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D R U G CLASSIFICATION MECHANISM OF ACTION INDICATION CONTRAINIDICATION SIDE EFFECT ADVERSE EFFECT

N A M E
Generic Name PharmacologicClass Acts directly on vascular General Concentrations Headache, Nasal congestion,
Hydralazine Vasodilator smoothmuscle to cause Indications - Hypersensitivity- CAD- peripheralneuritis, flushing,edema, muscle
Trade Name vasodilation,primarily - mitral valvular rheumaticdizziness, cramps,lymphadenopathy,
Apresoline, Therapeutic Class arteriolar, Hypertension- heartdisease tremors,psychotic splenomegaly,dyspnea,
Novo-Hylazin Antihypertensive decreasingperipheral Eclampsia reactions, lupus-like
Minimum Dose resistance; maintains Precaution characterizedby syndrome,possible
5 mg/hr by Pregnancy or increases renal and - with CAV’s- increased depression, carcinogenesis,lacrimation,
IVinfusion RiskFactor cerebral flow. intracranialpressure- disorientation,anxiety conjunctivitis
Maximum Dose C severe hypertensionwith CV:
10 mg by Pharmacokinetics uremia- advanced Palpitations,
IVinfusion A: Rapidly absorbed from the renaldamage- slow tachycardia,angina
GItract after oral acetylators- lactation- pectoris,
Availability administration. pregnancy- hypotension,paradoxical
- Tablets- 10, D: About 90% bound to pulmonaryhypertension pressor
25,50, 100 mg- plasmaproteins. response,orthostatic
Injection- M: Undergoes considerable Drug interaction hypotension
20mg/mL first-pass metabolism by Drug to drug- GI:
acetylation inthe GI mucosa Increasedpharmacologic Anorexia, nausea,
Routes and liver. effectsof beta- vomiting,diarrhea,
of administration E: Mainly excreted in urine adrenergicblockers constipation,
Oral asmetabolites. andhydralazine when paralyticileus
Intramuscular givenconcomitantlyDrug GU:
Intravenous RouteOnsetPeak Duration to food- Difficult micturition,
OralRapid1-2 hr6-12 Increasedbioavailability impotence
hrIMRapid10-20 min2-4 of oralhydralazine given Hematologic:
hrIVRapid10-20 min2-4 hr withfood. Blood dyscrasias
Hypersensitivity:
Drug Half Life Rash, urticaria,pruritus,
3-7 hr fever, chills,
arthralgia,eosinophilia;
rarely,
hepatits,obstructive
jaundice
D R U G CLASSIFICA MECHANISM OF INDICATI CONTRAINIDICATION ADVERS SIDE EFFECT NURSING
N A M E TION ACTION ON E EFFECT RESPONSIBILI
TY
Generic Anticonvulsan Magnesium Sulfate To 1. Parenteraladministrationco depress drowsiness Before:
Name: t isessential element prevent/ co ntraindicated inpatient with cardiacfun hypothermia 1. Take an
Magnesium formuscle and ntrol heartblock ction hypotension,flus appropriatese
Sulfate nervetransmission.Ext seizure myocardialdamage. depress hing izure
racellular fluid inpre- 2. Use cautiously inpatients reflexes,pl bradycardia,circ precaution.
levels:1.5 eclampsia with impairedrenal acid ulatory collapse, During:
– To function. paralysis diaphoresis 1. Check
Brand 2.5 mg/L. Mg managepre 3. Use cautiously inpregnant Magnesium
Name: depresses the CNS term labor. womanduring labor level repeatd
Magnesium and controls doses.Disapp
Sulfate convulsion by earance
blocking release of knee. Jerl
of acetycholine at and
Dosage: themyoneutral junctio patellarreflex
>Pre- n.Also, mg decrease es is a sign
eclampsiaw sensitivity of motor of impeding
oman: end plate to magnesiumto
4g IV in acytycholine and xicity.
250mL decreases the 2. Monitor urine
D5W with excitability of the intakeand
normalsaline mothermembrane.as a output.
and 4-5 g. laxative itacts in the 3. 12 Right of
deepIM into small and large drug
buttock alter intestine to attract and Administratio
nate in every retain water in the n
4hrs., P.R.N intestinal
4g lumen,increasing After:
I.V.Lodding intraluminal pressure, 1. Observe
dose then 1- also releases neonates
2 q hr. as cholycystokinin forfor
I.V signs
infusion.Dos of magne
e should sium
notexceed toxicity
30-40 g.
daily
D R U G N A M E CLASSIFICATION MECHANISM OF ACTION INDICATION CONTRAINIDICATION SIDE EFFECT ADVERS
EFFECT
Generic Name: Therapeutic: • Bind to bacterial cell wall • Bind to bacterial cell wall •Hypersensitivity to  Diarrhea  Al
Cefazolin Anti-infectives membrane, causing cell membrane, causing cell cephalosphorins.  Fainting re
Pharmacologic: death.• Active against death. Serious  Fever  Co
 Headache  Dr
Brand Name: First generation many gram-positive cocci • Active against many hypersensitivity to
 Heartburn  Sk
Ancef cephalosphorins 1st including: gram-positive cocci penicillin.  Injection site itc
Generation Streptococcuspneumoniae, including: Use Cautiously in: reactions (pain,  Va
Dosage: Group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcuspneumoniae, • Renal impair- ment• swelling, skin rash, itc
streptococci; Penicillinas- Group A beta-hemolytic History of GI disease, or a hard lump) or
 Adult: 250-500 mg producingstaphylococci. streptococci; Penicillinas- especially colitis  W
intravenously (IV) every 8 producingstaphylococci. •Geriatric patients
hours (consider age-related
 Infants and children: 25-100 decrease in body
mg/kg/day mass,renal/hepatic/
intravenously/intramuscularly
cardiac function,
(IV/IM) divided every 6-8
hours; not to exceed 6 g/day concurrent
medications and
chronic diseasestates)
• Pregnancy or
Lactation
D R U G CLASSIFICATION MECHANISM INDICATION CONTRAINIDICATION SIDE EFFECT ADVERSE NURSING
N A M E OF ACTION EFFECT RESPONSIBILITY
Generic Antispasmodics The Spasm in the Myasthenia gravies, Constipation Lightheadedness >Be alert for
Name: mechanism of genitourinary megacolon, Bloating Dysuria adversereactions and
Hyoscine-N- action of tractSpasm in hypersensitivity to Nausea or vomiting Mouth, skin, eye druginteractions.
butylbromide Buscopan is the drug contents,narrow Headache dryness >Encourage pt. tovoid
that it blocks gastrointestinal angle glaucoma, Weakness Decreased >Monitor BP
Brand Name: the muscarinic tractSpasm in prostate sweating for possible
Buscopan receptorsfound the biliary hypertrophy with hypotension
on the smooth tractColic urinary retention, -12 rights of drug
muscle walls mechanical stenosis administration
Dosage &
which means inthe GI tract,
frequency:
its blocks the tachycardia.
1 amp IV q8 prn action of
for abdominal pain acetylcholine
on
thereceptors
found within
the smooth
muscle of the
gastrointestinal
and urinary
tract and
thusreduces
the spasms and
contractions.
This relaxes
the muscle and
thus reduced
the painfrom
the cramps and
spasms