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The Unit 1 is composed of different representations and conceptualizations of the self from various

disciplinal perspectives
First is the Philosophy it is already reported by other group and the second one is the Psychology,
B. Psychology
Psychology has 2 greek word = psyche (mind, soul or spirit) + logos (discourse or study) = Study
of the mind
(Psychology has 2 component)
A. The self as a cognitive construction
(Under the self as a cognitive construction is)
 Me-self & I-self (we will discuss this later)
 Global Versus Differentiated Models
 Real Versus Ideal Self Concepts
 Multiple Versus Unified Selves
 True Versus false self
B. The Self as Proactive and Agentic
Also has component first is the
 Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory
 Kelly’s Psychology of Personal Constructs

All of the component will be report by the other group except from me-self and I-self

 Me-self & I-self by William james

so we will focus to the theory of William james, William james is the first American psychology,
he started psychology in 1870’s in U.S. and he is also the first author of the psychology textbook.
 William James' theory of self-divided a person's mental picture of self into two categories: the
"Me" and the "I". The "Me" can be thought of as a separate object or individual a person, refers
to when describing their personal experiences; while the "I" is the self that knows who they are
and what they have done in their life.
Both concepts are depicted in this statement; "I know it was me who ate the cookie." He called
the "Me" part of self the "empirical me" and the "I" part "the pure Ego". For James, the "I" part of
self was the thinking self, which could not be further divided. He linked this part of the self to the
soul of a person, or what is now thought of as the mind. Educational theorists have been inspired
in various ways by James's theory of self, and have developed various applications of these
theories to curricular and pedagogical theory and practice or (postulate how things should be
taught and/or how one can bring someone to learn.).
James further divided the "Me" part of self into: the material self, the social self, spiritual self,
relational self and spiritual self.
 Material Self (it refers to mine, “my arm, my bag)
A material self is not simply the body but a man’s closets possession and relatives.
- The material self consists of things that belong to a person or entities that a person belongs
to. Thus, things like the body, family, clothes, money, and such make up the material self. For
James, the core of the material self was the body. Second to the body, James felt a person's
clothes were important to the material self. He believed a person's clothes were one way
they expressed who they felt they were; or clothes were a way to show status, thus
contributing to forming and maintaining one's self-image. Money and family are critical parts
of the material self. James felt that if one lost a family member, a part of who they are was
lost also. Money figured in one's material self in a similar way. If once a person had significant
money then lost it, who they were as a person changed as well.
- So material self is not about ourselves it also about the things around you. Just like the
example clothes, clothes shows the self-image of a person that identify you so the way we
wear our clothes tells who we are, and also james tells things that you love that lost is like
losing the part of you.

 Social self (It refers to ours e.g., our parents, siblings, romantic partners)
- Our social selves are who we are in a given social situation. For James, people change how
they act depending on the social situation that they are in. James believed that people had
as many social selves as they did social situations they participated in. For example, a person
may act in a different way at work when compared to how that same person may act when
they are out with a group of friends. James also believed that in a given social group, an
individual's social self may be divided even further. An example of this would be, in the social
context of an individual's work environment, the difference in behavior when that individual
is interacting with their boss versus their behavior when interacting with a co-worker.
- So example of this is the attitude of a student in school and house.
 Spiritual self (it refers to inner and psychological self, subjective being)
- For James, the spiritual self was who we are at our core. The spiritual self is more concrete
or permanent than the other two selves. The spiritual self is our subjective and most intimate
self. Aspects of an individual's spiritual self-include things like their personality, core values,
and conscience that do not typically change throughout their lifetime. The spiritual self
involves introspection, or looking inward to deeper spiritual, moral, or intellectual questions
without the influence of objective thoughts. For James, achieving a high level of
understanding of who we are at our core, or understanding our spiritual selves is more
rewarding than satisfying the needs of the social and material selves.
- So it tells about that it is more interesting to know more about ourselves than satisfying the
needs that is not worth it, and also we need to know where we are at our core of ourselves
because knowing it is satisfying as a person.
 Relational self (Other people with whom we have a personal relationship)
- Relational self, the self-defined in terms of specific interpersonal relationships. The relational
self includes all of the individuals we regard as “ours,” such as our parents, siblings, romantic
partners, close friends, and colleagues.
- Evidence that these relationships represent important aspects of self-definition comes from
a variety of sources. First, people spontaneously mention others when describing
themselves, and include photographs of their family, loved ones, and friends when asked to
prepare photographs that reveal something about “who you are”. They also assume that
other people share their thoughts and feelings, and sometimes confuse their own traits and
attitudes for the traits and attitudes of others.

 Collective self (Social roles, social categories, and social group membership)
- These aspects of the collective self are of great significance to people, particularly those who
occupy a minority status.
- First, we can consider the importance of the identity. For some people, their racial, ethnic, or
religious identity virtually defines who they are; for others, these identities are less self-
defining and more peripheral. Individuals also differ with respect to identity salience. Some
people think frequently think about their collective identity, but others do not.
- Involvement in group activities is the fourth element. Whereas some people immerse
themselves in group activities and strive to learn as much as they can about their group’s
heritage and traditions, other people are less interested in interacting with other group
members or learning more about their group’s background and customs. Finally, we can
consider the degree to which people think of themselves as being a typical member of their
group. This process is known as self-stereotyping. Some people embrace group stereotypes
and view themselves as being a typical group member, whereas others distance themselves
from the stereotype and deny that they are characteristic of their group.
Spiritual self-inner or psychological self, subjective being
- Self-perceived abilities, attitudes, emotions, interests, values, motives

Individual Self-Individual traits, abilities and possession

- Spiritual self and aspects of the material self (body possessions, initials). Example: I am tall.
I am shy.

Relational Self-other people with whom we have a personal Relationship

- Aspects of the social self. Example: I am Noah’s dad.

Collective self-social roles, social categories, and social group membership

- Aspects of social self: Example: I am a Filipino.
William James (1842 - 1910) was a psychologist and philosopher, and was recognized for writing the
Principles of Psychology, which is considered to be a monumental work in the history of psychology.

James is known for the James-Lange Theory of Emotion, which he formulated independently of Carl
Lange. According to the theory, an emotion is simply the mind's interpretation of certain physiological
processes that occur as a response to certain stimuli.

One of James' most famous examples is that when we see a bear, we do not run because we are
afraid. According to James, we see a bear and then we run, and that is why we are afraid. His
explanation is that when exposed to a stimulus such as a bear, our nervous system reacts with an
increased heart rate, a rush of adrenaline, or muscle tension, and our perception of those changes is
what is referred to as emotion.