Morning completely revised edition of the book. Part 2: A rapid start program. This
America etc. Julie lives in New York with Take control over your schedule, con- chapter is allocated to those readers
her daughter. nect everyday activities with your most who sink in piles of reserve paper and
The book “Time management from important goals and start living the life plans (or they think that someone else
inside out“ from Julie Morgenstern, of your dreams. is in charge of their time). It presents
which is presented in this article, is in- This completely revised edition delivers the skill that one needs to take control
cluded in the program of the Govern- new chapters on: and make space for approaching the
ment of the Republic of Macedonia for What is your motivation? – directs
translation of 500 specialized, scientific three step program, calmly and with
your trip towards a balanced life; self confidence
books, as well as text books, used by Make the time real – suggests skills
the most prominent universities in the Part 3: Analyze: Get to know yourself.
needed for good time management; You will create a system that lasts, you
USA and the EU countries. WADE formula – helps you organize
If you are wondering why I am recom- will discover your best identity planner,
your long list of activities; you will learn how to spent time and un-
mending a book which belongs to the
Where paper meets time – takes you derstand your unique relationship with
genre business psychology, not refer-
out from the piles of paper; it.
ring to defense and protection, in our
Plus new tools for mapping time – for Part 4: Strategize: Create the life of
magazine ”Shtit”, you will find the an-
swer when you read it. people who hate organization; your dreams. Learn how to define your
There is no bigger challenge in the per- In this completely revised edition Julie major goals, create activities which
sonal and professional life nowadays, Morgenstern takes her pioneering ap- will help you reach them and design a
particularly in dynamic and highly risky proach of inside out time management schedule which will provide the desired
professions related to security and de- to a completely new level. Her proven balance.
fense, than organization and time man- three-step program – Analyze, Strat- Part 5: Attack: Formula „space“. Uni-
agement. Julie Morgenstern’s bestseller egize, Attack – is a precious new tool. fy, in order to connect your every day
“Time management from inside out”, The book has advice and drills which will duties to your major goals, overcome
has helped numerous people to fix the help you create a balanced life where psychological barriers and keep your
mess in their lives, by explaining how you will be in control and happy with balance while facing reality.
to overcome the challenge of time for your achievements at the end of the Each of these five parts presents a
good. Her unique inside out approach day. Even those who are struggling “to whole with its own value. Altogether
will help you discover your positive psy- keep their head above water” can con- they are part of a method designed to
chological features while overcoming trol their time following Morgenstern’s cause permanent changes. For most
obstacles, how to organize time accord- program for a completely new start - a people one can efficiently apply this pro-
ing to your individual needs. lifeline which offers a “breathing space” gram by studying each part individually.
Therefore let Julie show you how to: and we can approach it calmly and with Take your time and enjoy the process.
– discover your personal affinities and style; self-confidence. Time management inside out will help
– determine the time needed to com- Regardless of whether you are an em- you discover who you are, what you
plete a given task; ployed parent who juggles between want, and which your individual style is.
– remove, delegate and relocate tasks; high pressure requests at work and rais- The system that Julie Morgenstern de-
– stop postponing for good; ing kids, a busy undertaker who hopes velops in this book presents a process,
– stop being late; to have time for a social life one day, or not a recipe –to design life that is natu-
– put technology to work; an artist who longs to do the desired
ral and comfortable for you.
– stick to your schedule and to other work (not just the one that pays off),
adjustments; Julie Morgenstern will show you how
– face the durability of the unexpected Julijana Stojanova
to find time for things which are really
changes;. important to you.

58
STRICTLY CONFIDENTIAL
Dear Editor,
I am a great lover of the German Sheppard Congratulations about your new maga-
breed and after reading your column about zine “Shtit”. It is indeed an excellent mag-
breeding and training service dogs I would like azine. It gives the Macedonian readers
to know if there is a possibly to buy a puppy a unique opportunity to read interesting
from this breed. articles concerning defence and security,
Thank you in advance as well as the development of the mili-
tary technology worldwide. The magazine
Respectfully, “Shtit” is truthfully following the concept
of its predecessors- The Army Word and
Aleksandar Bocev. Defence.
We wish you a successful work in the fu-
ture and many more interesting articles
for your readers, whose number without
doubt will become even greater.
“Mikei International”

Comment: Comment:

Dear reader, we are pleased that you liked our We sincerely appreciate your comment.
article on breeding and training of dogs, our Thank you!
most faithful companions. As to your ques-
tion, you can get the information at the Cen-
tre for Breeding Service Dogs, located at the
Gorge Petrov Barracks. The contact telephone
number is 02/328-2905.

Respectfully,
Editorial “Shtit“

Hello! First, I would like to congratulate you


on creating a magazine which is in my opin- Dear readers,
ion one of the few in Macedonia that offers
interesting topics and is worth reading. If it is In our new magazine, we are implement-
possible, in some of the next issues of your ing a new kind of direct contact with
magazine, I would like to read something you - our respected audience. Taking in
about the organization of the military forces consideration that we value your opinion
of the leading nations as well as those of our the most, we decided to dedicate this
neighboring countries. page to you. Please send us your propos-
als, opinions and criticism to our e-mail:
Regards, stit@morm.gov.mk
Jove Saveski, Bitola

Comment:

Respected Reader, thank you for your kind


words which give us the motivation and en-
thusiasm to continue with the magazine. As
always we are more than willing to satisfy our
reader’s requests and of course you will have
a chance to read about this topic in some of
our next issues.

Respectfully,
Editorial “Shtit“