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5-77

Charging and Discharging Processes

5-121 A large reservoir supplies steam to a balloon whose initial state is specified. The final temperature in
the balloon and the boundary work are to be determined.
Analysis Noting that the volume changes linearly with the pressure, the final volume and the initial mass
are determined from
P1 = 100 kPa  3
v 1 = 1.9367 m /kg (Table A-6) Steam
T1 = 150°C  150 kPa
200°C
P2 150 kPa
V2 = V1 = (50 m 3 ) = 75 m 3
P1 100 kPa

V1 50 m 3
m1 = = = 25.82 kg
v 1 1.9367 m 3 /kg
The final temperature may be determined if we first calculate specific Steam
volume at the final state 50 m3
V2 V2 75 m 3 100 kPa
v2 = = = = 1.4525 m 3 /kg 150°C
m2 2m1 2 × (25.82 kg)

P2 = 150 kPa 
3 T2 = 202.5°C (Table A-6)
v 2 = 1.4525 m /kg 
Noting again that the volume changes linearly with the pressure, the boundary work can be determined
from
P1 + P2 (100 + 150)kPa
Wb = (V 2 −V 1 ) = (75 − 50)m 3 = 3125 kJ
2 2

5-122 Steam in a supply line is allowed to enter an initially evacuated tank. The temperature of the steam in
the supply line and the flow work are to be determined.
Analysis Flow work of the steam in the supply line is converted to sensible internal energy in the tank.
That is,
hline = u tank Steam 4 MPa

Ptank = 4 MPa 
where u tank = 3189.5 kJ/kg (Table A-6)
Ttank = 550°C 
Now, the properties of steam in the line can be calculated
Initially
Pline = 4 MPa  Tline = 389.5 °C evacuated
 (Table A-6)
hline = 3189.5 kJ/kg  u line = 2901.5 kJ/kg
The flow work per unit mass is the difference between enthalpy and internal energy of the steam in the line
wflow = hline − u line = 3189.5 − 2901.5 = 288 kJ/kg

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
5-78

5-123 A vertical piston-cylinder device contains air at a specified state. Air is allowed to escape from the
cylinder by a valve connected to the cylinder. The final temperature and the boundary work are to be
determined.
Properties The gas constant of air is R = 0.287 kJ/kg.K (Table A-1).
Analysis The initial and final masses in the cylinder are
PV 1 (600 kPa)(0.25 m 3 )
m1 = = = 0.9121 m 3
RT1 (0.287 kJ/kg.K)(300 + 273 K) Air
0.25 m3
m 2 = 0.25m1 = 0.25(0.9121 kg) = 0.2280 kg 600 kPa Air
Then the final temperature becomes 300°C

PV 2 (600 kPa)(0.05 m 3 )
T2 = = = 458.4 K
m 2 R (0.2280 kg)(0.287 kJ/kg.K)
Noting that pressure remains constant during the process, the boundary work is determined from
Wb = P(V1 −V 2 ) = (600 kPa)(0.25 − 0.05)m 3 = 120 kJ

5-124 Helium flows from a supply line to an initially evacuated tank. The flow work of the helium in the
supply line and the final temperature of the helium in the tank are to be determined.
Properties The properties of helium are R = 2.0769 kJ/kg.K, cp = 5.1926 kJ/kg.K, cv = 3.1156 kJ/kg.K
(Table A-2a).
Analysis The flow work is determined from its definition but
we first determine the specific volume Helium 200 kPa, 120°C
RT (2.0769 kJ/kg.K)(120 + 273 K)
v = line = = 4.0811 m 3 /kg
P (200 kPa)

wflow = Pv = (200 kPa)(4.0811 m 3 /kg) = 816.2 kJ/kg


Noting that the flow work in the supply line is converted to Initially
sensible internal energy in the tank, the final helium evacuated
temperature in the tank is determined as follows
u tank = hline
hline = c p Tline = (5.1926 kJ/kg.K)(120 + 273 K) = 2040.7 kJ/kg
u - tank = cv Ttank 
→ 2040.7 kJ/kg = (3.1156 kJ/kg.K)Ttank 
→ Ttank = 655.0 K
Alternative Solution: Noting the definition of specific heat ratio, the final temperature in the tank can also
be determined from
Ttank = kTline = 1.667(120 + 273 K) = 655.1 K
which is practically the same result.

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educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
5-79

5-125 An evacuated bottle is surrounded by atmospheric air. A valve is opened, and air is allowed to fill
the bottle. The amount of heat transfer through the wall of the bottle when thermal and mechanical
equilibrium is established is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the
process, but it can be analyzed as a uniform-flow process since the state of fluid at the inlet remains
constant. 2 Air is an ideal gas with variable specific heats. 3 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. 4
There are no work interactions involved. 5 The direction of heat transfer is to the air in the bottle (will be
verified).
Properties The gas constant of air is 0.287 kPa.m3/kg.K (Table A-1).
Analysis We take the bottle as the system, which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary.
Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and
internal energy u, respectively, the mass and energy balances for this uniform-flow system can be
expressed as
Mass balance: min − mout = ∆msystem → mi = m2 (since mout = minitial = 0)
Energy balance: E − Eout = ∆Esystem
1in
424 3 1424 3
Net energy transfer Change in internal, kinetic,
by heat, work, and mass potential, etc. energies

Qin + mi hi = m2u2 (since W ≅ Eout = Einitial = ke ≅ pe ≅ 0)


100 kPa
Combining the two balances:
17°C
Qin = m2 (u2 − hi )
where
PV (100 kPa )(0.008 m 3 ) 8L
m2 = 2 = = 0.0096 kg
RT2 (0.287 kPa ⋅ m 3 /kg ⋅ K )(290 K ) Evacuated
hi = 290.16 kJ/kg
Ti = T2 = 290 K Table
 A -17
→
u 2 = 206.91 kJ/kg
Substituting, Qin = (0.0096 kg)(206.91 - 290.16) kJ/kg = - 0.8 kJ → Qout = 0.8 kJ
Discussion The negative sign for heat transfer indicates that the assumed direction is wrong. Therefore, we
reverse the direction.

5-126 An insulated rigid tank is evacuated. A valve is opened, and air is allowed to fill the tank until
mechanical equilibrium is established. The final temperature in the tank is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the
process, but it can be analyzed as a uniform-flow process since the state of fluid at the inlet remains
constant. 2 Air is an ideal gas with constant specific heats. 3 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. 4
There are no work interactions involved. 5 The device is adiabatic and thus heat transfer is negligible.
Properties The specific heat ratio for air at room temperature is k = 1.4 (Table A-2).
Analysis We take the tank as the system, which is a control volume since mass Air
crosses the boundary. Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and
nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and internal energy u, respectively,
the mass and energy balances for this uniform-flow system can be expressed as
initially
Mass balance: min − mout = ∆msystem → mi = m2 (since mout = minitial = 0) evacuated
Energy balance: E − Eout = ∆Esystem
1in
424 3 1424 3
Net energy transfer Change in internal, kinetic,
by heat, work, and mass potential, etc. energies

mi hi = m2u2 (since Q ≅ W ≅ Eout = Einitial = ke ≅ pe ≅ 0)


Combining the two balances:
u 2 = hi → cv T2 = c p Ti → T2 = (c p / cv )Ti = kTi
Substituting, T2 = 1.4 × 290 K = 406 K = 133 o C

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
5-80

5-127 A rigid tank initially contains air at atmospheric conditions. The tank is connected to a supply line,
and air is allowed to enter the tank until mechanical equilibrium is established. The mass of air that entered
and the amount of heat transfer are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the
process, but it can be analyzed as a uniform-flow process since the state of fluid at the inlet remains
constant. 2 Air is an ideal gas with variable specific heats. 3 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. 4
There are no work interactions involved. 5 The direction of heat transfer is to the tank (will be verified).
Properties The gas constant of air is 0.287 kPa.m3/kg.K (Table A-1). The properties of air are (Table A-17)
Ti = 295 K 
→ hi = 295.17 kJ/kg
T1 = 295 K 
→ u1 = 210.49 kJ/kg
T2 = 350 K → u 2 = 250.02 kJ/kg
Analysis (a) We take the tank as the system, which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary.
Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and
internal energy u, respectively, the mass and energy balances for this uniform-flow system can be
expressed as
Mass balance: min − mout = ∆msystem → mi = m2 − m1

Energy balance: E − Eout = ∆Esystem


1in
424 3 1424 3
Net energy transfer Change in internal, kinetic,
by heat, work, and mass potential, etc. energies

Qin + mi hi = m2u2 − m1u1 (since W ≅ ke ≅ pe ≅ 0)


The initial and the final masses in the tank are
P1V (100 kPa )(2 m3 )
m1 = = = 2.362 kg
RT1 (0.287 kPa ⋅ m3/kg ⋅ K )(295 K ) Pi = 600 kPa
3 Ti = 22°C
P2V (600 kPa )(2 m )
m2 = = = 11.946 kg
RT2 (0.287 kPa ⋅ m3/kg ⋅ K )(350 K )
·
Then from the mass balance, V1 = 2 m3 Q
P1 = 100 kPa
mi = m2 − m1 = 11.946 − 2.362 = 9.584 kg
T1 = 22°C
(b) The heat transfer during this process is determined from
Qin = −mi hi + m2u2 − m1u1
= −(9.584 kg )(295.17 kJ/kg ) + (11.946 kg )(250.02 kJ/kg ) − (2.362 kg )(210.49 kJ/kg )
= −339 kJ → Qout = 339 kJ
Discussion The negative sign for heat transfer indicates that the assumed direction is wrong. Therefore, we
reversed the direction.

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
5-81

5-128 A rigid tank initially contains saturated R-134a liquid-vapor mixture. The tank is connected to a
supply line, and R-134a is allowed to enter the tank. The final temperature in the tank, the mass of R-134a
that entered, and the heat transfer are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the
process, but it can be analyzed as a uniform-flow process since the state of fluid at the inlet remains
constant. 2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. 3 There are no work interactions involved. 4 The
direction of heat transfer is to the tank (will be verified).
Properties The properties of refrigerant are (Tables A-11 through A-13)
T1 = 8°C  v1 = v f + x1v fg = 0.0007887 + 0.7 × (0.052762 − 0.0007887 ) = 0.03717 m3/kg

x1 = 0.7  u1 = u f + x1u fg = 62.39 + 0.7 × 172.19 = 182.92 kJ/kg
P2 = 800 kPa  v 2 = v g @800 kPa = 0.02562 m3/kg

sat. vapor  u2 = u g @800 kPa = 246.79 kJ/kg
Pi = 1.0 MPa 
 hi = 335.06 kJ/kg R-134a 1 MPa
Ti = 100°C  100°C
Analysis We take the tank as the system, which is a control volume
since mass crosses the boundary. Noting that the microscopic energies
of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and 0.2 m3
internal energy u, respectively, the mass and energy balances for this R-134a
uniform-flow system can be expressed as
Mass balance: min − mout = ∆msystem → mi = m2 − m1

Energy balance: E − Eout = ∆Esystem


1in
424 3 1424 3
Net energy transfer Change in internal, kinetic,
by heat, work, and mass potential, etc. energies

Qin + mi hi = m2u2 − m1u1 (since W ≅ ke ≅ pe ≅ 0)


(a) The tank contains saturated vapor at the final state at 800 kPa, and thus the final temperature is the
saturation temperature at this pressure,
T2 = Tsat @ 800 kPa = 31.31ºC

(b) The initial and the final masses in the tank are
V 0.2 m3
m1 = = = 5.38 kg
v1 0.03717 m3/kg
V 0.2 m3
m2 = = = 7.81 kg
v 2 0.02562 m3/kg
Then from the mass balance
mi = m 2 − m1 = 7.81 − 5.38 = 2.43 kg
(c) The heat transfer during this process is determined from the energy balance to be
Qin = − mi hi + m2u2 − m1u1
= −(2.43 kg )(335.06 kJ/kg ) + (7.81 kg )(246.79 kJ/kg )− (5.38 kg )(182.92 kJ/kg )
= 130 kJ

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
5-82

5-129E A rigid tank initially contains saturated water vapor. The tank is connected to a supply line, and
water vapor is allowed to enter the tank until one-half of the tank is filled with liquid water. The final
pressure in the tank, the mass of steam that entered, and the heat transfer are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the
process, but it can be analyzed as a uniform-flow process since the state of fluid at the inlet remains
constant. 2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. 3 There are no work interactions involved. 4 The
direction of heat transfer is to the tank (will be verified).
Properties The properties of water are (Tables A-4E through A-6E) Steam 200 psia
T1 = 300°F  v1 = v g @ 300°F = 6.4663 ft 3/lbm 400°F

sat. vapor  u1 = u g @ 300°F = 1099.8 Btu/lbm
T2 = 300° F  v f = 0.01745, v g = 6.4663 ft 3/lbm
 Water
sat. mixture  u f = 269.51, u g = 1099.8 Btu/lbm 3 ft3
300°F Q
Pi = 200 psia 
 hi = 1210.9 Btu/lbm Sat. vapor
Ti = 400°F 
Analysis We take the tank as the system, which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary.
Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and
internal energy u, respectively, the mass and energy balances for this uniform-flow system can be
expressed as
Mass balance: min − mout = ∆msystem → mi = m2 − m1

Energy balance: E − Eout = ∆Esystem


1in
424 3 1424 3
Net energy transfer Change in internal, kinetic,
by heat, work, and mass potential, etc. energies

Qin + mi hi = m2u2 − m1u1 (since W ≅ ke ≅ pe ≅ 0)


(a) The tank contains saturated mixture at the final state at 250°F, and thus the exit pressure is the
saturation pressure at this temperature,
P2 = Psat @ 300° F = 67.03 psia

(b) The initial and the final masses in the tank are
V 3 ft 3
m1 = = = 0.464 lbm
v 1 6.4663 ft 3 /lbm
V f Vg 1.5 ft 3 1.5 ft 3 .
m2 = m f + m g = + = + = 85.97 + 0.232 = 86.20 lbm
vf vg 0.01745 ft 3 /lbm 6.4663 ft 3 /lbm
Then from the mass balance
mi = m 2 − m1 = 86.20 − 0.464 = 85.74 lbm
(c) The heat transfer during this process is determined from the energy balance to be
Qin = −mi hi + m2u2 − m1u1
= −(85.74 lbm )(1210.9 Btu/lbm) + 23,425 Btu − (0.464 lbm )(1099.8 Btu/lbm)
= −80,900 Btu → Qout = 80,900 Btu
since U 2 = m 2 u 2 = m f u f + m g u g = 85.97 × 269.51 + 0.232 × 1099.8 = 23,425 Btu

Discussion A negative result for heat transfer indicates that the assumed direction is wrong, and should be
reversed.

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
5-83

5-130 A cylinder initially contains superheated steam. The cylinder is connected to a supply line, and is
superheated steam is allowed to enter the cylinder until the volume doubles at constant pressure. The final
temperature in the cylinder and the mass of the steam that entered are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the
process, but it can be analyzed as a uniform-flow process since the state of fluid at the inlet remains
constant. 2 The expansion process is quasi-equilibrium. 3 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. 3
There are no work interactions involved other than boundary work. 4 The device is insulated and thus heat
transfer is negligible.
Properties The properties of steam are (Tables A-4 through A-6)
P1 = 500 kPa  v 1 = 0.42503 m 3 /kg
 P = 500 kPa
T1 = 200°C  u1 = 2643.3 kJ/kg
T1 = 200°C
V1 = 0.01 m3
Pi = 1 MPa  Pi = 1 MPa
Steam
 hi = 3158.2 kJ/kg Ti = 350°C
Ti = 350°C 

Analysis (a) We take the cylinder as the system, which is a control volume since mass crosses the
boundary. Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by
enthalpy h and internal energy u, respectively, the mass and energy balances for this uniform-flow system
can be expressed as
Mass balance: min − mout = ∆msystem → mi = m2 − m1

Energy balance: E − Eout = ∆Esystem


1in
424 3 1424 3
Net energy transfer Change in internal, kinetic,
by heat, work, and mass potential, etc. energies

mi hi = Wb,out + m2u2 − m1u1 (since Q ≅ ke ≅ pe ≅ 0)

Combining the two relations gives 0 = Wb,out − (m2 − m1 )hi + m2u2 − m1u1
The boundary work done during this process is
2  1 kJ 
Wb,out = ∫ P dV = P(V 2 −V1 ) = (500 kPa )(0.02 − 0.01)m 3   = 5 kJ
1  1 kPa ⋅ m 3 
 
The initial and the final masses in the cylinder are
V1 0.01 m3
m1 = = = 0.0235 kg
v1 0.42503 m3/kg
V 2 0.02 m3
m2 = =
v2 v2
 0.02  0.02
Substituting, 0 = 5 −  − 0.0235 (3158.2 ) + u2 − (0.0235)(2643.3)
 v2  v2
Then by trial and error (or using EES program), T2 = 261.7°C and v2 = 0.4858 m3/kg
(b) The final mass in the cylinder is
V2 0.02 m 3
m2 = = = 0.0412 kg
v 2 0.4858 m 3 /kg
Then, mi = m2 - m1 = 0.0412 - 0.0235 = 0.0176 kg

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
5-84

5-131 A cylinder initially contains saturated liquid-vapor mixture of water. The cylinder is connected to a
supply line, and the steam is allowed to enter the cylinder until all the liquid is vaporized. The final
temperature in the cylinder and the mass of the steam that entered are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the
process, but it can be analyzed as a uniform-flow process since the state of fluid at the inlet remains
constant. 2 The expansion process is quasi-equilibrium. 3 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. 3
There are no work interactions involved other than boundary work. 4 The device is insulated and thus heat
transfer is negligible.
Properties The properties of steam are (Tables A-4 through A-6)
P1 = 200 kPa 
 h1 = h f + x1h fg = 504.71 + 0.6 × 2201.6 = 1825.6 kJ/kg
x1 = 0.6  (P = 200 kPa)
m1 = 10 kg
P2 = 200 kPa  H2O
 h2 = hg @ 200 kPa = 2706.3 kJ/kg Pi = 0.5 MPa
sat. vapor  Ti = 350°C
Pi = 0.5 MPa 
 hi = 3168.1 kJ/kg
Ti = 350°C 
Analysis (a) The cylinder contains saturated vapor at the final state at a pressure of 200 kPa, thus the final
temperature in the cylinder must be
T2 = Tsat @ 200 kPa = 120.2°C
(b) We take the cylinder as the system, which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary. Noting
that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and internal
energy u, respectively, the mass and energy balances for this uniform-flow system can be expressed as
Mass balance: min − mout = ∆msystem → mi = m2 − m1

Energy balance: E − Eout = ∆Esystem


1in
424 3 1424 3
Net energy transfer Change in internal, kinetic,
by heat, work, and mass potential, etc. energies

mi hi = Wb,out + m2u2 − m1u1 (since Q ≅ ke ≅ pe ≅ 0)

Combining the two relations gives 0 = Wb,out − (m2 − m1 )hi + m2u2 − m1u1
or, 0 = −(m2 − m1 )hi + m2h2 − m1h1
since the boundary work and ∆U combine into ∆H for constant pressure expansion and compression
processes. Solving for m2 and substituting,

m2 =
hi − h1
m1 =
(3168.1 − 1825.6) kJ/kg (10 kg ) = 29.07 kg
hi − h2 (3168.1 − 2706.3) kJ/kg
Thus,
mi = m2 - m1 = 29.07 - 10 = 19.07 kg

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
5-85

5-132 A rigid tank initially contains saturated R-134a vapor. The tank is connected to a supply line, and R-
134a is allowed to enter the tank. The mass of the R-134a that entered and the heat transfer are to be
determined.
Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the
process, but it can be analyzed as a uniform-flow process since the state of fluid at the inlet remains
constant. 2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. 3 There are no work interactions involved. 4 The
direction of heat transfer is to the tank (will be verified).
Properties The properties of refrigerant are (Tables A-11 through A-13)
R-134a 1.2 MPa
P1 = 1 MPa  v 1 = v g @1 MPa = 0.02031 m 3 /kg 36°C

sat.vapor  u1 = u g @1 MPa = 250.68 kJ/kg
P2 = 1.2 MPa  v 2 = v f @1.2 MPa = 0.0008934 m 3 /kg
 R-134a
sat. liquid  u2 = u f @1.2 MPa = 116.70 kJ/kg 0.12 m3
Pi = 1.2 MPa  1 MPa Q
 hi = h f @ 36°C = 102.30 kJ/kg Sat. vapor
Ti = 36°C 
Analysis We take the tank as the system, which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary.
Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and
internal energy u, respectively, the mass and energy balances for this uniform-flow system can be
expressed as
Mass balance: min − mout = ∆msystem → mi = m2 − m1

Energy balance: E − Eout = ∆Esystem


1in
424 3 1424 3
Net energy transfer Change in internal, kinetic,
by heat, work, and mass potential, etc. energies

Qin + mi hi = m2u2 − m1u1 (since W ≅ ke ≅ pe ≅ 0)


(a) The initial and the final masses in the tank are
V1 0.12 m 3
m1 = = = 5.91 kg
v 1 0.02031 m 3 /kg
V2 0.12 m 3
m2 = = = 134.31 kg
v 2 0.0008934 m 3 /kg
Then from the mass balance
mi = m 2 − m1 = 134.31 − 5.91 = 128.4 kg
(c) The heat transfer during this process is determined from the energy balance to be
Qin = − mi hi + m2u2 − m1u1
= −(128.4 kg )(102.30 kJ/kg ) + (134.31 kg )(116.70 kJ/kg ) − (5.91 kg )(250.68 kJ/kg )
= 1057 kJ

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
5-86

5-133 A rigid tank initially contains saturated liquid water. A valve at the bottom of the tank is opened, and
half of the mass in liquid form is withdrawn from the tank. The temperature in the tank is maintained
constant. The amount of heat transfer is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the
process, but it can be analyzed as a uniform-flow process since the state of fluid leaving the device remains
constant. 2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. 3 There are no work interactions involved. 4 The
direction of heat transfer is to the tank (will be verified).
Properties The properties of water are (Tables A-4 through A-6) H2O
3 Sat. liquid
T1 = 200°C  v1 = v f @ 200o C = 0.001157 m /kg T = 200°C
 Q
sat. liquid  u1 = u f @ 200 o C = 850.46 kJ/kg V = 0.3 m3

Te = 200o C 
 he = h f @ 200o C = 852.26 kJ/kg
sat. liquid 
Analysis We take the tank as the system, which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary.
Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and
internal energy u, respectively, the mass and energy balances for this uniform-flow system can be
expressed as
Mass balance: min − mout = ∆msystem → me = m1 − m2

Energy balance: E − Eout = ∆Esystem


1in
424 3 1424 3
Net energy transfer Change in internal, kinetic,
by heat, work, and mass potential, etc. energies

Qin = me he + m2u2 − m1u1 (since W ≅ ke ≅ pe ≅ 0)


The initial and the final masses in the tank are
V1 0.3 m 3
m1 = = = 259.4 kg
v 1 0.001157m 3 /kg
m 2 = 12 m1 = 1
2
(259.4 kg ) = 129.7 kg
Then from the mass balance,
me = m1 − m 2 = 259.4 − 129.7 = 129.7 kg
Now we determine the final internal energy,
V 0.3 m 3
v2 = = = 0.002313 m 3 /kg
m2 129.7 kg
v 2 −v f 0.002313 − 0.001157
x2 = = = 0.009171
v fg 0.12721 − 0.001157
T2 = 200°C 
 u 2 = u f + x 2 u fg = 850.46 + (0.009171)(1743.7 ) = 866.46 kJ/kg
x 2 = 0.009171 
Then the heat transfer during this process is determined from the energy balance by substitution to be
Q = (129.7 kg )(852.26 kJ/kg ) + (129.7 kg )(866.46 kJ/kg ) − (259.4 kg )(850.46 kJ/kg )
= 2308 kJ

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
5-87

5-134 A rigid tank initially contains saturated liquid-vapor mixture of refrigerant-134a. A valve at the
bottom of the tank is opened, and liquid is withdrawn from the tank at constant pressure until no liquid
remains inside. The amount of heat transfer is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the
process, but it can be analyzed as a uniform-flow process since the state of fluid leaving the device remains
constant. 2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. 3 There are no work interactions involved. 4 The
direction of heat transfer is to the tank (will be verified).
Properties The properties of R-134a are (Tables A-11 through A-13)
R-134a
P1 = 800 kPa → v f =0.0008458 m3/kg, v g = 0.025621 m3/kg Sat. vapor
P = 800 kPa
u f =94.79 kJ/kg, u g = 246.79 kJ/kg Q
V = 0.12 m3
3
P2 = 800 kPa  v 2 = v g @800 kPa = 0.025621 m /kg

sat. vapor  u2 = u g @800 kPa = 246.79 kJ/kg
Pe = 800 kPa 
 he = h f @800 kPa = 95.47 kJ/kg
sat. liquid 
Analysis We take the tank as the system, which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary.
Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and
internal energy u, respectively, the mass and energy balances for this uniform-flow system can be
expressed as
Mass balance: min − mout = ∆msystem → me = m1 − m2

Energy balance: E − Eout = ∆Esystem


1in
424 3 1424 3
Net energy transfer Change in internal, kinetic,
by heat, work, and mass potential, etc. energies

Qin = me he + m2u2 − m1u1 (since W ≅ ke ≅ pe ≅ 0)


The initial mass, initial internal energy, and final mass in the tank are
V f Vg 0.12 × 0.25 m3 0.12 × 0.75 m3
m1 = m f + mg = + = + = 35.47 + 3.513 = 38.98 kg
v f v g 0.0008458 m3/kg 0.025621 m3/kg
U1 = m1u1 = m f u f + mg u g = (35.47 )(94.79) + (3.513)(246.79 ) = 4229.2 kJ
V 0.12 m3
m2 = = = 4.684 kg
v 2 0.025621 m3/kg
Then from the mass and energy balances,
me = m1 − m 2 = 38.98 − 4.684 = 34.30 kg
Qin = (34.30 kg )(95.47 kJ/kg ) + (4.684 kg )(246.79 kJ/kg ) − 4229 kJ = 201.2 kJ

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
5-88

5-135E A rigid tank initially contains saturated liquid-vapor mixture of R-134a. A valve at the top of the
tank is opened, and vapor is allowed to escape at constant pressure until all the liquid in the tank
disappears. The amount of heat transfer is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the
process, but it can be analyzed as a uniform-flow process since the state of fluid leaving the device remains
constant. 2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. 3 There are no work interactions involved.
Properties The properties of R-134a are (Tables A-11E through A-13E)
P1 = 100 psia → v f = 0.01332 ft 3/lbm, v g = 0.4776 ft 3/lbm
u f = 37.623 Btu/lbm, u g = 104.99 Btu/lbm
R-134a
P2 = 100 psia  v 2 = vg @100 psia = 0.4776 ft 3/lbm Sat. vapor Q
 P = 100 psia
sat. vapor  u2 = u g @100 psia = 104.99 Btu/lbm V = 4 ft3
Pe = 100 psia 
 he = hg @100 psia = 113.83 Btu/lbm
sat. vapor 
Analysis We take the tank as the system, which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary.
Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and
internal energy u, respectively, the mass and energy balances for this uniform-flow system can be
expressed as
Mass balance: min − mout = ∆msystem → me = m1 − m2

Energy balance: E − Eout = ∆Esystem


1in
424 3 1424 3
Net energy transfer Change in internal, kinetic,
by heat, work, and mass potential, etc. energies

Qin − me he = m2u2 − m1u1 (since W ≅ ke ≅ pe ≅ 0)


The initial mass, initial internal energy, and final mass in the tank are
Vf Vg 4 × 0.2 ft 3 4 × 0.8 ft 3
m1 = m f + m g = + = + = 60.04 + 6.70 = 66.74 lbm
vf vg 0.01332 ft 3 /lbm 0.4776 ft 3 /lbm
U 1 = m1u1 = m f u f + m g u g = (60.04 )(37.623) + (6.70 )(104.99 ) = 2962 Btu
V 4 ft 3
m2 = = = 8.375 lbm
v 2 0.4776 ft 3 /lbm
Then from the mass and energy balances,
me = m1 − m 2 = 66.74 − 8.375 = 58.37 lbm
Qin = me he + m2u2 − m1u1
= (58.37 lbm )(113.83 Btu/lbm ) + (8.375 lbm )(104.99 Btu/lbm ) − 2962 Btu
= 4561 Btu

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
5-89

5-136 A rigid tank initially contains superheated steam. A valve at the top of the tank is opened, and vapor
is allowed to escape at constant pressure until the temperature rises to 500°C. The amount of heat transfer
is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the
process, but it can be analyzed as a uniform-flow process by using constant average properties for the
steam leaving the tank. 2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. 3 There are no work interactions
involved. 4 The direction of heat transfer is to the tank (will be verified).
Properties The properties of water are (Tables A-4 through A-6)
P1 = 2 MPa  v 1 = 0.12551 m 3 /kg

T1 = 300°C  u1 = 2773.2 kJ/kg, h1 = 3024.2 kJ/kg STEAM Q

P2 = 2 MPa  v 2 = 0.17568 m 3 /kg 2 MPa



T2 = 500°C  u 2 = 3116.9 kJ/kg, h2 = 3468.3 kJ/kg
Analysis We take the tank as the system, which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary.
Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and
internal energy u, respectively, the mass and energy balances for this uniform-flow system can be
expressed as
Mass balance: min − mout = ∆msystem → me = m1 − m2

Energy balance: E − Eout = ∆Esystem


1in
424 3 1424 3
Net energy transfer Change in internal, kinetic,
by heat, work, and mass potential, etc. energies

Qin − me he = m2u2 − m1u1 (since W ≅ ke ≅ pe ≅ 0)


The state and thus the enthalpy of the steam leaving the tank is changing during this process. But for
simplicity, we assume constant properties for the exiting steam at the average values. Thus,
h1 + h2 3024.2 + 3468.3 kJ/kg
he ≅ = = 3246.2 kJ/kg
2 2
The initial and the final masses in the tank are
V1 0.2 m 3
m1 = = = 1.594 kg
v 1 0.12551 m 3 /kg
V2 0.2 m 3
m2 = = = 1.138kg
v 2 0.17568 m 3 /kg
Then from the mass and energy balance relations,
me = m1 − m 2 = 1.594 − 1.138 = 0.456 kg
Qin = me he + m2u2 − m1u1
= (0.456 kg )(3246.2 kJ/kg ) + (1.138 kg )(3116.9 kJ/kg ) − (1.594 kg )(2773.2 kJ/kg )
= 606.8 kJ

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
5-90

5-137 A pressure cooker is initially half-filled with liquid water. If the pressure cooker is not to run out of
liquid water for 1 h, the highest rate of heat transfer allowed is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the
process, but it can be analyzed as a uniform-flow process since the state of fluid leaving the device remains
constant. 2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. 3 There are no work interactions involved.
Properties The properties of water are (Tables A-4 through A-6)
P1 = 175 kPa → v f = 0.001057 m3/kg, v g = 1.0037 m3/kg
u f = 486.82 kJ/kg, u g = 2524.5 kJ/kg
P2 = 175 kPa  v 2 = v g @175 kPa = 1.0036 m3/kg
 Pressure
sat. vapor  u2 = u g @175 kPa = 2524.5 kJ/kg Cooker
Pe = 175 kPa  4L
 he = hg @175 kPa = 2700.2 kJ/kg 175 kPa
sat. vapor 
Analysis We take the cooker as the system, which is a control volume since Q&
mass crosses the boundary. Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing
and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and internal energy u,
respectively, the mass and energy balances for this uniform-flow system can
be expressed as
Mass balance: min − mout = ∆msystem → me = m1 − m2

Energy balance: E − Eout = ∆Esystem


1in
424 3 1424 3
Net energy transfer Change in internal, kinetic,
by heat, work, and mass potential, etc. energies

Qin − me he = m2u2 − m1u1 (since W ≅ ke ≅ pe ≅ 0)


The initial mass, initial internal energy, and final mass in the tank are
V f Vg 0.002 m3 0.002 m3
m1 = m f + mg = + = + = 1.893 + 0.002 = 1.895 kg
v f v g 0.001057 m3/kg 1.0036 m3/kg
U1 = m1u1 = m f u f + mg u g = (1.893)(486.82 ) + (0.002)(2524.5) = 926.6 kJ
V 0.004 m3
m2 = = = 0.004 kg
v 2 1.0037 m3/kg
Then from the mass and energy balances,
me = m1 − m 2 = 1.895 − 0.004 = 1.891 kg
Qin = me he + m2u2 − m1u1
= (1.891 kg )(2700.2 kJ/kg ) + (0.004 kg )(2524.5 kJ/kg ) − 926.6 kJ = 4188 kJ
Thus,
Q 4188 kJ
Q& = = = 1.163 kW
∆t 3600 s

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
5-91

5-138 An insulated rigid tank initially contains helium gas at high pressure. A valve is opened, and half of
the mass of helium is allowed to escape. The final temperature and pressure in the tank are to be
determined.
Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the
process, but it can be analyzed as a uniform-flow process by using constant average properties for the
helium leaving the tank. 2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. 3 There are no work interactions
involved. 4 The tank is insulated and thus heat transfer is negligible. 5 Helium is an ideal gas with constant
specific heats.
Properties The specific heat ratio of helium is k =1.667 (Table A-2).
Analysis We take the tank as the system, which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary.
Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and
internal energy u, respectively, the mass and energy balances for this uniform-flow system can be
expressed as
Mass balance: min − mout = ∆msystem → me = m1 − m2

m2 = 12 m1 (given) 
→ me = m2 = 12 m1
He
Energy balance: E − Eout = ∆Esystem 0.08 m3
1in
424 3 1424 3
Net energy transfer Change in internal, kinetic, 2 MPa
by heat, work, and mass potential, etc. energies 80°C
− me he = m2u2 − m1u1 (since W ≅ Q ≅ ke ≅ pe ≅ 0)
Note that the state and thus the enthalpy of helium leaving the tank is changing during this process. But for
simplicity, we assume constant properties for the exiting steam at the average values.
Combining the mass and energy balances: 0 = 21 m1he + 21 m1u2 − m1u1

T1 + T2
Dividing by m1/2 0 = he + u 2 − 2u1 or 0 = c p + cv T2 − 2cv T1
2
Dividing by cv: 0 = k (T1 + T2 ) + 2T2 − 4T1 since k = c p / cv

Solving for T2: T2 =


(4 − k ) T = (4 − 1.667 ) (353 K ) = 225 K
(2 + k ) 1 (2 + 1.667)
The final pressure in the tank is
P1V m RT m T 1 225
= 1 1  → P2 = 2 2 P1 = (2000 kPa ) = 637 kPa
P2V m 2 RT2 m1T2 2 353

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
5-92

5-139E An insulated rigid tank equipped with an electric heater initially contains pressurized air. A valve is
opened, and air is allowed to escape at constant temperature until the pressure inside drops to 30 psia. The
amount of electrical work transferred is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the
process, but it can be analyzed as a uniform-flow process since the exit temperature (and enthalpy) of air
remains constant. 2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. 3 The tank is insulated and thus heat
transfer is negligible. 4 Air is an ideal gas with variable specific heats.
Properties The gas constant of air is R =0.3704 psia.ft3/lbm.R (Table A-1E). The properties of air are
(Table A-17E)
Ti = 580 R 
→ hi = 138.66 Btu / lbm
T1 = 580 R 
→ u1 = 98.90 Btu / lbm
T2 = 580 R → u2 = 98.90 Btu / lbm
Analysis We take the tank as the system, which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary.
Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and
internal energy u, respectively, the mass and energy balances for this uniform-flow system can be
expressed as
Mass balance: min − mout = ∆msystem → me = m1 − m2

Energy balance: E − Eout = ∆Esystem


1in
424 3 1424 3
Net energy transfer Change in internal, kinetic,
by heat, work, and mass potential, etc. energies

We,in − me he = m2u2 − m1u1 (since Q ≅ ke ≅ pe ≅ 0)


The initial and the final masses of air in the tank are

m1 =
P1V
=
(75 psia ) 60 ft 3 ) ( = 20.95 lbm
RT1 ( )
0.3704 psia ⋅ ft 3 /lbm ⋅ R (580 R )

m2 =
P2V
=
(30 psia )(60 ft ) 3 AIR
60 ft3
RT2 (0.3704 psia ⋅ ft /lbm ⋅ R )(580 R ) = 8.38 lbm
3
75 psia We
120°F
Then from the mass and energy balances,
me = m1 − m2 = 20.95 − 8.38 = 12.57 lbm
We,in = me he + m2u2 − m1u1
= (12.57 lbm )(138.66 Btu/lbm) + (8.38 lbm )(98.90 Btu/lbm) − (20.95 lbm )(98.90 Btu/lbm)
= 500 Btu

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
5-93

5-140 A vertical cylinder initially contains air at room temperature. Now a valve is opened, and air is
allowed to escape at constant pressure and temperature until the volume of the cylinder goes down by half.
The amount air that left the cylinder and the amount of heat transfer are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the
process, but it can be analyzed as a uniform-flow process since the exit temperature (and enthalpy) of air
remains constant. 2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. 3 There are no work interactions. 4 Air is
an ideal gas with constant specific heats. 5 The direction of heat transfer is to the cylinder (will be
verified).
Properties The gas constant of air is R = 0.287 kPa.m3/kg.K (Table A-1).
Analysis (a) We take the cylinder as the system, which is a control volume since mass crosses the
boundary. Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by
enthalpy h and internal energy u, respectively, the mass and energy balances for this uniform-flow system
can be expressed as
Mass balance: min − mout = ∆msystem → me = m1 − m2

Energy balance: E − Eout = ∆Esystem


1in424
3 1424 3
Net energy transfer Change in internal, kinetic,
by heat, work, and mass potential, etc. energies

Qin + Wb,in − me he = m2u2 − m1u1 (since ke ≅ pe ≅ 0) AIR


300 kPa
The initial and the final masses of air in the cylinder are 0.2 m3

m1 =
P1V 1
=
(300 kPa ) 0.2 m 3 ( )
= 0.714 kg
20°C

RT1 (
0.287 kPa ⋅ m 3 /kg ⋅ K (293 K ) )
m2 =
P2V 2
=
(300 kPa ) 0.1 m 3 ( )
= 0.357 kg = 12 m1
RT2 (
0.287 kPa ⋅ m 3 /kg ⋅ K (293 K ) )
Then from the mass balance,
me = m1 − m2 = 0.714 − 0.357 = 0.357 kg
(b) This is a constant pressure process, and thus the Wb and the ∆U terms can be combined into ∆H to yield
Q = me he + m2 h2 − m1h1
Noting that the temperature of the air remains constant during this process, we have hi = h1 = h2 = h.
Also, me = m2 = 1
2
m1 . Thus,

Q= (12 m1 + 12 m1 − m1 )h = 0

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
5-94

5-141 A balloon is initially filled with helium gas at atmospheric conditions. The tank is connected to a
supply line, and helium is allowed to enter the balloon until the pressure rises from 100 to 150 kPa. The
final temperature in the balloon is to be determined.

Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the
process, but it can be analyzed as a uniform-flow process since the state of fluid at the inlet remains
constant. 2 Helium is an ideal gas with constant specific heats. 3 The expansion process is quasi-
equilibrium. 4 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. 5 There are no work interactions involved
other than boundary work. 6 Heat transfer is negligible.
Properties The gas constant of helium is R = 2.0769 kJ/kg·K (Table A-1). The specific heats of helium are
cp = 5.1926 and cv = 3.1156 kJ/kg·K (Table A-2a).
Analysis We take the cylinder as the system, which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary.
Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and
internal energy u, respectively, the mass and energy balances for this uniform-flow system can be
expressed as
Mass balance: min − mout = ∆msystem → mi = m2 − m1

Energy E − Eout = ∆Esystem


1in
424 3 1424 3
balance: Net energy transfer Change in internal, kinetic, He
by heat, work, and mass potential, etc. energies
25°C
mi hi = Wb,out + m2u2 − m1u1 (since Q ≅ ke ≅ pe ≅ 0) 150 kPa

m1 =
P1V1
=
(100 kPa ) 65 m3 (
= 10.61 kg
)
RT1 (
2.0769 kPa ⋅ m3/kg ⋅ K (295 K ) )
P1 V1
=
P2 V 2
P
→ V 2 = 2 V1 =

P1
150 kPa
100 kPa
65 m3 = 97.5 m3 ( )
He

m2 =
P2V 2
=
(150 kPa ) 97.5 m ( =
3
)
7041.74 22°C

RT2 (
2.0769 kPa ⋅ m /kg ⋅ K (T2 K )
3
T2 ) kg 100 kPa

Then from the mass balance,


7041.74
mi = m2 − m1 = − 10.61 kg
T2
Noting that P varies linearly with V, the boundary work done during this process is

(V 2 −V1 ) = (100 + 150)kPa (97.5 − 65)m 3 = 4062.5 kJ


P1 + P2
Wb =
2 2
Using specific heats, the energy balance relation reduces to
Wb, out = mi c pTi − m2cv T2 + m1cv T1

Substituting,
 7041.74  7041.74
4062.5 =  − 10.61(5.1926 )(298) − (3.1156)T2 + (10.61)(3.1156)(295)
 T2  T2
It yields T2 = 333.6 K

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
5-95

5-142 An insulated piston-cylinder device with a linear spring is applying force to the piston. A valve at
the bottom of the cylinder is opened, and refrigerant is allowed to escape. The amount of refrigerant that
escapes and the final temperature of the refrigerant are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the
process, but it can be analyzed as a uniform-flow process assuming that the state of fluid leaving the device
remains constant. 2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible.
Properties The initial properties of R-134a are (Tables A-11 through A-13)
3
P1 = 1.2 MPa v 1 = 0.02423 m /kg
u1 = 325.03 kJ/kg
T1 = 120°C 
h1 = 354.11 kJ/kg
Analysis We take the tank as the system, which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary.
Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and
internal energy u, respectively, the mass and energy balances for this uniform-flow system can be
expressed as
Mass balance: min − mout = ∆msystem → me = m1 − m2

Energy balance: E − Eout = ∆Esystem


1in
424 3 1424 3
Net energy transfer Change in internal, kinetic,
by heat, work, and mass potential, etc. energies

Wb,in − me he = m2u2 − m1u1 (since Q ≅ ke ≅ pe ≅ 0)


The initial mass and the relations for the final and exiting masses are
V1 0.8 m3
m1 = = = 33.02 kg
v1 0.02423 m3/kg
V 2 0.5 m3
m2 = =
v2 v2 R-134a
3 0.8 m3
0.5 m
me = m1 − m2 = 33.02 − 1.2 MPa
v2 120°C
Noting that the spring is linear, the boundary work can be determined from
P1 + P2 (1200 + 600) kPa
W b,in = (V1 −V 2 ) = (0.8 - 0.5)m 3 = 270 kJ
2 2
Substituting the energy balance,
 0.5 m3   0.5 m3 
270 −  33.02 − he =  u2 − (33.02 kg)(325.03 kJ/kg) (Eq. 1)
 v 2   v 
  2 
where the enthalpy of exiting fluid is assumed to be the average of initial and final enthalpies of the
refrigerant in the cylinder. That is,
h1 + h2 (354.11 kJ/kg) + h2
he = =
2 2
Final state properties of the refrigerant (h2, u2, and v2) are all functions of final pressure (known) and
temperature (unknown). The solution may be obtained by a trial-error approach by trying different final
state temperatures until Eq. (1) is satisfied. Or solving the above equations simultaneously using an
equation solver with built-in thermodynamic functions such as EES, we obtain
T2 = 96.8°C, me = 22.47 kg, h2 = 336.20 kJ/kg,
u2 = 307.77 kJ/kg, v2 = 0.04739 m3/kg, m2 = 10.55 kg

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
5-96

5-143 Steam flowing in a supply line is allowed to enter into an insulated tank until a specified state is
achieved in the tank. The mass of the steam that has entered and the pressure of the steam in the supply line
are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the
process, but it can be analyzed as a uniform-flow process since the state of fluid entering the tank remains
constant. 2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible.
Properties The initial and final properties of steam in the tank are
(Tables A-5 and A-6)
P1 = 1 MPa v 1 = 0.19436 m 3 /kg Steam 400°C

x1 = 1 (sat. vap.)u1 = 2582.8 kJ/kg

P2 = 2 MPa v 2 = 0.12551 m 3 /kg


 Sat. vapor
T1 = 300°C u 2 = 2773.2 kJ/kg
2 m3
Analysis We take the tank as the system, which is a control volume 1 MPa
since mass crosses the boundary. Noting that the microscopic energies
of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and
internal energy u, respectively, the mass and energy balances for this
uniform-flow system can be expressed as
Mass balance: min − mout = ∆msystem → mi = m2 − m1

Energy balance: E − Eout = ∆Esystem


1in
424 3 1424 3
Net energy transfer Change in internal, kinetic,
by heat, work, and mass potential, etc. energies

mi hi = m2u2 − m1u1 (since Q ≅ ke ≅ pe ≅ 0)


The initial and final masses and the mass that has entered are
V 2 m3
m1 = = = 10.29 kg
v 1 0.19436 m 3 /kg
V 2 m3
m2 = = = 15.94 kg
v 2 0.12551 m 3 /kg
mi = m 2 − m1 = 15.94 − 10.29 = 5.645 kg
Substituting,
(5.645 kg)hi = (15.94 kg)(2773.2 kJ/kg) − (10.29 kg)(2582.8 kJ/kg) 
→ hi = 3120.3 kJ/kg
The pressure in the supply line is
hi = 3120.3 kJ/kg 
Pi = 8931 kPa (determined from EES)
Ti = 400°C 

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
5-97

5-144 Steam at a specified state is allowed to enter a piston-cylinder device in which steam undergoes a
constant pressure expansion process. The amount of mass that enters and the amount of heat transfer are to
be determined.
Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the
process, but it can be analyzed as a uniform-flow process since the state of fluid entering the device
remains constant. 2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible.
Properties The properties of steam at various states are (Tables A-4 through A-6)
V1 0.1 m 3
v1 = = =0.16667 m 3 /kg
m1 0.6 kg
P2 = P1

P1 = 800 kPa  Q
u1 = 2004.4 kJ/kg
3 Steam
v1 = 0.16667 m /kg 
0.6 kg
P2 = 800 kPa v 2 = 0.29321 m 3 /kg 0.1 m3
 800 kPa Steam
T2 = 250°C u 2 = 2715.9 kJ/kg 5 MPa
500°C
Pi = 5 MPa 
hi = 3434.7 kJ/kg
Ti = 500°C 
Analysis (a) We take the tank as the system, which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary.
Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and
internal energy u, respectively, the mass and energy balances for this uniform-flow system can be
expressed as
Mass balance: min − mout = ∆msystem → mi = m2 − m1

Energy balance: E − Eout = ∆Esystem


1in
424 3 1424 3
Net energy transfer Change in internal, kinetic,
by heat, work, and mass potential, etc. energies

Qin − Wb,out + mi hi = m2u2 − m1u1 (since ke ≅ pe ≅ 0)


Noting that the pressure remains constant, the boundary work is determined from
W b,out = P (V 2 −V 1 ) = (800 kPa)(2 × 0.1 − 0.1)m 3 = 80 kJ
The final mass and the mass that has entered are
V2 0.2 m 3
m2 = = = 0.682 kg
v 2 0.29321 m 3 /kg
mi = m 2 − m1 = 0.682 − 0.6 = 0.082 kg
(b) Finally, substituting into energy balance equation
Qin − 80 kJ + (0.082 kg)(3434.7 kJ/kg) = (0.682 kg)(2715.9 kJ/kg) − (0.6 kg)(2004.4 kJ/kg)
Qin = 447.9 kJ

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.