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Anti-Interference Technologies

The RTN510 is a microwave device that operates in the unlicensed 4910–5970 MHz frequency band. Because the RTN510 is
vulnerable to many sources of interference, improving its anti-interference capabilities is vital.

Interference
Interference refers to the decrease in useful signal received (relative to unwanted noise). Interference derives from both intra-network
interference and external network interference.
Intra-network interference includes co-channel interference and multipath interference.
External interference includes radar interference and WLAN interference. Interference from radar and WLAN can also be considered
co-channel interference.

Co-channel interference Multipath interference


Signal
Path A
strength
Frequency f Receiver Frequency f

Path B

Signal received Lake


by the receiver Time
Base Base
station A A B station B Transmitter Receiver A B
Phase difference

Solution
To counteract interference of different sources and types, the RTN510 can adopt the TDMA, DFS, AM, and GPS synchronization,
OFDM, MIMO, FEC, and other functions to enhance its anti-interference or shield interference resources.

Intra-network interference External network interference


Co-channel interference Multipath WLAN
MIMO
interference
AM GPS synchronization FEC Physical layer retransmission

TDMA
ATPC OFDM
FEC
Radar

Physical layer retransmission ACS/DFS


Automatic channel
bandwidth degradation

Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), combined with GPS synchronization, solves co-channel interference by synchronizing the
sending and receiving of data between devices at various sites. For details, see TDMA-based Scheduling.
AM, ATPC, automatic channel bandwidth degradation, physical layer retransmission, and FEC are common approaches to counter
interference. This section focuses on ACS/DFS, MIMO, and OFDM.

ACS/DFS
The RTN510 uses the automatic frequency selection (ACS) and dynamic frequency selection (DFS) functions to select its working
frequency. This not only resolves frequency planning difficulties, but also prevents selection of frequencies used by radars.
The RTN510's initial frequency selection can be set to ACS. The RTN510 automatically scans frequencies based on the configured
channel list, compares the performance of all available channels, and selects the optimal channel.
If the working channel is a radar channel and radar signals are being transmitted on it, the RTN510 reselects the optimal channel
using the ACS function.
DFS
ACS

Dynamically selects other


optional channels.
Optimal channel
AP
……
AP Radar channel
…… Radar signals were detected.

RTN510 signals
Radar signals
Radar

MIMO
The RTN510 supports 2x2 MIMO. When there is
interference on the channel and there is a significant
H H H
difference between the polarization directions of MIMO,
v v v
the RTN510 automatically degenerates to the 2x2 MIMO
single-polarized mode.
Both the AP and RT antennas of the RTN510 are V-polarized
channel with
dual-polarized. A single dual-polarized interference H H H
antenna can achieve 2x2 MIMO.

OFDM
Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is a special multi-carrier modulation technology. It uses the orthogonality
between carriers to further improve spectrum utilization as well as resist narrowband interference and anti-multipath fading. OFDM
uses multiple orthogonal subcarriers to transmit serial data in parallel. It has the following advantages: increasing the width of the code
element, reducing the frequency band occupied by a single code element, resisting the frequency selective fading caused by
multipath, overcoming inter-code crosstalk, and lowering the system requirement for balancing technologies.
Multipath not only causes frequency interference, but also causes time-domain interference. OFDM uses the guard interval (GI) to solve
this problem. The RTN510 supports two GIs: short GI (400 ns) and long GI (800 ns). When the short GI is insufficient to counteract the
interference, the transmit end automatically degenerates the short GI to the long GI based on the packet loss ratio.

Output 1 5 1
One OFDM Signal direction
Signal direction I
Parallel-to-
Output 2 6 2 Parallel-to-
symbol
F
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 serial
F
serial
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
conversion conversion
Output 3 7 3
T
Input GI
Output 4 8 4
Time

Improve anti-fading and spectrum utilization. Solve multipath delay interference.

Application
To improve the anti-interference capability of the equipment and ensure the effective transmission of services on microwave links,
most anti-interference features are enabled automatically (no manual settings are required). Anti-interference features include TDMA,
MIMO, physical layer retransmission, OFDM, and FEC.
Some features have specific usage conditions. For example, the automatic channel bandwidth degradation function cannot be
implemented if the TDD timeslot ratio is fixed; it must be set to Flexible. In Flexible mode, microwave links are allocated on demand,
which can improve link utilization. Therefore, the Flexible mode is recommended.
When RTs are densely deployed, you are advised to enable the ATPC function to enhance anti-interference between the RTs.
If no fixed frequency is set during the planning phase, you are advised to enable the ACS/DFS function to automatically select a proper
frequency based on the deployment country or spectrum analysis result.