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* Part 2 of the Prelims Magic 2014 contains material for Current Affairs and
will be released in July 2014. For details visit: www.JTSinstitute.com

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Prelims Paper-I
IAS Prelims Magic 2014
IAS Prelims Magic 2014

Study Material for students of

JTS Institute
#23, Infantry Road, Bangalore 560001
Tel: 4081 0505 (30 Lines)
Website: www.JTSInstitute.com Email: contact@JTSinstitute.com

Copyright reserved with JTS Institute.

No part of this book may be reproduced or reprinted in any form or by any means now known or
hereafter invented including photocopying and recording or in any information storage and
retrieval system, without permission in writing from the Publishers.

Every care has been taken by the compilers of this book and JTS Institute to give correct, com-
plete, updated information. However, in case of any ommission, printing mistake, or any other
error which might have crept in inadvertently, neither the compilers nor the JTS Institute take any
legal responsibility. The name of this book “Prelims Magic” is only a motivational name and
does not mean that this book contains any magic success formulae. The fact that a similar
yearly publication JTS Institute has published from 2009 to 2013 were mega successes as
79% questions on an average were asked from that books, does not mean that in the forthcoming
years also a similar result may or may not expect. This book is a compilation of information,
techniques and methods used in different practices for many generations or developed afresh
by JTS Institute or its faculty. JTS Institute or its faculty, however make no claim for effectiveness
of the tips, techniques and content given or mentioned in this book/nor responsible for any injury
or loss that might occur through following the instructions laid out in this book. Legal Jurisdiction:
Courts in Bangalore City Only.

For Copies of this book, Contact:

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* Part 2 of the Prelims Magic 2014 contains material for Current Affairs and
will be released in July 2014. For details visit: www.JTSinstitute.com
1. Foreword - About the Book ... 4
2. Come, You Too Can Become an IAS Officer! ... 5
3. Success Strategies of Toppers ... 14
4. Develop a Burning Desire to Become an IAS Officer ... 19
5. How to Attract To Yourself the Things You Desire ... 22
6. How to Prepare For Exam ... 25
7. Secrets of Getting More Marks in Exams ... 26
8. Score Raising Strategies. ... 28
9. How to Control Exam Anxiety? ... 29
10. How to approach the Prelims Papers ... 31
11. 12 Strategies to Tackle Objective Type Questions ... 34
12. Types of Questions Asked In the Civil Service Exam ... 35
13. A Master Plan to Study Smarter ... 37
14. Test Results - A Self Analysis- Record of Merit ... 64
15. Indian History ... 67
16. Geography ... 259
17. Indian Polity and Governance ... 397
18. Economy ... 541
19. Environmental Ecology ... 731
20. General Science + Science & Technology ... 817
21. Prelims 2011, 2012 and 2013 Solved Question Papers ... 973

IAS 2014: All India Mock Test Series

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Get Ready…
To become a Super Winner
Here are those powerful secrets of Success.
I Read it carefully,
And Practice them…
N Success will flow on you in abundance!!!
All the Best!

What is the first advice any IAS Topper gives you on Civil Services Exam Preparation? “Go through
question papers of the last 15 years.” But when you go through the last 15 years’ question papers, you
will find that: NOT A SINGLE QUESTION HAS BEEN REPEATED!! Then what is the big idea
behind the advice of “refer all previous questions”?
The simple fact is that, 60-70% of the questions asked in the civil services exam are related to questions
asked over the previous years. Therefore one booster strategy is learning all topics related to the questions
About this Book

asked in the previous years.

Here’s the relevance of Prelims Magic 2014. In this book, you will find questions asked over the last
15+ years’ Civil Services Exams (GS) plus information required to answer 10-25 related questions. In
2009 Prelims, this strategy worked like magic and 118 out of 150 questions were asked from it. In
2010, 2011,2012 and 2013 Prelims also it worked very well when 79% questions on an average, were
asked from the Prelims Magic.

4 Prelims Magic 2014

Come, you too can become
an IAS Officer!
You are a candidate, who wishes to If your answer is “YES, I want to
work hard and be an IAS Officer. become an IAS Officer”, tell this Programme your Mind
Isn’t it?
Yes, your very decision to apply for
affirmation statement 10 times in
your mind or read it 10 times. While
to Attract Success!! N
the Civil Service Exam 2014 and reading this statement give your
start reading this Prelims Magic
2014 is the proof of your strong
utmost sincerity in the words you
read, and believe that you already
You might not be a hundred percent
success in the past, but chances
are excellent that in this book you
desire to become an IAS Officer. achieved the results. The
Well, you’re about to discover, the
affirmation statement is:
“I have decided to become an IAS
would find an excellent formula
exclusively designed for you, that
can make you a super successful
which will change your life forever! Officer, and I will dedicate my whole
Imagine… It’s one or two years
from now and you have everything
time from this moment for achieving
this aim. I will prepare hard for the
The powerful techniques mentioned
in this book cannot be absorbed by
you want. Try to visualize yourself Civil Service Exam and I will pass
the prelims, main and the interview casual reading or by gulping the
working as an IAS Officer. Or if
sessions with flying colours.” whole book down in one reading, it
your aim is becoming an IPS Officer,
This affirmation has generated should be read slowly and carefully.
visualize yourself in that royal police
miracles for many candidates in the Content of this book is classified
uniform and receiving salutes from
last three years and it will work into 2 sections. First section deals
your subordinate staff.
wonders for you too. Yes, becoming with programming of your mind to
Believe me… you are going to
an IAS officer is no more a big attr act success and success
achieve this; you can achieve it
challenge for you, because you have mantras for sure success in civil
much sooner than you think. All you
taken that strong decision- the service exam. Second section
need to do is just follow and learn to
decision to work hard and become gives you syllabus based material
use the simple techniques given in
an IAS Officer. for the forthcoming preliminary
this magic study material.
Prelims Magic 2014 will help you (GS) exam.
The simple fact that you are reading
achieve your aim faster and easier Maintain a spirit of open
this material indicates that you want
than you expect. This is a mindedness, while reading this
to become an IAS Officer. This
concentrated, easy to follow guide book, and remember that the
refresher material can enable you
that will take you step by step powerful techniques given in this
to achieve that.
through how to develop self book are the invention of no one
This book lists the ingredients – the
confidence, how to attract success man. These techniques have
principles – you will need to follow
and distract failure how to plan your worked for many persons. You can
to become a super winner and gives
time, and all other powerful put them to work for your own
you the recipe for mixing them in
techniques which require to make enduring benefit. You will find it
the correct proportion.
you a super winner. Plus what are easy, not hard to follow.
Above all, this is a powerful help
all the questions you can expect in As you read this book believe what
book that will take you from
the forthcoming examination. you read, because it is true, then
dreaming about becoming an IAS
The powerful steps set down here start working on the practical
officer to actually become an IAS
are not untested theories. They are suggestions the book contains….
proven approaches to life’s and you will have a never before
Whoever you are, wherever you
situations, and they are universally experience that produce.
are, whatever your past
applicable steps that work and work If you read this book thoughtfully,
performance in life was … you can
like magic. During the last few carefully absorbing its teachings,
be changed in the next few days.
year s, this book has helped and if you persistently practice the
Before proceeding further, please
thousands of candidates achieve principles set forth herein, you can
tell me, “Are you really wanted to
their dream of becoming an IAS experience an amazing
become an IAS Officer?”
Officer. improvement within yourself. By

Prelims Magic 2014 5

mastering these principles you will those who have managed to keep think of. As some obstacles will be
enjoy a delightful new sense of well awakened this sleeping energy real, others will only be imaginary.
being. within them. But how do you keep You must conquer both.
The most important prerequisite in awaken sleeping energy within you? Be motivated by the fear of
the process of becoming an IAS If any one had a clear answer to failures : Use such anxieties
Officer is, to programme your mind that, the world would have been a positively by saying to yourself
to attract success. This is very very different place. But things like, “I know this is difficult

I important because if your mind is

not properly programmed, success
will not be attracted to it.
Psychologists have a suggestion: set
out of your own shadow!
It means, look deeply in to your
but I can do it if I try properly”…
Think positively : Think
positively, Act positively, imagine

N Over the years of observing persons

who attained excellent success in
life’s situations, it was concluded,
mind. Amazing wonders exist there.
What ever your situation may be,
you can improve it.
positively, pray positively and
believe positively…..and powerful
results will be yours.

T based on factual knowledge, that

persons who are success conscious
inevitably attract positive and
First quieten your mind so that
inspiration may rise from its depth.
Believe that God is now helping you.
Talk success to yourself :
Develop the habit of giving yourself
positive self-talk. Say like ‘
I can handle it’,
R powerful results.
You too can become a success
conscious person and attract
Visualize achievement; hold firmly
in your mind a picture not of failure
but of success.
‘I can do it’,
‘I am good at study’,
‘I have a good personality’, etc…
O success in abundance. This book
will help all those who seek to learn
the art of changing their minds from
Do these things and creative
thoughts will flow freely from your
mind? This is an amazing
Be experimental :
experimental person. Try new
Be an

failure conscious to success phenomenon, one that changes approaches to everything. Do not
conscious. If you can follow the anybody’s life including your own. follow the path of others blindly.
powerful secrets given in this book An inflow of new thoughts can Create your own way to goals.
thoroughly, you will become like a remodel you regardless of every Begin perform with a new
powerful magnet, which attracts difficulty you may now face. thought : Each day before you
SUCCESS and only SUCCESS. Stop focusing on your faults and begin your perfor m, devote 5
Get ready… to become a powerful shortcomings, and give yourself minutes to thinking “How can I
perform better today?” “How
magnet… Here are those powerful credit for a few virtues now and
can I improve my personal
secr ets of success. Read it then.
efficiency?” This exercise is
carefully, and make a conscious You’d be surprised to know how
simple, but it works. Try it and you
effort to pr actice them… many people tell that they’re no
will find unlimited creative ways to
SUCCESS will flow on you in good, that they’re hopeless
win greater success.
abundance!!! All the best. failures. These people need to be Asking yourself questions like this
kind to them, because very often puts your mind to work to find
POWERFULSECRET#1 self-kindedness reduces the feelings intelligent shortcuts. When you
Awaken the Sleeping Energy within you of guilt and inferiority that are really believe you can do more, your
The first and foremost secret of blocking the flow of power from the mind thinks creatively and shows
success is to awaken the sleeping unconscious. you the way.
giant within you. Yes, there is a Forget about all your shortcomings,
powerful giant sleeping within you. all weaknesses, your past, POWERFULSECRET#2
This giant is capable of doing everything. Let’s start our life Turn your Goals into Realities
anything for you. You might have afresh with more confidence in our Goal setting is a very powerful
heard of the real life story of a man plus points. Here are some practical technique that can yield strong
who lifts a heavy wrecked car to steps you can do to awaken the returns in all areas of your life.
free a trapped driver or a woman sleeping energy within you: Without a specific goal you cannot
who swims a mile from capsized Visualise your success : Sit down achieve anything. Lots of persons
boat, towing her child to and think about what you want to get nowhere, simply because they
safety…from where does such do successfully. See it in your mind, do not know where they want to go.
enormous energy comes from? as if it was a real experience and They have no clear-cut, precisely
Believe me, such strength come really concentrate on it. defined goals. You cannot expect
from the sleeping giant-the hidden Don’t build obstacles in your the best if you think aimlessly.
dynamo of the unconscious mind. mind : Consider what are the By setting goals you can:
That is where mental energy comes obstacles that might block your path # Achieve more
from, too! Successful people are to success. List everyone you can

6 Prelims Magic 2014

# Increase your motivation to # Write your goal down. Once it sure I’ll become an IAS Officer.
achieve goes into writing, it becomes Things will work out in the end.
# Increase your pride and substantial and starts etching itself Eventually I’ll meet someone I
satisfaction in your achievements into your subconscious. You will really like. I just have to keep
# Improve your self-confidence then begin to crystallize your trying. I’m bound to work hard –
# Plan to eliminate attitudes that hold thinking. The very act of thinking as I just know it”. These are all
you back and cause unhappiness you write will have a tendency to examples of wishful thinking!
# Goal setting is an important
method of:
# Deciding what is important for you
create an indelible impression in your
# Set a deadline for your goal.
Positive thinking is more than just
something you do when things go
wrong or when you try to correct a
to achieve in your life
# Separating what is irrelevant from
what is important
Analyze where you are now in
relation to the goal and then measure
how much time will reasonably need
situation. Positive thinking is a way
of living; it is a practice that you
need to incorporate into your daily
# Motivating yourself to
# Building your self-confidence
to complete the goal. Then set the
latest outside date. This is important
in motivating you: set out in the
life if you have any intentions of
changing things or accomplishing
your goals.
based on measured achievement of
# You should allow yourself to enjoy
direction of your goal and keep
moving towards it.
# Identify 1) the obstacles you will
Positive thinking requires that you
get rid of all your negative thought
patterns and create a new belief
the achievement of goals and reward
yourself appropriately. Draw lessons
where appropriate, and feed these
need to overcome, 2) the help you
will need to acquire, e.g. knowledge,
people, organizations. In each case
The way we think has an impact on
the way we act. For instance, if we
back into future performance. If you write them out in a clear list and believe that a task is too difficult or
have not set goals already, now is a analyse them. onerous we will not attempt it, or
great time to start! You know well, # Take all the details of above steps only give it half our attention.
that setting goals will help you and make a plan. List all the Whereas if we believe something is
achieve more and add excitement activities and prioritize them. achievable we are likely to give it
to life. But setting a goal is only the Rewrite the list, optimize it, and our best shot.
beginning. We often fail to follow perfect it. Write out a detailed action When working with depressed
through, and our goals turn into plan for achieving your goal. What people or people with very low self-
unfulfilled day dreams. are the priorities involved? Which esteem we often find they are
# Decide what you want to achieve. task must be done first? When will continually telling themselves, they
Determine exactly what you want. different actions take place? are not good enough or are a failure
Be specific. Be sure your goal is # Get a clear mental picture of the in whatever they do. The more
measurable, so you can tell when goal already accomplished. Make often they tell themselves they are
you are making progress. Be sure it the mental image crystal clear, vivid not good enough the more often
is realistically achievable. in the mind’s eye. Play that picture they will find examples to reinforce
# Ask yourself why it is important over and over in your mind. this belief. Even when they might
for you to achieve this goal? How # Back your plan with persistence have done something well, they will
you will benefit from reaching this and resolve. Never, never, never ‘punish’ themselves by saying, I
goal? Knowing why you want give up even when you hit setbacks. could have done better, so
something raises your level of Follow these steps religiously and therefore I am not good enough.
motivation. The higher your you will be a high achiever. This results in a never-ending spiral
motivation level, the more likely you downwards.
are to act on your goal. Highly POWERFUL SECRET #3 Even people who say they are
motivated people are more likely to Be a Positive Thinker unlucky can have the same
make any sacrifice necessary to Positive thinking is one of the most experience, their expectation to
reach their goal. important things you need to always lose or be unlucky becomes
# Develop a DESIRE to achieve practice throughout your life. The a self-fulfilling prophesy. The
the goal. The desire must be intense. only problem is that a lot of people negativity in which people surround
How do you intensify desire? Sit think, they know what positive themselves has an effect on all
down and write out all the benefits thinking is – but instead really aspects of their lives.
and advantages of achieving your practice wishful thinking. It works the same way with happy
goal. Once the list goes between 50 Here’s the difference. Wishful or lucky people. They have faith in
and 100 your goal becomes thinking is saying something like, “I themselves and look for the good
unstoppable. know things will get better. I’m whatever happens.

Prelims Magic 2014 7

So if it works for lucky or happy you’ve just learned. With every # To be a 100% positive minded, you
people it can work for the rest of teacher, ask a question. With have got to feel like you’re on top.
us. The power of positive thinking yourself, keep a list of your goals, Give yourself a pep talk and discover
really works. It surrounds you with positive thoughts and actions. how much bigger and stronger you
positive energy, which has an effect Remember, you are what you think, feel. You need to realise that you are
on the things, and people you come you feel what you want. a first class person. You need honest
into contact with. You must have # Focus on what is right in a person sincere belief in yourself.

I experienced feeling down and

meeting someone who is feeling
good about themselves and the
or situation, instead of looking for
what is wrong. Believe that there is
something positive in every person
# Upgrade your thinking. Think like
top scorers think. Upgrading your
thinking upgrades your actions and

N positive feeling rubbing off on you,

even if it is only for a short while.
The number one priority in becoming
and every situation.
# Positive thinkers are winners who
recognise their limitations but focus
this produces success.
# Prolonged associations with
positive minded people make us

T a positive thinker is desire. You must

want to be a positive person so
intensely that you determine to start
on their strengths. Negative thinkers
on the other hand, recognize their
strengths but focus on their
think positively. Don’t let negative
thinkers pull you down to their level.
Develop a defense against people

R at once the process of change in

yourself. And, if you believe you can
change from negative to positive,
# If you want to build a positive
attitude learn the phrase, ‘Do it now’
who want to convince you that you
cannot do it. Accept negative
advice only as a challenge to prove

O you will do so. You’ll be surprised

at how contagious a positive attitude
can be. If thinking positive thoughts
and stop the habit of procrastination.
# Be a front seater. Sitting up front
makes you positive. Practice it from
that you can do it.
# You must be willing to accept
becomes a habit with you, you’ll now on, make it a rule to sit as close You must learn to listen to the advice
find that the things you say to the front as you can – in class of experts. No matter how
spontaneously will also be positive. rooms and other kinds of assemblies competent we think we are in a
Here are some ver y effective # Make your eyes work for you. certain job, we can always find a
Suggestions for building positive Practise making eye contact. Aim reason for improvement.
attitude: them right at the other person’s # Start each day of your life, by
# Make a positive commitment to eyes. It not only makes you positive, looking in the mirror and saying “I
yourself, to learning, work, family it wins you confidence too. am 100% positive, Now I am a
friends, nature, and other # Reform your walking style. Walk successful person, Today I am
worthwhile causes. Praise yourself faster. Throw your shoulders back, going to do my very best at
and others. Dream of success. Be lift up your head, move ahead just a whatever I do”. Then proceed to
enthusiastic. little faster and feel you grow do exactly that. At the end of the
# Keep your mind focused on positive. day, if you can again look yourself
important things. Set goals and # A big smile gives you positive directly in the eye and say,
priorities for what you think and do. attitude. A real smile melts away “today I did my best”, you will be
Visualize to practise your actions. opposition of others – and instantly number one.
Develop a strategy for dealing with too harness the power of smiling. # When you feel defeated, convince
problems. Learn to relax. Enjoy # Use the big thinkers’ vocabulary. your mind that, it is not possible to
successes. Be honest with yourself. Use words that promise victory, achieve lar ge success without
# Be courageous. Change and hope… Avoid words that create hardship and setbacks. But it is
improve each day. Do your best and unpleasant images of failure, defeat, possible to live the rest of your life
don’t look back. See learning and grief,etc. without defeat. Regard the setback
change as opportunities. Try new # Think above trivial things. Focus as a lesson. Learn from it. Research
things. Consider several options. your attention on big objectives. it. Use it to propel yourself forward.
Meet new people. Ask lots of Before getting involved in a petty Salvage something from every
questions. Keep track of your matter, ask yourself, is it really setback. Blend persistence with
mental and physical health. Be important? experimentation. Back off and start
optimistic. # Be sure your appearance says afresh with a new approach.
Always, look for positive people to positive things about you. Never # If you are having trouble
associate with. In every lecture, look leave home without feeling certain developing a positive attitude,
for one more interesting idea. In that you look like the kind of person practise thinking out what you’d say
ever y chapter, find one more you want to be. Dress right, it to your sister or your best friend if
concept important to you. With always pays. they were telling you about their
every friend, explain a new idea negative thoughts. How would you

8 Prelims Magic 2014

cheer someone else up? You One of the most important routes small pieces, listing small steps to
deserve to spend at least as much to being successful in your efforts be done. Make each step something
energy doing this for yourself. to become an IAS Officer is you can accomplish in a relatively
# Make it a habit, practising all effective use of your time. As a short time period (eg. 15 minutes).
positive affirmations. Some of the person you need to find the right Make the results measurable so that
positive affirmations to start with balance between relaxation and you can see your progress. For
are: perform periods. Your performing example, if a long reading
# In every day in every way I am
getting better and better
# My memory is excellent
time is partly fixed already with
regular classes. These fixed times
form a framework for the whole
assignment intimidates you, break it
into 3-page sections, and then cross
off each section as you complete it.
# I am a worthwhile and loveable
person as I am
# All my teachers are good and
session within which you can
organize your perform time.
You should make a note of all the
# Adopt a ‘bits and pieces’
approach. Anything is better than
nothing. Often when you get going
they will like me. on a task, you become interested or
# I am an attractive person, I like
fixed dates in your yearly time table
so that you can plan your tasks for
the year into perspective.
feel good about doing it. Use bits of
time to review and memorize; carry
# People love me for who I am perform cards with you,
# There is no limit to how good I
can feel
Time Management
# Be realistic.
# Work out what time you have
# Reward small tasks after you
do them. Small treats provide a
# I deserve the best sense of feeling good about your
# I can achieve my goals
# I will be on the top in the next
available for perform, take out time
for sleeping, eating, recreation, etc.
# Try to plan ahead – do not leave
# Make list of tasks to be done:
interview. everything to the last minute, Set priorities and cross off what is
# I can find the good within me remember assignments need completed. Feel a sense of
and express it freely research, so start early. accomplishment from crossing off
# I am letting go of the past, and # Prioritize – do the one that really tasks done. You will have no
reaching for the future needs to be done first. decision to make about “what should
# I am attracting more and more # Br eak large tasks into I do now?” Keep a calendar of due
love/joy into my life dates.
manageable sub-tasks and set target
# Today will be full of exciting # Monitor your time (keep a list
dates against each sub-task e.g. for
opportunities of how you spend your time):
an assignment; research evaluation,
When you become accomplished at Sometimes you feel like you have
draft copy, final copy.
believing these, it is easier to think done nothing but work when you
# Keep a wall planner chart.
up lots more of your own. In the really have only been thinking about
beginning it will feel unr eal, # Try doing the most difficult things it or preparing for it (getting together
unbelievable and phoney. By when you feel at your best. the equipment you think you’ll need
practising and repeating these # Remember the unexpected or preparing a cup of tea before you
positive thoughts (or affirmations) always happens, so be flexible – start, etc.). Often we believe a task
they will become more believable don’t get angry when plans have to will take much longer than it really
and become integrated into the way change. does and so believe it to be worse
you think, therefore producing than it is.
positive energy with the results of POWERFULSECRET#5 # Work with a colleague or a
more positive things beginning to Stop Procrastination friend on similar tasks.
happen around you. Even in Procrastination means putting off Performing together, even if
apparently bad situations it is always for doing later. We often try to side focusing on different subjects,
possible to find something positive step unpleasant things by putting motivates you to work.
to take from it, even if it is only the them off. One great phrase to # Avoid feeling guilty. Feeling
learning not to do it again. remember is “Don’t think, just do guilty is a waste of time; do
it. Do it now”. As you say this to something active instead of blaming
POWERFULSECRET #4 yourself, push yourself in to action. self for not doing what you should,
Control your time # The general principles of plan to do it or something else that
Time is precious. To waste your time conquering the procrastination will give you a sense of
is to waste your life. Successful enemy are: Creating good feelings accomplishment.
persons control their time and set about completing work, Providing a # Tell others of your plans.
clear goals for themselves. They sense of accomplishment and Letting someone know that your
know what they want to achieve and Showing results in short time period. plan to do something makes you feel
plan so as to get there. # Divide the large tasks into you should do it.

Prelims Magic 2014 9

# Write an intention statement. # Selfishness is negative and for your lack of happiness or failure
Write down a task that you have to destructive. It is based on negative you give up your ability to heal
accomplish on a card and carry it values. yourself from sickness and
around with you or place it in a # Jealous: Jealousy people never unhappiness. Blame prevents you
position in your perform area where get ahead in life and prevent others from taking responsibility for your
you will see it often. from succeeding. life and affirms that you are
# Write down the pros and cons # Dishonesty: There is no powerless.

I of doing/not doing a job. This can

motivate you to do it.
# Establish how meaningful the
substitute for honesty. One may be
temporarily dishonest by force of
circumstances over which one has
As long as we make someone or
any circumstance the reason we are
not successful, we block our ability

N task is. List the benefits of

completing the task. Relate the task
to your goals. This can motivate you
no control, without permanent
damage. But there is no hope for
the person who is dishonest by
to create that success.
Forgiveness is letting go of our
tendency to hold others responsible

T to get going.
# Do it now. The minute you notice
yourself procrastinating, plunge into
choice. Sooner or later, his deeds
will catch up with him, and he will
pay by loss of reputation, and
for our plight in this world. If
someone hurts you, forgiveness
means letting go of the hurt, it does
the task. Imagine yourself at a
R mountain lake, poised to dive.
Gradual immersion would be slow
perhaps even loss of liberty.
#Gossip: Gossip is just negative
conversation about people. He
not mean going back get hurt again.
To love someone does not mean that
we should in any way allow that
torture. It’s often less painful to leap!
seems to get a form of poisoned joy
from talking negatively about others,
not knowing that to successful
person to hurt us again. We must
be practical in making any future
decision to relate or work with this
Clean up your mind and do Wonders people he is becoming increasingly person.
The presence of any one or more unlikable, and unreliable. Avoid
of the destructive emotions in the gossip. Talk about people but stay POWERFULSECRET#7
human mind, through the chemistry on the positive side. Do not allow worry to destroy you
of the mind, sets up a poison, which #Hate: Hating people are like Worry is an unhealthy and
may destroy one’s chances for burning down your own house to destructive mental habit. You were
success. You become successful to get rid of a rat. not born with the worry habit but
the degree to which the mind thinks When we carry hate for other you acquired it.
success thoughts and the mind is people it is totally self–defeating. Psychologists tell us that 40% of our
morally clean. A clean mind actually When your mind is free and clear worries will never happen and that
sends continuing trends of positive of hate, you can do much better in 30% have already happened. An
anything that you have to do. If you additional 12% of our worries are
Generations ago Plato wr ote:
hate a particular person, take the over unfounded health concerns;
“Neither should we ever attempt to
action as given below: 10% more involve the daily
cure the body without curing the
Today I will free my mind of hate miscellaneous fretting that
mind”. Modern thinkers are just
by forgiving and asking accomplishes absolutely nothing. In
now realizing the sound thinking of
this wise philosopher of ancient forgiveness of a person with whom other words, those who perform the
time. A clean mind can do wonders. I have had a dispute. That person field of worry have discovered that
You can, too, clean up your mind and is Mr………… we are worrying 92% of the time
do wonders in your attempts to #Anger: Whenever you are angry for no good reason.
become an IAS Officer. Here are or anxious and find yourself wanting Scientists think that activities like
some poisonous attitudes that has to to break in, take a sip of water or walking, jogging, swimming and
be cleaned up at any cost: consciously fold your hands and bicycling - may boost your self-
# Greed: Needs can be satisfied but smile or count from one to ten. You confidence, improve your sense of
greed cannot. It is a cancer of the may find that such simple steps help well-being and heighten your energy.
mind. Greed destroys relationship. you control the situation. And by helping you relax, it can
The way out of greed is to learn to As a perform shows, sometimes the reduce the tension and anxiety
live within your means and be best thing you can do about anger If you have a problem, then what to
satisfied. Being contented does not is nothing. Let it go, and it will often do? Worry is not an answer.
mean lacking ambition. turn out to be important and quickly Because every time you meet a
# Ego: Ego is negative pride forgotten. Keeping quiet also gives problem and tackle
resulting in arrogance. To an you time to cool down and decide if and conquer it with positive mental
egocentric person, the world begins, the matter is worth discussing. attitude, you become better, bigger
end and revolves around him. # Blame: When you blame others and a more successful person.

10 Prelims Magic 2014

Everyone has problems. This is Indecision crystallizes into doubt, the interesting mathematical problem.
because you and everything in two blended and become fear. This will help you to stop yourself
universe are in constant process of To live in fear is like being in an dwelling on your fear.
change. When you are faced with emotional prison. If you have fear # Seek spiritual intervention. Ask
a problem that needs a solution, on something or the other, it will Almighty God to help you. Accept
regardless of how perplexing it may definitely affect your perform. your past and seek forgiveness.
be: Whenever you start performing, the # Dread making a phone call? Make
# Ask for Divine guidance. Ask for
help in finding the right solution.
# Engage in thinking time for the
fear will come in front of you as a
block. It will affect your
concentration, memory… and
it and dread disappears, put it off
and it will get harder and harder to
purpose of solving your problems.
# State the problem. Analyze and
define it.
ultimately your exam result too. To
be a successful person you must
fight and conquer fear. There are
#Don’t be afraid of any opposition
or criticism. Remember, a kite rises
against – not with the wind. Rise
# State to yourself enthusiastically,
“that’s good”
# Ask yourself some specific
number of fear fighters you can use
to do this:
# Emerson said, “ Do the things
above all criticism. Make certain
you are right, and then stand by your
convictions, if you do, no body will
questions, such as:
a) What’s good about it?
b) How can I turn this adversity
you fear and the death of fear is
certain.” Use action to cure fear
and gain confidence. Action feeds
defeat you.
# Overcome fear of failure by
starting out with small successes.
into a seed of equivalent or
greater benefit?
# Keep searching for answers to
and strengthens confidence;
inaction in all forms feeds fear. To
fight fear, act. To increase fear, wait,
Start with that first step. As the
Chinese proverb reads, “A journey
of a thousand leagues begins with
these questions until you find atleast put off, postpone. but a single step”.
one answer that can work. Take a strong affirmation:
Norman Vincent Peale has “ Today I will overcome my fear POWERFULSECRET#9
suggested a practical method to by taking action on the things I Learn from your Failures
conquer worry: Practice emptying fear”. It’s human nature to believe that
the mind daily. This should be done Action cures fear. Indecision, successful people have never failed
preferably before retiring at night. postponement on the other hand in their life. But it’s not so.
Conceive of yourself as actually fertilize fear. The adversity and failures in our
emptying your mind of all anxiety # Talk openly with a good friend or lives, if we view them as corrective
and fear. Repeat the following a teacher. feed back, serve to develop in us
affirmation: “With God’s help I am # Don’t be anxious about tomorrow. an immunity against the adverse
now emptying my mind of all # When you face a problem, ask responses to stress.
worries”. Repeat this slowly five yourself, “ What is the worst that In 1914 Thomas Edison, at age 67,
times, and then add, “I believe that can possibly happen, if I can’t lost his factory, which was worth a
my mind is now emptied of all solve my problem?” The answer few million dollars, to fire. It had
worries”. Repeat this statements is never as bad as you fear. very little insurance. No longer a
five times, meanwhile holding a #Isolate your fear. Pin it down. young man, Edison watched his
mental picture of your mind as Determine exactly what you are lifetime effort to go up in smoke and
being emptied of these concepts. afraid of. Then take action. said, “There is a great value in
Then thank God for thus freeing you Hesitation only magnifies the fear. disaster. All our mistakes are
from worry. Then go to sleep. Take action promptly. Look at the burnt up. Thank God we can start
Faithfully perform this process and pros and cons of the action. If you anew”. In spite of disaster, three
you will soon note beneficial results. are making a decision write down weeks later, he invented the
the pros and cons on the left and phonograph.
POWERFULSECRET#8 right hand side of a sheet of paper. If you have the courage to look at
Conquer Fear Compare the two lists, taking into failure this way, then you are on
A person whose mind is filled with account which points are your way to eventual success.
fear not only destroys his own particularly important to you. If you are afraid of failures and
chances of intelligent action, but he # Remember the words of Franklin. afraid to face challenges, you will
transmutes these destructive D. Roosevelt, “The only thing we never taste success. Success
vibrations to the minds of all who have to fear is fear itself”. belongs to those who are not afraid
come into contact with him and also #Take a very interesting lesson in of the challenges of the thorns. Just
destroy their chances. It is said that, your favorite subject and try to about all who are highly successful
indecision is the seedling of fear! concentrate in that or solve an today, has become that way, thanks

Prelims Magic 2014 11

to hardship and adversity, not to a important. Many Persons fail to that is on your mind. Do not think
bed of roses. reach their goals not because their you must use stereotyped pious
Thomas Edison tried more than ten plans are too simple, but because phrases. Talk to God in your own
thousand unsuccessful experiments they are not willing to follow their language. He understands it.
before he developed a successful plans! To get good result in life’s # No matter which religion you
incandescent lamp. But after each situations you too must have an belong. Pray to the God Almighty,
defeat he kept searching for action plan. What name should you call? If you

I something more until he found what

he was looking for.
Try Prayer Power
are a Christian call him Jesus Christ.
If you are a Muslim call him Allah.
If you are a Hindu call him Krishna.

N When you fail, learn from it by

asking yourself why it happened.
Was it a scheduling problem or
To achieve anything worthwhile in
life, it is imperative that you apply
prayer power, regardless of what
You have the privilege to call Him
any name because all names are

T something more fundamental like

your writing or reading skills?
The worst thing to do is sit in your
other success principles you employ.
Prayer power is the catalyst, which
makes any combination of success
# Be specific. Ask God for any right
thing, but as a little child, don’t doubt.
Doubts close the power flow. Faith

R room stewing about the course,

the teachers, your classmates, or
the stars. Often when faced with
principle works to attain a
worthwhile end.
‘But I cannot imagine’, wrote Nobel
opens it.
# The power of faith is so
tremendous that there is nothing that

O a failure, people blame virtually

everybody and everything else
rather than face up to the fact
Prize winning surgeon Alexis Carrel,
‘anyone fully successful without the
benefit of prayer and faith, without
Almighty God cannot do for us, with
us or through us if we let Him
channel His powers through our
that they alone are responsible. what we call spiritual experience’. minds. Believe strongly that, God will
By praying we link ourselves with always make a way where there is
POWERFULSECRET#10 the inexhaustible power that spins no way. Use only positive thoughts
Plan Intelligently the universe, Carrel adds. in prayer. Never use a negative
Intelligent planning is essential for It is lack of prayer power rather than thought. Pray with the strong belief
success in perform. Even the most any other insufficient factors hold that sincere prayers can reach out
intelligent person living cannot back thousands of persons. and surround your loved ones with
succeed in r eal-life situations It does not mean that you can spent God’s love and protection.
without plans, which are practicable your whole time in prayer and # If you pray for a thing but have
and workable. expect an excellent result in life’s fear as you pray that you may not
The successful person must plan his situations. Always remember that, receive it, or that your prayer will
work, and work his plan. A person prayer power is only a catalyst – of not be acted upon by infinite
who moves by guesswork, without cour se a very important and intelligence, your prayer will have
practical and definite plans is unavoidable catalyst – which makes been in vain…
comparable to a ship without radar. any combination of success principle # Never give up and never be
Sooner or later he will land on the works to attain a worthwhile result. discouraged in praying. Remember
rocks. To become successful, we need a the story of a woman who returns
When we don’t have our priorities power beyond human power, the again to a judge to plead her rights.
right, we waste time, not realizing incredible power of God, which is Reluctant at first, the judge finally
that time, wasted is life wasted. freely offered to anyone who won’t gives in and gives the woman what
Prioritizing requires discipline to do quibble about it but who will humbly she wants.
what needs to be done rather than ask for it and receive it. # “Ask, and it will be given to
going by our mood and fancies. You can achieve anything by prayer you: seek, and you will find;
Everybody wants to be a success, power. And how do you develop knock, and it will be opened to
but most folks don’t know what to prayer power? Following are some you”. Know what you want and ask
do or where to start. One proven tips for getting effective God for it. Great obstacle to prayer
prerequisite for life is developing a results from prayer. is not in God-it is in the person
plan to reach your goal. These # Set aside a few minutes every praying. Write down what you want
essentials apply regardless of day. Do not say anything. Simply and talk to God about it. If it is proper
whether your interests and goals practice thinking about God. This will and good, he will open the door and
are in education, medicine, athletics make your mind spiritually provide it. Understand that your
or whatever. receptive. prayers will be answered in God’s
Not only pr eparing plans but # Then pray orally, using simple, way and on his timetable, and not
executing the plans also is very natural words. Tell God anything yours.

12 Prelims Magic 2014

# If you have ever had the # Believe that God has put in you powerful method in developing self-
experience of receiving answer for the power through which you can confidence.
which you prayed, go back in your do anything you have to do. Believe # Always give thanks to God.
memory, and recall your actual state that this power is taking all the Express willingness to accept God’s
of mind, while you pray. This is not troubles and obstacles out of you, will. Ask for what you want, but be
fanciful, dreamy-eyed nor some sort that this power is flowing through willing to take what God gives you.
of religious stuff. This process has you. Believe this, and a sense of It may be better than what you ask
worked over centuries for millions
of people and works today in this
modern world.
victory will come.
# Believe firmly that, ‘God is with
me, God is helping me, God is
for. Practise the attitude of putting
everything in God’s hands. Ask for
the ability to do your best and to
# When you go to bed at night and
try to go to sleep, place your hand
over your heart and imagine that it
guiding me’, this belief is a very leave the results confidentially to
God. N
is the healing hands of Lord
Almighty. Then say, ‘let not my
heart be troubled,5neither let me
“Become a top student by the next Exam? T
That’s a BIG impossibility, Jo!”
be afraid.’ This is a powerful
procedure. Everyday you do as
suggested; you will become joyful
Wait a minute... I can almost hear you crying out loud over what
I’ve just said. Maybe you’re at the bottom of your class right now.
and peaceful.
# God helps those who help
themselves and then ask for help:
Maybe even passing the test tomorrow seems like a long shot.
Maybe you’re destined to perform badly in school. Whatever the
thoughts that are racing through your mind right now... You’re
you have to do it, and then God perfectly normal! You’re thinking just like the hundreds of
sends his angel or divine energy to thousands of students who believe that their capacity to excel is
help. If you do your best, you will
begin to experience that God will
limited and that there is nothing much they can do about it. BUT,
always come to help. If you do not yes, a BIG BUT is that you too can become a top student by the
move, the energy that can help you next exam! All you need to do is just follow and learn to use the
to do what you have to do cannot simple techniques given in this magic book!
begin to flow.

Prelims Magic 2014 13

Success Strategy of Toppers
To ensure success in any a unique strategy exclusively for selective study while for CSAT I
I examination, you need to develop a
unique style of preparation. This is
known as your strategy for success.
you. Given below are the success
strategies and advices of some of
focussed on speed and accuracy.
Practice is the key to success in
toppers. Reading those strategies CSAT. I tried to maintain my
N Just rewind and think about the
strategy you followed for success
in your school and college exams,
(Based on views expressed by the
respective successful candidates
accur acy while increasing my
speed. Further I also practiced man
in the media). will help you develop y logical reasoning questions. I did
T and analyse it and try to form a
practical method of preparation for
the civil services exam. A good
a unique strategy for you.
not practice much for the decision
making questions because I feel
they must reflect our natural thought
R strategy plays a very crucial role in
your success in the Civil Services
(2012 Topper 3)

When you commence your

process. The absence of optional
papers did not bother me.
As far as negative marking is
O It is a proven fact that in the civil
services examination, more than
preparation, listen to yourself first.
With self-assessment, understand
your capabilities. Once you identify
concerned I did three passes of the
entire question paper. In the first
one’s inherent scholarship and pass, I only answered questions
needs clearly, then only you can
academic abilities, it is the planning about which I was 100% confident.
perform. Every success story is an
strategy and preparation style that In the second pass, I made some
inspiration and I got motivation from
go a long way in ensuring one’s intelligent guesses. Finally, in the
each topper about whom I read.
success. If that was not the case third pass, I basically just revised my
Until you succeed, there is a reason
we would not have the cases of previous responses and tried to
for the failure. I polished my
average students and third answer few more questions by
answer-writing style and added new
divisioners getting through in the linking pieces of information from
updates to face the examination
Civil Services Examination. Yes, different sources.
effectively. Time Management
Strategy plays the most important During my preparation, I mainly
is a key factor while making
role in your success. focussed on setting realistic targets
preparations as well as in writing
and achieving them. I never
Then why can’t the experts prepare examination papers. So, I gave
bothered about the time I had to
a winning strategy and prescribe it equal time to all subjects. The tough
spend to achieve my targets.
for all aspirants? Here is the portion of the syllabus should be
problem, that there cannot be a covered first so that you don’t feel
uniform strategy for all. A strategy time-crunch. I emphasized on S. Divyadharshni
which is very effective for one revision. (Topper -1, 2010)
person may not be a suitable one For Preliminary Examination, it is Laborious exercise as the entire
for another person. important to devote equal time to process goes on for a year. But
both Paper I &II. To tackle Prelims have never felt tired of it. Prelims
Say for example, Dr. Shah Faesal in new format, staying cool is
(2009 1st Rank) said in an interview is the toughest to crack as it is the
prerequisite. Read as much as you most competitive. Good Writing
that, he had started his preparation can; 
for the Prelims just 3 months before Skills was of much help in the mains.
My Advice: Understand yourself, And confidence is the way to go for
the prelims. But another topper (one You are your goal alive, Be hopeful
among the top ten) of the same year the interview. The path had been
as hope is the food of a Man, Trust tedious with study and exams but
said that he had started his yourself, Earn as much blessings as
preparation almost one year back all the work and efforts have finally
you can, Enjoy every moment of paid out. Adopt your own strategy
and prepared more than 6 months tough time too.
exclusively for the prelims. What we and no one can be a better judge of
need to understand here is that, yourself than you. Be open minded.
strategy for the exam should be Prince Dhawan (2011 Topper-3) Devise a planned approach and
unique to each and every aspirant. I based my preparation on the follow it. Have a balance between
Therefore, you too need to develop syllabus released by the UPSC for study and play so that you don’t
both the papers. In GS I went for

14 Prelims Magic 2014

wear out at any stage. I didn’t do the answer. Negative marking stops About the negative marking
any extraordinary preparation as you about guessing. she says its a very good thing as
such. I studied for four to five hours serious candidate gets a better
Shubhra Sexena
on an average per day. And then put advantage. First, one should take
(Topper, 2008 )
in a few extra hours during exam those questions where one is sure
time. The most impor tant While defining the strategy about the answer. Then only go for
preparation is in believing in self that to prepare GS for prelims and the questions where probability is
I can crack it.
Dr. Shah Faesal (Topper-1,2009)
Mains, she says it can be integrated
to the extent of clear understanding
of the subjects. Prelims is more
fifty percent. She advises the new
comers that. First start to develop
concept. Once you master concepts
According to Dr. Shah Faesal,
dedication, seriousness and
madness are the success mantras
about factual learning. However,
analytical questions are also asked.
The Main exam is more about
then move to applied parts of the
syllabus. I believe developing
concepts is a must to take advantage
to get into the IAS.
Civil Services Exam is toughest
writing quality answers. For Prelims
exam coverage must be much wider.
Many sources must be covered.
in a crowd.
Adapa Karthik (Topper 2007 )
one. Considering this, my answer is
no different from others. Hard
work, focused preparation, good
Sticking to the basic books
is very important. First one need to
Adapa Karthik advises, ‘’A Civil
Services aspirant should enjoy the
process of preparation rather than
reading material, thorough reading study the conventional parts like
etc. are the prerequisite to crack this
examination. One should understand
History, Polity and Geography etc.
Next strategy is to give importance
visualising it as a tough task ahead.
Preparation of civil services is a
way of life.” Study means reading,
that this examination needs some to current affairs. It is most
verbalising (writing) and articulating
extra mental makeup. When important of all. Current affairs is
(lecturing on) the topic. One must
competition is tough, examination is an integral part of this exam. So, one
be able to articulate the given theory
of high standard and syllabus is so must be very selective as well
or situation in one’s own language.
wide, you need to give more than extensive while pr eparing for
Such study would equip the aspirant
100 per cent, which he did in my general studies. First of all one
to answer questions precisely and
very first attempt itself. He started should select important areas and
effectively. “Brevity is crucial as it
his preparation in March 2009. So then go for extensive study. Reason
saves time enabling one to answer
for Prelims, time was very less. behind this argument is the vastness
other questions,’ Karthik says. He
After Prelims, without wasting time, of the syllabus and changing
recommended continuous
he started preparing for the Mains configuration of questions. Year
preparation for General Studies
exam. For interview, he did not after year toughness of competition
(GS) from the beginning as it helps
prepare separately except two mock has been multiplying. If you ire
in prelims, mains, interview and in
interviews. Because of short span reasonably good in General Studies,
the service too. Dr. Karthik asked
of time between prelims and mains it helps a lot even in the essay paper.
the aspirants not only to aim the Civil
he adopted a very specific and
She advises while writing Services, but also to be best in the
focused approach. Integr ated
answers for mains one needs to be profession.
approach is required for prelims and
grammatically correct. Decorative
mains general studies preparation. Muthyala Raju Ravu
language is not required. Be very
(Topper 2006)
Language is the key to success. simple and up to the point. One need
Without having good expression you to understand the question first and I was more involved in group
can’t clear Main exam. Developing answer in lucid language. Language discussions with my three friends.
good writing style takes time, you is the vehicle of thought and a mirror It made my effort focused and near
cannot develop it overnight. He says to one’s mind. But in Civil Services to the requirement. It helped in
that it was his constant effort that one need to follow the word limit carving a good approach and
made things different for me. strictly. memorizing the ‘extra-large’
content. I enjoyed a lot doing this
The best strategy to deal But content is more important than
practice as in a very short period of
with negative marking is first style. One need to put one’s
time you can revise the complete
attempt only those questions where knowledge and logic to convince the
groundwork. Even a small mistake
you are 100 per cent sure about the examiner. Essay needs two things-
kicks you out of the race.
answer. Then take those questions what to write, and how to write.
where your 70 percent sure about What matters most are effort,
strategy, determination and

Prelims Magic 2014 15

consistency. Economic background Ms Uma Mahadevan: I diligently Sunil Kumar Baranwal: For
has nothing to do with success. I read at least three newspapers daily, General Study I did not give much
realized these observations as well as certain articles from in the preliminary examination as its’
throughout the examination magazines like Frontline and Main weightage was less. I did
especially in the interview where an Stream. I would like to emphasise preparation of General Studies
individual get a chance to respond that reading for the General Studies mainly for the main examination and
to the panel of experts first and last has to be wide, electric and very solved some model papers. NCERT

I time.
Supreet Singh Gulati, : For GS
Amit Baranwal: For General
books were helpful. For main
examination, I completed syllabus of
physics and mathematics 1½ months
Prelims, I identified my strong areas Studies read NCERT books for
N - Mental Ability, Sports, and Science.
These cover about 30 questions in
class XI and XII. Read one
competitive magazine and a national
before the actual examination. Then
I did revision twice. In the first
attempt I appeared in the interview
the examination and I made it a point newspaper. Objective problems
T to score very high in them.
Specifically, I practiced Mental
without calculation and try to do
quick and accurate calculations. See
but could not succeed. The main
failing of my earlier attempt was less
attention to General Studies, essay
Ability a lot and would devote about the old question papers of General
R 30-35 minutes to this section in
Studies to have a feel of the nature
of questions. Do not skip any portion
and interview. This time I could
overcome this. I also improved my
of the syllabus.
O Dr. Garima Mittal, IAS Topper
2010 (8th Position)
The focussed and determined
Jayesh Rajan: In General Studies
for all the topics like Constitution,
Nikunj Kumar Srivastava: I have
been a regular subscriber of
Employment News for many years.
approach towards the exam was Economy etc. prepare those topics
I am allured by the main articles on
perhaps my biggest strength. Instead thoroughly which have been in news
the front page on economic and
of being lured by the glamour of in last one year. Attempt the
social issues. These articles proved
IAS, I targeted my effort towards statistical portion first, as the
very helpful to me in the preparation
Prelims- Mains- Interview-Prelims questions there are simple and fetch
of social and economic section in
cycle. full marks. Naturally they should not
General Study paper and the essay
While reading newspapers and be done in haste.
magazines, I used to pick factual
Kailash Chand Gupta: I didn’t lay
points for the Prelims, analytical link Iqbal Singh Dhaliwal: I used to
much emphasis on preparing
between these factual points for the discuss topic in Economics with my
General Studies. One reason
Mains and formation of my personal teachers and that enhanced greatly
probably was that both my Optional
opinion on that issue for the my understanding of the subject. In
subjects were highly scoring ones.
Interview. addition, I had prepared extensive
And if you really work hard in these,
I ensured that whatever might be the notes in Economics. A good
you are assured of a clear-cut head
circumstance; the newspaper understanding of the subject matter
start. So on these two, I slogged for
reading should not be discontinued, is more important than poring over
three months devoting at least 8 to
which even meant reading a number of books. One should not
10 hours every day. Study of at least
newspaper after 4- 5 days, if it was just study a subject but also reflect
two original text books and regular
missed on that particular day. I tried on it at length. This view holds good
revision is indispensable for General
managing time on daily and weekly particularly for Public
Studies and optional subjects. There
basis. I divided my day into four slots Administration where one has to
is no need to run after books by
and gave self-feedback of my delve deep into a particular topic and
foreign authors nor it is required to
performance in each slot after it develop a perspective. Moreover
delve into more and more magazines
ended. If it went well, I could have most of questions asked these days
and journals. In brief, what makes
tension-free night’s sleep. Every are open ended, so even a little
the vital difference is how you fare
week I had the target set and if it misinterpretation can ruin your
in your Optional. Normally about
was finished in six days, the seventh answers and land you in trouble. A
two month’s preparation is
day could be utilised for going out careful reading of question papers
adequately enough for the Prelims.
with friends to recharge my mental of the previous years, therefore, is
Preparation for the Mains should
energies. Reading quality material, a must. It will hone your “ability to
start immediately after, preferably
clear concepts, proper time and analyse the questions in the right
before, the result of Prelims is
anxiety management were perspective”.
announced. Then take up General
instrumental in reaching a high level
Studies and then the Optional
of excellence.

16 Prelims Magic 2014

Amit Baranwal : For the future convenience. MY most important Aradhana Patnaik: My advice to
aspirants I say: Go for a long-term advice to readers is don’t read too future aspirants is that one should
preparation (one year). Do not leave many books, don’t get confused. work hard and put in his very best.
out any portion, but still, questions Bear in mind that your purpose is to Perservance with intelligent
should be emphasized. While get through the examination and not planning is the key to success.
answering, start from the basics as research.
Puneet agarwal: To future
superficial knowledge does not
Ritvik Ranjanam Pandey: Single aspirants of this exam, I would
fetch any mark. There is no short
cut to success and only hard work
pays in the long run. Planning is very
mindedness and confidence should
be maintained thr oughout the
recommend a planned and
systematic study on a sustained
duration of examination. One should basis. The stress should be on
important as one has to cover a
large syllabus in a limited amount of
time. For this one should prepare a
try his best in very first attempt and
should not take it casually. The
pointed and objective study. Stay
optimistic and pursue your goal with
vigour that is there in first attempt Zeal and patient. Even in case
time schedule that by which time
which portions should have been
covered. Also, every week, one day
is not there in subsequent attempts.
Rita Singh: The future aspirants
bounce back with full energy and
should be kept for revision work so
that one could review the progress
made and see what he has done
should consider the process of
preparation as a dynamic
opportunity for learning. The
Brijendra Singh: To succeed in
this examination, one should be well
aware of one’s own strength and
and how much more or quicker pace
was needed.
preparation may sometimes bring in
an immediate result or sometimes it
may be delayed. It is just possible
weakness-only if a person is aware
of one’s abilities and potential should
one think of taking this examination.
Jayesh Rajan: While preparing,
that it may elude the candidates Of course, sincerity of purpose,
one thing which has to be kept in
with something positive but it is dedication, involvement, hard work
mind is that the answers one will
definite that right preparation in all coupled with perseverance and a lot
write have to be special and a bit
earnestness adds to one’s of patience is essential. One must
different from the others. There
knowledge, personality. It generates not be flustered - remain calm and
should be some extra bit in them be
knowledge, more assertiveness, relaxed and take each stage as it
it some extra information or extra
convincibility the eventual hallmarks comes. Once you have decided to
piece of analysis or whatever. And
for success. Work hard with a be a Civil Servant – go the whole
this ‘some extra’ requires a lot of
professional attitude, have faith in way – and do not look back. Remain
extra reading.
yourself and success is bound to cheerful and content and you won’t
Kailash Chand Gupta: Study of come. regret even if you stumbled.
at least two original text books and
Vikas Garg: Choose your subjects Sunil Kumar Baranwal : I would
regular revision is indispensable for
carefully and concentrate more on like to give a message to the
General Studies and optional
them. budding Civil Services competitors
subjects. There is no need to run
that there is no substitute to hard
after books by foreign authors nor Himani Pande: After having come
work. A strong determination and
is it required to delve into more and to a decision regarding taking the
patience undoubtedly help the
more magazines and journals. In examination the student should
candidates. One should not feel
brief, what makes the vital carefully consider the optional, go
frustrated by failures but instead
difference is how you fare in your through the syllabus and then start
intensify the preparations vigorously.
Optional. regular study. A determined,
focused approach will be very Vaibhav: Prepare in a planned
Vijaya Kumar: My game plan was manner, don’t get disheartened by
useful. I wish all future aspirants for
based on selective study. I left a failures. “Plan the work and work
the Civil Services Examination
substantial portion of syllabus the plan, success will be yours”.
success in their future endeavours.
because I found it too vague or time
consuming. I tried to read the Vishal Chauhan: There is no single Amit Negi : You should be total
minimum number of books possible. formula for success. One should try single-mindedly dedicated to your
As time was a major constraint, I to identify his or her strength and goal and remember that if you keep
tried to make the best possible use weakness and should devise own your legs in different boats, you
of it. I interspersed studies with strategy. One should have faith in might end up in disaster. Dedication,
entertainment to refresh myself. I himself. Success will come sooner hard work, patience and self-
never went for forced study and or later. confidence from the keys to
studied according to my success. Do quality, planned and

Prelims Magic 2014 17

systematic study. Choose your Kunal Kumar: A sincere and with modesty and respect, their
optional carefully, they can make all single-minded approach is all that is blessings will be with you in your
the difference. Making short notes required to succeed in the Civil endeavours.
also helps. Services Examination. If the effort
Sorabh Babu Maheshwari :
Work hard, be totally dedicated is made in a planned and systematic
Always aim high, win yourself and
towards our goal. Utilize your time manner, the hours of study required
the world is won for you. The path
and energy efficiently and are really not so many. Throughout
towards this coveted service passes
I effectively. Believe in yourself.
Bhawna Garg: A systematic and
the exam period of one year, one
has to make intelligent decisions on
what subjects to choose, which
through many ups and downs. To
carry oneself along these pulls and
pragmatic approach, good time pushes requires strong inner
N management, hard work dedication
and belief in one’s self. Before going
books to refer, which coaching to
take, how much to study in which
subject etc. which, if done properly,
motivation and decision to make CS
as your career should be your own.
for the exam, one must consider all It is the Total Quality People (TPQ)
T the pros and cons, because of
decreasing seats each year. One
is bound to bring success.
Approach the examination with a
which is required i.e. the people with
integrity, values, vision, character
must ensure an alternate career single minded goal in mind. Do not and positive outlook.
R before going for the exam as it
instills more confidence in oneself
get distracted and work hard in a
planned and systematic manner, you
Ms. Shahla Nigar: My message
for future aspirants of Civil Services
for the much required wholehearted are bound to succeed.
O preparation. Also the first attempt
should be taken seriously for it may
Sudha Misra: I would like to advise
all future aspirants that they should
exam is that they should work
towards their goal with single
minded devotion. Failures that come
be difficult to sustain one’s take the exam which with the most in the way should not deter you,
enthusiasm the second time. sincere and serious efforts and rather you must try again with a
M.S. Srikar : Srikar gave more leave the rest to God, who always stronger determination. Have faith
emphasis on spontaneity rather than rewards good work. in your ability. Success is a matter
a rehearsed attitude. Discussions of concentration and perseverance.
Ms. Manju Rajpal : Resolute
and mock interview did make a Sincerity pays.
effort to achieve the target backed
difference, he said. He was by self-confidence is the key to Vijayalakshmi Bidari : All the best
concentrating only on this exam. It
success. Instead of getting to all of you. May God give you the
was a determined, risky, single track
disappointed by failure in the first strength to make your dreams come
approach, he thought. He advises
attempt, put your heart and soul (for true. Have faith and confidence in
future aspirants to have persistence,
the second attempt) after identifying yourself and use your complete
patience and total commitment.
you deficiencies. Well planned potential in achieving your dreams.
Deepak Tayal: Set your target high efforts in the right direction surely
and go about deciding on how to Alok Ranjan: The first and
fructify in success.
achieve it yourself. Have faith in foremost factor-ability to work hard.
yourself and your abilities. Keep Suresh Kumar S: Before jumping You should put minimum 6 to 8
your motivation factor in mind and into the fray, undertake a thorough hour s ever y day, hard work,
carry on. Don’t let anything dampen evaluation of the syllabus and nature determination, motivation and self-
your spirits. of examination, then go for a self confidence are the impor tant
evaluation and decide oneself. Once factors. You should put one year
Nikunj Kumar Srivastava: Well decided, prepare well, question constant efforts and definitely it
planned and systematic study with your self, r evise and take the takes hard toil from you. Keep
total involvement is key to success. examination. With a positive attitude working believe in yourself. Apart
Work hard and pursue the goal with and dedicated hard work, there is from these things, choose your
full zeal. It is a marathon, not a sprint, nothing that can stop you from subjects on which you are good
so have patience. Have faith in God achieving success. Listen to the enough. Put six to eight hours daily
and believe in yourself. words of your parents and teachers and realize your capabilities.

18 Prelims Magic 2014

Develop a Burning Desire
to become an IAS Officer
A long while ago, a great warrior the fact that Desire is the natural avoidance of “attachment. “And in
faced a situation which made it and universal impulse toward action, this the occult teachers are clearly
necessary for him to make a
decision which insured his success
be the action or good or bad.
Without Desire the Will does not
right. Desire is a frightful master –
like fire it sweeps away the supports
on the battlefield. He was about to spring into action, and nothing is of the soul, leaving nothing but
send his armies against a powerful
foe, whose men outnumbered his
accomplished. Even the highest
attainments and aims of the race are
smoldering ashes. But, also like Fire
Desire is a splendid servant and by
own. He loaded his soldiers into possible only when the steam of Will its harnessed power we are able to
boats, sailed to the enemy’s country,
unloaded soldiers and equipment,
is aroused by the flame and heat of
generate the steam of the Will and
Activity, and to accomplish much in
then gave the order to burn the ships Some of the occult teachings are the world. Without proper Desire the
that had carried them. Addressing
his men before the first battle, he
filled with instructions to “kill out
desire,” and the student is warned
world would be without activity. So
do not make the mistake of using
said, “You see the boats going up in to beware of it even in its most Desire any more than you would
smoke. That means that we cannot insidious and subtle forms, even to refuse to use fire – but in both cases
leave these shores alive unless we the extent of “avoiding even the keep the mastery in your own hands,
win! We now have no choice-we desire to be desire less – even desire and avoid allowing the control to
win-or we perish! They won. not to desire. Now this is all pass from you to Desire.
Every person who wins in any nonsense, for if one “wishes,” or Desire is the motivating force that
undertaking must be willing to burn “wants,” or “is inclined,” or “thinks runs the world; as little as we care
his ships and cut all sources of best to,” or “is pleased to” Kill Out to admit it in many cases. Look
retreat. Only by so doing can one Desire – in any of these cases he is around you and see the effects of
be sure of maintaining that state of but manifesting a Desire “not to Desire in every human act, good or
mind known as a BURNING desire,” in spite of his use of other bad. As a writer has said: Every
DESIRE TO WIN, essential to names. What is this “wishing to; deed that we do, good or bad, is
success. wanting to; feeling like; inclination; prompted by Desire. We are
What is Desire? Webster tells us that being pleased to;” and all the rest, charitable because we Desire to
it is:” The natural longing to possess but just plain, clear, unadulterated relieve our inner distress at the sight
any seeming good; eager wish to Desire masquerading under some of of suffering; or from the Desire of
obtain or enjoy,” or in its abnormal these names. To proceed to “kill out sympathy; or from the Desire to be
or degenerate sense:” excessive or desire” without “desiring” to do so respected in this world, or to secure
morbid longing; lust; appetite. is like trying to lift oneself by pulling a comfortable place in the next. One
“Desire” is a much-abused term – on his own bootstraps. Folly. What man is kind because he desires to
the public mind has largely identified is really meant is that the occultist be kind – because it gives him
it with its abnormal or degenerate should proceed to kill out the lower satisfaction to be kind; while another
phase, just mentioned, ignoring it’s desires that he finds within his man is cruel from precisely the
original and true sense. Many use nature, and also to kill out the same kind of motive. One man does
the word in the sense of an “attachment” for things. Regarding his duty because he Desires to do it
unworthy longing or craving, instead this last we would say that all true – he obtains a higher satisfaction
of in the true sense of “aspiration,” occultist know that even the best from duty well done than he would
“worthy craving and longing,” etc. “things” are not good enough to rule from the neglecting of it in
To call Desire “aspiration” renders and master one-nothing is good accordance with some weaker
it none the less Desire. To apply to enough for the soul to allow itself to desires. The religious man is
it the term “laudable aim and be unduly attached to it so that the religious because his religious
ambition” does not take away from thing rules the soul instead of the desires are stronger than his
it is character of Desire. There is should mastering the thing. That is irreligious ones – because he finds
no sense in endeavoring to escape what the teachings mean – a higher satisfaction in religion than

Prelims Magic 2014 19

in the pursuits of the worldly- good friends, but all advanced of the accomplishment of the task
minded. The moral man is moral occultists know that there is a point – not the details that will arise only
because his moral desires are in which the Principle of Desire as the work progresses, day by day
stronger than his immoral ones – he shades and merges into companion – but the general things, which must
obtains a greater satisfaction in Principle, Will, and that a close be done in order that the task is
being moral than in being the reasoner and mental analyst may brought to a successful conclusion.
contrary. Everything we do is imagine a mental state in which one Then having taken stock of the task,

I prompted by Desire in some shape

or form – high or low. Man cannot
be without any desires and act in
may be almost said to manifest a
WILL to Will, rather than to merely
Desire to Will. This state must be
the nature of the undertaking, and
one’s own qualifications and
shor tcomings – then Begin to

N any way. Desire is the motivating

power behind all actions – it is a
natural law of life. Everything from
experienced befor e it can be
understood – words cannot express
Create Desire, according to the
following plan: The first step in the
Creation of Desire is that of the

T the atom to the monad; from the

monad to the insect; from the insect
to man; from man to Nature, acts
We have stated that it was in the
power of man to Create Desire –
not only to be its master when
forming of a clear, vital Mental
Image of the qualities, things and
details of the undertaking, as well

R and does things by reason of the

power and force of Desire, the
Animating Motive. “
created, but also to actually create
it by bringing it into being. And the
statement is absolutely true, and is
as of the Completed Whole. By a
Mental Image we mean a clear-cut,
distinct mental picture in the

O All the above at the first glance

would seem to make of man a mere
machine, subject to the power of any
verified and proven by the most
recent experiments and discoveries
of modern psychology. Instead of
Imagination of the things just names.
Now, do not turn away with an
impatient motion at the mention of
stray desire that might happen to man being a creature of Desire – the word Imagination. That is
come into his mind. But this is far and this indeed he is in many cases another word that you have only a
from being so. Man acts not upon – he may become Master of Desire mistaken idea of. Imagination means
EVERY desire, but upon the and even a Creator of it. By far more than the mere idle, fanciful
STRONGEST Desire, or the knowledge and Will he may reverse use of that part of the mind that is
Average of his Strongest Desires. the ordinary order of things and, believed by people to be “all there
This Average of Desires is that displacing the intruder from the is to it. “It isn’t all, by a long way –
which constitutes his Nature or throne, he may seat himself there in fact, the fanciful part may be said
Character. And here is where the in his rightful place, and then bid the to be merely a shadow of the real
Mastery of the “I” comes in! Man late occupant do his will and obey Imaginative effort. Imagination is a
need not be a slave or creature of his bidding. But the best way for the real thing – it is a faculty of the mind
his Desires if he will assert his new occupant of the throne to bring by which it creates a matrix, mold,
Mastery. He may control, regulate, about a reorganized court is to or pattern of things, which the
govern and guide his Desires in any dismiss the old objectionable trained Will and Desire afterward,
directions that he pleases. Nay, creatures of his mind and create materializes into objective reality.
more, he may even CREATE new ones in their places. And here There has been nothing created by
DESIRES by an action of his Will, is how it may be done: In the first the hands and mind of man which
as we shall see presently. By a place, one must think carefully over did not have its first origin in the
knowledge of psychological laws he the tasks that he wishes to Imagination of some one.
may neutralize unfavorable Desires, accomplish, then, using his judgment Imagination is the first step in
and grow and develop – yes, carefully, judicially and impartially – Creation – whether of worlds or
practically Create New Desires in impersonally so far as is possible – trifles. The mental pattern must
their place – all by the power of his he must take mental stock of always precede the material form.
Will, aided by the light of his Reason himself and see in what points he is And so it is in the Creation of Desire.
and Judgment. Man is the Master deficient, so far as the successful Before you can Create a Desire you
of his Mind. accomplishment of the task is must have a clear Mental Image of
“Yes,” but some close reasoning concerned. Then let him analyze the what you need to Desire.
critic may object; “yes, that is true task before him, in detail, separating You will find that this task of creating
enough, but even in that case is not the matter into as many clear defined a Mental Image is a little harder than
Desire the ruling motive – must not divisions as possible, so that he may you had expected at the start. You
one Desire create these new be able to see the Thing as It Is, in will find it hard to form even a faint
Desires before he can do so – is detail as well as in its entirety. Then mental picture of that which you
not Desire always precedent to let him take a similar inventory of need. But be not discouraged, and
action? “Very close reasoning this, the things, which seem necessary persevere, for in this, as everything

20 Prelims Magic 2014

else. Practice makes perfect. Each and feel confident that it will work It is important that you follow the
time you try to form the Mental out into material objectivity and instructions described in these six
Image it will appear a little clearer reality. Think of it, dream of it, and steps. It is especially important that
and more distinct, and the details will always LONG for it you must learn you observe, and follow the
come into a little more prominence. to want it the worst way learn to instructions in the sixth paragraph.
Do not tire yourself at first, but lay “want it hard enough. “You can You may complain that it is
aside the task until later in the day, attain and obtain many things by impossible for you to “see yourself
or tomorrow. But practice and
persevere and you need, just as
clearly as a memory picture of
“wanting them hard enough” the
trouble is with most of us that we
do not want things hard enough we
already become an IAS Officer”
before you actually have it. Here is
where a BURNING DESIRE will
something you have already seen.
We shall have more to say on this
subject of Mental Imagery and
mistake vague cravings and wished
for earnest, longing, demanding
Desire and Want. Get to Desire and
come to your aid. If you truly
DESIRE for becoming an IAS
Officer so keenly that your desire
Imagination in subsequent lessons.
Then, after having acquired the
clear Mental Image of the things
Demand the Thing just as you
demand and Desire your daily
meals. That is “wanting it the worst
is an obsession, you will have no
difficulty in convincing yourself that
you will get it. The object is to
you wish to Desire, and thus attain,
cultivate the focusing of the
Attention upon these things. The
way. “This is merely a hint surely
you can supply the rest, if you are
in earnest, and “want to hard
become an IAS Officer, and to
become so determined to have it that
you CONVINCE yourself you will
word attention is derived from the
Latin word “Attendere,” meaning
“to stretch forth,” the original idea
enough. “
The method, by which DESIRE can
be transmuted into its success
have it.
Remember, too, that all who
succeed in life get off to a bad start,
being that in Attention the mind was equivalent, consists of six definite, and pass through many
“stretched forth,” or “extended” practical steps, viz: heartbreaking struggles before they
toward the object of attention, and 1.Fix in your mind the exact aim you “arrive.” The turning point in the
this is the correct idea for that is desire. It is not sufficient merely to lives of those who succeed usually
the way the mind operates in the say “I want a job.” Be definite as comes at the moment of some
matter. Keep the ideas before your to the nature of job- say I want to crisis, through which they are
attention as much as possible, so become an IAS Officer (There is a introduced to their “other selves.”
that the mind may take a firm grasp psychological reason for John Bunyan wrote the Pilgrim’s
upon them, and make them a part definiteness which will be described Progress, which is among the finest
of itself by doing this you firmly in a subsequent chapter). of all English literature, after he had
impress the ideas upon the wax 2.Determine exactly what you been confined in prison and sorely
tablet of the mind. intend to give in return for the aim punished, because of his views on
Thus having fixed the idea clearly you desire. (There is no such reality the subject of religion.
in your mind, by means of the as “something for nothing”.) Means Henry discovered the genius which
Imagination and Attention, until as the hard work you plan to input. slept within his brain, after he had
we have said, it becomes a fixture 3.Establish a definite date when you met with great misfortune, and was
there, begin to cultivate an ardent intend to get the job you desire. confined in a prison cell, in
DESIRE, LONGING, CRAVING 4.Create a definite target hunting Columbus, Ohio. Being FORCED,
DEMAND for the materialization of plan for carrying out your desire, and through misfortune, to become
the things. Demand that you grow begin at once, whether you are acquainted with his “other self,” and
the qualities necessary for the task ready or not, to put this plan into to use his IMAGINATION, he
demand that your mental pictures action. discovered himself to be a great
materialize Demand that the details 5. Write out a clear, concise author instead of a miser able
be manifested as well as the Whole, statement of your desire, name the criminal and outcast. Strange and
making allowance for the time limit for becoming an IAS varied are the ways of life, and
“something better” which will surely officer. stranger still are the ways of Infinite
arise to take the place of the original 6. Read your written statement Intelligence, through which men are
details, as you proceed the Inner aloud, twice daily, once just before sometimes forced to undergo all
Consciousness will attend to these retiring at night, and once after sorts of punishment before
things for you. arising in the morning. AS YOU discovering their own brains, and
Then Desire firmly, confident, and READ - SEE AND FEEL AND their own capacity to create useful
earnestly. Be not half-hearted in BELIEVE YOURSELF ideas through imagination.
your demands and desires claim ALREADY become an IAS Edison, the world’s greatest inventor
and demand the WHOLE THING, Officer. and scientist, was a “tr amp”

Prelims Magic 2014 21

telegraph operator, he failed was made better for his having lived, There is a difference between
innumerable times before he was because he clothed beautiful WISHING for a thing and being
driven, finally, to the discovery of thoughts in poetry, and thereby READY to receive it. No one is
the genius which slept within his plucked a thorn and planted a rose ready for a thing, until he believes
brain. in its place. he can acquire it. The state of mind
Charles Dickens began by pasting Booker T. Washington was born in must be BELIEF, not mere hope or
labels on blacking pots. The tragedy slavery, handicapped by race and wish. Open-mindedness is essential

I of his first love penetrated the

depths of his soul, and converted him
into one of the world’s truly great
color. Because he was tolerant, had
an open mind at all times, on all
subjects, and was a DREAMER, he
for belief. Closed minds do not
inspire faith, courage, and belief.
Remember, no more effor t is

N authors. That tragedy produced,

first, David Copperfield, then a
succession of other works that made
left his impress for good on an entire
Beethoven was deaf, Milton was
required to aim high in life, to
demand abundance and prosperity,
than is required to accept misery

T this a richer and better world for all

who read his books. Disappointment
over love affairs, generally has the
blind, but their names will last as
long as time endures, because they
dreamed and translated their
and poverty. A great poet has
correctly stated this universal truth
through these lines:

R effect of driving men to drink, and

women to ruin; and this, because
most people never learn the art of
dreams into organized thought.
Before passing to the next chapter,
kindle anew in your mind the fire of
I bargained with Life for a penny,
And Life would pay no more,
However I begged at evening

O transmuting their strongest

emotions into dreams of a
constructive nature.
hope, faith, courage, and tolerance.
If you have these states of mind,
and a working knowledge of the
When I counted my scanty store.
For Life is a just employer,
He gives you what you ask,
Helen Keller became deaf, dumb, principles described, all else that you But once you have set the wages,
and blind shortly after birth. Despite need will come to you, when you Why, you must bear the task.
her greatest misfortune, she has are READY for it. Let Emerson I worked for a menial’s hire,
written her name indelibly in the state the thought in these words, Only to learn, dismayed,
pages of the history of the great. Every proverb, every book, every That any wage I had asked of Life,
Her entire life has served as by word that belongs to thee for Life would have willingly paid.
evidence that no one ever is aid and comfort shall surely come (This chapter has been prepared
defeated until defeat has been home through open or winding basically as a study note for IAS
accepted as a reality. passages. Aspirants, with inputs liberally
Robert Burns was an illiterate Every friend whom not thy taken from books written by
country lad. He was cursed by fantastic will, but the great and Napol eon Hi l l , Chr i st i an D
poverty, and grew up to be a tender soul in thee craveth, shall Larson and Ralph Waldo Trine)
drunkard in the bargain. The world lock thee in his embrace.

How to Attract To Yourself

the Things You Desire
Have you ever wondered why some It’s true...your thoughts may very child, could very well be affecting
people – who are no more qualified well be the reason you have not your life negatively right now.
than you – are successful in this life been able to achieve the success For example, if you believe that
while you continue to fail? you desire in business and in life. money is evil or that money is hard
Have you ever wondered why some Your thoughts are much more to get, then your success will be
people seem to have success with powerful than you think – like a limited.
everything they do while you just massive iceberg that is mostly Due to the presence of negative
can’t seem to catch a break? hidden beneath the surface, yet the thoughts, even though you go
Could the answer be something as part that is underwater is usually through the motions of reaching
simple as how you think? what sinks ships. your goal, your mind will always
The simple answer is yes. Wrong thinking, including ideas and sabotage you and you will always
misconceptions you formed as a fall short.

22 Prelims Magic 2014

brings others, depends on the nature of Life, in you, is doing the work.
How We Attract of your thoughts. ...In whatever By the steady flow of light of the
Success or Failure mood you set your mind does your will on the Spirit, your desired
spirit receive of unseen substance picture is projected upon the screen
As science is so abundantly in correspondence with that mood. of the physical world, an exact
demonstrating today, — the things It is as much a chemical law as a reproduction of the pictured slide in
that we see are but a very small spiritual law. Chemistry is not your mind.
fraction of the things that are. The
real, vital forces at work in our own
lives and in the world about us are
confined to the elements we see.
The elements we do not see with
the physical eye outnumber ten
Visualizing without a will sufficiently
steady to inhibit every thought and
feeling contrary to your picture
not seen by the ordinary physical
eye. Yet they are the causes of
which all things we see are merely
thousand times those we do see.”
Faith is nothing more nor less than
the operation of the thought-forces
would be as useless as a magic
lantern without the light. On the
other hand, if your will is sufficiently
the effects. Thoughts are forces; like
builds like, and like attracts like. For
one to govern his thinking, then, is
in the form of an earnest desire,
coupled with expectation as to its
fulfillment. And in the degree that
developed to hold your picture in
thought and feeling, without any
“ifs,” simply realizing that your
to determine his life.
Says one of deep insight into the
natur e of things: “The law of
faith, the earnest desire thus sent
out, is continually held to and
watered by firm expectation, in just
thought is the great attracting power,
then your mental picture is as
certain to be projected upon the
correspondences between spiritual
and material things is wonderfully
exact in its workings. People ruled
that degree does it either draw to
itself, or does it change from the
unseen into the visible, from the
screen of your physical world as any
pictured slide put into the best magic
lantern ever made.
by the mood of gloom attract to them Try projecting the picture in a magic
gloomy things. People always lantern with a light that is constantly
discouraged and despondent do not
How to Attract To shifting from one side to the other,
succeed in anything, and live only Yourself the Things and you will have the effect of an
by burdening someone else. The You Desire uncertain will. It is as necessary that
hopeful, confident, and cheerful you should always stand back of
attract the elements of success. A spiritual into the material, that for your picture with a strong, steady
man’s front or back yard will which it is sent. will, as it is to have a strong steady
advertise that man’s ruling mood in The power within you which enables light back of a picture slide.
the way it is kept. you to form a thought picture is the The joyous assurance with which
A woman at home shows her state starting point of all there is. In its you make your picture is the very
of mind in her dress. A slattern original state it is the un- powerful magnet of Faith, and
advertises the ruling mood of differentiated formless substance of nothing can obliterate it. You are
hopelessness, carelessness, and lack life. Your thought picture forms the happier than you ever were,
of system. Rags, tatters, and dirt are mould (so to speak) into which this because you have learned to know
always in the mind before being on formless substance takes shape. where your source of supply is, and
the body. The thought that is most Visualizing, or mentally seeing you rely upon its never-failing
put out brings its corresponding things and conditions as you wish response to your given direction.
visible element to crystallize about them to be, is the condensing, the When all said and done, happiness
you as surely and literally as the specializing power in you that might is the one thing which every human
visible bit of copper in solution be illustrated by the lens of a magic being wants, and the study of
attracts to it the invisible copper in lantern. The magic lantern is one of visualization enables you to get more
that solution. A mind always hopeful, the best symbols of this imaging out of life than you ever enjoyed
confident, courageous, and faculty. It illustrates the working of before. Increasing possibilities keep
determined on its set purpose, and the Creative Spirit on the plane of opening out, more and more, before
keeping itself to that purpose, the initiative and selection (or in its you.
attracts to itself out of the elements concentrated specializing form) in A business man once told me that
things and powers favorable to that a remarkably clear manner. since practicing visualization and
purpose. This picture slide illustrates your forming the habit of devoting a few
“Every thought of yours has a literal own mental picture -invisible in the minutes each day to thinking about
value to you in every possible way. lantern of your mind until you turn his work as he desired it to be in a
The strength of your body, the on the light of your will. That is to large, broad way, his business had
strength of your mind, your success say, you light up your desire with more than doubled in six months.
in business, and the pleasure your absolute faith that the Creative Spirit His method was to go into a room

Prelims Magic 2014 23

every morning before breakfast and opposite, matter, and the idearequired in doing what he thinks he
take a mental inventory of his expanded and projected itself untilcan do.
business as he had left it the evening we have a world -many worlds. To illustrate: When you think that
before, and then enlarge upon it. He Many people ask, “But why shouldyou can succeed in business, you
said he expanded and expanded in we have a physical world at all?”cause your business ability to
this way until his affairs were in The answer is: Because it is thedevelop, because by thinking that
remarkably successful condition. nature of originating substance toyou can succeed in business you

I He would see himself in his office

doing everything that he wanted
done. His occupation required him
solidify, under directivity rather thandraw all the creative energies of the
activity, just as it is the nature ofsystem into the business faculties,
wax to harden when it becomes cold,and consequently those faculties

N to meet many strangers every day.

In his mental picture he saw himself
meeting these people, understanding
or plaster of paris to become firmwill be developed; and as those
and solid when exposed to the air.faculties are being developed, you
Your picture in this same Divinegain that ability which positively can

T their needs and supplying them in

just the way they wished. This habit,
he said, had strengthened and
substance in its fluent state takingproduce success in business.
shape through the individualizedYou develop the power to do certain
center of Divine operation, yourthings by constantly thinking that you

R steadied his will in an almost

inconceivable manner. Furthermore,
by thus mentally seeing things as he
mind; and there is no power tocan do those things, because the law
prevent this combination of spiritualis that wherever in mind we
substance from becoming physicalconcentrate attention, there

O wished them to be, he had acquired

the confident feeling that a certain
creative power was exercising itself,
form. It is the nature of Spirit todevelopment will take place; and we
complete its work and an idea is notnaturally concentrate upon that
complete until it has made for itselffaculty that is required in the doing
for him and through him, for the a vehicle. of that which we think we can do.
purpose of improving his little world. Nothing can prevent your pictureIf you think that you can compose
When you first begin to visualize from coming into concrete formmusic, and continue to think that you
seriously, you may feel, as many except the same power that gave itcan, you will develop that musical
others do, that someone else may birth - yourself. Suppose you wishfaculty that can compose music.
be forming the same picture you to have a more orderly room. YouEven though you may not have the
are, and that naturally would not suit look about your room and the ideaslightest talent in that direction now,
your purpose. Do not give yourself of order suggests boxes, closets,by thinking constantly that you can
any unnecessary concern about this. shelves, hooks and so forth. The box,compose music you will develop
Simply try to realize that your picture the closet, the hooks, all arethat talent.
is an order ly exer cise of the concrete ideas of order. VehiclesResults may begin to appear in a
Universal Cr eative Power through which order and harmonyfew months, or it may require a few
specifically applied. Then you may suggest themselves. years; nevertheless, if you continue
be sure that no one can work in to think that you can compose
opposition to you. The universal law He Can music, you will, in a few years be
of harmony prevents this. Endeavor able to do so. Later on, you can
to bear in mind that your mental
Who Thinks He Can
develop into a rare musical genius.
picture is Universal Mind exercising Persistence, however, is required
its inherent powers of initiative and A GREAT many new ideas ofand all thought must be concentrated
selection specifically. extr eme value have recentlydaily upon that one accomplishment.
God, or Universal Mind, made man appeared in current thought, but oneBut this will not be difficult, because
for the special purpose of of the most valuable is the idea thatbefore long the entire mind will
differentiating Himself through him. “he can who thinks he can;” and inform a tendency to accumulate all
Ever ything that is, came into the mastery of fate it will not onlyits power and creative energy in the
existence in this same way, by this be necessary to keep this idearegion of that one faculty; and
self-same law of self-differentiation, constantly in mind, but also to makeconstant development will take
and for the same purpose. First the the fullest possible use of the lawplace both consciously and
idea, the mental picture or the upon which this idea is based. unconsciously.
prototype of the thing, which is the To accomplish anything, ability isWhatever a man desires to do, if he
thing itself in its incipiency or plastic required; and it has beenthinks that he can, he will develop
form. demonstrated that when man thinksthe necessary power, and when the
The Great Architect of the Universe he can do a certain thing, henecessary power and ability are
contemplated Himself as incr eases the power and thegained, the tangible results inevitably
manifesting through His polar capacity of that faculty which isfollow.

24 Prelims Magic 2014

The secret is persistence. After you have in view, and this is extremely success-energies will be concen-
have decided what you want to do, important. trated.
begin to think that you can, and The fact is if we do not give ideal When a man has the ability to do
continue without ceasing to think models to the creative energies of certain things, those things will be
that you can. Pay no attention to mind, those energies will employ done; that is a foregone conclusion;
temporary failures; know that you whatever passes before them, as the and the ability to do what we want
can, and continue to think that you senses admit all sorts of impressions to do, comes when we constantly
To continue in the consciousness of
the law that underlies this idea will
from without.
The creative energies of mind are
constantly producing thought, and
and persistently think that we can
do what we want to do.
In the mastery of fate, the law upon
bring greater results and more rapid
results, because in that case you will
consciously direct the developing
these thoughts will be produced in
the likeness of the deepest, the
clearest and the most predominant
which this idea is based will be found
indispensable; because, since fate is
created, and not controlled, all the
process, and you will know that to
think you can is to develop the
power that can.
mental impressions. Therefore, it is
absolutely necessary that the
predominant impressions be those
elements of fate will have to be
constantly re created.
But no one can do this unless he
To keep constantly before mind the
idea that “he can who thinks he
can,” will steadily increase the
into the likeness of which we desire
to grow, because, as the impressions
are, so are the thoughts; and as the
thinks he can. To change many of
the circumstances and conditions
that now may surround us, requires
qualities of faith, self-confidence,
perseverance and persistence; and
whoever develops these qualities to
thoughts are, so is man.
When man thinks that he will
succeed, the predominant
more ability and power than we
now possess; and to secure this
greater power we must proceed to
a greater and greater degree will impression is the idea of success. change and improve everything in
move forward without fail. All his thoughts will therefore our world by working in the
Therefore, to live in the conviction contain the elements of success, conviction that we can.
that “he can who thinks he can,” will and the forces that can produce By constantly thinking that we can
not only increase ability along the success; and he himself, will change all our conditions, we gain a
desired lines, but will also produce become thoroughly saturated with power to produce that change, and
the power to push that ability into a the very life of success. will consequently reach our goal.
living, tangible action. Nothing succeeds like success; The man who faces his environment
In addition to thinking that you can therefore, the, man that is filled with with the belief that he is helpless
do, try to do; put into practice at once the spirit of success can never fail; before so many insurmountable
what power and ability you possess, and what is more, the forces that obstacles, will remain where he is;
and by continuing to think that you contain the elements of success will but the man who thinks he can, will
can do more, you will develop the give that man the very qualifications proceed to surmount everything,
power to do more. To keep before that are essential to success, over come everything, change
mind the idea that “he can who because like produces like. everything and improve everything;
thinks he can” will also hold And again, the faculty required to and by constantly thinking he can,
attention upon the high ideals we produce the success desired, will be he will gain the power to do what
the one upon which all these he thinks he can do.

How to Prepare for Exam

1. Give up Irrational beliefs There are some common beliefs that Myth #1: I am not lucky with
The world is full of myths – commonare held about exams and their the exams.
ideas that exist but are not true.outcomes. All of which have some Reality #1: Luck may be a factor in
Unfortunately, often such myths ruleelements of false assumption or lottery but not in exams. It is not
what we do and dominate ourirrationality in them. This chapter difficult to understand that exam
behavior. Myths can causedoes not pretend to be anything requires hard work and skill and not
disorganised thinking and setup amore than a guide designed to steer luck. Those who say that they are
system of behavior that is based oncandidates away from the myths unlucky in exams are those who
misconceptions and doomed toand toward the realties of exams. have not worked hard for exam. A
failure. top scorer in IAS exam says, “the

Prelims Magic 2014 25

more I study, the better I will Reality #4: In fact there is no to your studies, which should come
become lucky”. In exams you are substance in such fears. Even if you first in your life before any other
the person deciding your luck or have written some foolish answers thing or activity.
unluck and hard work is the key. due to some reasons, remember that If you have interest in your studies,
Myth #2: I cannot write exams the examiner is not going walk you will find it easy to render
like other candidates. around and proclaim it. Therefore, devotion to it and will go through all
Reality #2: Just think of you not give up this irrational belief and hardships to attain your objectives,

I writing well in the exam. Can any

other candidate get more marks?
Or suppose you write your exam
study in a disciplined way as
described in this book.
2. Develop Spirit of Competition
which is to do well in the
Therefore you should be regular in

N well, can other get fewer marks.

The fact is that there is no relation
between your performance and
If you wish to hit the mark in the
examinations you must adopt a
more positive attitude of defeating
your studies and should regard your
studies with respect, forgetting all
other diversions

T other’s results.
Myth #3: I haven’t covered the
syllabus, so I won’t pass.
others and trying to go ahead by
leaving others behind.
You may find others superior to you,
4. Have firm determination
Apart from devotion a candidate
should also have firm determination

R Reality #3: Even the top scorers

might not have studied all the
lessons with same attention. Exam
and if you do so it should be your
duty to catch up with the superior
ones and if possible surpass them.
in mastering his test and carrying on
with his studies. He should have
faith in him remembering, “God

O is not an exercise to test you

whether you have studied all the
lessons with concentration.
Unless there is the constant will to
contest and better yourself, you
cannot hope to be placed among the
helps those who help themselves”.
It is only he and he alone who can
help himself and then expect help
Don’t worry, if you could not write chosen few. from providence by way of keeping
answer to any questions. After you 3. Give the best Devotion fit and keeping his capacity and
have written all the other answers, All the different points mentioned in energy at his command and so on.
attempt this question. If you this book will be of no use if the But first of all is the determination
concentrate well, you may find the candidate has no devotion to his to succeed and with this
answer for this, because you might studies and if he simply carried on deter mination there should be
have studied the lessons related with the studies without any serious adequate hard work to back up this
to it. aim or ambition in life. determination.
Myth #4: The exam will expose It is the first and foremost duty to
me as a phony or stupid. give the best and highest devotion

Secrets of getting more marks in exams

Whatever may be the back stage typically have high scores in civil The Night before the Exam
activities of you regarding your service exams. You should get a normal night’s sleep
examination and preparation you Some of the techniques that follow before the examination. Try to get
will ultimately have to face the very may seem elementary to those who a good night’s sleep. Avoid last
important and vital day when you already have extensive experience minute cramming the night before:
sit in the examination hall with the of examinations. These points of it’s usually ineffective, adds to your
question paper right before you. techniques are important, however, nervousness, and will result in you
Ther e are two or three hours and even if you have already been waking up feeling tired.
(Check you call letter) before you, well trained in taking examinations There are always some candidates
whose value cannot be adjudged in you may benefit from glancing who believe that if they had not
monetary terms because these hours through these techniques and worked until the early hours of the
are really priceless. comparing them with your own morning they would not have been
The techniques given in this book experience. able to answer some of the
are some of the best and most So read on, think about what you questions. No doubt, this some times
effective techniques of successful read, and prepare to become a happens, but often the answers
candidates – candidates who super winner in examinations. produced by such candidates are

26 Prelims Magic 2014

muddled and irrelevant. It is better Use a pencil case or small bag to the room, which should be visible to
to have a clear head than a few keep things together. Staying you, place your watch where you
extra facts got up that night before. organised will increase your sense can easily see it.
DOs & DON’Ts of control. Do the administrative bits and
Don’t stay up late into the night Arriving at the exam hall pieces first – fill out all the forms
cramming. Always ensure you get your (answer book) get your admission
Get a good night’s sleep to be fresh the instructions correctly on the date, card out so that you don’t have to
next day.
Don’t try absorbing any completely
new material.
timing and venue of the examination.
Arrive at least 20 to 30 minutes
before the examination to ensure
scrabble around (or go up to your
bag) for it when the invigilator
checks your identity.
Use the time for a general review
of your course.
Avoid novelties: stay close to your
you are rested and familiar with the
surroundings. This helps to calm
nerves and enhance your
Read the question paper slowly and
check the instructions for all
questions. Is the paper divided into
normal life rythms.
Assemble any materials need for
the next day.
examination preparation. Check
(and re-check) the time and place
of the exam. Rushing around the
sections? Which carry the most
marks? Knowing this information at
the beginning will prevent you having
The Day of the exam
Wake up early
On the day of the exam try as far
last minute will make you even more
nervous and use up vital energy.
to rectify a mistake halfway through
your exam (or later) and then going
in to a panic. Always read
Arrive early instead of barely on
as possible to stick to your normal
routine. However, If your habit is
waking up very late, it is advisable
time, so as to be organised and
ready instead of in a panic. Try to
directions! Since the UPSC has
changed the Preliminary Exam
Pattern give extra care for the
to set your alarm and get up early. go into the test alert and calm instructions given in the question
Allow plenty of time to get to the instead of tense and anxious. paper. Indicate your answer exactly
exam. While standing out side the exam the way the directions state.
Break fast hall, do not engage in conversation Determine what the scoring rules
If you do normally eat breakfast, with other students who are for the test are and follow them to
take it as normal, for you will be discussing possible questions etc. your advantage. For example, since
using up a considerable amount of the wrong answers are penalized,
energy. An advisable breakfast on Avoid the usual pre-exam don’t guess unless you can reduce
exam day is one, which includes conversation along the lines of what the choices to two.
simple sugars (fruit juice), complex certain students think will or will not Make sure that you fully understand
carbohydrates (cereal or toast) and be on the paper. Inevitably someone the test directions before attempting
protein (milk, egg, meat, cheese). will be sure that a subject that you to answer any questions.
This will help your blood sugar stay are not confident in will be on the The first sight of a paper is always
at a stable level, and since your brain paper, and this is really not helpful a little disconcerting, even to those
runs on sugar, you don’t want to to your nerves. who are well prepared. Some
have an empty tank. questions, which had been
If you don’t eat up break fast By hearing them talk, you may confidently expected, will nowhere
normally, consider eating up become more anxious because appear, while some that do appear
something light. If this does not some of them may sound so may seem impossibly difficult.
seem possible, you could consider informed or they may ask you While reading the question paper,
taking, some glucose tablets, barley, information, which you possibly expect it to be difficult to find enough
sugar or mints with you for the overlooked. So keep to your self questions to answer. Adopting this
examination room or take a long and focus on what you have learnt approach, you will probably find
piece of fruit to eat during the exam. in a relaxed composed manner. If your hope raised rather than dashed
This will help keep your blood sugar you are sure that your friends will and it will help you look at each
even, so you don’t tire during the not talk about the test/exam, then question much more carefully. This
second half of the exam period. talking about other things may be is not designed to be the opposite of
Check you have all your acceptable for you. Remember to a positive approach, simply a steady
equipments. do what is best for you. Concentrate and realistic approach.
Make sure you have all the required on the world around you rather than
materials – pens, paper, rubber and on the exam.
other permitted equipments and also As you Begin
your admission card, before you When you get in the exam room
leave home. check your watch with the clock in

Prelims Magic 2014 27

Score Raising Strategies:
What Top Scorers Say
Are there any short cuts in getting confidence to tackle more difficult use of double or even triple negatives
N better scores in prelims?
Unfortunately the answer is a big
questions. If you encounter a
difficult question, move on and then
within a sentence, as these must be
read very carefully to assure full
NO. But, of course, there are some return to it later. Work straight understanding.
T tips followed by Top Scorers of Civil
Service Exams for ensuring better
through the paper noting the more
difficult questions, which you can
9.Check for qualifying words
such as “all-most-some-none”,
scores in objective type tests. Given return to later. Once you are sure “always-usually-seldom-never”,
R below are some of them suggested
by Top Scores of the last 5 CS
you have the right answer, don’t
spend time reconsidering.
“best-worst”, or “smallest-largest”.
When you see one of these
exams. 4.Don’t answer questions which qualifiers, test for truth by
O 1.Make a Time Budget: Work out
a timetable for the exam, based on
you have no idea about it, and
don’t go for guess because UPSC
substituting the other members of
the series. If your substitution makes
the number of questions you have has incorporated negative marking a better statement, the question is
to answer. Subtract preparation time system since 2007 exam. Against false; if your substitution does not
at the beginning and time for each wrong answer marked by the make a better statement, the
checking at the end. This will give candidate, one third (0.33%) of the question is true.
you a start time for each question. marks assigned that question will be 10.For questions which need
Each candidate should prepare a deducted as penalty. If a candidate matching exercises, work with
time budget according to his/her gives more than one answer, it will only one column at a time. Match
own comfort and perception. Decide be treated as a wrong answer even each item in that column against all
yourself how much time is required if one of the given answers happens items in the second column until you
for answering, understanding the to be correct. If a question is left find a proper match, marking
question paper etc. Make sincere blank there will be no penalty for through matches about which you
attempt to stick to your time budget. that question. are certain, so that it will be easier
While preparing a time budget 5. Read the instructions to match out the rest about which
consider the time alloted and particularly carefully, the time you you are unsure.
number of questions to be are allowed and how to complete 11.Answers are valued using
answer ed. Be careful not to the answers. It is important that you computers. Therefore you must
mismanage your time so that you actually complete your answers in ensure that you are using the pencil
find yourself with insufficient time. exactly the form required. specified in the instruction. Don’t
2.Don’t waste time reading the 6.Answer each question in your forget to carry at least two
questions first. Most of the Top head before you look at the possible sharpened HB Pencils, one eraser
Scores advice not to waste time answers. If you can come with the and one sharpener.
reading the questions first. In their answer before look at the choices, 12.While changing an answer
opinion the two hour time is you eliminate the possibility of being already marked, ensure that no dark
sufficient to answer all the 150 (In confused by those choices. stain or spot remains in the original
2011 Prelims it was 100)questions 7.Don’t change your answer oval.
in General Studies Paper and 80 unless you 13.Better to carry your own
questions in the Paper-II. Therefore are sure the second choice is writing clip board.
they advice, “As soon as you finish correct. If you think your first A certain amount of anxiety prior
the initial formality of writing your answer is wrong because you to examination is a desirable spur
role number etc, start answering misread the question, do change to effort. But when the anxiety
questions one by one.” your answer. becomes excessive and is not
3.Answer the easiest, shortest 8.Reread all questions containing channeled into productive work, it
question first. In this way you negative wording such as “not” or leads to a general inhibition of mental
experience success and you gain “least”. Be especially alert for the process.

28 Prelims Magic 2014

How to control exam Anxiety?
Every person writing tests or exams fashion learning increase the that you know all the answers.
experiences some degree of anxiety likelihood of those memory blanks. Imagine yourself writing quickly
or a bit of nervousness. This is
normal and in fact necessary in order
to be sufficiently motivated to
Check your exam timetable to
ensure that you know where the
exam venue is and when you are
and confidently. In your mind, watch
yourself hand in the paper with
confidence. Visualise your
Test anxiety refers to the intense
nervousness which some candidates
On the night before an exam – try
to get a good night’s sleep i.e. at
celebration when you find out you
got a top grade. As soon as you
realise you are feeling anxious about
feel when they have to write a test
or exam. Symptoms may include the
least 7-8 hrs.
Make sure you arrive on time for
the test/exam. Do not stand around
an upcoming test, begin using this
technique. The more you do this
visualisation, the better it will work.
Before the exam: Insomnia, less (or
increased) appetite, or inability to
concentrate. Boredom may also be
talking to other candidates about
Employ sound exam techniques
Praise yourself. Consider phrases
like, “I am very relaxed,” “I am
doing a great job on this test”, “I
a symptom of anxiety. A surface
lack of interest in a subject may
cover a deep-seated anxiety about
mentioned in this book.
If you are experiencing exam stress,
it is likely that you are thinking
never forgot anything and I have
a lot of tools that will help me
future performance. There may be negatively. There are ways of Relaxation techniques: Here are 3
mock indifference (don’t care dealing with such tendencies, such basic techniques, which are useful
attitude), guilt, anger and depression. as; merely to say to you. STOP in relieving exam stress.
During an exam: Confusion, panic, THAT ! This can be done 1. Breathing: The breathing technique
mental blocks, fainting. immediately when one becomes can be used in any stressful situation,
Ways to Control exam anxiety aware of a negative thought and as it is not visible. It is a very
Think about the reasons for your before it impairs performance. effective way of lowering your level
anxiety and write them down. Any object e.g. watch strap, of tension and your heartbeat.
Consider each reason very rationally bracelet, elastic band around your Stand, sit or lie down comfortably.
and objectively. Write down the finger can assist you in preventing If at all possible, close your eyes and
worst that could possibly happen negative thoughts. Associate the concentrate on breathing deeply.
e.g. “If I felt embarrassed, then bracelet, for instance, with the Shut out all thoughts and
the worst that could happen is…” prevention of negative thoughts. concentrate on the rhythmic in-and-
By spending some time analysing The association process can assist out flow of air. Your breathing should
each cause of your concern, you will you in two ways: be smooth, but deep.
come to realise that in fact, there is You will be reminded by the bracelet As soon as you notice yourself
nothing that can damage you that you cannot afford negative relaxing and become more calm,
permanently if you do happen to fail thoughts. breathe in deeply and hold the air in
an exam. Lots of candidates have On becoming aware of negative for approximately 10 seconds.
failed. It does not mean they give thoughts you can pull the bracelet When breathing out after 10
up. Many candidates who fail return tightly against your arm. This action seconds, imagine yourself blowing
with a vengeance and perform very as well as the definite decision not a bowl of soup. When breathing out,
well – they are the survivors in life to harbour any negative thoughts there will be a certain amount of
not just on campus! They make a will reinforce your decision. resistance. This process lowers
new plan when the chips are down. Visualise success: We tend mostly your heartbeat and results in a more
Therefore try to see an exam, as a to live up to our own expectations, relaxed state.
challenge rather than a threat so that good or bad. If you spend a lot of Repeat this process three times,
your negative attitude turns into a time mentally rehearsing what you while saying the following as you
positive one and helps you feel will do when you fail, you increase breathe out:
motivated and not anxious. your chances of failure. Stop the “I feel calm, refreshed and in
Be well prepared before an exam. cycle of worry. control of myself.”
Do the groundwork early on i.e. Take time to rehearse what it will Compare your present relaxed state
have summaries and notes up to be like to succeed. Be very with your previous tense feelings.
date, make certain you understand specific. Visualise taking the test/ 2. Partial relaxation: Make a note
the work. Cramming and parrot exam successfully. You discover of those muscles, which are tense

Prelims Magic 2014 29

while studying or while you are in and you can choose any of them for handle the stresses of study and
the exam situation and attempt to practice every day. exam taking.
relax these. Couple this with deep Since the exams are lengthy and Organise your Study
breathing. can take between two and three systematically
3. The Peaceful Scene hours to complete, you should try to As the date of the exam approaches
Technique: increase your ‘concentration span’ almost all of your study plan should
This method can be used at any time, by revising your work in large be devoted to revision. Repeated

I as it is not visible to others. This

method should be practiced
regularly to be effective. The
blocks of time. You can experiment
and see if you can hold your
concentration on a mock exam for
learning and re-learning of the same
material at regular intervals reduces
the amount of detail forgotten.

N following procedure should be

By using the breathing technique,
a similar time. Repetition of this
procedure is a critical ingredient to
exam success – the more you
You will be better prepared for your
exam if you have revised the
material several times than if you
create a calm, tranquil and restful practise, the more you should have left all the revision until the
T state.
Free your thoughts totally to move
Consequently, it is important to
night before the exam will take
a place where you have been answer past exam papers in a Here are some proven techniques
R before and where you were calm
and relaxed, e.g. a mountain or sea
simulated exam situation. Once this
exercise has been done, correct
to help you organise your revision
scene. your paper and note the errors you Create a timetable so that you can
O Concentrate in the scene and try to
clearly visualise the picture.
have made. The information you
gain from this exercise can be used
keep track of your progr ess.
Keeping track of it will give you a
Imagine yourself actually standing to orient your study before tackling sense of accomplishment and
at the scene. another exam paper. This appraisal control.
Exper ience the associated of performance is best directed by Draw up a realistic timetable;
sensations, e.g. listen to the noise responding to five questions related remember to include breaks. Avoid
of the crying of the seagulls, feel to the marks gained: studying for too more period without
the sand running through your 1. What was your total mark? break – take a 10 minutes break
fingers, the sun on your skin, look 2. How many marks were lost each hour. In addition, try not to
at the blue sky, taste the salt water because you did not understand the study one subject for more than 4
and smell the saltiness of the wind. theory? hours.
Experience the total scene as well 3. How many marks did you lose as Working late at night: There are
as the associated relaxed and warm a result of simple errors in your wide differences in people’s ability
heavy feeling. answers? to work effectively late at night or
Keep this relaxed scene in your 4. How many marks were lost the early hours of the morning. It
mind for a few minutes, while because you could not interpret a depends upon person to person.
continuing to breathe deeply and question or you answered a different For routine study you can work in
smoothly. Say to yourself. ‘I feel question from the one you were short period of time, i.e. as short as
calm, refreshed and in control of asked? 20 to 30 minutes. Some topics and
myself.’ 5. How many marks were lost subjects call for longer period but
Let your thoughts return to reality. because you ran out of time? numerous sub-topics can be revised
The answers to the above questions in this way. Scientific or problem
Practice answering questions offer valuable feedback and can be based revision will often require
in examination conditions used for your benefit. Some people longer periods, eg. 1 hour, to follow
Simulate examination conditions by say that ‘practice makes a man through a sequence of techniques
answering a question paper in perfect’ but this saying is not always and knowledge.
silence without the aid of books or ‘true’. A better saying is ‘effective It is important to set a time limit on
other materials, at a desk and within practice leads to improvement’. completing a task
strictly applied examination time Effective practice draws on the eg “I’will
limits. You can do this either for feedback gained from past do………by………time”.
individual questions, or for a whole mistakes. Reward yourself by taking breaks
paper. This will help you to practice The time you spend preparing for of at least a few minutes between
at thinking clearly and quickly in exams must be lengthy and, in work spells. You can take longer
examination conditions. There are addition, organised to simulate the breaks for watching T.V. or eating
plenty of question papers available conditions of an impending exam. If food. Breaks can also be used for
in the study material provided by us you follow the steps outlined above actively recalling what you have just
then you will be better prepared to been trying to learn.

30 Prelims Magic 2014

How to approach the Prelims Papers
Paper I (General Studies) (1). Since the 2011 exam there July-2014) is an essential
As you know Preliminary exam has were only 100 questions in total requirement for better performance
2 papers. Paper1 is the General
Studies (GS) and Paper2 is the
(2). From the 2011 exam GMA has
been taken out from Paper-1 and
in the prelims. In mains and
interview too Current Affairs play
Aptitude Paper. Just go through the presently part of Paper-2 a very decisive role.
syllabus and Question analysis of the
Paper-1 given below and you will
(3). Environmental studies has been
introduced as a seperate topic from Why is such major emphasis given
get a better idea about this paper. 2011 exam. Till 2010 exam it was to current affairs? It is because one
part of either Geography or Biology
(4) From 2010 exam most of the
needs to know his/her country and
the events taking place around him.
The Paper-I (General Studies) questions in all sections have a If you are not aware of the
1. Current Events of National and
curr ent link, and that’s why
exclusive CA questions are less. If
problems prevailing in your country/
area how you can you find a viable R
International importance, we apply the same criteria that solution for that. As an IAS officer,
2. History of India and Indian
National Movement,
applied for the QPs of 2002 to 2009,
number of questions coming under
you need to know where your
country stands in the global scenario O
3. Indian and World Geography- the Current Affairs section would and what can be done to improve
Physical, Social, Economic have been more than 50! its condition. You have to scrutinize
Geography of India and the World, the various aspects of your country
4. Indian Polity & Governance– Now let’s see how to approach each which require a thorough knowledge
Constitution, Political System, topic in the syllabus of the current happenings taking
Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, place around you. Your position as
Rights Issues, etc, 1.Current Events of National an IAS officer would be ineffective
5. Economic and Social Develop- and International importance if you are unaware of the conditions
ment Sustainable Development- One of the latest trends of the of the society you live in.
Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, UPSC Paper is that all questions Current affairs section comprises
Social Sector Initiatives, etc, have a root in a current event. In events of both national and
international importance and topics
6. General issues on Environmental other words no question is being
of social relevance. Intended to test
ecology, Bio-diversity, Climate asked just for the sake of asking a
the candidate’s awareness of
Change and question. On the other hand all
current issues, questions usually
7. General Science. questions (2013 GS Question Paper
would emanate from:
Question Trend Analysis again proved this fact) are compiled
1.Indian Economy and issues
The trend analysis given below of based on some events happened in related to planning, mobilisation of
the last 5 Years’ Civil Services the previous year ended one month resources, growth, development and
Question Paper will give you an idea before the exam. Hence a good employment.
about the number of questions asked command over all national and 2.Issues arising from social and
from different areas of the General international events happened from economic exclusion of large sections
Studies in the Preliminary Test. August 2013 till date (Precisely till from the benefits of development.
3.Issues relating to the development
Subject 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 and management of human
1. Geography 38 24 31 16 17 18 resources, health, education, ethical
2. History 12 24 14 11 19 16 concerns, and so on.
3. Economy 15 18 33 21 17 19 4.Law enforcement, internal
security, and related issues such as
4. Polity 10 12 07 08 20 16 the preservation of communal
5. Science & Tech 22 18 29 5 9 14 harmony.
6. GMA 11 14 23 00 00 00 5.Issues relating to good
7. Current Affairs 35 21 09 08 1 - governance and accountability to
8. GK 17 11 04 04 0 - citizens, human rights; probity in
9. Environment - - - 17 17 17 public life.

Prelims Magic 2014 31

6. Environmental issues, ecological socio-cultural aspect. Specifically, on Geography of India. At least 15-
preservation, conservation of natural this may include social changes, 20 questions are asked from
resources and national heritage. literary sources and development of Physical, Social, and Economic
7. Science & Technology art and architecture and religious Geography of India.
8.Government schemes and life. One can safely undermine the The emphasis, during the studies,
projects. political aspect of the period. should be on strengthening the basic
Many a time you will notice Secondly, for the Medieval knowledge. As Geogr aphy

I questions were asked on topics not

reported by mainstream
newspapers. Thus it is important
India History as well, culture has a
major chance of questions. You
must have a comprehensive list of
(particularly, physical geography) is
quite close to being a physical
science, students must try-to look

N that the candidates regularly visit

websites of various government
agencies and ministries and
literature, painting and architectural
styles and technological changes
introduced during the period.
for proper understanding of
different phenomena.
Questions are no longer restricted

T international organisations.
Without a good knowledge of
Curr ent Affairs, it’s almost
Finally, Modern Indian History
has to be given somewhat more
emphasis. This is the segment most
to location of a volcano or diameter
of the earth. It now expects the
candidate to know the relevance of

R impossible for anyone to crack Civil

Services Examinations. Moreover,
in the Mains examination of Civil
of the questions are asked from. A
chronological study, particularly of
all the major events during Freedom
a geographical place for all its
political, economic and social
relevance. They also expect the

O Services where poor marks in GS

papers can affect the overall
ranking of the candidates, one has
Struggle, is required. One can be
expected to know perhaps even the
exact date of any particular event.
candidate to analyse var ious
geographical phenomena and hence
capable to make simple analytical
to adopt a good strategy to achieve There is one more solid reason for predictions. There is thus a pressing
success in IAS (Civil Services) giving this section greater attention. need to understand geographical
examinations. Even at the interview The syllabus for section for General phenomena in cause and effect
level candidates are generally asked Studies paper for the main relationship rather than simple
questions on Current Affairs. examination mentions only of memorizing, which is rather
Modern Indian history and culture. ephemeral.
2. History of India and Indian Even though there is no mention of From Indian Geography, there are
National Movement Indian Culture in the prelims some key areas to focus upon.
syllabus, you may expect questions These include the Physical
Indian History is one of the most from Indian Culture too. Geography of India, Agriculture,
important segments of the General Even though we have noticed that Irrigation, Demography, Census,
Studies paper, both in preliminary as all three sections –ancient, medieval Industries and Mineral Resources
well as main examinations. In and modern- has to be studied for of India.
History, things have changed more the prelims, many students don’t Students must also be in a habit of
towards analysis of events rather spend time for ancient and medieval looking into the maps/atlas.
than asking for factual data. The part because of the fact that number Whenever you read any news, try
broader context of the issue should of questions from these 2 sections to look for the associated place in
be given due attention rather than are very less compared to the third the atlas. Map study should also
mugging up raw data. section –that is modern India. include looking for impor tant
For the preliminary examination, geographical points pertaining
according to the syllabus, one must especially to the map of India.
get hold of all the three sections of 3. Indian and World
Indian History - Ancient, Medieval Geography- Physical, Social, 4. Indian Polity &
and modern. Economic Geography of India Governance–Constitution,
Firstly, the ancient Indian history can and the World Political System, Panchayati
be divided into three periods - Raj, Public Policy, Rights
Prehistoric, Proto-historic and The new syllabus, as applicable Issues, etc,
Historic. In the first two, i.e. Pre from the UPSC Preliminary Exams
historic and Proto-historic questions 2011, Geography section of the In the new syllabus it is mentioned
are often based on archaeological paper I comprise of Physical, Social as polity and governance. It deals
findings and important sites. This and Economic Geography of India with the day to day administration
section should also be prepared for and the World. of the country. Thus, it is necessary
some map-based questions. For the An analysis of previous question that one should know how the
historic age, stress may be more on papers reveal that, emphasis will be system works and functions of its

32 Prelims Magic 2014

various institutions and their section because generally questions reading should be sufficient,
contribution to the society. Hence it from this section were direct and specially running upto the budget
is imperative that one should have a based on factual information. and for a few days after it.
clear and deeper understanding of Almost 90% of the questions were Under standing which scheme
the subject as a whole. So asked from the constitutional means what is important. The
candidates have to follow proper provisions and the remaining part syllabus specifically mentions
strategy to prepare Indian Polity. usually covers the current affairs. inclusion, poverty, demographics,
Earlier pr eparation for the
Preliminary and Main Examinations
were totally different, the former
But, now the nature of questions
have changed. Along with factual
information one should cover the
social sector initiatives etc, hence it
is very important. I
tested the factual premises and the
latter checked the analytical
premises. But, the new syllabus
current political developments.
Therefore, one should be through
with the curr ent political
6. General issues on
Environmental ecology,
Bio-diversity, Climate Change
demands an integrated approach for
both Prelims and Mains. According
to the new trends of UPSC there is
developments in the country.
·Practicing previous year questions
will help you to find out the areas
Environmental Sciences are not only
getting attention by the
a necessity to study Indian Polity
along with overall governance of the
where you commit mistakes.
Here again the emphasis has shifted
to current analysis of important
environmentalists, they are
becoming hot in the realm of Civil
Services Examinations too. The
Of course Indian Constitutional
topics like Preamble, Nature of
Constitution, Fundamental Rights
political and administrative
developments. Thus you must have
a clear awareness of the finer
new syllabus incorporates general
issues on environmental ecology,
bio-diversity, climate change which
and DPSPs, Union Executive, Union details of the constitutional do not require subject specialization.
Parliament, State Executive and provisions and where they find Although these are classified as new
Legislature, Judiciary, Center-State application. Various Bills and social topics, they used to earlier appear
Relations etc form the core of Indian sector provisions implemented by under the geography section – there
Polity. Apart from this, several government needs to be understood is nothing new to fear about this at
challenges to Indian democracy also in all their aspects. all. In the 2011, 2012 and 2013
becoming one of the preferred areas prelims 17 questions were asked
of UPSC, for example 5. Economic and Social from Biodiversity, Global warming,
Communalism, Regionalism, Caste Development– Sustainable Pollution, Natural disasters, and
Politics, Internal Secur ity, Development-Poverty, Energy.
Criminalisation of politics, Inclusion, Demographics,
Corruption, Population, Poverty, Social Sector Initiatives, etc. 7. Science and Technology
Unemployment etc. In addition to In the Preliminary examination of
this, contemporary issues like Good 2012, there were 17 questions from Trend analysis of questions shows
Gover nance, Role of IT in Economy and Socio-economic that there has been a consistent
administration, Civil Society, Right development. You being an aspirant decline in the number of questions
to Information, Electoral Reforms, must understand the importance of asked on pure Sciences like Physics,
Role of Pressure Groups, Energy it. If you analyze last year’s question Chemistry and Biology. In the
and Food Security, Environment and paper you will find that about half Prelims 2013 also only 6 questions
Sustainable development etc., are of the questions came from the were asked from Science. Science
also important. conventional side like inflation and and Technology which were more
Prelims examination not only the other half came from the latest curr ent related.. Therefore
requires conceptual clarity but also development. But here it is also aspirants are required to focuss
the applied part of it. Some of the important to know that conventional more on Science and Technology.
preparation tips for the Prelims topics also arose as it had some
exam are: concurrent value. For details about Paper-2, kindly
·One should be thorough in facts and In the Economic section one should refer Prelims Magic Paper II
also the conceptual part of it. focus on budget, economic survey, For details on the Mains Exam
·The conceptual clarity helps to social sector spending, new and Interview kindly visit
solve the analytical question asked schemes, their budget allocation, www.JTSinstitute.com
from this section. points covered etc., Terms related
·According to the earlier trends, it to WTO, stock markets, foreign
was easy to attempt maximum investment, etc. For the social
number of questions from this development part, newspaper

Prelims Magic 2014 33

12 Strategies
to Tackle Objective Type Questions
I Given below are some important tips carefully for understanding, not just >Don’t Rely on Myths and
developed by experts in tackling for recognition: you may recognize
N Multiple Choice Objective Tests.
> Spend Time on the Question
the information as being from the
course, but does it answer the
Misconceptions: There are many
poor strategies for writing multiple-
choice tests, including the
before reading the alternatives: question being asked? Again, pay
T You’re more likely to choose the
correct answer if you’ve thought
careful attention to qualifying
words. Keep the question in mind
longstanding “if in doubt pick c”
myth. Don’t pick “c” every time
you’re unsure of the answer; rather,
through the question without the and cross off alternatives you think think through the question and
R interference of all the information
presented in the alternatives. Begin
are incorrect, check off alternatives
you think are correct, and put a
alternatives as discussed above.
Also, don’t choose an answer based
by covering the alternatives with the question mark beside alternatives on a pattern of responses (i.e., “This
O answer sheet. Then, carefully read
the question before looking at the
you’re uncertain about.
> Choose the alternative that
can’t be another “b” because I’ve
chosen that answer for the last three
alternatives. Circle or underline key best answers the question: questions.” It could be another b, or
words. Pay special attention to Carefully mar k the correct perhaps one of the earlier responses
words that narrow response options alternative on your answer sheet. If was wrong). Choose an answer
such as “pr incipal” function, you do not know the answer, reread based on the strategies discussed
“primary” criticism, and “major” the question. If two options still look above.
conclusion. equally appealing, compare each to > Dismissing Alternatives
> Think about where in your the question, making sure that the Because they Seem too
text, lecture notes, or course one you eventually choose answers Obvious: Don’t dismiss an
material the question is drawn from. what is asked/is the “neatest” fit alternative because it seems too
Recall a few points, including related (i.e., doesn’t require additional obvious an answer. While some
headings or subheadings. If information to be correct). If you’re questions may require more complex
applicable, do calculations. still unsure, guess (if there’s no application of concepts, others may
> Predict an Answer before penalty for wrong answers). only require straight recall. If you’re
Looking at Alternatives. While >If you aren’t sure that you made well prepared for the exam, these
not all questions are written so that the correct choice, put a big question questions may appear simple. Keep
an answer can be predicted without mark beside the question and move this in mind if you tend to dismiss
looking at the alternatives, many are. on to the next question. Avoid some alternatives because you
By predicting the answer before getting bogged down on one assume that multiple-choice tests
you look at the alternatives you’re question. If time permits, return to are tricky, so the answer couldn’t
less likely to be swayed by an any problematic questions you’ve be so obvious.
alternative that is incorrect. Even if flagged after completing the test. > Running Out of Time
you can’t predict an answer, you > Review Answers: If time is Some multiple-choice questions will
may be able to identify closely available after completing the test, take longer than others, so it doesn’t
related concepts that are likely to review your answers. Change an make sense to allocate equal time
surface in alternatives. answer only if you can logically for each question even though
> Check the Format of the justify the change. Ensure that test they’re often weighted the same.
Alternatives. Uncover the and answer sheet responses Rather, track your progress at
alternatives. Do the options allow for correspond. intervals: halfway through the test
only one correct alternative, or does > Relying on Recognition: Don’t are you approximately halfway
a response allow for two or more select an alternative just because through the questions? If you’re
alternatives to be correct? (E.g., the you recognize the information as behind, pick up your pace. If you’re
response d indicates that both a and being from the course. It may be a unsure about an answer, put a big
b are correct.) true statement in its own right, but question mark next to it and return
> Carefully Read Each you have to make sure that it to it if time remains once you’ve
Alternative: Read each alternative answers the question being asked. completed the test.

34 Prelims Magic 2014

Types of Questions
Asked in the Civil Service Exam
It is very important to understand (c) 1 and 2 are correct City River
the different types of questions (a) Berlin : Rhine
asked in the Civil Services Exam.
The recent trend is to incorporate
(d) 1 and 3 correct
Ans. (c)
Example-2. Consider the following
(b) London
(c) New York :
: Tames
several complex formats which (d) Vienna : Danube
require the candidate to understand
clearly what is wanted before
geological phenomena:
1. Development of a fault
2. Movement along a fault
Ans. (a)
Example-III. Consider the
choosing the answer. Given below following pairs
are the different Types of questions
asked in the Civil Services
3. Impact produced by a volcanic
4. Folding of rocks
Famous Place
Cannes :
Preliminary Exam. Davos : Denmark
Type-I: Single Selection Type
Which of the above cause
(a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 2 and 4
Roland Garros :
This is a very simple and straight Which of the above statements is/
(c) 1, 3 and 4 (d) 1, 2, 3 and 4 are correct?
question pattern. In this type only Ans. (d) (a) 1 only (b) 1 and 2 only
one option out of the four given
Type-III Matching Type (c) 2 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
option is correct. Ans. (c)
In matching type questions you are
Example: A meteor is expected to respond simultaneously Type-V Sequence Type
(a) a rapidly moving star to four different items and choose In this type 2 statements will be
(b) a piece of matter which has the r esponse without being given. First one is ‘Assertion’ and
entered the earth’s atmosphere confused. The very important point the second one is ‘Reason’ Based
from outer space to note is that all or most of the on a code given, you have to decide
(c) part of a constellation options may seem nearly correct. whether the Assertion and the
(d) a comet without tail Therefore special care has to be Reason are individually correct or
Ans. (b) taken while solving these types of not, if both are correct whether the
Type-II Multiple Selection Type questions. Matching type questions reason correctly explains Assertion
can be asked in different ways. See or not.
In this type of question a set of the examples given below: Example:
statements will be given of which Example-I. Match List I with List Q. Consider the following
one or more will be correct/the II and select the correct answer statements:
answer to the question. You need using the codes given below the lists: Assertion (A) : Areas near the
to identify the correct option. See List I List II equator receive rainfall throughout
the example given below: (Local Wind) (Region) the year.
Example-1: Consider the following A. Fohn 1. Argentina Reason (R) : High temperatures and
statements regarding asteroids: B. Samun 2. Kurdistan high humidity cause Convectional
1. Asteroids are rocky debris of rain in most afternoons near the
C. Santa Ana 3. California
varying sizes orbiting the Sun. equator.
D. Zonda 4. Alps In the context of the above two
2. Most of the asteroids are small A B C D
but some halt diameter as large as statements, which one of the
(a) 2 4 1 3 following is correct?
1000 km. (b) 4 2 3 1 (a) Both A and R are true and R is
3. T he orbit of asteroids lies (c) 2 4 3 1 the correct explanation of A
between orbits of Jupiter and (d) 4 2 1 3 (b) Both A and R are true but R is
Saturn. Ans. (b) not a correct explanation of A
Of these statements Example-II.. Which one of the (c) A is true but R is false
(a) 1, 2 and 3 are correct following pairs is not correctly (d) A is false but R is true
(b) 2 and 3 are correct matched? Ans. (a)

Prelims Magic 2014 35

Type-IVAssertion-Reason Format (a) 1, 3, 4, 2 (b) 1, 4, 3, 2 Q. Consider the following countries:
(c) 3, 1, 4, 2 (d) 3, 2, 4, 1 1. Brazil
Generally questions coming under Ans. (a) 2. Indonesia
this category aims to assess your 3. Japan
knowledge in Time Line. Instead of Q.What is the correct chronological 4. Russia
simply asking for the date of an sequence of the following? What is the descending order of the
event, this kind of question ask for 1. Wood’s Education Dispatch size of the following countries
the correct sequential arrangement
I of events, personalities, etc.
2, Macaulay’s minute on education
3. The Sargent Education Report
4. Indian Education (Hunter
(a) 1, 2, 4, 3
(b) 2, 3, 1, 4
Q. Consider the following landmarks Commission) (c) 2, 1, 4, 3
N in Indian education:
1. Hindu College, Calcutta. Select the correct answer using the
(d) 1, 2, 3, 4
Ans. (c)
2. University of Calcutta code given below: Besides the above mentioned types
T 3. Adam’s Report
4. Wood’s Dispatch
(a) 2, 1, 4, 3
(c) 1, 2, 4, 3
(b) 2, 1, 3, 4
(d) 4, 3, 1, 3
of questions, there will be questions
that contain Tables, Graphs, Maps,
The correct chronological order of Ans. (a) and Passages etc.
R these landmarks is :

36 Prelims Magic 2014

A Master Plan to Study Smarter N
Before you even begin think about the process of studying, you must develop a
systematic Plan for study. If you don’t have a plan for studying, then you will not
have any way of allocating your valuable time when the unexpected comes up. A
good, well thought out Study Plan can be a lifesaver. To help you out we have
given in the following pages Planners for the next few weeks. It’s up to you to
implement this plan that meets your needs, revise it if necessary and most
important-follow it.
Prepare Plan at the beginning of each week: A detailed plan needs to be
made out at the beginning of each week, in keeping with the changing requirements
of your study and in the light of your experience. The weekly plan allows flexibility
but at the same time ensure that you will be prepared to do each piece of work
at the best possible time. At the beginning of each week, plan your study times
for the whole week. Flexibility enters here. Observe these principles:
1. Do each piece of work at the best time.
2. Try and discover the best length of study period for your various tasks.
A sizeable task is often best tackled in a single 1 or 2 hours session.
3. Plan for rest periods between tasks and shorter rest intervals in the course
of a task.
4. Set yourself ‘DEADLINES’ for completing important pieces of work.
A good study plan keeps you from wandering off course. A good study plan if
properly managed, assigns time where time is needed, but you have got to want
to do it! Your Study Plan should take into account every class, lecture, social
event, and other work in which you engage. Indicate time for classes, lectures,
social and work time. Also block off a period for sleeping each day. With what
is left over, plan time for study. This gives you a clear road map of the time
available. Of course you can revise your time table as circumstances warrant.
Do not hesitate to spend your own time for preparation of a plan for study
because the thought time and planning involved in constructing a good workable
plan are repaid many times over.

Prelims Magic 2014 37

Prelims Magic 2014 It’s simply a matter of doing what you do best and
not worrying about what the other fellow is going to
Number of Days to the Exam John R. Amos
IAS Prelims on:
I Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday

N 4-5
T 6-7
R 8-9

O 9-10
Confidence: You need to be confident that you can perform the tasks required to achieve your goal and get what you want.
Confidence comes from learning what to do and how to do it, and then having some success in applying your skills. If you
practice taking tests, until you are relaxed and feel skilled in that task, you will have more confidence when taking your final
exams. Other people should have confidence in you; such that they are sure you will come through and do what is promised.
The saying is: “Celebrate every success, no matter how small.”

38 Prelims Magic 2014

Every day and every way I am getting better and better. I approve of myself and feel great about my Study
Plans. My Target is getting the best score in the forthcoming Civil Services Preliminary Exam to be held on
.......................and get selected for the Main Exam. To achieve this target I am studying efficiently as per
the Plans given in this Book.
Name ..................................................................... Signature .................................

Friday Saturday Sunday

6-7 T
8-9 R
10-11 O

Little Red Engine : Do you remember the story of the caboose that was desperately trying to make it over a very large hill?
He kept telling himself repeatedly, “I think I can, I think I can.” When you start feeling overwhelmed or defeated, tell yourself
aloud these same words. While it may seem a little awkward at first, stand in front of a mirror and tell yourself, “I think I can,
I think I can.” You might even change the words to, “I know I can!”

Prelims Magic 2014 39

Prelims Magic 2014 To accomplish great things, we must not only act,
REMEMBER but also dream, not only plan, but also believe.
Anatole France
Number of Days to the Exam
IAS Prelims on:
I Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday

N 4-5
T 6-7
R 8-9

O 9-10

Stand up for yourself. : Don’t allow people to put you down and don’t allow other people’s expectations to thwart what you are
capable of becoming. Don’t put up with people or situations that negate all the positive things that you can do. Stand up for your
dreams! Living aimlessly leaves you with a feeling of emptiness and confusion. Goals give you a sense of purpose. They steer your
life in a particular direction. They make your life purposeful. Accomplishing personal goals gives your self-esteem a big boost.

40 Prelims Magic 2014

Every day and every way I am getting better and better. I approve of myself and feel great about my Study
Plans. My Target is getting the best score in the forthcoming Civil Services Preliminary Exam to be held on
.......................and get selected for the Main Exam. To achieve this target I am studying efficiently as per
the Plans given in this Book.
Name ..................................................................... Signature .................................

Friday Saturday Sunday

4-5 N
6-7 T
8-9 R

No Excuses: Many famous actors, musicians, inventors, etc., had special challenges ranging from learning disabilities to physical
disabilities. Take Beethoven for example. He was born deaf yet he went on to be one of the world’s greatest composers or Joni
Erickson who was paralyzed from the neck down yet she learned to paint with her mouth. Today, her paintings are famous around
the world and worth millions. If you are faced with a special challenge of your own, while you may have to adjust things from time
to time, do not use excuses. If you want something bad enough, there is a way!

Prelims Magic 2014 41

Prelims Magic 2014 Never go backward. Attempt, and do it with all your
REMEMBER might. Determination is power.
Number of Days to the Exam Charles Simmons

IAS Prelims on:

I Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday

N 4-5
T 6-7

R 7-8

O 9-10

How to use your time: Time is the most valuable resource a student has. It is also one of the most wasted of resources. The
schedule you develop should guide you in how to allocate the available time in the most productive manner. Sticking to your
schedule can be tough. Don’t dribble away valuable time. Avoiding study is the easiest thing in the world. It’s up to you to follow
the schedule you prepared. A good deal of your success in high school or college depends on this simple truth.

42 Prelims Magic 2014

Every day and every way I am getting better and better. I approve of myself and feel great about my Study
Plans. My Target is getting the best score in the forthcoming Civil Services Preliminary Exam to be held on
....................... and get selected for the Main Exam. To achieve this target I am studying efficiently as per
the Plans given in this Book.
Name ..................................................................... Signature .................................

Friday Saturday Sunday

4-5 N
6-7 T
8-9 R

Believe: There is a difference between WISHING for a thing and being READY to receive it. No one is ready for a thing, until
he believes he can acquire it. The state of mind must be BELIEF, not mere hope or wish. Open-mindedness is essential for belief.
Closed minds do not inspire faith, courage, and belief. Remember, no more effort is required to aim high in life, to demand
success, than is required to accept failure.

Prelims Magic 2014 43

Prelims Magic 2014 Start by doing what’s necessary, then what’s
REMEMBER possible, and suddenly you are doing the impossible.
Number of Days to the Exam Francis of Assisi

IAS Prelims on:

I Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday

N 4-5
T 6-7

R 7-8

O 9-10

Positive Thinking is contagious: People around you pick your mental moods and are affected accordingly. Think about
happiness, good health and success and you will cause people to like you and desire to help you, because they enjoy the
vibrations that a positive mind emits. In order to make positive thinking yield results, you need to develop a positive attitude
toward life, expect a successful outcome of whatever you do, but also take any necessary actions to ensure your success.

44 Prelims Magic 2014

Every day and every way I am getting better and better. I approve of myself and feel great about my Study
Plans. My Target is getting the best score in the forthcoming Civil Services Preliminary Exam to be held on
....................... and get selected for the Main Exam. To achieve this target I am studying efficiently as per
the Plans given in this Book.
Name ..................................................................... Signature .................................

Friday Saturday Sunday

4-5 N
6-7 T
8-9 R

True positive thinking: True positive thinking is not just saying that everything will be okay, as a lip service, and at the same
time think about failure. In order to bring beneficial changes and improvement into your life, positive thinking has to become your
predominant mental attitude throughout the day. It has to turn into a way of life. Real and effective positive thinking requires that
you focus on positive thoughts and positive emotions, and also take positive action. How can you develop this state of mind? You
can do so by reading inspiring and motivating literature, and through visualization, affirmations and meditation.

Prelims Magic 2014 45

Prelims Magic 2014 Success is not the key to happiness. Happiness is
REMEMBER the key to success. If you love what you are doing,
Number of Days to the Exam you will be successful.
Albert Schweitzer
IAS Prelims on:
I Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday

N 4-5
T 6-7

R 7-8

O 9-10

Talk to yourself positively: Say to yourself, “I’m good”, “I’m great”, “I am self-confident”; feel good when you say these things
to yourself. You are as valuable and as deserving of these sentences as anybody else. Besides, you don’t need to wait for anybody
to tell you this; you can tell yourself and feel good now. Praise yourself when you’ve done something good (a good job at work,
helped a friend, etc). If we have the time to praise a colleague or relative, why wouldn’t we have the time to praise ourselves and
feel good too? “Well done, me”.

46 Prelims Magic 2014

Every day and every way I am getting better and better. I approve of myself and feel great about my Study
Plans. My Target is getting the best score in the forthcoming Civil Services Preliminary Exam to be held on
....................... and get selected for the Main Exam. To achieve this target I am studying efficiently as per
the Plans given in this Book.
Name ..................................................................... Signature .................................

Friday Saturday Sunday

4-5 N
6-7 T
8-9 R

Break Bad Habits: Habits, regardless of size or nature, can be exceptionally difficult to break. This will take a lot of effort but you
can do it. Unfortunately, poor habits can be the one aspect of your behavior that could be the obstacle to your success. If you have
a habit of sniffling or chewing your nails when you get nervous or saying demeaning or offensive things as a way of trying to
control, to be successful, whether on a personal or career level, you have to stop.

Prelims Magic 2014 47

Prelims Magic 2014 The secret of health for both mind and body
is not to mourn for the past,
not to worry about the future,
REMEMBER nor to anticipate troubles,
Number of Days to the Exam but to live in the present
moment wisely and earnestly.
IAS Prelims on:
I Monday Tuesday

Wednesday Thursday

N 4-5
T 6-7

R 7-8

O 9-10

Self-management: Ensure you eat and sleep well, and schedule exercise and leisure time into your routine. Study in bursts by
breaking each hour into 50 minutes of study and 10 minutes of active relaxation. Don’t use your break time to turn on the TV or
surf the net: get moving by going for a quick walk, having a cup of tea or calling a friend. It’s important to manage your well-being
during exams: you won’t perform well if you don’t feel well.

48 Prelims Magic 2014

Every day and every way I am getting better and better. I approve of myself and feel great about my Study
Plans. My Target is getting the best score in the forthcoming Civil Services Preliminary Exam to be held on
....................... and get selected for the Main Exam. To achieve this target I am studying efficiently as per
the Plans given in this Book.
Name ..................................................................... Signature .................................

Friday Saturday Sunday

4-5 N
6-7 T
8-9 R

Get Excited: Do you remember your first trip to see a professional baseball game and how exciting it was to see the thousands
of people cheering, enjoying the mouth watering smell of popcorn and hot dogs, and hoping that you might get a chance to catch
a foul ball? You need to be excited about your venture for success. Remember some of the things that brought true excitement to
your heart when you were growing up and add that same excitement to your grownup life.

Prelims Magic 2014 49

Prelims Magic 2014 “First ask yourself:
What is the worst that can happen?
REMEMBER Then prepare to accept it.
Then proceed to improve on the worst.”
Number of Days to the Exam Dale Carnegie
IAS Prelims on:
I Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday

N 4-5
T 6-7

R 7-8

O 9-10

Be Open To Improvement: Sometimes, people get into the habit of thinking they have the answers needed. You need to accept
that you do not have all the answers and more importantly, be open to recommendations from other people. That does not mean
you have to agree or even follow those suggestions, but it does mean to listen. You never know when someone will have an idea
that will make things easier and more functional, ultimately helping you arrive at your goal more efficiently.

50 Prelims Magic 2014

Every day and every way I am getting better and better. I approve of myself and feel great about my Study
Plans. My Target is getting the best score in the forthcoming Civil Services Preliminary Exam to be held on
....................... and get selected for the Main Exam. To achieve this target I am studying efficiently as per
the Plans given in this Book.
Name ..................................................................... Signature .................................

Friday Saturday Sunday

4-5 N
6-7 T
8-9 R

Begin study with a new thought: Each day before you begin your study, devote 5 minutes to thinking “How can I study
better today?” “How can I improve my personal efficiency?”. Mix up deep desire in your thinking and you will get better
answers day by day. This exercise is simple, but it works. Try it and you will find unlimited creative ways to win greater

Prelims Magic 2014 51

Prelims Magic 2014 The ladder of success
The ladder of success is never crowded at the top.
REMEMBER Your big opportunity may be right where you are now
Number of Days to the Exam You can do it if you believe you can!

IAS Prelims on:

I Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday

N 4-5
T 6-7

R 7-8

O 9-10

Focus on the Big Picture: As you make your way toward success, you will be challenged with big obstacles as well as small
obstacles. Pick your battles wisely. While you need to resolve the small issues, do not dwell on them and lose precious time and
energy when you should be focusing on the bigger picture. In other words, do not allow the menial things to clutter your mind and
monopolize your time.

52 Prelims Magic 2014

Every day and every way I am getting better and better. I approve of myself and feel great about my Study
Plans. My Target is getting the best score in the forthcoming Civil Services Preliminary Exam to be held on
....................... and get selected for the Main Exam. To achieve this target I am studying efficiently as per
the Plans given in this Book.
Name ..................................................................... Signature .................................

Friday Saturday Sunday

4-5 N
6-7 T
8-9 R

Look for the Proof Instead of Making Assumption: A fear of not being liked or accepted sometimes leads us to assume that we
know what others are thinking, but our fears are usually not reality. If you have a fear that a friend or family member’s bad mood
is due to something you did, or that your classmates are secretly gossiping about you when you turn your back, speak up and ask
them. Don’t waste time worrying that you did something wrong unless you have proof that there is something to worry about.

Prelims Magic 2014 53

Prelims Magic 2014 “The happiness of your life depends upon the quality
of your thoughts: therefore, guard accordingly, and take
REMEMBER care that you entertain no notions unsuitable to virtue
Number of Days to the Exam and reasonable nature.”—Marcus Aureleus

IAS Prelims on:

I Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday

N 4-5
T 6-7

R 7-8

O 9-10

Learn to say no: For example, an acquaintance of yours would like you to see a movie with him tonight. You made social plans
for tomorrow with your friends and tonight you were going to study and do laundry. You really are not interested. You want to say
no, but you hate turning people down. Politely saying NO should become a habit. Saying NO frees up time for the things that are
most important.

54 Prelims Magic 2014

Every day and every way I am getting better and better. I approve of myself and feel great about my Study
Plans. My Target is getting the best score in the forthcoming Civil Services Preliminary Exam to be held on
....................... and get selected for the Main Exam. To achieve this target I am studying efficiently as per
the Plans given in this Book.
Name ..................................................................... Signature .................................

Friday Saturday Sunday

4-5 N
6-7 T
8-9 R

Stop Studying When You Feel Confident: How do you know when you’ve studied enough? It’s not when you’re tired of
studying! And it’s not when you’ve gone through the material one time! You should stop only when you get to the point that you
feel confident and ready for whatever will be on the exam—when you’re actually eager to see the exam to find out if you guessed
its contents correctly.

Prelims Magic 2014 55

Prelims Magic 2014 Excellence can be attained if you - care more than
others think is wise - risk more than others think is
REMEMBER safe - dream more than others think is practical - and
Number of Days to the Exam expect more than others think is possible.
IAS Prelims on:
I Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday

N 4-5
T 6-7

R 7-8

O 9-10

Take time out to focus on all that you have done well. Once a month, take a few moments to write down all that you have done
well ­it’s probably more than you think. Acknowledge the work you do, your strengths and accomplishments on a regular basis.
In doing so, you’ll begin seeing yourself as a person who does things right and gets things done. You’ll begin seeing and
appreciating all the good you do. (Cari Vollmer)

56 Prelims Magic 2014

Every day and every way I am getting better and better. I approve of myself and feel great about my Study
Plans. My Target is getting the best score in the forthcoming Civil Services Preliminary Exam to be held on
....................... and get selected for the Main Exam. To achieve this target I am studying efficiently as per
the Plans given in this Book.
Name ..................................................................... Signature .................................

Friday Saturday Sunday

4-5 N
6-7 T
8-9 R

Be Happy: A positive mind and happy, upbeat attitude will help you succeed. It has been proven in many studies that a
person living in a happy state generally gets much further in just about everything they do. This relates to attitude. Just as
bad attitude can pull you down, good attitude and a happy, healthy mind will help you meet your objectives.

Prelims Magic 2014 57

Prelims Magic 2014 The average person puts only 25% of his energy and
ability into his work. The world takes off its hat to
those who put in more than 50% of their capacity,
REMEMBER and stands on its head for those few and far between
Number of Days to the Exam souls who devote 100%.
Andrew Carnegie
IAS Prelims on:
I Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday

N 4-5
T 6-7

R 7-8

O 9-10
Toxic Poisoning: No, we are not talking about actual poison but toxic people that can poison. Unfortunately, it would be great
if close friends or co-workers could share in your success but all too often, there will be someone who is either dealing with the
“green monster” of jealousy or has a case of the “I knew that” syndrome. If you are serious about reaching your goal and being
successful, you will need to rid your life of these people. While you may not be able to get them out of your life completely, you
should avoid them as best as possible. If this is a person, you see every day, keep your goals to yourself, and avoid that specific

58 Prelims Magic 2014

Every day and every way I am getting better and better. I approve of myself and feel great about my Study
Plans. My Target is getting the best score in the forthcoming Civil Services Preliminary Exam to be held on
....................... and get selected for the Main Exam. To achieve this target I am studying efficiently as per
the Plans given in this Book.
Name ..................................................................... Signature .................................

Friday Saturday Sunday

4-5 N
6-7 T
8-9 R

Stop The Complaining: You might think there is no correlation between complaining and success when in fact there is a
connection. When you are spending time complaining about the obstacles you are facing, you are wasting so much time being
negative that you are actually losing chances to move forward. Instead of thinking of challenges as problems, think of them as

Prelims Magic 2014 59

Prelims Magic 2014 “Don’t be afraid to give your best to what seemingly
are small jobs. Every time you conquer one it makes
REMEMBER you that much stronger. If you do the little jobs well,
the big ones will tend to take care of themselves.”
Number of Days to the Exam
Dale Carnegie
IAS Prelims on:
I Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday

N 4-5
T 6-7

R 7-8

O 9-10

The Laws of Attraction: Once you know what you want, it’s simple. Just ask for it. Say it, write it, and believe in it. Think of
it as if it has already happened. Imagine that it has.
Don’t do this in a whimsical, “gee wouldn’t it be swell” way, but actually close your eyes and visualize it.
Don’t expect to know the method by which your dreams will come true. The Laws of Attraction don’t work that way. You just
need to trust that a good thing will happen, and leave the “how” up to the universe.

60 Prelims Magic 2014

Every day and every way I am getting better and better. I approve of myself and feel great about my Study
Plans. My Target is getting the best score in the forthcoming Civil Services Preliminary Exam to be held on
....................... and get selected for the Main Exam. To achieve this target I am studying efficiently as per
the Plans given in this Book.
Name ..................................................................... Signature .................................

Friday Saturday Sunday

6-7 T
8-9 R
10-11 O
The obstacle in our path: In ancient times, a King had a boulder placed on a roadway. Then he hid himself and watched to see if
anyone would remove the huge rock. Some of the king’s wealthiest merchants and courtiers came by and simply walked around it. Many
loudly blamed the King for not keeping the roads clear, but none did anything about getting the stone out of the way. Then a peasant
came along carrying a load of vegetables. Upon approaching the boulder, the peasant laid down his burden and tried to move the stone
to the side of the road. After much pushing and straining, he finally succeeded. After the peasant picked up his load of vegetables, he
noticed a purse lying in the road where the boulder had been. The purse contained many gold coins and a note from the King indicating
that the gold was for the person who removed the boulder from the roadway. The peasant learned what many of us never understand!
Every obstacle presents an opportunity to improve our condition.

Prelims Magic 2014 61

Prelims Magic 2014 DREAM - More... THINK - High
CHOOSE - Best... ANALYZE - Twice
PLAN - Perfect...BE - Confident
Number of Days to the Exam Then
IAS Prelims on:
I Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday

N 4-5
T 6-7
R 8-9
O 10-11
Idleness is a curse: A lazy grasshopper laughed at a little ant as she was always busy gathering food.
“why are you working so hard?” he asked, “come into the sunshine and listen to my merry notes.”
“But the ant went on her work. She said” I am lying in a store for the winter. Sunny days won’t last for ever.”
“Winter is so far away yet, “laughed the grasshopper back. And when the winter came, the ant settled down in her snug house. She
had plenty of food to last the whole winter. The grasshopper had nothing to eat so, he went to the ant and begged her for a little corn.
“No”, replied the ant, “you laughed at me when I worked. You yourself sang through the summer. So you had better dance the winter

62 Prelims Magic 2014

Every day and every way I am getting better and better. I approve of myself and feel great about my Study
Plans. My Target is getting the best score in the forthcoming Civil Services Preliminary Exam to be held on
....................... and get selected for the Main Exam. To achieve this target I am studying efficiently as per
the Plans given in this Book.
Name ..................................................................... Signature .................................

Friday Saturday Sunday

6-7 T
8-9 R
10-11 O
Don’t fear hollow threats: Once a Lark made her nest in a corn-field. Soon she laid eggs in it. After a few days small babies
hatched out of them. One day the baby-larks overheard the farmer say, “I will call my neighbors to reap this field.” The Baby-
larks got alarmed to hear this and told their mother about it. “Don’t worry,” said the mother.
Some days later, the farmer came again and said, I will call my relatives to reap this field.” The baby-larks afraid again.
“Fear not,” said their mother.
But the next day the farmer came there with his little son and said, “I will reap this field tomorrow.”
“Now is the time to go. When a man says he will do the work himself, he will certainly do it,” said the mother-lark.

Prelims Magic 2014 63

Test Results - A Self Analysis
> Record the result of your Class Tests/Mock Tests/Self Monitored Tests and indicate whether you think
the results are better than expected, as expected or below the expectation.
> Give reasons for this evaluation and suggest an action plan, either generalising from your successes or
planing remedial action. Remedial Action can be: More study time for that subject, Arrange a combined
I study with a friend who knows that subject better, Stop watching your favourite TV Show and utilise that
time for study etc.
> Studies prove that an analysis like this help students improve their learning level and ultimatelt the exam
N results dramatically.
T Impro-
Test #

Expected Actual vement

R 1
Subject/Paper Date Result % Result % Level Reason for Change Action Plan for Improvement

O 2
Expected Result = Your self expected calculation of marks immediately after the Test.
Improvement Level = Plus or Minus difference from the previous Test.


Test #

Expected Actual vement

Subject/Paper Date Result % Result % Level Reason for Change Action Plan for Improvement

Expected Result = Your self expected calculation of marks immediately after the Test.
Improvement Level = Plus or Minus difference from the previous Test.

64 Prelims Magic 2014

Test #

Expected Actual vement

Subject/Paper Date Result % Result % Level Reason for Change Action Plan for Improvement

5 N
7 T
9 R
Expected Result = Your self expected calculation of marks immediately after the Test.
Improvement Level = Plus or Minus difference from the previous Test.
Test #

Expected Actual vement

Subject/Paper Date Result % Result % Level Reason for Change Action Plan for Improvement

Expected Result = Your self expected calculation of marks immediately after the Test.
Improvement Level = Plus or Minus difference from the previous Test.

IAS Prelims Magic PAPER-2

An excellent companion for Prelims Paper-2 preparation

For Details visit: www.JTSInstitute.com

Prelims Magic 2014 65

Test #

Expected Actual vement

Subject/Paper Date Result % Result % Level Reason for Change Action Plan for Improvement

I 2

N 4
T 7
R 9
O Expected Result = Your self expected calculation of marks immediately after the Test.
Improvement Level = Plus or Minus difference from the previous Test.


Test #

Expected Actual vement

Subject/Paper Date Result % Result % Level Reason for Change Action Plan for Improvement

Expected Result = Your self expected calculation of marks immediately after the Test.
Improvement Level = Plus or Minus difference from the previous Test.

66 Prelims Magic 2014

1. Pre-Historic India and the Harappan Culture 68
Vedic Period (C. 1500-600 Bc.)
The Mahajanapadas
The Rise of Magadha and Alexander’s invasion
Age of the Mauryas
Post-Mauryan India
Sangam Age
Jainism and Buddhism
Gupta Empire
97 R
10. Post Gupta Age 103
11. The Kingdoms of South India 105 Y
12. Gandhara - Mathura School of Art 107
13. The Arab Conquest of Sind and other Invasions 110
14. Delhi Sultanate 111
15. The Vijayanagar Empire and the Bahamani Kingdom 118
16. The Mughal Empire 126
17. The Marathas and the Sikh Confederacy 134
18. Advent of the Europeans 138
19. British Conquest 142
20. The Impact of British Rule in India 150
21. The Revolt of 1857 162
22. Socio-Religious Reform Movements 166
23. Indian National Movement 188
24. Time Line 218
25. Personalities and Movements 225
26. Points from Mains’Question Papers 231
27. Indian Culture 238

Prelims Magic 2014 67

(terrocotta replica of a plough),
PRE-HISTORIC INDIA AND Lothal (dockyard), Surkotada and
1 Dholavira (inscription having large
THE HARAPPAN CULTURE signs of Harappan script), all the
three in Gujarat. The larger cities
In India, the pre-historic period is India are Maski, Brahmagiri, Hallur are approximately a hundred
divided into the Paleolithic (Old and Kodekal in Karnataka, hectares in size. Mohenjodara is the
H Stone Age), Mesolithic (Middle
Stone Age), Neolithic (New Stone
Age) and the Metal Age. However,
Paiyampalli in Tamilnadu and Utnur
in Andhra Pradesh. The chief
characteristic features of the
largest of all the Indus cities and it
is estimated to have spread over an
area of 200 hectares.
I these periods were not uniform
throughout the Indian sub-continent.
Neolithic culture are the practice of
agriculture, domestication of
animals, polishing of stone tools and
How was this topic asked in the CSE?
Paleolithic or Old Stone Age
S The Old Stone Age sites are widely
found in various parts of the Indian
the manufacture of pottery.
Metal Age
Q. Match List I (Ancient site) with
List II (Archaeological finding)
and select the correct answer

T sub-continent. Some of the famous

sites of Old Stone Age in India are:
The Neolithic period is followed by
Chalcolithic (copper-stone) period
using the codes given below the
a. The Soan valley and Potwar when copper and bronze came to List I (Ancient site)
O Plateau in Northwest India.
b. The Siwalik Hills in the North
be used. The new technology of
melting metal ore and crafting metal
A. Lothal B. Kalibangan
C. Dholavira D. Banawali
India. artifacts is an important
List II (Archaeological finding)
R c. Bhimpetka in Madhya Pradesh.
d. Adamgarh Hill in Narmada
development in human civilization.
But, the use of stone tools was not
1. Polughed field
2. Dockyard
valley. given up. Some of the micro-lithic
3. Terrcotta replica of a plough
Y e. Kurnool in Andhra Pradesh and
f. Attirampakkam near Chennai.
tools continued to be essential items.
People began to travel for a long
4. An inscription comprising ten
large sized signs of the Harappan
distance to obtain metal ores. This
A few Old Stone Age paintings have script
led to the network of Chalcolithic
also been found on rocks at cultures, and the Chalcolithic Codes:
Bhimbetka and other places. The cultures were found in many parts A B C D
period before 10000 B.C. is of India. (a) 1 2 3 4
assigned to the Old Stone Age. (b) 2 1 4 3
The Harappan Civilization (c) 1 2 4 3
Mesolithic or Middle Stone Age
The earliest excavations in the (d) 2 1 3 4
The next stage of human life is called
Indus valley were done at Harappa
Mesolithic or Middle Stone Age Ans. (b) (CSE, 2002)
in the West Punjab and
which falls roughly from 10000 B.C.
Mohenjodaro in Sind. Both places Origin and Evolution
to 6000 B.C. Mesolithic remains are
are now in Pakistan. The findings
found in Langhanj in Gujarat, The archaeological findings excava-
in these two cities brought to light a
Adamgarh in Madhya Pradesh and ted for the last eight decades reveal
also in some places of Rajasthan, civilization. It was first called the
‘The Indus Valley Civilization’. But the gradual development of the
Utter Pradesh and Bihar. The Harappan culture. There are four
paintings and engravings found at this civilization was later named as
the ‘Indus Civilization’ due to the important stages or phases of
the rock shelters give an idea about evolution and they are named as pre-
the social life and economic activities discovery of more and more sites
far away from the Indus valley. Also, Harappan, early-Harappan, mature-
of Mesolithic people. Harappan and late Harappan. The
it has come to be called the
Neolithic Age ‘Harappan Civilization’ after the pre-Harappan stage is located in
name of its first discovered site. eastern Baluchistan. The excava-
It is approximately dated from 6000
tions at Mehrgarh, 150 miles to the
B.C to 4000 B.C. Neolithic remains Important Sites northwest of Mohenjodaro, reveal
are found in various parts of India.
Among the many other sites the existence of pre-Harappan
These include the Kashmir Valley,
excavated, the most important are culture. In this stage, the nomadic
Chirand in Bihar, Belan Valley in
Kot Diji in Sind, Kalibangan in people began to lead a settled
Uttar Pradesh and in several places
Rajasthan (ploughed field), Rupar in agricultural life. In the early-
of the Deccan. The important
the Punjab, Banawali in Haryana Harappan stage, the people lived in
Neolithic sites excavated in South

68 Prelims Magic 2014

large villages in the plains. There Harappa, Mohenjodaro and Kali- craft. Gold and silver ornaments are
was a gradual growth of towns in bangan each had its own citadel built found in many places. Pottery
the Indus valley. Also, the transition on a high podium of mud brick. remains plain and in some places
from rural to urban life took place Below the citadel in each city lay a red and black painted pottery is
during this period. The sites of Amri lower town containing brick houses, found. Beads were manufactured
and Kot Diji remain the evidence which were inhabited by the from a wide variety of semi-
for Early-Harappan stage. In the common people. The large-scale precious stones. Internal trade was
mature-Harappan stage, great cities
emerged. The excavations at
use of burnt bricks in almost all kinds
of constructions and the absence of
extensive with other parts of India.
Foreign trade was mainly conducted
Kalibangan with its elaborate town stone buildings are the important with Mesopotamia, Afghanistan and
planning and urban features prove
this phase of evolution. In the late-
characteristics of the Harappan
culture. Another remarkable feature
Iran Gold, copper, tin and several
semi-precious stones were
Harappan stage, the decline of the was the underground drainage imported. Main exports were
Indus culture started. The
excavations at Lothal reveal this
system connecting all houses to the
street drains which were covered
several agricultural products such
as heat, barely, peas, oil seeds and
stage of evolution. Lothal with its by stone slabs or bricks. a variety of finished products
port was founded much later. It was
surrounded by a massive brick wall
The most important public place of
Mohenjodaro is the Great Bath
including cotton goods, pottery,
beads, terracotta figures and ivory
as flood protection. Lothal remained products. There is much evidence
an emporium of trade between the
Harappan civilization and the
measuring 39 feet length, 23 feet
breadth and 8 feet depth. Flights of
steps at either end lead to the
to prove the trade links between the
Indus and Sumerian people. Many
remaining part of India as well as seals of Indus valley have been
Date of the Harappan Culture
surface. There are side rooms for
changing clothes. The floor of the
Bath was made of burnt bricks.
found in Mesopotamia. Trade was
of the barter type. The seals and
the terracotta models of the Indus
In 1931, Sir John Marshall estima-
ted the duration of the occupation
Water was drawn from a large well
in an adjacent room, and an outlet
from one corner of the Bath led to
valley reveal the use of bullock carts
and oxen for land transport and
of Mohenjodaro between 3250 and boats and ships for river and sea
a drain. It must have served as a
2750 B.C. Subsequently, as and transport.
ritual bathing site. The largest
when new sites were discovered, building in Mohenjo-daro is a Harappan Seals -Made of steatite,
the dating of the Harappan culture granary measuring 150 feet length copper, shell, agate, ivory, faence
is modified. The advent of the and 50 feet breadth. But in the and terracotta.Displayed symbols
radiocarbon method paves way for citadel of Harappa we find as many like circles, crosses, dots, swastikas
fixing almost accurate dates. By as six granaries. and leaves of papal tress. Animals
1956, Fairservis brought down the shown are unicorn, elephant, tiger,
dating of the Harappan culture to Economic life rhinoceros, antelope, and crocodile
between 2000 and 1500 B.C. on the
There was a great progress in all Pashupati seal has been discovered
basis of radiocarbon dates of his
spheres of economic activity such from Mohenjodaro. Marshall called
findings. In 1964, D.P. Agarwal
as agriculture, industry and crafts it Proto Shiva.
came to the conclusion that the total
and trade. Wheat and barley were
span of this culture should be Social Life
the main crops grown besides
between 2300 and 1750 B.C. Yet,
sesame, mustard and cotton.
there is further scope of modifica- Much evidence is available to
Surplus grain was stored in
tion of these dates. understand the social life of the
granaries. Animals like sheep, goats
Harappans. The dress of both men
Salient Features of the and buffalo were domesticated. The
and women consisted of two pieces
Harappan Culture use of horse is not yet firmly
of cloth, one upper garment and the
established. A number of other
Town Planning other lower garment. Beads were
animals were hunted for food
worn by men and women.
The Harappan culture was including deer. Specialized groups of
Jewelleries such as bangles,
distinguished by its system of artisans include goldsmiths, brick
bracelets, fillets, girdles, anklets,
townplanning on the lines of the grid makers, stone cutters, weavers,
ear-rings and fingerings were worn
system – that is streets and lanes boat-builders and terracotta
by women. These ornaments were
cutting across one another almost manufacturers. Bronze and copper
made of gold, silver, copper, bronze
at right angles, thus dividing the city vessels are the outstanding
and semi precious stones. The use
into several rectangular blocks. examples of the Harappan metal
of cosmetics was common. Various

Prelims Magic 2014 69

household articles made of pottery; rest are their variants. The script that time used to worship pipal trees,
stone, shells, ivory and metal have was mostly written from right to left. basically trees and animals like
been found at Mohenjo-daro. In a few long seals the bous- unicorn etc. They believed in ghosts
Spindles, needles, combs, fishhooks, trophedon method – writing in the and evil forces and used amulets as
knives are made of copper. reverse direction in alternative lines protection against them. There is no
Children’s toys include little clay – was adopted. Parpola and his evidence of division of society on
carts. Marbles, balls and dice were Scandinavian colleagues came to the basis of varna or caste.
H used for games. Fishing was a
regular occupation while hunting
the conclusion that the language of
the Harappans was Dravidian. A
Therefore, the civilization was fully
and bull fighting were other group of Soviet scholars accept this
I pastimes. There were numerous
specimens of weapons of war such
view. Other scholars provide
different view connecting the
Burial Methods
The cemeteries discovered around
as axes, spearheads, daggers, bows, Harappan script with that of Brahmi. the cities like Mohenjodaro,
S arrows made of copper and bronze.
The mystery of the Harappan script
still exists and there is no doubt that
Harappa, Kalibangan, Lothal and
Rupar throw light on the burial
the decipherment of Harappan script practices of the Harappans.
T The Harappan sculpture revealed a
high degree of workmanship.
will throw much light on this culture.
Complete burial and post-cremation
burial were popular at Mohen-
Figures of men and women, animals jodaro. At Lothal, the burial pit was
O and birds made of terracotta and the
carvings on the seals show the
From the seals, terracotta figurines
and copper tablets we get an idea
lined with burnt bricks indicating the
use of coffins. Wooden coffins were
degree of proficiency attained by the about the religious life of the also found at Harappa. The practice
R sculptor. The figure of a dancing girl
from Mohenjodaro made of bronze
Harappans. The chief male deity
was Pasupati, (proto-Siva)
of pot burials is found at Lothal
sometimes with pairs of skeletons.
is remarkable for its workmanship. represented in seals as sitting in a However, there is no clear evidence
Y Its right hand rests on the hip, while
the left arm, covered with bangles,
yogic posture with three faces and
two horns. He is surrounded by four
for the practice of Sati.

hangs loosely in a relaxed posture. animals (elephant, tiger, rhino, and How was this topic asked in the CSE?
Two stone statues from Harappa, buffalo each facing a different
one representing the back view of direction). Two deer appear on his Q. Which one of the following
a man and the other of a dancer are feet. The chief female deity was the animals was not represented out
also specimens of their sculpture. Mother Goddess represented in seals and terracotta art of the
The pottery from Harappa is terracotta figurines. In latter times, Harappan culture?
another specimen of the fine arts Linga worship was prevalent. Trees (a) Cow (b) Elephant
of the Indus people. The pots and and animals were also worshipped (c) Rhinoceros (d) Tiger
jars were painted with various by the Harappans. The people of
designs and colours. Painted pottery Ans. (a) (CSE, 2001)
is of better quality. The pictorial How was this topic asked in the CSE? Q. Which of the following
motifs consisted of geometrical Regarding the Indus Valley characterizes/ characterize the
patterns like horizontal lines, circles, Civilization consider the following people of Indus Civilization?
leaves, plants and trees. On some statements: 1. They possessed great palaces
pottery pieces, we find figures of and temples.
fish or peacock. I. It was predominantly a secular 2. They worshipped both male
civilization and the religious and female deities.
Terracotta figurines - Cult element, though present, did not
objects, toys, animals and birds are 3. They employed horse-drawn
dominate the scene. chariots in warfare.
predominant. Unicorn, rhino, II. During this period, cotton was
elephant, monkey turtle, dog and Select the correct statement/
used for manufacturing textiles in statements using the codes given
sheep are depicted. Female figures India. Which of the statements
are also very common. below. 
given above is/are correct? (a) 1 and 2 only
Script (a) I only (b) 2 only
The Harappan script has still to be (b) II only (e) 1, 2 and 3
fully deciphered. The number of (c) Both I and II (d)   None  of  the  statements
signs is between 400 and 600 of (d) Neither I nor II given above is correct
which 40 or 60 are basic and the Ans: b (CSE 2013)
Ans. (c) (CSE, 2011)

70 Prelims Magic 2014

Decline of the Harappan the decline of the Harappan A possible natural reason for the
Culture civilization led to an interruption of IVC’s decline is connected
urban life in the Indian sub- with climate  change that  is  also
Around 1800 BCE, signs of a continent. However, the Indus signaled for the neighbouring areas
gradual decline began to emerge, Valley Civilization did not disappear of the Middle East: The Indus
and by around 1700 BCE, most of suddenly, and many elements of the valley climate grew significantly
the cities were abandoned. In 1953, Indus Civilization can be found in cooler and drier from about 1800
Sir Mortimer  Wheeler proposed
that the decline of the Indus
later cultures. Current archaeo-
logical data suggest that material
BC, linked to a general weakening
of the monsoon at that time.
Civilization was caused by the culture classified as Late Harappan Alternatively, a crucial factor may
invasion of an Indo-European tribe
from Central Asia called the
may have persisted until at least c.
1000-900 BC and was partially
have been the disappearance of
substantial portions of the Ghaggar
“Aryans”. As evidence, he cited a contemporaneous with the Painted Hakra river system. A tectonic
group of 37 skeletons found in
various parts of Mohenjo-Daro, and
Grey Ware culture. Harvard
archaeologist, Richard Meadow,
event may have diverted the
system’s sources toward the
passages in the Vedas referring to points to the late Harappan Gangetic Plain, though there is
battles and forts. However,
scholars soon started to reject
settlement of Pirak, which thrived
continuously from 1800 BC to the
complete uncertainty about the
date of this event, as most
Wheeler ’s theory, since the time of the invasion of Alexander settlements inside Ghaggar-Hakra
skeletons belonged to a period after
the city’s abandonment and none
the Great in 325 BC.
Recent archaeological excavations
river beds have not yet been dated.
The actual reason for decline might
were found near the citadel.
be any combination of these
Subsequent examinations of the
skeletons by Kenneth Kennedy in
indicate that the decline of Harappa
drove people eastward. After 1900
BC, the number of sites in India
factors. New geological research
is now being conducted by a group
1994 showed that the marks on the
led by Peter Clift, from
skulls were caused by erosion, and
not violent aggression. Today, many
increased from 218 to 853.
Excavations in the Gangetic plain
show that urban settlement began
the University  of  Aberdeen,  to
investigate how the courses of
scholars believe that the collapse
around 1200 BC, only a few rivers have changed in this region
of the Indus Civilization was
centuries after the decline of since 8000 years ago, to test
caused by drought and a decline in
Harappa and much earlier than whether climate or river
trade with Egypt and
previously expected. Archaeologists reorganizations are responsible for
Mesopotamia. It  has  also  been
have emphasized that, just as in the decline of the Harappan. A 2004
suggested that immigration by new
most areas of the world, there was paper indicated that the isotopes of
peoples, deforestation, floods, or
a continuous series of cultural the Ghaggar-Hakra system do not
changes in the course of the river
developments. These link “the so- come from the Himalayan glaciers,
may have contributed to the
called two major phases of and were rain-fed instead,
collapse of the IVC.
urbanization in South Asia”. contradicting a Harappan time
Previously, it was also believed that mighty “Sarasvati’ river.

2 VEDIC PERIOD (c. 1500-600 BC.) How was this topic asked in the CSE?
Q. Who among the following was
THE EARLY VEDIC continent. They are described as a Brahmavadini who composed
PERIOD (c. 1500-1000 BC) semi- nomadic pastoralists, some hymns of the Vedas?
subdivided into temporary (a) Lopamudra (b) Gargi
The Vedic Period (or Vedic Age)
settlements (vish, viœ). Historians (c) Leelavati (d) Savitri
is the period during which the
view that the Aryans came from Ans. (a) (CSE, 1995)
Vedas, the oldest sacred texts of the
Central Asia. They entered India
Indo-Aryans, were being consists of the four Vedas – Rig,
through the Khyber Pass between
composed. The Vedic period is Yajur, Sama and Atharva.
2000 and 1500 B.C.
dated to c. 2000-1000 BC
continuing up to the 6th c. BC based Vedic Literature The Rig Veda is the earliest of the
on literary evidence. four Vedas and it consists of 1028
The word ‘Veda’ is derived from hymns. The hymns were sung in
This Period was dominated by the the root ‘vid’, which means to know. praise of various gods. Many
Aryans, a warlike people who came The term ‘Veda’ signifies ‘superior Hymns of the Rigveda was
in groups to the Indian sub- knowledge’. The Vedic literature composed by women and they were

Prelims Magic 2014 71

called Brahmavadini. The Vedic Literature or Rigveda, there king employed spaœ (spies) and
prominent in them were is mention of many rivers but Sindhu dutas (messengers). He collected
Lopamudra, Vishwawara, Sikta, is the most mentioned river. The taxes (originally ceremonial gifts,
Nivavari, and Ghosa. political, social and cultural life of bali), from the people which he had
the Rig Vedic people can be traced to re-distribute.
Sama Veda- is a book of prayers
and chants which are from the from the hymns of the Rig Veda. A few references of political

H Rigveda, modified for the explicit

purpose of singing them during
rituals. It is called the book of chants
How was this topic asked in the CSE?
Q. The river most mentioned in
organization found in the Rig Veda
is the description of the battle of ten
kings on the banks of the Paurushini
and the origins of Indian music are Early Vedic literature is: or modern Ravi river. The battle
I traced in it. The Yajur Veda consists
of various details of rules to be
(a) Sindhu (b) Sutudri
(c) Sarasvati (d) qanga
between the Bharata clan headed
by Vasistha and the Puru and Yadu
observed at the time of sacrifice. It clans headed by priest Visvamitra
S elaborates the rituals which
accompany the recitation of hymns.
The Atharva Veda contains details
Ans. (a)
(CSE, 1996)
forming a confederacy of ten
tribes each is described in the Rig
Veda. It established the supremacy
T of rituals. It contains the folk
tradition of this period and
represents popular religion.
The basic unit of the Vedic Aryans
was the Family (Kula) subdivided
into tribal units/ clans (Vis’). The
of the Bharatas under Sudas.
Panchjana constituted the clans of

O How was this topic asked in the CSE?

Village (Grama) and Tribe (Jana)
were the political units. A group of
villages constituted a large unit called
the Purus, Anus, Yadus, Turasas and
Q. Which one of the following
R four Vedas contains an account of
magical charms and spells?
clan (vis). Several clans formed the
tribe (Jana).
How was this topic asked in the CSE?
Q. In the context of ancient Indian
(a) Rigveda (b) Yajurveda A vish was a subdivision of society which one of the following
Y (c) Atharvaveda (d) Samaveda
Ans. (c) (CSE, 2004)
a jana or “krishti”, and a grama
was a smaller unit than the other
two. The leader of a grama was
terms does not belong to the
category of the other three?
(a) Kula (b) Vamsa
called gramani and that of a vish (c) Kosa (d) Gotra
Besides the Vedas, there are other was called vishpati.
sacred works like the Brahmanas, Ans. (c) (CSE, 1996)
the Upanishads, the Aranyakas The rashtra (polity) was governed Explanation: The Kula, Vamsa and
and the epics Ramayana and by a rajan (chieftain, ‘king’). The Gotra were the terms used in
Mahabharata. The Brahmanas king is often referred to as gopa ancient India, are related to family
(protector) and occasionally as while the term “Kosa” was used
are the treatises relating to prayer
samrat (supreme ruler). He
and sacrificial ceremony. The for treasury.
governed the people with their
Upanishads are philosophical texts consent and approval. He was Social Life
dealing with topic like the soul, the elected from a restricted class of
absolute, the origin of the world and ‘royals’ (rajanya). The early Aryans were nomadic
the mysteries of nature. The people (literally, a speech group)
Aranyakas are called forest books Assemblies are known as, sabha, who were gradually transforming
and they deal with mysticism, rites, samiti, and gana. The first two into an agricultural society. The
rituals and sacrifices. The author of were more popular and were Aryans were organized themselves
Ramayana was Valmiki and that of attended by women also. Gana was into tribes known as ‘jana’. The Rig
Mahabharata was Vedavyas. the non-monarchial assembly Vedic society was patriarchal. The
headed by Jyestha. basic unit of society was family or
Rig Vedic Age or Early Vedic graham. The head of the family
The main duty of the king was to
Period (1500 - 1000 B.C.) protect the tribe. He was helped by was known as grahapathi.
During the Rig Vedic period, the several functionaries, including the Monogamy was generally practised
purohita (priest) and the senani while polygamy was prevalent
Aryans were mostly confined to the
(army chief; sena: army). The among the royal and noble families.
Indus region. The Rig Veda refers
former not only gave advice The wife took care of the household
to ‘Saptasindhu’ or the land of seven
to the ruler but also was his chariot and participated in all the major
rivers. This includes the five rivers ceremonies. Women were given
of Punjab, namely Jhelum, Chenab, driver. Soldiers on foot (pattis) and
on chariots (rathins), armed with equal opportunities as men for their
Ravi, Beas and Sutlej along with the spiritual and intellectual develop-
Indus and Saraswathi. In Early bow and arrow, were common. The
ment. There were women poets like

72 Prelims Magic 2014

Apala, Viswavara, Ghosa and the crookedness of  the  ignorant of the uplifting law of Dharma.
Lopamudra during the Rig Vedic mental action. The actions of truth Thus, we find in India, the prevalent
period. Women could even are direct and straight and the law idea that Kama and Artha, passion
attend the popular assemblies. of this directness and straightness and personal gain are only the first
There was no child marriage is the Rita. There is no groping in elementary motives of life for the
and the practice of sati was the Truth-consciousness, and there ordinary man and that they are not
absent. to be ends in themselves. Kama
Both men and women wore upper
and lower garments made of cotton
How was this topic asked in the CSE? and Artha are to be superseded by
Dharma. The individual is asked to
Q. The “dharma”. and “rita” depict a grow out of passions and impulses
and wool.

How was this topic asked in the CSE?

central idea of ancient Vedic
civilization of India. In this context,
and his selfish and egoistic interests
to reach the life of ideal law of
consider the following statements: Dharma.
Q. The term ‘Aryan’ denotes:
(a) An ethnic group
(b) a nomadic people
l. Dharma was a conception of
obligations and of the discharge of Economic Condition S
one’s duties to oneself and to others. The economy of this period was
(c) A speech group
(d) a superior race
Ans. (c) (CSE, 1999)
2. Rita was the fundamental moral law
governing the functioning of the
pastoral and the later stage of this
period saw the dominance of
universe and all it contained. W h i c h agriculture as the mainstay of the
Explanation : The term “Aryan”
denotes a speech group which
spread from Central Asia.
of the statements given above is/are
economy. Their wealth was
estimated in terms of their cattle.
(a) I only (b) II only When they permanently settled in
A variety of ornaments were used
by both men and women. Wheat
(c) Both I and II (d) Neither I nor II
Ans. (c) (CSE, 2011)
North India they began to practise
agriculture. With the knowledge and
use of iron they were able to clean
and barley, milk and its products like
curd and ghee, vegetables and fruits
were the chief articles of food. The
is no attempt at inventing devices
for initiating and accomplishing any
forests and bring more lands under
cultivation. Carpentry was another
eating of cow’s meat was prohibited action. Thus, when the Truth- important profession and the
since it was a sacred animal. consciousness is achieved, there is availability of wood from the
Chariot racing, horse racing, dicing, automaticity and spontaneity of cleared forests made the profession
music and dance were the favourite action as also the right rhythm of profitable. Carpenters produced
pastimes. The social divisions were action. Since the action of Truth- chariots and ploughs. Workers in
not rigid during the Rig Vedic period Consciousness is automatic and metal made a variety of articles with
as it was in the later Vedic period. spontaneous, it cannot be fixed by copper, bronze and iron. Spinning
any arbitrary rule of the mental was another important occupation
Concept of Dharma and cotton and woollen fabrics were
intelligence or by any pragmatic or
One of the most dominant ideas of utilitarian necessities of individual or made. Goldsmiths were active in
Indian culture has been that of collective life. The Rita, therefore, making ornaments. The potters
Dharma, and this has been a cannot be prescribed or circum- made various kinds of vessels for
consequence of the Vedic discovery scribed by any legislation or any domestic use. Trade was another
of the Rita, the Right. According to man-made law. Rita is, indeed, the important economic activity and
the Vedic Rishis, there is, at the right law of action, but it issues from rivers served as important means of
summit of consciousness, a power transport. Trade was conducted
the vast consciousness of the truth,
of action which arranges forces and through barter system. In later
activities of the universe by an and it is thus superior to any human
standards of action or any laws of times, gold coins called ‘nishka’
automatic harmony of relationships, were used as media of exchange in
movements and results. The right the individual and collective life.
large transactions.
law of this automatic harmony is the Dharma is indeed a law or a guide-
Rita. The Rita itself is founded in line to prevent human beings from Religion
the truth of the Reality and of the falling in to crooked ways of  the The Rig Vedic Aryans worshiped
universe, (satyam), and its field of ordinary and unbridled demands of the natural forces like earth, fire,
action is the totality which is the impulses, desires, ambitions and
infinite vast (brihat). It is by the wind, rain and thunder. They
egoisms. That is why, Indian culture personified these natural forces into
discovery of the Rita that, according enjoined upon individuals to restrain
to the Vedic Rishis/ the human many Gods and worshipped them.
the life of desire for enjoyment and The important Rig Vedic Gods were
consciousness is delivered from
for personal profit under the control

Prelims Magic 2014 73

Prithvi (Earth), Agni (Fire), Vayu period is the growth of large wooden ploughs. Another improve-
(Wind), and Varuna (Rain) and kingdoms. Kuru and Panchala ment of this period was use of
Indra (Thunder). Indra was the kingdoms flourished in the manure the field with cow dung. It
most popular among them during the beginning. Parikshat and Jana increased the yield. Improved types
early Vedic period. Next in mejaya were the famous rulers of of implements were used for
importance to Indra, was Agni who Kuru kingdom. Pravahana Jaivali cultivation. Besides barley, rice and
was regarded as an intermediary was a popular king of the Panchalas. wheat were grown. Knowledge of
H between the Gods and people.
Varuna was supposed to be the
He was a patron of learning. After
the fall of Kurus and Panchalas,
manure was another improvement.
Industrial activity became more
upholder of the natural order. There other kingdoms like Kosala, Kasi varied and there was greater
I were also female Gods like Aditi
and Ushas. There were no temples
and Videha came into prominence.
The famous ruler of Kasi was
Ajatasatru. Janaka was the king of
specialization. Metal work, leather
work, carpentry and pottery made
and no idol worship during the early great progress. In addition to internal
S Vedic period. Prayers were offered
to the Gods in the expectation of
Videha with its capital at Mithila. His
court was adorned by scholar
Yajnavalkya. Magadha, Anga and
trade, foreign trade became
extensive. The Later Vedic people
were familiar with the sea, and they
rewards. Ghee, milk and grain were
T given as offerings. Elaborate rituals
were followed during the worship.
Vanga seem to be the easternmost
tribal kingdoms. The later Vedic
texts also refer to the three divisions
traded with countries like Babylon.
A class of hereditary merchants
(vaniya) came into existence.

The language of Vedic culture was
of India – Aryavarta (northern
India), Madhyadesa (central India)
and Dakshinapatha (southern
Vaisyas also carried on trade and
commerce. They organized
themselves into guilds known as
Vedic Sanskrit which is related to India).
R other languages in the Indo-
European language group. These
ganas. Besides nishka of the Rig
Vedic period, gold and silver coins
like satamana and krishnala were
were transmitted orally. It is closely Larger kingdoms were formed used as media of exchange.
Y related to the oldest preserved
Iranian language text called
during the later Vedic period. Many
Jana or tribes were amalgamated Social Life
Avestan. to form janapadas or rashtras in Family continued to be the basic unit
the later Vedic period. Hence, the of the society. The father was the
Later Vedic Period royal power had increased along head of the family. Joint family
(1000 – 600 B.C.) with the increase in the size of system was quite common. Varna
The period between B.C. 1000 and kingdom. The king performed system developed during the later
B.C. 600 is generally known as various rituals and sacrifices to Vedic period. The fourfold came
Later Vedic period. This age is also strengthen his position. They include into existences, namely, the
called as the Epic Age because the Rajasuya (consecration ceremony), Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas
Asvamedha (horse sacrifice) and and Sudras. The Brahmins were
two great epics Ramayana and
Vajpeya (chariot race). The kings priests and teachers. The
Mahabharata were written during
also assumed titles like Rajavisva- Kshatriyas were rulers and
this period. janan, Ahilabhuva-napathi, (lord of soldiers. They enjoyed high position
How was this topic asked in the CSE? all earth), Ekrat and Samrat (sole in the society. The Vaishyas were
ruler). In the later Vedic period, a traders, artisans and farmers. The
Q. The religion of early Vedic large number of new officials were Sudras were the uneducated
Aryans was primarily of involved in the administration in workers who served for the other
(a) Bhakti addition to the existing purohita, three castes. They were referred
(b) Image worship and Yajnas senani and gramani. They include to as Advijas and were not allowed
(c) Worship of nature and Yajnas the treasury officer, tax collector and to study the Vedas. The Varna
(d) Worship of nature and Bhakti royal messenger. At the lower levels, differentiation became more rigid in
Ans (c) (CSE, 2012) the administration was carried on by the later periods.
The Aryans further moved towards the village assemblies. The Kula (family), Gotra (literally,
east in the Later Vedic Period. The importance of the Samiti and the cowpen, clan) and Vamsa (lineage)
Satapatha Brahmana refers to the Sabha had diminished during the were important social identities
expansion of Aryans to the eastern later Vedic period. through which an individual was
Gangetic plains. Several tribal Economic Condition known.
groups and kingdoms are mentioned Many sub-castes on the basis of
in the later Vedic literature. One Farming was the chief occupation.
Iron was used extensively in this their occupation appeared in this
important development during this
period. Iron ploughs substituted the period. In the family, the power of

74 Prelims Magic 2014

the father increased during the period. Sacrifices were still opulence. The Jatakas speak of
Later Vedic period. There was no important and the rituals connected long rivalry of Kasi with Kosala,
improvement in the status of with them became more elaborate. Anga and Magadha. A struggle for
women. They were still considered The importance of prayers declined supremacy went on among them for
inferior and subordinate to men. and that of sacrifices increased. a time. King Brihadratha of Kasi
Women also lost their political rights Priesthood became a profession and had conquered Kosala but Kasi was
of attending assemblies. Child a hereditary one. The formulae for later incorporated into Kosala by
marriages had become common.
According the Aitreya Brahmana
a daughter has been described as a
sacrifices were invented and
elaborated by the priestly class.
King Kansa during Buddha’s time.
The Kasis along with the Kosalas
Therefore, towards the end of this and Videhans find mention in Vedic
source of misery. However, the
women in the royal household
enjoyed certain privileges.
period there was a strong reaction
against priestly domination and
texts and appear to have been a
closely allied people. Excavations at
against sacrifices and rituals. The Rajghat show habitational deposits
Many changes occurred in the field
rise of Buddhism and Jainism was
the direct result of these elaborate
fro 500 BC. The city has mud
sacrifices. Also, the authors of the
of religion. The Gods of early Vedic
age Indra and Agni lost their
significance. Prajapati became the
Upanishads, which is the essence
of Hindu philosophy, turned away
Kosala- The country of Kosalas
was located to the north-west of
Magadha with its capital at Savatthi
supreme God. In the Later Vedic from the useless rituals and insisted
period, people worshipped new
Gods like Rudra (lord of animals),
on true knowledge (jnana) for
peace and salvation.
(Sravasti) or Sahet-Maheth.
Excavations have shown the
beginnings of settlements at Sahet-
Vishnu. Idol worship began in this Maheth and a mud fort is seen
there. It comprised territory
corresponding to the modern Awadh
The Mahajanapadas literally Kusavati
(or Oudh) in Uttar Pradesh. The
kingdom was ruled by king
Prasenjit. There was struggle for
(Janapadas meaning “foothold of Vrijji Vaishali supremacy between king Prasenjit
a tribe”), were ancient Indian Malla Kusinara and Pava and king Ajatshatru of Magadha
kingdoms or countries. Ancient Chedi Sotthivati Nagara which was finally settled once the
Buddhist texts like Anguttara Vats Kausambi confederation of Lichchhavis
Nikaya make frequent reference to Panchala Ahichchhatra and became aligned with Magadha.
sixteen great kingdoms and Kampilya Kosala was ultimately merged into
republics (Solas Mahajanapadas) Matsya Viratanagara Magadha. Ayodhya is an important
which had evolved and flourished Surasena Mathura city of this territory. Kosala
in the northern/north-western parts Asvaka Patana/ Potali incorporated the tribal republican
of the Indian sub-continent prior to Avanti Mahismati and territory of the Sakyas of Kapila-
the rise of Buddhism in India in the Ujjain vastu. Their capital is identified with
c. 600 BC. The Jaina text Bhagwati Gandhara Taxila Piprahwa in the Basti district.
Sutra gives a different list of 16 Kamboja Rajapura
Mahajanapadas. Panini refers to Kuru Indraprastha Anga-The first reference to the
Janapada as country and Magadha Girivraja Anga is found in the Atharvaveda
Janapadinas citizenry. While most (Rajgriha) where they find mention along with
mahajanapadas were ruled by Kasi- The Kasis were Aryan Magadha, Gandhara and the
kings, some, known as ganas or people who had settled in the region Mujavats apparently as a despised
sanghas, were oligarchies where around Varanasi (modern Benaras). people. The Jaina Prajnapana ranks
power was shared by a number of The capital of Kasi was at Anga and Vangas in the first group
men, often collectively called rajas. Varanasi. The city was bounded by of Aryan people. Based on
The idea of the Mahajanapadas was rivers Varuna and Asi on north and Mahabharata evidence, the
more tribal than geographical. south which gave Varanasi its country of Anga roughly
name. Before Buddha, Kasi was corresponded to the region of
The Mahajanapadas Their the most powerful of the sixteen Bhagalpur and Monghyr in Bihar
Capitals Mahajanapadas. Several Jatakas and parts of Bengal. River Champa
Kasi Varanasi bear witness to the superiority of formed the boundaries between
Anga Champa its capital over other cities of India Magadha in the west and Anga in
Kosala Sravasti and and speaks high of its prosperity and the east.

Prelims Magic 2014 75

Anga was bounded by river Ganga Rajgir, in Patna district of Bihar. The Malla- The Mallas are frequently
on the north. Its capital Champa, other names for the city were mentioned in Buddhist and Jain
formerly known as Malini, was Magadhapura, Brihadrathapura, works. They were a powerful
located on the right bank of river Vasumati, Kushagrapura and people dwelling in Eastern India.
Ganga, near its junction with river Bimbisarapuri. It was an active Panduputra Bhimasena is said to
Champa. It shows habitation since centre of Jainism in ancient times. have conquered the chief of the
the 6 th c. BC. It was one of the Mallas in the course of his expedition
H very flourishing cities and is referred
to as one of the six principal cities
How was this topic asked in the CSE?
Q. Which one of the following
of Eastern India. The Maha-
bharata mentions Mallas along
of ancient India (Digha Nikaya). with the Angas, Vangas, and
I It was also a great centre of trade
and commerce and its merchants
was initially the most powerful city
state of India in the 6th century
B.C. ?
Kalingas as eastern tribes. The
Mallas were republican people with
regularly sailed to distant Suvarna- their dominion consisting of nine
S bhumi. Anga was annexed by
Magadha later.
(a) Gandhar (b) Kamboj
(c) Kashi (d) Magadh
territories (Kalpa Sutra; Nirayavali
Sutra), one of each of the nine
Ans (d) (CSE, 1999) confederated clans. Two of these
T Magadha- The first reference to
Magadhas occurs in the Atharva-
veda. The bards of Magadha are,
Explanation: In 6th century B.C.,
Magadha was the most powerful
confederations...one with Kusinara
(modern Kasia near Gorakhpur) as
state of India ruled by the kings of its capital, second with Pava
O however, referred to in early Vedic
literature and are spoken of in terms
of contempt. The Vedic dislike of
Haranyak dynasty. (modern Padrauna, 12 miles from
Kasia) as the capital, had become
Vajji- The Vajjians or Virijis included very important in the time of the
R the Magadhas in early times was
due to the fact that the Magadhas
were not yet wholly brahmanised.
eight or nine confederated clans of
whom the Lichchhavis, the
Buddha. Kuœinara and Pava are
very important in the history of
Videhans, the Jnatrikas and the Buddhism.
Y With the exception of the Rigvedic
Pramaganda, whose connection
Vajjis were the most important.
Mithila (modern Janakpur in the The Mallas are called Vasishthas
(Vasetthas) in the Mahapparni-
with Magadha is very speculative, district of Tirhut) was the capital of
Videha which became the important bbana Suttanta. The Mallas
no other king of Magadha is
centre of political and cultural originally had a monarchical form
mentioned in Vedic literature.
activities of northern India. It was of government but later they
According to the Mahabharata and
in the time of king Janaka that switched to Samgha (republic) of
the Puranas, the earliest ruling
Videha came into prominence. On which the members called
dynasty of Magadha was founded
the ruins of his kingdom, arose the themselves rajas. The Mallas were
by king Brihadratha, but Magadha
republics of Lichchhavis, Videhans a brave and warlike people. The
came into prominence only under
and seven other small republics. The Mallas appeared to have formed
king Bimbisara and his son
Lichchhavis were very independent alliance with Lichchhavis for self
Ajatshatru. In the war of supremacy
people. Mother of Mahavira was a defence. They however, lost their
which went on for long between the
Lichchhavi princess. Vaishali independence not long after
nations of Majjhimadesa, kingdom
(modern Basarh of North Bihar) Buddha’s death and their dominions
of Magadha finally emerged
was the capital of Licchhavis and were annexed to the Magadhan
victorious and became a predomi-
the political headquarters of Empire.
nant empire in Mid India.
powerful Varijian confederacy. Chedi- The Chedis, Chetis or
The kingdom of the Magadhas Vaishali was located 25 miles north Chetyas had two distinct
roughly corresponded to the modern of river Ganga and 38 miles from settlements of which one was in the
districts of Patna and Gaya in Rajgriha and was a very prosperous mountains of Nepal and the other
southern Bihar, and parts of Bengal town. The Licchhavis were closely in Bundelkhand near Kausambi.
in the east. It was bounded on the related by marriage to the According to old authorities, Chedis
north by river Ganga, on the east Magadhas. The Licchavis are lay near Yamuna midway between
by the river Champa, on the south represented as (Vratya) Kshtriyas the kingdom of Kuru and Vatsas.
by Vindhya Mountains and on the in Manusmriti. Vaishali, the In the mediaeval period, the
west by river Sona. During headquarters of the powerful Vajji southern frontiers of Chedi extended
Buddha’s time, its boundaries republic and the capital of to the banks of river Narmada.
included Anga. Its earliest capital Lichchavis was defeated by king Sotthivatnagara, the Sukti or
was Girivraja or Rajagriha, modern Ajatshatru of Magadha. Suktimati of Mahabharata, was
the capital of Chedi. The Chedis

76 Prelims Magic 2014

were an ancient people of India and Panchala- The Panchalas occupied Mountains). The capital of Assakas
are mentioned in the Rigveda. A the country to the east of the Kurus was Potana or Potali which
branch of Chedis found a royal between the mountains and river corresponds to Paudanya of
dynasty in the kingdom of Kalinga Ganga. It roughly corresponded to Mahabhatrata. The Ashmakas are
according to the Hathigumpha modern Budaun, Farrukhabad and also mentioned by Panini. They are
Inscription of Kharavela. the adjoining districts of Uttar placed in the north-west in the
Pradesh. The country was divided Markendeya Purana and the
Vatsa- The Vatsas, Vamsas or
Vachchas are stated to be an
offshoot from the Kurus . The Vatsa
into Uttara-Panchala and Dakshina-
Panchala. The northern Panchala
Brhat Samhita. River Godavari
separated the country of Assakas
had its capital at Adhichhatra or from that of the Mulakas (or
or Vamsa country corresponded
with territory of modern Allahabad
in Uttar Pradesh. It had monar-
Chhatravati (modern Ramnagar in
the Bareilley District), while
Alakas). The country of Assaka lay
outside the pale of Madhyadesa. It
southern Panchala had it capital at was located on a southern high road,
chical form of government with its
capital at Kausambi (identified with
village Kosam, 38 miles from
Kampilya or Kampil in Farrukhabad
District. The famous city of
the Dakshinapatha. At one time,
Assaka included Mulaka and their
Kanyakubja or Kannauj was country abutted with Avanti.
Allahabad). Kausambi had been a
very prosperous city where large
number of millionaire merchants
situated in the kingdom of Panchala.
Originally a monarxhical clan, the
Avanti- Country of the Avantis was
an important kingdom of western
Panchals appear to have switched
resided. It was the most important
entreport of goods and passengers
from north-west and south.
to republican corporation in the sixth
and fifth century BCE.
India and was one of the four great
monarchies in India when Buddhism
arose, the other three being Kosala,
Udayana was the ruler of Vatsa in
sixth century BC in the time of the
Buddha. He was very powerful,
Matsya- Country of Matsya or
Machcha tribe lied to south of the
Kurus and west of the Yamuna
Vatsa and Magadha. Avanti was
divided into north and south by river
Vetravati. Initially, Mahissati
warlike and fond of hunting.
Kuru- The Puranas trace the origin
which separated them from the
Panchalas, It roughly corresponded
to the whole of Alwar with portions
(Mahishamati) was the capital of
Southern Avanti, and Ujjaini
(Sanskrit Ujjayini) was of northern
of Kurus from the Puru-Bharata
of Bharatpur. The capital of Matsya Avanti, but in the times of Mahavira
family. Aitareya Brahmana locates
was at Viratanagara (modern and Buddha, Ujjaini was the capital
the Kurus in Madhyadesha and
Bairat) which is said to have been of integrated Avanti. The country of
also refers to the Uttarakurus as
named after its founder king Virata. Avanti roughly corresponded to
living beyond the Himalayas.
In Pali literature, the Matsyas are modern Malwa, Nimar and adjoining
According to Buddhist text,
usually associated with the parts of the Madhya Pradesh. Both
Sumangavilasini, the people of
Surasenas. The western Matsya Mahishmati and Ujjaini stood on the
Kururashtra (the Kurus) came from
was the hill tract on the north bank southern high road called
the Uttarakuru. Vayu Purana attests
of Chambal. The Matsyas had not Dakshinapatha which extended
that Kuru, son of Samvarsana of
much political importance of their from Rajagriha to Pratishthana
the Puru lineage, was the
own during the times of Buddha (modern Paithan). Avanti was an
eponymous ancestor of the Kurus
important centre of Buddhism and
and the founder of Kururashetra Surasena- Country of the some of the leading theras were
(Kuru Janapada) in Kurukshetra. Surasenas lied to south-west of born and resided there. King
The country of the Kurus roughly Matsya and west of Yamuna. It had Nandivardhana of Avanti was
corresponded to the modern its capital at Madhura or Mathura. defeated by king Shisunaga of
Thaneswar, Delhi and Meerut in Avantiputra, the king of Surasena Magadha. Avanti later became part
Uttar Pradesh. According to was the first among the chief of Magadhan Empire. It had a
Jatakas, the capital of Kurus was disciples of Buddha. The Andhakas strong fortification.
Indraprastha (Indapatta) near and Vrishnis of Mathura/Surasena
modern Delhi which extended on are referred to in the Ashtadhyayi Gandhara- Gandharas are included
seven leagues. Though a well of Panini in the Uttarapatha division of
known monarchical people in Puranic and Buddhistic traditions.
earlier period, the Kurus are known Assaka- The Country of Assaka or Gandharas were settled since the
to have switched to republic form Ashmaka tribe was located in Vedic times on the south bank of
of government during sixth/fifth Dakshinapatha or southern India. river Kubha (Kabul) up to its mouth
century BC. In Buddha’s time, Assakas were into Indus itself. Later, the
located on the banks of river Gandharas crossed Indus and
Godavari (south of Vindhya expanded into parts of north-west

Prelims Magic 2014 77

Punjab. Gandharas and their king Kamboja- They are also included first fourteen of the above
figure prominently as strong allies in the Uttarpatha. In ancient Mahajanapadas belong to Majjhi-
of the Kurus against the Pandavas literature, the Kamboja is variously madesa (Mid India) while the last
in Mahabharata war. According to associated with the Gandhara, two belong to Uttarapatha or the
Puranic traditions, this Janapada Darada, and the Bahilika (Bactria). north-west division of Jambudvipa.
was founded by Gandhara, son of Ancient Kamboja is known to have In a struggle for supremacy that
Aruddha, a descendant of Yayati. comprised regions on either side of followed in the sixth/fifth century
H The princes of this country are said
to have come from the line of
the Hindukush. The original
Kamboja was located in eastern
BC, the growing state of Magadhas
emerged as the most predominant
Druhyu who was a famous king of Oxus country as neighbor to power in ancient India annexing
I Rigvedic period. The river Indus
watered the lands of Gandhara.
Bahlika, but with time, some clans
of Kambojas appear to have
crossed Hindukush and planted
several of the Janapadas of the
Taksasila and Pushkalavati, the two The kingdom of Magadha emerged
S cities of this Mahajanapada, are said
to have been named after Taksa
colonies on its southern side also.
Hindukush region from Nurestan up
to Rajauri in southwest of Kashmir
the most powerful republic and
finally evolved into an Empire by
and Pushkara, the two sons of annexing most of the other
T Bharata, a prince of Ayodhya.
The Gandhara kingdom sometimes
sharing borders with the Daradas
and the Gandharas constituted the Mahajanapadas.

O also included Kashmira, Kaspapyros

(Kasyapura i.e Kashmira) as
Gandhara city. According to
How was this topic asked in the CSE?

Q. Between which of the

How was this topic asked in the CSE?
Q. The following map shows four
of the sixteen mahajanapadas that
R Gandhara Jataka, at one time,
Gandhara formed a part of the
kingdom of Kashmir. Jataka also
following was the ancient town of
Takshasila located?
(a) Indus and Jhelum
existed in ancient India:
The places
marked A,
Y gives another name Chandahara
for Gandhara. During the Buddhist
period, it included Afghanistan, and
(b) Jhelum and Chenab
(c) Chenab and Ravi
(d) Ravi and Beas
B, C and
north-west of the Panjab (modern Ans. (a) (CSE 1999)
districts of Peshawar (Purusha-
Kamboja country. The capital of (a) Matsya, Cedi, Kosala, Anga
pura and Rawalpindi). Its capital
Kamboja was probably Rajapura (b) Surasena, Avanti, Vatsa,
was Takshasila (Prakrit Taxila). The
(modern Rajori) in south-west of Magadha
Taxila University situated between
Kashmir. The Kambojas were also (c) Matsya, Avanti, Vatsa, Anga.
Indus and Jhelum river was a
a well known republican people (d) Surasena, Cedi, Kosala,
renowned centre of learning in
since Epic times. Mahabharata Magadha
ancient times, where scholars from
refers to several Ganah (or Ans. (c) (CSE, 1997)
all over the world came to seek
Republics) of the Kambojas.
higher education. Panini, the Indian According to Buddhist texts, the
genius of grammar and Kautilya are
the world renowned products of
Taxila University. King Pukkusati or
Pushkarasarin of Gandhara in THE RISE OF MAGADHA AND
middle of sixth century BC was the 4
contemporary of king Bimbisara of
Magadha. Gandhara was located
on the grand northern high road From c. sixth century BC, there is gradually got eliminated. Finally in
(Uttarapatha) and was a centre of evidence that there were significant the mid 6th century B.C., only four
international commercial activities. historical developments. Perhaps kingdoms – Vatsa, Avanti, Kosala
It is also contended that the Kurus, the most visible was the emergence and Magadha survived.
Kambojas, Gandharas and Bahlikas of early states, empires and
Vatsa: It is situated on the banks
were cognate people and all had kingdoms. The rise of the 16
of the river Yamuna. Capital was
Iranian affinities. Naturally, they Mahajanapadas was a trend
Kausambi near modern Allahabad.
may have once been a cognate setting milestone in the evolution of
Its most popular ruler Udayana
people. Gandhara was often linked empire formation. In course of time,
strengthened his position by entering
politically with the neighboring the small and weak kingdoms either
into matrimonial alliances with
regions of Kashmir and Kamboja. submitted to the stronger rulers or
Avanti, Anga and Magadha. After

78 Prelims Magic 2014

his death, Vatsa was annexed to the with the ruling family of Kosala. He in convening the First Buddhist
Avanti kingdom. married Kosaladevi, sister of Council at Rajagriha soon after the
Prasenajit. He was given the Kasi death of the Buddha. The
Avanti: Ujjain was the capital of
region as dowry which yielded large immediate successor of Ajatasatru
Avanti. The most important ruler of was Udayin. He laid the foundation
revenue. Bimbisara married
this kingdom was Pradyota. He of the new capital at Pataliputra
Chellana, a princess of the Licchavi
became powerful by marrying family of Vaisali. This matrimonial situated at the confluence of the two
Vasavadatta, the daughter of
Udayana. He patronized Buddhism.
The successors of Pradyota were
alliance secured for him the safety
of the northern frontier. Moreover,
rivers, the Ganges and the Son.
Later it became famous as the H
it facilitated the expansion of imperial capital of the Mauryas.
weak and later this kingdom was
taken over by the rulers of
Magadha northwards to the borders
of Nepal. He also married Khema
Udayin’s successors were weak
rulers and hence Magadha was I
of the royal house of Madra in captured by Saisunaga. Thus the
Kosala: Ayodhya was the capital
of Kosala. King Prasenajit was its
central Punjab. Bimbisara also
undertook many expeditions and
Haryanka dynasty came to an end
and the Saisunaga dynasty came to
famous ruler. He was highly added more territories to his empire.
educated. His position was further
strengthened by the matrimonial
He defeated Brahmadatta of Anga
and annexed that kingdom. He
maintained friendly relations with
Saisunaga dynasty: The genealogy
and chronology of the Saisunagas
alliance with Magadha. His sister are not clear. Saisunaga defeated
was married to Bimbisara and Kasi
was given to her as dowry.
Avanti. He had also efficiently
reorganized the administration of his
kingdom. Bimbisara was a
the king of Avanti which was made
part of the Magadhan Empire. After
Subsequently there was a dispute Saisunaga, the mighty empire began
with Ajatasatru. After the end of the
conflict, Prasenajit married the
contemporary of both Vardhamana
Mahavira and Gautama Buddha.
However, both religions claim him
to collapse. His successor was
Kakavarman or Kalasoka. During
daughter of Bimbisara. After the his reign the second Buddhist
death of this powerful king, Kosala
became part of the Magadha.
as their supporter and devotee. He
seems to have made numerous gifts
to the Buddhist Sangha.
Council was held at Vaisali.
Kalasoka was killed by the founder Y
of the Nanda dynasty.
Magadha: Magadha was one of Ajatasatru (494 - 462 B.C.):
the important monarchical state of Nandas: The fame of Magadha
Ajatasatru who succeeded his scaled new heights under the Nanda
North India. Rajagriha was the father continued his policy of
capital of Magadha. Of all the dynasty. Their conquests went
expansion through military beyond the boundaries of the
kingdoms of north India, Magadha conquests.. He fought against
emerged powerful and prosperous. Gangetic basin and in North India
Kosala and Vaisali. His won a great they carved a well-knit and vast
It became the nerve centre of success against a formidable
political activity in north India. empire. Mahapadma Nanda was a
confederacy led by the Lichchavis powerful ruler of the Nanda
Magadha was endowed by nature of Vaisali. This had increased his
with certain geographical and dynasty. He uprooted the kshatriya
power and prestige. This war lasted dynasties in north India and
strategic advantages. Its strategic for about sixteen years. It was at
position between the upper and assumed the title ekarat. The
this time that Ajatasatru realised the Puranas speak of the extensive
lower part of the Gangetic valley strategic importance of the small
was a great advantage. It had a conquests made by Mahapadma.
village, Pataligrama (future The Hathigumpha inscription
fertile soil. The iron ores in the hills Pataliputra). He fortified it to serve
near Rajgir and copper and iron portion of the Deccan was also
as a convenient base of operations under the control of the Nandas.
deposits near Gaya added to its against Vaisali. Buddhists and Jains
natural assets. During the reign of Therefore, Mahapadma Nanda
both claim that Ajatasatru was a may be regarded as a great empire
Bimbisara and Ajatasatru, the follower of their religion. But it is
prosperity of Magadha reached its builder. According to the Buddhist
generally believed that in the tradition, Mahapadma Nanda uled
zenith. beginning he was a follower of about ten years. He was succeeded
Bimbisara (546 - 494 B.C.): The Jainism and subsequently embraced by his eight sons, who ruled
rise of Magadha started with the Buddhism. He is said to have met successively. The last Nanda ruler
accession of Bimbisara to its Gautama Buddha. This scene is also was Dhana Nanda. He kept the
throne. Bimbisara belonged to the depicted in the sculptures of Barhut. Magadhan Empire intact and
Haryanka dynasty. He consolidated According to the Mahavamsa, he possessed a powerful army and
his position by matrimonial alliances. constructed several chaityas and enormous wealth. The fabulous
His first matrimonial alliance was viharas. He was also instrumental wealth of the Nandas is also

Prelims Magic 2014 79

mentioned by several sources. The Achaemenian Empire. Darius sent Abhisara and Porus who ruled the
enormous wealth of the Nandas is a naval expedition under Skylas to region between the rivers of Jhelum
also referred to in the Tamil Sangam explore the Indus. and Chenab. There were many
work Ahananuru by the poet republican states like Nysa. In short,
Mamulanar. The flourishing state of Xerxes (465-456 B.C.): Xerxes
northwestern India remained the
agriculture in the Nanda dominions utilized his Indian province to
most disunited part of India and the
and the general prosperity of the strengthen his position. He
H country must have brought to the
royal treasury enormous revenue.
deployed Indian infantry and cavalry
to Greece to fight his opponents.
rulers were fighting aganist one
another. They never came together
against common enemy.
The oppressive way of tax But they retreated after Xerxes
I collection by Dhana Nanda was
resented by the people. Taking
faced a defeat in Greece. After this
failure, the Achaemenians could not
Hence, it was not easy for
Alexander to overcome so many
advantage of this, Chandragupta follow a forward policy in India. sources of opposition.
S Maurya and Kautilya initiated a
popular movement against the
Nanda rule. It was during this time
However, the Indian province was
still under their control. Darius III
Causes of the Invasion:
Alexander ascended the throne of
enlisted Indian soldiers to fight
T that Alexander invaded India.
against Alexander in 330 B.C. It is
evident that the control of Persians
Macedonia after the death of his
father, Philip in 334 B.C. He
conquered the whole of Persia by
How was this topic asked in the CSE?
O Q. Which one of the following
dynasties was ruling over North
slackened on the eve of
Alexander’s invasion of India.
defeating Darius III in the battle of
Arbela in 330 B.C. He also aimed
Effects of the Persian Invasion at further conquest eastwards and
R India at the time of Alexander’s
(a) Nanda (b) Maurya
The Persian invasion provided an
impetus to the growth of Indo-
wanted to recover the lost Persian
Satrapy of India. The writings of
Greek authors like Herodotus about
Y (c) Sunga
Ans. (a)
(d) Kanva
CSE 2000
Explanation: Nanda ruler
Iranian commerce. Also, it
prepared the ground for
Alexander’s invasion. The use of
the fabulous wealth of India
attracted Alexander. Moreover, his
interest in geographical enquiry and
Dhananaanda was the ruler of the Kharoshti script, a form of
love of natural history urged him to
Magadha who controlled nearly Iranian writing became popular in
undertake an invasion of India. He
whole of north India at the time of northwestern India and some of
believed that on the eastern side of
Alexander’s invasion. Asoka’s edicts were written in that
India there was the continuation of
script. We are able to see the
the sea, according the geographical
PERSIAN AND GREEK influence of Persian art on the art
knowledge of his period. So, he
INVASIONS of the Mauryas, particularly the
thought that by conquering India, he
monolithic pillars of Asoka and the
Persian Invasions would also conquer the eastern
sculptures found on them. The very
Cyrus (558 – 530 B.C) boundary of the world.
idea of issuing edicts by Asoka and
Cyrus the Great was the greatest the wording used in the edicts are Battle of Hydaspes: In 327 B.C.
conqueror of the Achaemenian traced to Iranian influence. In short, Alexander crossed the Hindukush
Empire. He was the first conqueror the Iranian connection with India Mountains and spent nearly ten
who led an expedition and entered proved more fruitful than the short- months in fighting with the tribes.
into India. He captured the lived Indo- Macedonian contact. He crossed the Indus in February
Gandhara region. All Indian tribes 326 B.C. with the help of a bridge
Alexander’s Invasion of India of boats. He was warmly received
to the west of the Indus River
submitted to him and paid tribute.
(327-325 B.C.) by Ambhi, the ruler of Taxila. From
His son, Cambyses, had no time to Political Condition on the eve there, Alexander sent a message to
pay attention towards India. of Alexander’s Invasion Porus to submit. But, Porus refused
and decided to fight against
Darius I (522 – 486 B.C.): Darius After two centuries of the Persian Alexander. Then, Alexander mar-
I, the grandson of Cyrus, conquered invasion, Alexander, from Macedo- ched from Taxila to the banks of
the Indus valley in 518 B.C. and nia invaded India. On the eve of his the river Hydaspes (Jhelum). On the
annexed the Punjab and Sindh. This invasion, there were a number of other side of the river, he saw the
region became the 20th Satrapy of small kingdoms in northwestern vast army of Porus. As there were
his empire. It was the most fertile India. The leading kings were heavy floods in the river, Alexander
and populous province of the Ambhi of Taxila, the ruler of

80 Prelims Magic 2014

was not able to cross it. After a few provinces and put them under his came to an end. Alexander ’s
days, he crossed the river and the military governors. His retreat began invasion had also paved the way for
famous battle of Hydaspes was in October 326 B.C. and the return direct contact between India and
fought on the plains of Karri. It was journey was not free from ordeals. Greece. The routes opened by him
a well-contested battle. Although Many republican tribes attacked his and his naval explorations increased
Porus had a strong army, he lost the army. Anyhow he managed to reach the existing facilities for trade
battle. Alexander was impressed by
the courage and heroism of this
Indian prince, treated him
beyond the Indus. On his way, he
reached Babylon where he fell
seriously ill and died in 323 B.C.
between India and West Asia.
However, his aim of annexing the
northwestern India to his empire
generously and reinstated him on his
throne. Alexander continued his
march as far as the river Beas
Effects of Alexander’s invasion
The immediate effect of Alexa-
was not fulfilled due his premature
death. His authority in the Indus
valley was a short-lived one
encountering opposition from the
local tribes. He wanted to proceed
nder’s invasion was that it encou-
raged political unification of north
India under the Mauryas. The
because of the expansion of
Mauryan Empire under Chandra- S
still further eastwards towards the gupta Maurya.
Gangetic valley. But he could not
do so, because his soldiers refused
system of small independent states
to fight. Hardships of prolonged 5 AGE OF MAURYAS
warfare made them tired and they
wanted to return home. Alexander
The establishment of the Mauryan Visakadatta’s Mudrarakshasa
could not persuade them and
therefore decided to return. He
made arrangements to look after his
Empire opens a new era in the
history of India. For the first time,
political unity was achieved in India.
gives a picture on the socio-
economic condition under the R
conquered territories in India. He Mauryas. The Mudrarakshasa
divided the whole territory from the
Indus to the Beas into three
Moreover, the history writing has
also become clear from this period
written by Visakadatta is a drama
in Sanskrit. Although written during Y
due to accuracy in chronology and the Gupta period, it describes
sources. Besides plenty of how Chandragupta, with the
How was this topic asked in the CSE? indigenous and foreign literary assistance of Kautilya, overthrew
Q. The practice of military sources, a number of epigraphical the Nandas. “Mudrarakshasa” of
governorship was first introduced records are also available to write Vishakhadatta has its subject the
in India by the: the history of this period. court intrigues between Amatya
(a) Greeks Rakshasa of Dhanand Court
(b) Shakas and Kautilya for Chandragupta
(c) Parthians A variety of sources to reconstruct Maurya.
(d) Mughals the history of the Mauryan Empire.
How was this topic asked in the CSE?
Ans. (a) (CSE, 2000) Kautilya’s Arthasastra is the most
The Indo-Roman kingdom of important literary source for the Q. The ancient Indian play
Bacteria was set up in history of the Mauryas. Kautilya Mudrarakshasa of Visakhadutt has
Afghanistan in the beginning of its subject on :
was a contemporary of Chandra-
second century B.C., after the (a) a conflict between Gods and
gupta Maurya. Kautilya was also
death of Alexander. Demons of ancient Hindu lore
called ‘Indian Machiavelli’. The (b) a romantic story of an Aryan
manuscript of Arthasastra was first prince and a tribal woman
Q. The Indo-Roman Kingdom set discovered by R. Shama Sastri in
up in north Afghanistan in the (c) the story of the power struggle
1904. The Arthasastra contains 15 between two Aryan
beginning of the second century
books and 180 chapters but it can (d) the court intrigues at the time
B.C was:
be divided into three parts: the first of Chandragupta
(a) Bacteria
deals with the king and his council
(b) Scythia Ans. (d) (CSE, 2002)
(c) Zedrasia and the departments of government;
(d) Aria the second with civil and criminal Megasthenes’ Indica
law; and the third with diplomacy
Ans. (a) (CSE, 1999) and war. The book allows divorce Megasthenes was the Greek
to a wife deserted by her husband. ambassador in the court of
Chandragupta Maurya. His book,

Prelims Magic 2014 81

Indica has survived only in Asokan inscriptions remain valuable POLITICAL HISTORY OF
fragments. Yet, his account gives sources for the study of Asoka and THE MAURYAS
details about the Mauryan the Mauryan Empire. The name by
administration, particularly the which Ashoka is generally referred Chandragupta Maurya
administration of the capital city of to in his inscription is “Piyapins” or (322 – 298 B.C.)
Pataliputra and also the military Priyadarsi, and “Devanompiya”. Chandragupta Maurya was the
organization. His picture on
H contemporary social life is notable.
Certain unbelievable information
How was this topic asked in the CSE?
founder of the Mauryan Empire.
He, at the young age of 25, captured
Pataliputra from the last ruler of the
provided by him has to be treated Q. The name by which Ashoka is
I with caution.
Other Literature
generally referred to his
inscriptions is:
Nanda dynasty, Dhanananda. In this
task he was assisted by Kautilya,
who was also known as Chanakya
(a) Chakravarti (b) Dharmadeva
S Apart from these three important
works, the Puranas and the
(c) Dharmakirti (d) Priyadarsi
Ans. (d) (CSE, 1995)
or Vishnugupta. After firmly
establishing his power in the
Gangetic valley, he marched to the
Buddhist literature such as Jatakas
T provide information about the
Mauryas. The Ceylonese
Q. Which one of the following
texts of ancient India allows
divorce to a wife deserted by her
northwest and subdued the
territories up to the Indus. Then he
moved to central India and occupied
Chronicles Dipavamsa and
O Mahavamsa throw light on the role
Asoka in spreading Buddhism in Sri
(a) Kamasutra
(b) Manavadharmashastra
the region north of Narmada river.
In 305 B.C., he marched against
Selukas Niketar, who was
R Archaeological Sources - Edicts
of Asoka: The inscriptions of
(c) Sukra Nitisara
(d) Arthashastra
Ans. (d) (CSE, 1996)
Alexander’s General controlling the
northwestern India. Chandragupta
Maurya defeated him and a treaty

Y Asoka were first deciphered by

James Princep in 1837. They are
written in Pali language and in some
How was this topic asked in the CSE?
was signed. By this treaty, Selukas
Niketar ceded the trans-Indus
territories – namely Aria, Arakosia
places Prakrit was used. The Q. Which one of the following and Gedrosia – to the Mauryan
Brahmi script (which was written scripts of ancient India was written Empire. He also gave his daughter
from left to right) was employed for from right to left? in marriage to the Mauryan prince.
writing. In the northwestern India (a) Brahmi (b) Nandnagari Chandragupta made a gift of 500
Asokan inscriptions were found in (c) Sharada (d) Kharoshti elephants to Selukas. Megasthenes
Karoshti script (written from right Ans. (d) (CSE, 1997) was sent to the Mauryan court as
to left). There are fourteen Major Greek ambassador.
Rock Edicts. The two Kalinga Chandragupta embraced Jainism
Edicts are found in the newly How was this topic asked in the CSE?
towards the end of his life and
conquered territory. The major pillar Q. The Asokan major rock edicts stepped down from the throne in
Edicts were erected in important which tell us about the Sangam favour of his son, Bindusara. Then
cities. There are minor Rock Edicts Kingdom include rock edicts he went to Sravana Belgola, near
and minor pillar Edicts. These Edicts (a) I and X (b) I and XI Mysore along with Jain monks led
of Asoka deal with Asoka’s (c) II and III (d) II and XIV by Bhadrabhagu and starved
Dhamma and also instructions given Ans. (c) (CSE, 1998) himself to death.
to his officials. The XIII Rock Edict
gives details about his war with Q. Which one of the following Bindusara (298 – 273 B.C.)
Kalinga. The Pillar Edict VII gives ancient Indian record is the earliest
royal order to preserve food-grains Bindusara was called by the Greeks
a summary of his efforts to promote as “Amitragatha” meaning slayer of
the Dhamma within his kingdom. to be utilised during the crises in
the country? enemies. He is said to have
The rock edict-II and III of Ashoka conquered the Deccan up to
tells us about the Sangam Kingdom (a) Sohagaura Copper-plate
(b) Rummindei pillar-edict of Mysore. Taranatha, the Tibetan
of Chola, Pandya satyaputta and monk states that Bindusara
Kerelaputta. The Sohagaura copper Asoka
(c) Prayaga-Prasasti conquered 16 states comprising ‘the
plate inscription of Asoka is the land between the two seas’. The
earliest royal order to preserve the (d) Mehrauli Pillar inscription of
Chandra Sangam Tamil literature also
food-grains to be utilised during confirms the Mauryan invasion of
famine in the country. Thus the Ans. (a) (CSE, 1998)
the far south. Therefore, it can be

82 Prelims Magic 2014

said that the Mauryan Empire under the influence of Buddhist monk, Empire. Nepal was also within the
Bindusara extended up to Mysore. Upagupta, took Asoka more closer Mauryan Empire. The northwestern
Bindusara received Deimachus as to Buddhism. frontier was already demarcated by
ambassador from the Syrian king Chandragupta Maurya.
Antiochus I. Bindusara wrote to How was this topic asked in the CSE?
Antiochus I asking for sweet wine,
Asoka’s Dhamma
Q. Assertion (A): Ashoka annexed
dried figs and a sophist. The latter Although Asoka embraced
sent all but a sophist because the
Greek law prohibited sending a
Kalinga to the Mauryan Empire.
Reason (R): Kalinga controlled the
Buddhism and took efforts to spread
Buddhism, his policy of Dhamma
sophist. Bindusara supported the land and sea routes to South India. was a still broad concept. It was a
Ajivikas, a religious sect. Bindusara
appointed his son, Asoka, as the
In the context of the above two
statements, which one of the
way of life, a code of conduct and a
set of principles to be adopted and
governor of Ujjain. following is correct? practised by the people at large. His
Asoka the Great
(273 – 232 B. C.)
(a) Both A and R are true and R
is the correct explanation of A
principles of Dhamma were clearly
stated in his Edicts. Asoka’s Edicts
stress on social harmony among the
Asoka served as Governor of Ujjain
and also suppressed a revolt in Taxila
(b) Both A and R are true but R is
not the correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
people by spreading ideas of equity
instead of promotion of religion.
during his father Bindusara’s reign.
There was an interval of four years
between Asoka’s accession to the
(d) A is false but R is true
Ans. (a) (CSE, 2000)
The main features of Asoka’s
Dhamma as mentioned in his
various Edicts may be summed as
throne (273 B.C.) and his actual Asoka and Buddhism About 261
coronation (269 B.C.). Therefore,
it appears from the available
B.C. Asoka became a Sakya
Upasaka (lay dsicple) and two and
1. Service to father and mother, R
evidence that there was a struggle a half years later, a Bikshu (monk). practice of ahimsa, love of truth,
for the throne after Bindusara’s
death. The Ceylonese Chronicles,
Then he gave up hunting, visited
Bodh-Gaya, and organized
reverence to teachers and good
treatment of relatives. Y
Dipavamsa and Mahavamsa state missions. He appointed special 2. Prohibition of animal sacrifices
that Asoka captured power after officers called “Dharma and festive gatherings and avoiding
killing his ninety nine brothers Mahamatras” to speed up the expensive and meaningless
including his elder brother, Susima. progress of Dhamma. In 241 B.C., ceremonies and rituals.
The youngest brother, Tissa, was he visited the birth place of Buddha, 3. Efficient organization of
spared. But according to Taranatha the Lumbini Garden, near administration in the direction of
of Tibet, Asoka killed only six of his Kapilavastu. He also visited other social welfare and maintenance of
brothers. Asoka’s Edict also refers holy places of Buddhism like constant contact with people through
to his brothers acting as officers in Sarnath, Sravasti and Kusinagara. the system of Dhammayatras.
his administration. However, it is He sent a mission to Sri Lanka
clear that the succession of Asoka under his son, Mahendra, and 4. Humane treatment of servants by
was a disputed one.The most daughter, Sangamitra, who planted masters and prisoners by
important event of Asoka’s reign there the branch of the original government officials.
was his victorious war with Kalinga Bodhi tree. Asoka convened the 5. Consideration and non-violence
in 261 B.C. The main cause of Third Buddhist Council at to animals and courtesy to relations
Kalinga conquest of Ashoka was Pataliputra in 240 B.C. in order to and liberality to Brahmins.
the location of Kalinga, as it strengthen the Sangha. It was
controlled both the land and the sea presided over by Moggaliputta 6. Tolerance among all the religious
routes to South India, which could Tissa. sects.
facilitate the Mauryan trade. The 7. Conquest through Dhamma
effects of the war were described
Extent of Asoka’s Empire
instead of through war. The concept
by Asoka himself in the Rock Edict Asoka’s inscriptions mention the of non-violence and other similar
XIII: “A hundred and fifty thousand southernmost kingdoms – Cholas, ideas of Asoka’s Dhamma are
were killed and many times that Pandyas, Satyaputras and identical with the teachings of
number perished…” After the war Keralaputras – as border-states. Buddha. But he did not equate
he annexed Kalinga to the Mauryan Therefore, these states remained Dhamma with Buddhist teachings.
Empire. Another most important outside the Mauryan Empire. Buddhism remained his personal
effect of the Kalinga war was that According to Rajatarangini, belief. His Dhamma signifies a
Asoka stantch Buddhist and under Kashmir was a part of the Mauryan

Prelims Magic 2014 83

general code of conduct. Asoka Mauryan king was Brihatratha, who organized and it was under the
wished that his Dhamma should was assassinated by Pushyamitra control of Senapati. The salaries
spread through all social levels. Sunga. were paid in cash. Kautilya refers
Mauryan Administration to the salaries of different ranks of
How was this topic asked in the CSE? military officers. According to Greek
Q. Assertion (A): According to Central Government author, Pliny, the Mauryan army
consisted of six lakh infantry, thirty
H Asoka’s edicts social harmony
among the people was more
important than religious devotion.
The ascendancy of the Mauryas had
resulted in the triumph of monarchy
in India. Other systems like republics
thousand cavalry, nine thousand
elephants and eight thousand
chariots. In addition to these four
I Reason (R): He spread ideas of
equity instead of promotion of
and oligarchies that were prevalent
in the pre-Mauryan India had
collapsed. Although Kautilya the
wings, there were the Navy and
Transport and Supply wings. Each
wing was under the control of
S (a) Both A and R are true and R
is the correct explanation of A
foremost political theorist of ancient
India supported the monarchial form
of government, he did not stand for
Adyakshas or Superintendents.
Megasthenes mentions six boards
(b) Both A and R are true but R is of five members each to control the
T not a correct explanation of A
(c) A is true both R is false
royal absolutism. He advocated that
the king should take the advice of
his ministry in running the
six wings of the military.
Department of Commerce
(d) A is false but R is true
O Ans. (a) (CSE, 1998) administration. Therefore, a council
of ministers called Mantriparishad
assisted the king in administrative
and Industry
This department had controlled the
Estimate of Asoka retail and wholesale prices of goods
R According to H.G. Wells “Amidst
the tens and thousands of names of
matters. It consisted of Purohita,
Mahamantri, Senapati and Yuvaraja.
There were civil servants called
and tried to ensure their steady
supply through its officers called
monarchs that crowd the columns Adyakshas. It also controlled
Y of history, the name of Asoka shines
and shines almost alone, a star”.
Amatyas to look after the day-to-
day administration. These officers
were similar to the IAS officers of
weights and measures, levied
custom duties and regulated foreign
Asoka was true to his ideals. He independent India. The method of trade.
was “the greatest of kings”, selection of Amatyas was
surpassing Alexander the Great and
Judicial and Police Departments
elaborately given by Kautilya.
Julius Caesar and other renowned Asoka appointed Dhamma Kautilya mentions the existence of
Emperors of the world. He was not Mahamatras to supervise the spread both civil and criminal courts. The
a dreamer but a man of practical of Dhamma. Thus the Mauryan Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
wisdom. His Dhamma is so at the capital was called
state had a well organized civil
universal that it appeals to humanity Dharmathikarin. There were also
even today. He was an example in subordinate courts at the provincial
history for his benevolent Revenue Department capitals and districts under
administration and also for following Amatyas. Different kinds of
the policy of non-aggression even Samharta, the chief of the Revenue
Department, was in charge of the punishment such as fines,
after his victory in the war. His imprisonment, mutilation and death
central ideal was to promote the collection of all revenues of the
empire. The revenues came from were given to the offenders. Torture
welfare of humanity. was employed to extract truth.
land, irrigation, customs, shop tax,
Later Mauryas ferry tax, forests, mines and Police stations were found in all
pastures, license fee from principal centres. Both Kautilya and
Asoka’s death in 232 B.C. was Asokan Edicts mention about jails
followed by the division of the craftsmen, and fines collected in the
law courts. The land revenue was and jail officials. The Dhamma
Mauryan Empire into two parts – Mahamatras were asked by Asoka
western and eastern. The western normally fixed as one sixth of the
produce. The main items of to take steps against unjust
part was ruled by Kunala, son of imprisonment. Remission of
Asoka, and the eastern part by expenditure of the state related to
king and his household, army, sentences is also mentioned in
Dasaratha, one of the grand sons Asoka’s inscriptions.
of Asoka. Due to the Bactrian government servants, public works,
invasions, the western part of the poor relief, religion, etc. Census
empire collapsed. The eastern part Army The taking of Census was regular
was intact under Samprati,
The Mauryan army was well during the Mauryan period. The
successor of Dasaratha. The last

84 Prelims Magic 2014

village officials were to number the stone started from the time of pillar with four lions standing back
people along with other details like Asoka. Even of the numerous to back is the most magnificent.
their caste and occupation. They monuments of Asoka, only a few The Indian government adopted this
were also to count the animals in have remained. His palace and capital with some modifications as
each house. The census in the monasteries and most of his stupas its state emblem.
towns was taken by municipal have disappeared. The only
officials to track the movement of Stupas
population both foreign and
indigenous. The data collected were
remaining stupa is at Sanchi. The
artistic remains of the Mauryan
period can be seen in the following
Asoka built a number of stupas
throughout his empire but majority
cross checked by the spies. The
Census appears to have been a
permanent institution in the Mauryan
The name of Asoka is explicitly
of them were destroyed during
foreign invasions. Only a few have
survived. The best example is the
administration. mentioned in three recensions of the
Provincial and Local
first Minor Rock Edict (at Maski,
Gurjarra and Nittur) and two
famous Sanchi stupa with massive
dimensions. It was originally built
with bricks but later enlarged after
versions of the second minor rock
The Mauryan Empire was divided
into four provinces with their capitals
edicts (at Nittur and Udegolam).
the time of Asoka.
at Taxila, Ujjain, Suvarnagiri and How was this topic asked in the CSE?
Kalinga. The provincial governors
were mostly appointed from the
Q. Which one of the following
The caves presented to the Ajivikas
by Asoka and his son Dasaratha O
statements regarding Asokan remain important heritage of the
members of royal family. They were
responsible the maintenance of law
and order and collection of taxes.
stone pillars is incorrect?
(a) These are highly polished
Mauryas. Their interior walls are
polished like mirror. These were
(b) These are monolithic meant to be residences of monks.
The district administration was
under the charge of Rajukas, whose
position and functions are similar to
(c) The shaft of pillars is tapering
in shape
The caves at Barabar hills near
Bodh Gaya are wonderful pieces of
(d) These are parts of architectural Mauryan architecture.
modern collectors. They was
assisted by Yuktas or subordinate DISINTEGRATION OF THE
officials. Village administration was Ans. (d) (CSE, 1997)
in the hands of Gramani and his
official superior was called Gopa Q. Which one of the following The vast empire carved by Ashoka
who was in charge of ten or fifteen edicts mentions the personal name in the second century BC seems to
villages. of Asoka? have weakened after his death.
(a) Kalsi Scholars observe different reasons
Both Kautilya and Megasthanes (b) Rummindei
provided the system of Municipal for the downfall and disintegration
(c) Special Kalinga Edict
administration. Arthasastra of this powerful empire.
(d) Maski
contains a full chapter on the role Ans. (d) (CSE, 1997) Weak successors- Ashoka died in
of Nagarika or city superintendent. 232 BC and was followed by several
His chief duty was to maintain law rulers such as Kunala, Dasharatha,
and order. Megasthenes refers to Samprati, Salishuka, Devavaram,
the six committees of five members The pillars erected by Asoka furnish Satadhanvan, and Brihadratha.
each to look after the administration the finest specimen of the Mauryan They ruled too briefly to sustain a
of Pataliputra. These committees art. Asokan pillars with inscriptions vast empire
looked after: 1. Industries 2. were found in places like Delhi,
Foreigners 3. Registration of births Allahabad, Rummindei, Sanchi and Brahmanical Revolt- Ashoka
and deaths 4. Trade 5. Manufacture Saranath. Asokan stone pillars are followed a tolerant policy towards
and sale of goods 6. Collection of not the part of architectural all the sects and was an ardent
sales tax. structures but it was meant to follower of Buddhism. His
spread Asokan Dhamma. They propagation of Dhamma ideals
Mauryan Art and Architecture amongst the masses reduced the
were independently erected with
The monuments before the period Asokan Edict. Their tops were significance of the Brahmanas.
of Asoka were mostly made of wood crowned with figures of animals like They lost their exclusive position as
and therefore perished. The use of lion, elephant and bull. The Saranath the highest class. The brahmanical

Prelims Magic 2014 85

reaction is evident in the murder of up of the army and its officers also for 45 years. The last ruler of Kanva
Brihadratha by Pushyamitra Sunga needed a huge expenditure on the dynasty Susharma was killed by
who established the Sunga dynasty part of the government. The grants Andhra Simuk who established
after the Mauryas. The Sungas and and donations to various Buddhist Satvahana dynasty. After the fall of
Kanvas were both Brahmins and monks and other religions put a the Kanvas, the history of Magatha
revolted in order to establish financial burden on the central was a blank until the establishment
of the Gupta dynasty. The rule of
H Brahmanical supremacy.
Financial Crisis- The huge
All these factors aggravated the
the Sungas was important because
they defended the Gangetic valley
expenditure on the elaborate downfall of the Empire with the from foreign invasions. In the
I bureaucratic set up of the Mauryas
drained the central treasury over a
death of Ashoka, the weak
successors could not keep up the
cultural sphere, the Sungas revived
Brahmanism and horse sacrifice.
time. The propagation of the elaborate bureaucracy to maintain They also promoted the growth of
S Dhamma ideals also required a vast
network of officers. The huge set
such as vast empire and this led to
its downfall and disintegration.
Vaishnavism and the Sanskrit
language. In short, the Sunga rule
was a brilliant anticipation of the
T golden age of the Guptas.
O The disintegration of the Mauryan
Empire in the second century BC How was this topic asked in the CSE?
The Satavahanas ruled over parts
of western India and the Deccan
(c. second century BC-second
R led to the establishment of several
new dynasties on its ruins. The
Sunga and Kanva dynasty ruled the
Q. Consider the following
1. The last Mauryan ruler,
century CE). They are known as
Andhras. The dynasty ruled from
Junnar (Pune) Prathisthan (Paithan)
Y Gangetic plains and Malas region.
Several non Indian dynasties such
as Indo-Greeks, Indo-Parthians,
Brihadratha was assassinated by
his commander-in-chief,
Pushyamitra Sunga
in Maharashtra and Kotilingala
(Karimnagar) in Andhra Pradesh
Kushans and Sakas came to rule over Southern and Central India
2. The last Sunga king, Devabhuti
entire north India. The Deccan was from around 230 BC onward.
was assassinated by his Brahmana
under the authority of the Satvahana Simuka was the founder of this
Minister Vasudeva Kanva who
dynasty who carved out a vast dynasty.The Puranas and
usurped the throne
empire in the regions of Andhra, inscriptions remain important
3. The last ruler of the Kanva
Maharashtra, Karnataka and sources for the history of
dynasty was deposed by the
portions of northern Tamilnadu. Satavahanas. Among the
inscriptions, the Nasik and
Sungas Which of these statements is/are
Nanaghad inscriptions throw much
correct ?
Pushyamitra Sunga-the founder of light on the reign of Gautamiputra
(a) 1 and 2 (b) Only 2
the Sunga dynasty, was the Satakarni. The coins issued by the
(c) Only 3 (d) 1, 2 and 3
Commander-in-Chief under the Satavahanas are also helpful in
Mauryas. He assassinated the last Ans. (d) (CSE, 2003) knowing the economic conditions of
Mauryan ruler, Brihadrath, and that period. The founder of the
usurped the throne. The most sacrifices. Buddhist sources refer Satavahana dynasty was Simuka.
important challenge to the Sunga him as a persecutor of Buddhism. He was succeeded by Krishna, who
rule was to protect North India But there is enough evidence to extended the kingdom up to Nasik
against the invasions of the Bactrian show that Pushyamitra patronised in the west. The third king was Sri
Greeks from the northwest. The Buddhist art. During his reign the Satakarni. He conquered western
Greeks advanced up to Pataliputra Buddhist monuments at Bharhut and Malwa and Berar. He also
and occupied it for sometime. Sanchi were renovated and further performed asvamedha sacrifices.
However, Pushyamitra succeeded improved. After the death of The seventeenth king of the
in regaining the lost territory. He Pushyamitra, his son, Agnimitra, Satavahana dynasty was Hala. He
also fought a campaign against became the ruler. The last Sunga reigned for a period of five years.
Kharavela of Kalinga who invaded ruler was Devabhuti, who was Hala became famous for his book
north India. Pushyamitra was a murdered by his minister, Vasudeva Gathasaptasati, also called Sattasai.
staunch follower of Brahmanism. Kanva, the founder of the Kanva It contains 700 verses in Prakrit
He performed two asvamedha dynasty. The Kanva dynasty ruled language.

86 Prelims Magic 2014

The greatest ruler of the Satavahana Foreign Invasions of more than a century after the death
dynasty was Gautamiputra Sata- Northwest India Menander.
karni. He ruled for a period of 24
Bactrians Sakas
years from 106 to 130 A.D. His
achievements were recorded in the Bactria and Parthia became The Sakas or the Scythians attacked
Nasik inscription by his mother independent from the Syrian Bactria and Parthia and captured
Gautami Balasri. Gautamiputra empire in the middle of the third them from the Greek rulers.
Satakarni captured the whole of
Deccan and expanded his empire.
century B.C. Demetrius, the
Greek ruler of Bactria invaded
Following the footsteps of the
Greeks, the Sakas gradually
His victory over Nagapana, the ruler Afghanistan and Punjab and extended their rule over
of Malwa was remarkable. He
patronized Brahmanism. Yet, he
occupied them. From Taxila, he
sent two of his commanders,
northwestern India. There were
two different groups of Sakas – the
also gave donations to Buddhists. Appolodotus and Menander for Northern Satraps ruling from Taxila
Gautamiputra Satakarni was
succeeded by his son Vashishta-
further conquests. Appolodotus
conquered the Sindh and marched
and the Western satraps ruling over
Maharashtra. The founder the Saka
putra Pulamayi. He extended the up to Ujjain. Menander extended rule in India in the first century B.C.
Satavahana power up to the mouth
of the Krishna river. He issued coins
his rule up to Mathura and from
there he made attempts to capture
was Maues. His son and successor
was Azes I, who was considered to
on which the image of ships was Pataliputra. But he was stopped by be the founder of the Vikrama era.
inscribed. They reveal the naval
power and maritime trade of the
the army of Vasumitra, the
grandson of Pushyamitra Sunga.
Saka rulers of Taxila were
overthrown by the Parthians.
Satavahanas. The last great ruler of Menander was also known as
Satavahanas was Yajna Sri
Milinda and the capital of his
kingdom was Sakala (Sialcot). He
The Kushanas were a branch of
evinced much interest in Buddhism Yuchi tribe, whose original home
Economic Condition
Silver coins called ‘Karshapanas’
and his dialogues with the Buddhist
monk, Nagasena, was compiled in
was Central Asia. They first came
to Bactria displacing the Sakas.
were used for trade. The the Pali work, Milindapanho Then they gradually moved to the
Satavahana period also witnessed (Questions of Milinda). He also Kabul valley and seized the
overseas commercial activity. embraced Buddhism. A Greek Gandhara region. The founder of the
Ptolemy mentions many ports in the ambassador, Heliodorus, became a Kushana dynasty was Kujula
Deccan. The greatest port of the Vaishnavite and erected the Kadphises or Kadphises I. He
Satavahanas was Kalyani on the Garuda Pillar at Besnagar. The occupied the Kabul valley and
west Deccan. Gandakasela and Greek influence in India lasted for issued coins in his name. His son
Ganjam on the east coast were the Wima Kadphises or Kadphises II
other important seaports. How was this topic asked in the CSE? conquered the whole of north-
western India as far as Mathura.
Cultural Contributions Q. Milindapanho is in the form of
He issued gold coins with high-
a dialogue between the king
The Satavahanas patronized sounding titles like the ‘Lord of the
Menander and Buddhist monk:
Buddhism and Brahmanism. They Whole World’. He was a devotee
(a) Nagasena (b) Nagarjuna
built chaityas and viharas. They also of Lord Siva.
(c) Nagabhatta (d) Kumarilabhatta
made grants of villages and lands to
Buddhist monks. Vashishtaputra
Ans. (a) (CSE, 1997) Kanishka (78 – 120 A.D.)
Pulamayi repaired the old Kanishka was the most important
Q. Who among the following was
Amaravathi stupa. Their ruler of the Kushana dynasty. He
not a contemporary of the other
architecture in Nagarjunakonda was was the founder of the Saka era
also notable. Brahmanism was which starts from 78 A.D. He was
(a) Bimbsara
revived by the Satavahanas along not only a great conqueror but also
(b) Gautama Buddha
with the performance of asvamedha a patron of religion and art.
(c) Milinda
and rajasuya sacrifices. They also
patronized the Prakrit language and
(d) Prasenjit Kanishka’s Conquests
Ans. (c) (CSE, 2005)
literature. Hala’s Sattasai is an At the time of his accession his
excellent piece of Prakrit literature. Explanation : Except Milicnda all empire included Afghanistan,
are related with Pre-Maury a Gandhara, Sind and Punjab.
times. Milianda existed post Subsequently, he conquered
Maurya period.

Prelims Magic 2014 87

Magadha and extended his power matters relating to Buddhist of art is the territory in and around
as far as Pataliputra and Bodh theology and doctrine. It was held Peshawar in northwestern India. It
Gaya. According to Kalhana, at the Kundalavana monastery near is popularly known as Greco-
Kanishka invaded Kashmir and Srinagar in Kashmir under the Buddhist art. The Gandhara artist,
occupied it. His coins are found in presidentship of Vasumitra. About it is said, had the hand of a Greek
many places like Mathura, Sravasti, 500 monks attended the Council. but the head and heart of an Indian.
Kausambi and Benares and The Council prepared an Although the process of production
H therefore, he must have conquered
the greater part of the Gangetic
authoritative commentary on the
Tripitakas and the Mahayana
and the manner of his using the
material was Hellenistic, the basic
plain. He also fought against the doctrine was given final shape. urge, imagery and iconography
I Chinese and acquired some
territories from them. During the
Asvagosha was a great philosopher,
poet and dramatist. He was the
remained Indian. The best of the
Gandhara sculpture was produced
first expedition he was defeated by author of Buddhacharita. during the first and second centuries
S the Chinese general, Pancho. He
undertook a second expedition in
Nagarjuna from south India
adorned the court of Kanishka.
A.D. Gandhara sculptures
invariably used green schiest as the
which he was successful and he The famous physician of ancient medium. There sculptures were
T scored a victory over Panyang, the
son of Pancho. Kanishka annexed
India, Charaka, was also patronized
by him.
invariably influenced by Greek
sculpture. It originated during the
the territories of Kashgar, Yarkand reign of Indo-Greek rulers but the
O and Khotan into his empire. The
empire of Kanishka was a vast one
Many of the Greeks, Kushanas and
Shakas embraced Buddhism rather
than Hinduism because the caste
real patrons of this school of art
were the Sakas and the Kushanas,
extending from Gandhara in the particularly Kanishka. Gandhara art
R west to Benares in the east, and
from Kashmir in the north to Malwa
ridden Hinduism did not attract
them. Those who embraced
Hinduism were not given very
was a blend of Indian and Graeco-
Roman\ Hellenistic elements.
in the south. His capital was Specimens of Gandhara sculpture
Y Purushapura or modern day
Peshawar. Mathura was another
respectable position in Hindu fold.
How was this topic asked in the CSE?
have been found in Taxila,
Peshawar and in several places of
important city in his empire. northwest India. The Gandhara
Q. Who among the following school made sculptures of the
Kanishka and Buddhism presided over the Buddhist Council Buddha in various sizes, shapes and
Kanishka embraced Buddhism in held during the regin of,Kanishka postures. The reliefs depict
the early part of his reign. However, at Kashmir ? Buddha’s birth, his renunciation and
his coins exhibit the images of not (a) Pars va
(b) Nagarjuna How was this topic asked in the CSE?
only Buddha but also Greek and
Hindu gods. It reflects Kanishka’s (c) Sudraka Q. Which one of the following
toleration towards other religions. In (d) Vasumitra sculptures was invariably used
the age of Kanishka, the Mahayana Ans. (d) (CSE, 2001) green schiest as the medium?
Buddhism came into vogue. It is (a) Maurya sculptures
different in many respects from the How was this topic asked in the CSE? (b) Mathura sculptures
religion taught by the Buddha and (c) Bharhut sculptures
propagated by Asoka. The Buddha Q. Many of the Greeks, Kushanas (d) Gandhara sculptures
came to be worshipped with and Shakas embraced Buddhism Ans. (d) (CSE, 1996)
flowers, garments, perfumes and rather than Hinduism because:
lamps. Thus image worship and (a) Buddhism was in the ascendant Q. Assertion (A): The Gandhara
rituals developed in Mahayana at that time School of Art bears the mark of
Buddhism. (b) they had renounced the policy Hellenistic influence.
of war and violence Reason (R): Formic acid is an
Kanishka also sent missionaries to (c) caste-ridden Hinduism did not
Central Asia and China for the organic acid.
attract them (a) Both A and R are true and R
propagation of the new faith. (d) Buddhism provided easier
Buddhist chaityas and viharas were is the correct explanation of A
access to Indian society (b) Both A and R are true but R is
built in different places. He Ans. (c) (CSE, 1998)
patronised Buddhist scholars like not a correct explanation of A
Vasumitra, Asvagosha and (c) A is true both R is false
Nagarjuna. He also convened the
Gandhara Art (d) A is false but R is true
Fourth Buddhist Council to discuss The home of the Gandhara School Ans. (c) (CSE, 1998)

88 Prelims Magic 2014

his preaching. The salient features changes made the stupa more the empire intact. Mathura became
of Gandhara art are: attractive. an important city under his rule. Like
Kanishka, he was also a patron of
Moulding human body in a realistic Mathura School of Art: The Buddhism. The last important
manner with minute attention to school of art that developed at Kushana ruler was Vasudeva. The
physical features like muscles, Mathura in modern Uttar Pradesh Kushana empire was very much
moustache and curly hair.Thick is called the Mathura art. It reduced in his rule. Most of his
flourished in the first century A.D.
drapery with large and bold fold
lines.Rich carving, elaborate
ornamentation and symbolic
In its early phase, the Mathura
school of art developed on
inscriptions are found in and around
Mathura. He seems to have been a
worshipper of Siva. After Vasudeva,
indigenous lines. The Buddha
The main theme was the new form
images exhibit the spiritual feeling
in his face which was largely absent
petty Kushan princes ruled for
sometime in northwestern India. I
of Buddhism – Mahayanism and the in the Gandhara school. The
evolution of an image of Buddha.
A large number of monasteries
Mathura school also carved out the
images of Siva and Vishnu along
with their consorts Parvathi and
How was this topic asked in the CSE?
Q.With reference to the invaders
were also built from first to fourth
centuries A.D. Ruins of about
fifteen monasteries were found in
Lakshmi. The female figures of
yakshinis and apsaras of the
Mathura school were beautifully
in ancient India, which one of the
following is the correct
chronological order?
and around Peshawar and
Rawalpindi. The Buddhist stupas
erected during this period had
Graeco-Roman architectural
Successors of Kanishka and end
(a) Greeks-Sakas-Kushanas
(b) Greeks- KushanC\S-Sakas
(c) Sakas-Greeks-Kushanas
of Kushana Rule: The successors
impact. The height of the stupa was
raised and ornamentation was added
to the structure of the stupa. These
of Kanishka ruled for another one
hundred and fifty years. Huvishka
was the son of Kanishka and he kept
(d) Sakas-Kushanas-Greeks
Ans. (a) (CSE, 2001) R
kanakku, and the two epics – Y
SANGAM AGE Silappathigaram and Manime-
galai. Tolkappiyam authored by
The Sangam period is the earliest According to Tamil legends, there Tolkappiyar is the earliest of the
historical period in the history of existed three Sangams (Academy Tamil literature. It is a work on
South India, spanning about the 3rd of Tamil poets’) in ancient Tamil grammar but it provides
century BC to the 3rd century AD. Tamilnadu popularly called information on the political and
It is named for the Tamil Sangams Muchchangam. These Sangams socio-economic conditions of the
or “assemblies”. Approximately flourished under the royal patronage Sangam period. The Ettutogai or
during the period between 350 BC of the Pandyas. The first Sangam, Eight Anthologies consist of eight
to 200 AD, Tamilakam was ruled held at Then Madurai, was attended works–Aingurunooru, Natrinai,
by the three Tamil dynasties of by Gods and legendary sages but Aganaooru,Purananooru,
Chola, Chera and Pandya, and a no literary work of this Sangam was Kuruntogai,Kalittogai,
few independent chieftains, the available. The second Sangam was Paripadal and Padirruppattu.
Velir. The three early dynasties held at Kapadapuram but the all the The Pathuppattu or Ten Idylls
were known as Muvendar. The literary works had perished except consist of ten works –
main source for the period is the bulk Tolkappiyam. The third Sangam at Thirumurugartruppadai,
of the Sangam Literature. The Madurai was founded by Porunaratruppadai, Sirupana-
Tamil Sangam, an association of Mudathirumaran. It was attended rtruppadai,Perumpanar-
Tamil poets, which flourished in by a large number of poets who
ancient Tamilnadu. These Tamil truppadai,Mullaippattu,
produced voluminous literature but Nedunalvadai, Maduraikkanji,
poets had composed the Sangam only a few had survived. These
literature. The period in which these Kurinjippatttu, Pattinappalai and
Tamil literary works remain useful Malaipadu-kadam. Both Ettuto-
literatures were composed is called sources to reconstruct the history
the Sangam Age. The first mention gai and Pathuppattu were divided
of the Sangam Age. into two main groups – Aham (love)
of the Tamils comes from
Megasthenes and the Ashokan Sangam Literature and Puram (valour). Pathinenkil-
inscrioption 2nd and 12th mentions kanakku contains eighteen works
The corpus of Sangam literature mostly dealing with ethics and
the southern kingdoms of Cheras,
includes Tolkappiyam, Ettutogai, morals. The most important among
Keralaputras, Satyaputras and
Pathuppattu, Pathinenkil-

Prelims Magic 2014 89

them is Tirukkural authored by Himalayan expedition. The Siva is represented in a greater
Thiruvalluvar. Silappathigaram consecration ceremony was varity of dancing poses than
written by Elango Adigal and attended by many princes including anywhere else in India. Examlpes
Manimegalai by Sittalai Sattanar Gajabhagu II from Sri Lanka. of the poses are Dakshinamurti,
also provide valuable information Bhikasatana, Kankalamurti and
Cholas Gajasamhara.
about the Sangam polity and society.
The Chola kingdom of the Sangam
H Other Sources
In addition to the Sangam literature,
period extended from modern
Tiruchi district to southern Andhra
How was this topic asked in the CSE?
Q. Bronze icons of Nataraja cast
the Greek authors like Pradesh. Their capital was first
I Megasthenes, Strabo, Pliny and
Ptolemy mention the commercial
located at Uraiyur and then shifted
to Puhar. Karikala was a famous
during the Chola period invariably
show the deity with:
(a) eight hands
contacts between the West and king of the Sangam Cholas.
S South India. The Asokan
inscriptions mention the Chera,
Pattinappalai portrays his early life
and his military conquests. In the
(b) six hands
(c) four hands
(d) two hands
Chola and Pandya rulers in the south Battle of Venni he defeated the
T of the Mauryan Empire. The
Hathikumha inscription of
mighty confederacy consisting of
the Cheras, Pandyas and eleven
Ans. (c)
(CSE, 1995)

Kharavela of Kalinga also mentions minor chieftains. This event is

O about Tamil kingdoms. The
excavations at Arikkamedu,
mentioned in many Sangam poems.
Vaihaipparandalai was another
The Pandyas ruled over the present
day southern Tamilnadu. Their
capital was Madurai. The earliest
Poompuhar, Kodumanal and other important battle fought by him in
R places reveal the overseas
commercial activities of the Tamils.
which nine enemy chieftains
submitted before him. Karikala’s
kings of the Pandyan dynasty were
Nediyon, Palyagasalai Mudukudumi
Peruvaludhi and Mudathirumaran.
military achievements made him the
Y Political History
overlord of the whole Tamil
country. Trade and commerce
There were two Neduncheliyans.
The first one was known as
flourished during his reign period. Aryappadai Kadantha Nedun-
The Cheras ruled over parts of He was responsible for the cheliyan (one who won victories
modern Kerala. Their capital was reclamation of forest lands and over the Aryan forces). He was
Vanji and their important seaports brought them under cultivation thus responsible for the execution of
were Tondi and Musiri. They had adding prosperity to the people. He Kovalan for which Kannagi burnt
the palmyra flowers as their also built the Kallanai across the Madurai. The other was
garland. The Pugalur inscription of river Kaveri and also constructed Talaiyalanganattu Cheruvenra (He
the first century A.D refers to three many irrigation tanks. who won the battle at Talaiya-
generations of Chera rulers. langanam) Neduncheliyan. He was
The Chola: Art and Architecture
Padirruppattu also provides praised by Nakkirar and Mangudi
information on Chera kings. Perum The Cholamandalam is the
Maruthanar. He wore this title after
Sorru Udhiyan Cheralathan, traditional sphere of the Cholas.
Here, beginning from the fourth defeating his enemies at the Battle
Imayavaramban Nedum
quarter of the 9th century AD to the of Talaiyalanganam, which is
Cheralathan and Cheran
end of the 10 th century a large located in the Tanjore district. By
Senguttuvan were the famous
number of temples were built. this victory Nedun-cheliyan gained
rulers of this dynasty. Cheran
Senguttuvan belonged to 2nd control over the entire Tamilnadu.
The Chola Architecture reached its Maduraikkanji written by
century A.D. His younger brother epitome under Parantaka-I. Chola
was Elango Adigal, the author of Mangudi Maruthanar describes the
temples are modest in scale and
Silappathigaram. Among his simple in plan. socio-economic condition of the
military achievements, his Pandya country including the
All the principal images of the flourishing seaport of Korkai. The
expedition to the Himalayas was
Brahaminical pantheon are last famous Pandyan king was
remarkable. He defeated many
represented in South India during Uggira Peruvaludhi. The Pandyan
north Indian monarchs. the Chola period. The images of
Senguttuvan introduced the Pathini rule during the Sangam Age began
Nataraja, the dancing Shiva with
cult or the worship of Kannagi as to decline due to the invasion of the
four armsd are the finest. The
the ideal wife in Tamilnadu. The earliest Nataraja in bronze is found Kalabhras.
stone for making the idol of Kannagi in the Siva temple at Nallur, Tanjore
was brought by him after his district.

90 Prelims Magic 2014

Minor Chieftains Sangam Society Religion
The minor chieftains played a Tolkappiyam refers to the five-fold The primary deity of the Sangam
significant role in the Sangam period. division of lands – Kurinji (hilly period was Seyon or Murugan, who
Among them Pari, Kari, Ori, Nalli, tracks), Mullai (pastoral), Marudam is hailed as Tamil God. The worship
Pegan, Ay and Adiyaman were (agricultural), Neydal (coastal) and of Murugan was having an ancient
popular for their philanthropy and Palai (desert). The people living in origin and the festivals relating to
patronage of Tamil poets.
Therefore, they were known as
these five divisions had their
respective chief occupations as well
God Murugan was mentioned in the
Sangam literature. He was H
“Kadai Yelu Vallalgal”. Although as gods for worship. honoured with six abodes known as
they were subordinate to the Chera,
Chola and Pandya rulers, they were
• Kurinji – chief deity was Murugan
– chief occupation, hunting and
Arupadai Veedu. Other Gods
worshipped during the Sangam I
powerful and popular in their period were Mayon (Vishnu),
honey collection.
respective regions.
Sangam Polity
• Mullai – chief deity Mayon
(Vishnu) – chief occupation, cattle-
Vendan (Indiran), Varunan and
Korravai. The Hero Stone or Nadu S
Kal worship was significant in the
Hereditary monarchy was the form
of government during the Sangam
rearing and dealing with dairy
Sangam period. The Hero Stone
was erected in memory of the T
period. The king had also taken the • Marudam – chief deity Indira – bravery shown by the warrior in
advice of his minister, court-poet and
the imperial court or avai. The
chief occupation, agriculture.
• Neydal – chief deity Varunan –
battle. Many hero stones with
legends inscribed on them were O
Chera kings assumed titles like found in different parts of
‘ Va na va r a mb a n ’ , ’ Va na va n’ ,
‘Kuttuvan’, ‘Irumporai’ and
chief occupation fishing and salt
Tamilnadu. This kind of worshipping
the deceased has a great antiquity. R
‘Villavar ’, the Chola kings like • Palai – chief deity Korravai – Position of Women
‘Senni’, ‘Valavan’ and ‘Killi’ and the
Pandya kings, Thennavar and
chief occupation robbery.
• Manigrama- a Corporation of
There is plenty of information in the Y
‘Minavar’. Each of the Sangam Sangam literature to trace the
dynasties had a royal emblem – car merchants in ancient India. position of women during the
for the Pandyas, tiger for the Cholas Tolkappiyam also refers to four Sangam age. Women poets like
and bow for the Cheras. The castes namely arasar, anthanar, Avvaiyar, Nachchellaiyar, and
imperial court or avai was attended vanigar and vellalar. The ruling class Kakkaipadiniyar flourished in this
by a number of chiefs and officials. was called arasar. Anthanars played period and contributed to Tamil
The king was assisted by a large a significant role in the Sangam polity literature. The courage of women
body of officials who were divided and religion. Vanigars carried on was also appreciated in many
into five councils. They were trade and commerce. The vellalas poems. Karpu or Chaste life was
ministers (amaichar), priests were agriculturists. Other tribal considered the highest virtue of
(anthanar), military commanders groups like Parathavar, Panar, women. Love marriage was a
(senapathi), envoys (thuthar) and Eyinar, Kadambar, Maravar and common practice. Women were
spies (orrar). The military Pulaiyar were also found in the allowed to choose their life
administration was also efficiently Sangam society. Ancient primitive partners.However, the life of
organized during the Sangam Age. tribes like Thodas, Irulas, Nagas and widows was miserable. The
Each ruler had a regular army and Vedars lived in this period. practice of Sati was also prevalent
their respective Kodimaram in the higher strata of society. The
(tutelary tree). Land revenue was How was this topic asked in the CSE? class of dancers was patronized by
the chief source of state’s income the kings and nobles.
while custom duty was also Q. Which one of the following was
imposed on foreign trade. The a corporation of merchants in Fine Arts
Pattinappalai refers to the custom ancient India? Poetry, music and dancing were
officials employed in the seaport of (a) Chaturvedimangalam popular among the people of the
Puhar. Booty captured in wars was (b) Parishad Sangam age. Liberal donations
also a major income to the royal (c) Ashtadikgaja were given to poets by the kings,
treasury. Roads and highways were (d) Manigrama chieftains and nobles. The royal
well maintained and guarded night Ans. (d) (CSE, 1997) courts were crowded with singing
and day to prevent robbery and bards called Panar and Viraliyar.

Prelims Magic 2014 91

They were experts in folk songs and The poems mention the cotton of gold and silver coins issued by
folk dances. The arts of music and clothes as thin as a cloud of steam the Roman Emperors like Augustus,
dancing were highly developed. A or a slough of a snake. There was Tiberius and Nero were found in all
variety of Yazhs and drums are a great demand in the western parts of Tamil Nadu. They reveal
referred to in the Sangam literature. world for the cotton clothes woven the extent of the trade and the
Dancing was performed by at Uraiyur. Both internal and foreign presence of Roman traders in the
Kanigaiyar. Koothu was the most
H popular entertainment of the people.
trade was well organized and briskly
carried on in the Sangam Age. The
Sangam literature, Greek and
Tamil country. The main exports of
the Sangam age were cotton fabrics,
spices like pepper, ginger,
Economy of the Sangam Age
I Agriculture was the chief
occupation. Rice was the common
Roman accounts and the
archaeological evidences provide
detailed information on this subject.
cardamom, cinnamon and turmeric,
ivory products, pearls and precious
stones. Gold, horses and sweet wine
crop. Ragi, sugarcane, cotton,
S pepper, ginger, turmeric, cinnamon
and a variety of fruits were the other
Merchants carried the goods on the
carts and on animal-back from
place to place. Internal trade was
were the chief imports.
End of the Sangam Age
crops. Jack fruit and pepper were
T famous in the Chera country. Paddy
was the chief crop in the Chola and
mostly based on the barter system.
External trade was carried between
South India and the Greek
Towards the end of the third century
A.D., the Sangam period slowly
witnessed its decline. The
Pandya country. The handicrafts of
O the Sangam period were popular.
They include weaving, metal works
kingdoms. After the ascendancy of
the Roman Empire, the Roman
trade assumed importance. The port
Kalabhras occupied the Tamil
country for about two and a half
centuries. Jainism and Buddhism
and carpentry, ship building and
R making of ornaments using beads,
stones and ivory. There was a great
city of Puhar became an emporium
of foreign trade, as big ships entered
this port with precious goods. Other
became prominent during this
period. The Pallavas in the northern
Tamil Nadu and Pandyas in
demand for these products, as the
Y internal and external trade was at
its peak during the Sangam period.
ports of commercial activity include
Tondi, Musiri, Korkai, Arikkamedu
and Marakkanam. The author of
southern Tamil Nadu drove the
Kalabhras out of the Tamil country
and established their rule.
Spinning and weaving of cotton and Periplus provides the most valuable
silk clothes attained a high quality. information on foreign trade. Plenty
scholar Herman Jacobi who
8 JAINISM AND BUDDHISM translated some Jain literature and
published it in the series ‘Sacred
JAINISM AND BUDDHISM Books of the East’ in 1884.
a supreme being by absolving his
soul of all karma and who has Life of Mahaveer:
The sixth century B.C. is considered
attained NIRVANA the supreme
a wonderful century in history. Mahaveer, born in 599 B.C., into
state of existence. A follower of JIN
Great thinkers like Buddha, the royal family of King Siddharth
is termed Jain.
Mahavira, Heraclitus, Zoroaster, and Queen Trishala. His mother was
Confucius and Lao Tse lived and Mahaveer was the last (twenty- the sister of Lichchhavi chief
preached their ideas in this century. fourth) TEERTHANKAR. The Chetaka who was the ruler of
In India, the republican institutions lives of twenty four Vaisali . After his conception, the
were strong in the 6th century B.C. TEERTHANKARs is given in the wealth, prosperity and influence of
This enabled rise of heterodox sects great religious books like the family increased. So, his parents
against the orthodox religion ‘KALPASUTRA’. The first named him Vardhaman, the
dominated by rites and rituals. TEERTHANKAR was Risha- increaser of prosperity. Later, his
Among them the most successful bhanath. Parshvanath, who lived followers named him Mahaveer, the
were Jainism and Buddhism whose about 250 years before Mahaveer great hero. Although a born prince,
impact on the Indian society was was the twenty-third TEERTHA- Mahaveer showed indifference
remarkable. NKAR. Many modern historians towards worldly pleasures from his
recognize Parshvanath as a early age. At the age of thirty, he
Jainism historical personality. renounced the world, adopted the
The word ‘Jain’ is derived from the Mahaveer was a contemporary of lifestyle in harmony with nature and
Sanskrit word ‘JIN’ which means Gautama Buddha. The credit of remained engaged in meditation for
‘conqueror’ one who has conquered introducing Jainism to the West full twelve years. At the age of
his lower nature, who has become goes, surprising, to a German forty-two, he became an omniscient.

92 Prelims Magic 2014

He then preached his philosophy, 11. Sreyansanth, Magadha had violated those rules.
message of universal love and 12. Vasupujya Swami, The southerners began to be called
service to all living beings for the Digamber (the sky clad) and the
13. Vimalnath,
next thirty years. At the age of Magadhans Shvetambers (the
seventy-two, he attained salvation 14. Anantnath, white clad).
(NIRVANA) in 527 B.C. 15. Dharmanath,
Both sects affirm (or ahinsâ),
16. Santinath,
Mahaveer’s Teachings:
Mahaveer ’s first and foremost
asceticism karma, sanskar and jiva.
The differences between the two
sects are primarily minor and
teaching is non-violence and
universal compassion. This teaching
changed the very heart of people at
Munisuvarata Swami,
relatively obscure
Digambar – These Jain monks do
that time. The principle of non- 21. Nami Nath, not wear clothes because they
violence had visible effects on the
life of people. It had salutary effect
believe clothes, like other
possessions, increase dependency
on man’s diet. Those who came and desire for material things, and
under the influence of Mahaveer’s
personality and teachings gave up
24. Mahavir (Vardhaman).
The twenty-third tirthankara,
desire for anything ultimately leads
to sorrow. Digambars believe that
eating meat and fish, and adopted a named Parsvanatha, who lived 250 women cannot attain moksha in the
vegetarian diet. The principle of love
and compassion was also
years before Vardhamana
Mahavira was the son of King
same birth
Svetambar -Jain monks, on the
emphasized by Mahaveer. In his last Asvasena of Banaras. Mahavira is
sermon, when asked by one of his
disciples as to which principle was
regarded as the last 24 th
other hand, wear white, seamless
clothes for practical reasons, and
believe there is nothing in Jain
the most fundamental to his
teachings, Mahaveer replied: My
most important teaching is non-
How was this topic asked in the CSE?
Q. Consider the following
scripture that condemns wearing
clothes. Sadhvis (nuns) of both sects
wear white. In Sanskrit, ambar
violence. Do not hurt or kill any statements: refers to a covering generally, or a
living being by thought, word or 1. Vardhaman Mahavira’s mother garment in particular. Dig, an older
deed. Do not go to war. Do not kill was the daughter of Lichchhavi form of disha, refers to the cardinal
animals. Do not hunt or fish. Never chief Chetaka directions. Digambar therefore
kill even the smallest creature. Do 2. Gautama Buddha’s mother was means “covered by the four
not step on a worm. Even the worm a princess from the Koshalan directions”, or “sky-clad”. Svet
has a soul. dynasty means white and Svetambars wear
The 24 TIRTHANKARAS 3. Parshvanatha, the twenty-third white garments. Svetambars
Tirthankara, belonged to Banaras believe that women may attain
Rig Vedic hymns mention Rishabha liberation. Parsvanath allowed his
and Arishtanemi, two of the Jain Which of these statements is/are
correct? followers to wear white garments.
trithankaras. The Jainas believe
that their religious system is the (a) Only 1 The Jain Philosophy:
outcome of the teachings of the 24 (b) Only 2
(c) 2 and 3 According to Jain philosophy, a
tirthankaras, all Kshatriyas, worldly being has a soul living in a
coming one after the other. (d) 1, 2 and 3
material body. Life consists of
Ans. (c) (CSE, 2003) interactions between soul and its
1. Adinath (Rishabhnath),
SECTS environment. These interactions
2. Ajitnath,
involve extremely fine particles of
3. Sambhavanath, The two main sects of Jainism are matter called karmas and cause the
4. Abhinandan, Swami called Digambar and Svetambar . cycles of birth and rebirth. The
During the Magadh famine in the ultimate goal of each individual soul
5. Sumatinath,
reign of Chandragupta Maurya is to attain infinite perception,
6. Padmaprabhu, some Jain monks under Bhadrabahu infinite knowledge and infinite bliss,
7. Suprashvanath, migrated to Karnataka where they the intrinsic attributes of a pure soul
8. Chandraprabhu, lived in the traditional way strictly that is free from all external
9. Pushpadanta, observing the religious rules. They interactions. This ultimate goal is
alleged the ascetics living in called NIRVANA; deliverance
10. Sheetalnath,

Prelims Magic 2014 93

from the bondage of karmas and which cannot be perceived or a creator  deity. According  to  Jain
attainment of everlasting peace. known at once by any ordinary man. doctrine, the universe and its
This is achieved by practising Different people think about constituents - soul, matter, space,
physical and mental discipline, and different aspects of the same reality time, and principles of motion have
thereby getting rid of the and therefore their partial findings always existed (a static
undesirable karma particles. are contradictory to one another. universe similar  to  that
Hence they indulge in debates of Epicureanism and steady  state
H In Jainism, ahimsa is the standard
by which all actions are judged. For
a householder observing the small
claiming that each of them was
completely true. The Jaina
cosmological model). All the
constituents and actions are
philosophers thought over this governed by universal natural laws.
I vows (aGuvrata), the practice of
ahimsa requires that he not kill any
animal life, but for an ascetic
conflict and tried to reveal the whole
truth. They established the theory
It is not possible to create matter
out of nothing and hence the sum
of a Non-absolutist standpoint total of matter in the universe
S observing the great vows
(mahâvrata), ahimsa entails the
greatest care to prevent him from
Anekantavada with its two wings,
Nayavada and Syadvada. Proper
remains the same (similar to law
of conservation of mass). Similarly,
understanding of the coexistence of the soul of  each  living  being  is
T knowingly or unknowingly being the
cause of injury to any living
substance. Living matter (jiva)
mutually opposing groups through
these principles rescues one from
unique and uncreated and has
existed since beginning less time.
conflicts. Mutual co-operation is the
O includes not only human
beings and  animals  but  insects,
plants, and atoms as well, and the
Law of Nature.
Jainism does  not  support  belief  in
How was this topic asked in the CSE?
The Jain philosophy holds that the
world is created and maintained
R same law governs the entire
cosmos. The interruption of another
jiva’s spiritual progress increases
How was this topic asked in the CSE? by
(a) Universal Law
Q. Assertion (A): The emphasis (b) Universal Truth
Y one’s own karma and delays one’s
liberation from the cycle of rebirths.
Many common Jainist practices,
of Jainism on non-violence
(ahimsa) prevented agriculturalists
(c) Universal Faith
(d) Universal Soul
such as not eating or drinking after from embracing Jainism. Ans. (a) (CSE, 2011)
dark or the wearing of cloth mouth Reason (R): Cultivation involved
killing of insects and pests. Jainism believes in reincarnation.
covers (mukhavastrikâ) by monks, The soul never perishes. The body
are based on the principle of In the context of the above two
statements, which one of the is just the cover of soul. Other
ahimsa. cardinal principles of Jainism, taught
following is correct?
Jain philosophy is based on the (a) Both A and R are true and R by Mahaveer, include having
nature of reality, which is considered is the correct explanation of A
through non-absolutism (Anekanta- How was this topic asked in the CSE?
(b) Both A and R are true but R is
vada). According to this view, reality not the correct explanation of A Q.Anekantavada is a core theory
possesses infinite characteristics, (c) A is true but R is false and philosophy of which one of the
(d) A is false but R is true following?
How was this topic asked in the CSE? (a) Buddhism (b) ]ainism
Q. Which of the following Ans. (a) (CSE, 2000)
(c) Sikhism (d) Vaishnavism
statements is/are applicable to Jain Explanation : The Jainism
doctrine? believes in extreme non-violence Ans. (b) (CSE, 2009)
1. The surest way of annihilating and cultivation involves killing of rational perception or outlook
Karma is to practice penance. insects and pests which is towards life (SAMYAK
2. Every object, even the smallest prohibited in Jainism. This DARSHAN), rational knowledge
particle has a soul. prevented the agriculturists from (SAMYAK JNAAN) and rational
3. Karma is the bane of the soul embracing Jainism. conduct (SAMYAK
and must be ended. CHAARITRA). There is no
Q. The concept of Anuvrata was
Select the correct answer using the rational knowledge without rational
advocated by: perception and there is no proper
codes given below. (a) Mahayana. Buddhism
(a) 1 only conduct or action without rational
(b) Himayana Buddhism knowledge. This approach helps one
(b) 2 and 3 only (c) Jainism
(c) 1 and 3 only to develop a rational attitude
(d) The Lokayata school towards life.
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans: d (CSE 2013) Ans. (C) (CSE, 1995) Kharevela was a warrior king but

94 Prelims Magic 2014

he still found time to devote to works became known as the Buddha or This can be done by following the
of piety and public utility. He was ‘the Enlightened One’. He delivered Eightfold Path.
an ardent follower of Jainism. He his first sermon at Sarnath near
The Eightfold Path consists of right
set up residential chambers on the Benares and for the next forty five
view, right resolve, right speech,
top of the Udaygiri hill and set up years he led the life of a preacher.
magnificent columns in a grand hall right conduct, right livelihood, right
He died at the age of eighty at
for the congregation of Jain monks. effort, right mindfulness and right
Kusinagara. The most important
How was this topic asked in the CSE?
disciples of Buddha were Sariputta,
Moggallanna, Ananda, Kassapa and
concentration. Buddha neither
accepts god nor rejects the
existence of god. He laid great
Q. With reference to ancient Upali. Kings like Prasenajit of
Jainism, which one of the following
statements is correct?
Kosala and Bimbisara and
Ajatasatru of Magadha accepted his
emphasis on the law of karma. He
argued that the condition of man in
this life depends upon his own
(a) Jainism was spread in South doctrines and became his disciples.
India under the leadership of
Buddha in his lifetime spread his
message far and wide in north India
deeds. He taught that the soul does
not exist. However, he emphasized
Ahimsa. By his love for human
(b) The Jainas who remained and visited places like Benares,
under the leadership of
Bhadrabahu were called
Rajagriha, Sravasti, Vaisali, Nalanda
and Pataligrama. It should be noted
beings and all living creatures, he
endeared himself to all. Even under
the gravest provocation he did not
Shvetambaras after the council that he did not involve himself in
held at Pataliputra
(c) Jainism enjoyed the patronage
fruitless controversies regarding
metaphysical questions like god,
show the least anger or hatred and
instead conquered everyone by his
love and compassion. His religion
of the Kalinga king Kharaavela in soul, karma, rebirth, etc., and
the first century BC
(d) In the initial stage of Jainism,
concerned himself with the
practical problems confronting man.
was identical with morality and it
emphasized purity of thought, word
and deed. He was a rationalist who
the Jains worshipped images
unlike Buddhist
Ans. (c) (CSE, 2004)
Teachings of Buddha
The Four Noble Truths of Buddha
tried to explain things in the light of
reason and not on the basis of blind
faith. Though he did not make a
direct attack on the caste system,
Buddhism The world is full of suffering. he was against any social
Life of Gautama Buddha The cause of suffering is desire. distinctions and threw open his
(567- 487 B.C.) order to all. Therefore, Buddhism
If desires are got rid off, suffering was more a social than religious
Gautama or Siddhartha, the founder can be removed. revolution. It taught the code of
of Buddhism, was born in 567 B.C. practical ethics and laid down the
in Lumbini Garden near How was this topic asked in the CSE?
Which one of the following principle of social equality.
Kapilavastu. His father was
Suddodhana of the Sakya clan and describes best the concept of How was this topic asked in the CSE?
mother Mayadevi. His mother was Nirvana in Buddhism?
(a) The extinction of the flame of Q. The concept of Eightfold path
a princess of the neighbouring clan
desire  forms the theme of:
of the Kosalan dynasty. As his
(b) The complete annihilation of (a) Dipavamsa
mother died at child birth, he was
brought up by his aunt Prajapati self  (b) Divyavadana
Gautami. At the age of sixteen he (c) A state of bliss and rest (c) Mahaparinibban
married Yasodhara and gave birth (d) A mental stage beyond all (d) Dharma Chakara Pravartana
to a son, Rahula. The sight of an old comprehension  Sutta
man, a diseased man, a corpse and Ans: a (CSE 2013) Ans. (d) (CSE, 1998)
an ascetic turned him away from Expl: Nirvana literally means Explanation: The concept of
worldly life. He left home at the age extinguishing or unbinding. The Eight fold path forms the theme
of twenty nine in search of Truth. implication is that it is freedom of Dharma Chakra Pravartana
He wandered for seven years and from whatever binds you, from the Sutta. Buddha has given the eight
met several teachers but could not burning passion of desire, jealousy, fold path to be away from miseries
get enlightenment. At last, he sat and ignorance. Once these are of life and attain Nirvana.
under a bodhi tree at Bodh Gaya totally overcome, a state of bliss During the rainy season, beginning
and did intense penance, after which is achieved, and there is no longer from the day next to the full moon
he got Enlightenment (Nirvana) at the need the cycle of birth and day Ashadha, the monks were
the age of thirty five. Since then he death. All karmic debts are settled. required to take a fixed abode and

Prelims Magic 2014 95

depend for their subsistence on the Magadha, Kosala, Kausambi and of the Buddha. They are known as
neighboring households. At the close several republican states of North the Tripitakas, namely the Sutta,
of the retreat the monks met India embraced this religion. About the Vinaya and the Abhidhamma
together to confess their offences two hundred years after the death Pitakas. They are written in the Pali
committed during their stay in the of Buddha, the famous Mauryan language.
rainy season. This ceremony was Emperor Asoka embraced Therigatha is a part of the Sutta
called pavarana (also called Buddhism. Through his missionary
H uposatha or upavasatha). effort Asoka spread Buddhism into
West Asia and Ceylon. Thus a local
Pitaka. It is the Songs of the Lady
Elders, containing religious lyrical
poetry of a high order.
How was this topic asked in the CSE? religious sect was transformed into
I Q. In ancient Indian Buddhist
a world religion. The Ikshvaku
rulers of Southern India the Pala
In the Mahayana sect Budhisattva
were worshiped. The major
Bodhisattvas are named below-
monasteries, a ceremony called Rulers of Eastern India were
S Pavarana used to be held. It was
Patrons of Buddhism.
How was this topic asked in the CSE?
Amitabha (boundless light) - He is
the guardian of the west.
(a) occasion to elect the
T Sanghparinayaka and two
speakers one on Dhamma and the
Q.Consider the following
Avalokitesvara (watchful lord) –
Also called Padamapani (lotus-
bearer). His main attribute is
other on Vinaya 1. The lkshvaku rulers of Southern
O (b) confession by monks of their
offences committed during their
India were antagonistic towards
Manjusri (charming) -He represents
stay in the monasteries during the 2. The Pala Rulers of Eastern wisdom.
R rainy season
(c) ceremony of initiation of new
India were Patrons of Buddhism.
Which of the statement(s) given
Vairochana (illuminant) – regarded
as the dharmakaya aspect of
person into the Buddhist Sangha above is/ are correct? Buddha.
Y in which the head is shaved and
when yellow robes are offered
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither I nor 2 Samanthe-bhadra (instantly
auspicious) – Regarded as
(d) gathering of Buddhist monks Ans. (b) (CSE, 1995)
on the next day to the full-moon chakrapani (wheel- bearer).
day of Ashadha when they take Buddhist Councils How was this topic asked in the CSE?
up a fixed abode for the next four The first Buddhist Council was held
months of rainy season Q. In the Mahayana Buddhism,
at Rajagraha under the
the Bodhisatya Avalokitesvar was
Ans. (b) (CSE, 2002) chairmanship of Mahakasapa
immediately after the death of also known as:
Spread of Buddhism Buddha. Its purpose was to maintain (a) Vajrapani (b) Manjusri
the purity of the teachings of the (c) Padmapani (d) Maitreya
Buddha had two kinds of disciples Ans. (c) (CSE, 1997)
Buddha. The second Buddhist
– monks (bhikshus) and lay Council was convened at Vaisali
worshippers (upasikas). The monks around 383 B.C. The third Buddhist Causes for the Decline of
were organized into the Sangha for Council was held at Pataliputra Buddhism in India
the purpose of spreading his under the patronage of Asoka. The revival of Brahmanism and the
teachings. The membership was Moggaliputta Tissa presided over it. rise of Bhagavatism led to the fall
open to all persons, male or female The final version of Tripitakas was of popularity of Buddhism.
and without any caste restrictions. completed in this council. The
There was a special code for nuns fourth Buddhist Council was The use of Pali, the language of the
restricting their residence and convened in Kashmir by Kanishka masses as the language of
movement. Sariputta, Moggallana under the chairmanship of Buddhism was given up from the
and Ananda were some of the Vasumitra. Asvagosha participated 1st century A.D. The Buddhists
famous monks. The Sangha was in this council. The new school of began to adopt Sanskrit, the
governed on democratic lines and Buddhism called Mahayana language of the elite. After the birth
was empowered to enforce Buddhism came into existence of Mahayana Buddhism, the
discipline among its members. during this council. The Buddhism practice of idol worship and making
Owing to the organised efforts preached by the Buddha and offerings led to the deterioration of
made by the Sangha, Buddhism propagated by Asoka was known moral standards. Moreover, the
made rapid progress in North India as Hinayana. The Buddhist texts attack of the Huns in 5th and 6th
even during Buddha’s life time. were collected and compiled some centuries and the Turkish invaders
five hundred years after the death

96 Prelims Magic 2014

in 12th century destroyed the we find numerous indications that architecture of India was notable.
monasteries. All these factors Buddha was worshipped by Hindus The stupas at Sanchi, Bharhut and
contributed to the decline of as any other God. In fact, Hinduism Gaya are wonderful pieces of
Buddhism in India. eventually construed Buddha as a architecture. Buddhism takes the
manifestation, or avatar , of the God credit for the chaityas and viharas
How was this topic asked in the CSE Vishnu (Krishna is another avatar in different parts of India.
of Vishnu).
Why did Buddhism start declining
in India in the early medieval
Contribution of Buddhism to
Indian Culture
How was this topic asked in the CSE?
Q. With reference to the history. H
of ancient India, which of the
1. Buddha was by that time
considered as one of the
incarnations of Vishnu and thus
Buddhism has made a remarkable
contribution to the development of
Indian culture.
following was/were common to
both Buddhism and Jainism? I
1. Avoidance of extremities of
became a part of Vaishanavism.
2. The invading tribes from
Central Asia till the time of last
Buddhism greatly influenced the
Indian religion. It gave to Indian
penance and enjoyment
2. Indifference to the authority S
people a simple and popular religion. of the Vedas
Gupta King adopted Hinduism and
persecuted Buddhists.
3. The Kings of Gupta dynasty
It rejected ritualism, sacrifices and
dominance of priestly class.
3. Denial of efficacy of rituals
Select the correct answer using
were strongly opposed to The concept of ahimsa was its chief the codes given below:
Which of the statements given
contribution. Later, it became one
of the cherished values of our
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
nation. (c) 1 and 3 only
above is/are correct?
(a) 1only (b) 1 and 3 only Its contribution to the art and (d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans. (b) (CSE, 2012)
(c) 2 and 3only (d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans (a) (CSE 2010)
For everyday Indian, Buddhism
increasingly became indistin-
On the ruins of the Kushana Empire Meherauli Iron Pillar Inscription and
guishable from Hinduism, which had
arose a new empire which the Allahabad Pillar inscription. The
undergone a transformation itself.
The average Hindu thought of established its way over a good part first refers to the achievements of
Buddha as a God among their Gods; of the former dominions of both the Chandragupta I. The most
Kushanas and Satavahanas. This important source for the reign of
How was this topic asked in the CSE? was the empire of the Guptas. This Samudragupta is the Allahabad
dynasty controlled the destiny of Pillar inscription. It describes his
Q.Which of the following were India for about two centuries, and personality and achievements. This
common to both Buddhism and this period is generally called as the inscription is engraved on an Asokan
Jainism? “Golden Age of Hinduism” pillar. It is written in classical
1. Avoidance of extremities of Sanskrit, using the Nagari script. It
penance and enjoyment Main Historical Sources consists of 33 lines composed by
2. Indifference to the authority of The Puranas especially the Vayu Harisena. It describes the
the vedas Purana throw light on the royal circumstances of Samudragupta’s
3. Denial of efficiency of rituals genealogy of the Gupta kings. accession, his military campaigns in
4. Non-injury to animal life Devichandraguptam and the north India and the Deccan, his
Select the answer using the codes Mudhrakshasam written by relationship with other
given below: Visakadatta provide information contemporary rulers, and his
Codes: regarding the rise of the Guptas. accomplishments as a poet and
(a) 1, 2, 3 and 4 (b) 2, 3 and 4 scholar. The coins issued by Gupta
(c) 1, 3, and 4 (d) 1 and 2 The Chinese traveler Fahien, who
kings contain legends and figures.
Ans. (b) (CSE, 1996) visited India during the reign of
These coins provide interesting
Chandragupta II, has left a valuable
Explanation: In Buddhism details about the titles and sacrifices
account of the social, economic and
avoidance of extremities of performed by the Gupta monarchs.
religious conditions of the Gupta
Penance and enjoyment i.e. empire. The dynasty was founded by Sri
Madhyam Marga is stressed on Gupta and the capital was
while Jainism stresses on penance Apart from these literary sources,
established at Pataliputra.. The
and extremism. there are inscriptions like the

Prelims Magic 2014 97

most likely date for the reign of Sri- defeated Achyuta and Nagasena. greater part of modern U.P., a
Gupta is c. 240-280 AD. He was, Achyuta was probably a Naga portion of central India and the
perhaps, from a Vaishya community ruler. Nagasena belonged to the southwestern part of Bengal. These
and a Prayag based feudatory of Kota family which was ruling over territories were directly
Kushanas. His successor the upper Gangetic valley. They administered by him. In the south
Ghatotkacha ruled probably from were defeated and their states were there were tributary states. The
c. 280-319 AD. In contrast to his annexed. As a result of this short Saka and Kushana principalities on
H successor, he is also referred to in
inscriptions as ‘Maharaja’.
campaign, Samudragupta had
gained complete mastery over the
the west and northwest were within
the sphere of his influence. The
upper Gangetic valley. Then kingdoms on the east coast of the
I How was this topic asked in the CSE?
Q.The Allahabad Pillar inscription
Samudragupta marched against the
South Indian monarchs. The
Deccan, as far as the Pallava
Kingdom, acknowledged his
is associated with which one of the Allahabad Pillar inscription mentions suzerainty.
S following? .
(a) Mahapadma Nanda
that Samudragupta defeated twelve
rulers in his South Indian Expedition.
Chandragupta II
(380-415 A.D.)
(b) Chandragupta Maurya They were Mahendra of Kosala,
T (c) Ashoka
(d) Samudragupta
Vyaghraraja of Mahakanthara,
Mantaraja of Kaurala,
The power and glory of Gupta
Empire reached its peak under the
Mahendragiri of Pishtapura, rule Chandragupta II Vikramaditya.
O Ans. (d) CSE 2000 Swamidatta of Kottura, Damana of
Erandapalla, Vishnugupta of
Chandragupta II Vikramaditya was
the successor of Samudragupta. But
Chandragupta I (320–330 A.D.) Kanchi, Nilaraja of Avamukta, according to some scholars, the
R He was the first important ruler of
the Gupta Dynasty, and he was the
Hastivarman of Vengi, Ugrasena of
Palakka, Kubera of Devarashtra
immediate successor of Samudra-
gupta was Ramagupta, the elder
and Dhananjaya of Kushtalapura. brother of Chandragupta II.
Y first to be called Maharajadhiraja
(the great king of kings). This title
indicates his extensive conquests.
Samudragupta’s policy in South
India was different. He did not Ramagupta- According to some
scholars, Samudragupta was
He strengthened his position by a destroy and annex those kingdoms.
Instead, he defeated the rulers but succeeded by his elder son, Ram
matrimonial alliance with the Gupta, a weak king who agreed to
Licchavis. He married Kumaradevi, gave them back their kingdoms. He
only insisted on them to surrender his wife Dhruvadevi to
a princess of that family. This added the Saka Chief Rudrasimha II. Ram
to the power and prestige of the acknowledge his suzerainty. The
third stage of Samudragupta’s Gupta’s younger brother, Chandra
Gupta family. The Meherauli Iron Gupta II, went to the Saka camp
Pillar inscription mentions his campaign was to eliminate his
remaining north Indian rivals. He disguised as the queen and
extensive conquests. Chandragupta assassinated the Saka Chief. After
I is considered to be the founder of fought against nine kings, uprooted
them and annexed their territories. this, he killed his brother Ram Gupta,
the Gupta era which starts with his married to his widow Dhruvadevi
accession in A.D. 320. They were Rudradeva, Matila,
Nagadatta, Chandravarman, and ascended the throne.
Samudragupta (330-380 A.D.) Ganapathinaga, Nagasena, But there is little historical proof for
Samudragupta was the greatest of Achyuta, Nandin and Balavarman. this. Chandragupta II inherited the
the rulers of the Gupta dynasty. The Most of these rulers were members military genius of his father and
Allahabad Pillar inscription provides of the Naga family, then ruling over extended the Gupta Empire by his
a detailed account of his reign. It different parts of north India. After own conquests. He achieved this by
refers to three stages in his military these military victories, a judicious combination of the policy
campaign: Samudragupta performed the of diplomacy and warfare. Through
asvamedha sacrifice. He issued matrimonial alliances he
1. Against some rulers of North gold and silver coins with the legend strengthened his political power. He
India ‘restorer of the asvamedha’. It is married Kuberanaga, a Naga
2. His famous Dakshinapatha because of his military princess of central India. He gave
expedition against South Indian achievements Samudragupta was his daughter Prabhavati in marriage
rulers hailed as ‘Indian Napoleon. to the Vakataka prince Rudrasena
After these conquests, II. The political importance of this
3. A second campaign against some marriage lies in the fact that the
other rulers of North India. In the Samudragupta’s rule extended over
the upper Gangetic valley, the Vakatakas occupied a geogra-
first campaign Samudragupta phically strategic position in the

98 Prelims Magic 2014

Deccan. This alliance served a to Bactria. In the east, it included affairs. His interest was primarily
useful purpose when Chandragupta- even eastern Bengal and in the south religion. He assessed everything
II undertook his campaign in the Narmada river formed the from the Buddhist angle. His
western India against the Sakas. boundary. The Tamralipti port in observations on social conditions
Bengal handled the bulk of Indian are found to be exaggerated. Yet,
Conquest of Western India his accounts are useful to know the
trade to South East Asia during the
The greatest of the military Gupta period. general condition of the country.
achievements of Chandragupta II
was his war against the Saka How was this topic asked in the CSE? Successors of Chandragupta II H
satraps of western India. Kumaragupta was the son and
Rudrasimha III, the last ruler of the
Saka satrap was defeated,
Q. Which one of the following
ports handled the North Indian
trade during the Gupta period?
successor of Chandragupta II. His
reign was marked by general peace
dethroned and killed. His territories and prosperity. He issued a number
in western Malwa and the
Kathiawar Peninsula were annexed
(a) Tamralipti (b) Broach
(c) Kalyan (d) Cambray of coins and his inscriptions are
found all over the Gupta empire. He
into the Gupta Empire. After this Ans. (a) (CSE, 1999) also performed an asvamedha
victory he performed the horse
sacrifice and assumed the title
Fahien’s Visit sacrifice. Most importantly, he laid
the foundation of the Nalanda
Sakari, meaning, ‘destroyer of The famous Chinese pilgrim, Fahien University which emerged an
Sakas’. He also called himself
Vikramaditya As a result of the
visited India during the reign of
Chandragupta II. Out of his nine
institution of international reputation.
At the end of his reign, a powerful
conquest of western India, the years stay in India, he spent six years wealthy tribe called the
western boundary of the Empire
reached to the Arabian Sea gaining
in the Gupta Empire. He came to
India by the land route through
‘Pushyamitras’ defeated the Gupta
army. A branch of the Huns from
access to Broach, Sopara, Cambay Khotan, Kashgar, Gandhara and Central Asia made attempts to
and other sea ports. This enabled
the Gupta empire to control trade
Punjab. He visited Peshawar,
Mathura, Kanauj, Sravasti,
cross the Hindukush mountains and
invade India. But it was his
with the western countries. Ujjain Kapilavastu, Kusinagara, successor Skandagupta who really
became an important commercial Pataliputra, Kasi and Bodh Gaya faced the Hun invasion. He fought
city and soon became the alternative among other places. He returned by successfully against the Huns and
capital of the Guptas. The fine the sea route, visiting on the way saved the empire. This war must
cotton clothes of Bengal, Indigo Ceylon and Java. The main purpose
from Bihar, silk from Banares, the of his visit was to see the land of How was this topic asked in the CSE?
scents of the Himalayas and the the Buddha and to collect Buddhist
sandal and species from the south manuscripts from India. He stayed Q. From the third century AD
were brought to these ports without in Pataliputra for three years when the Hun invasion ended the
any interference. The western studying Sanskrit and copying Roman Empire, the Indian
traders poured Roman gold into Buddhist texts. Fahien provides merchants relied more and more
India in return for Indian products. valuable information on the religious, on the:
The great wealth of the Gupta social and economic condition of the (a) African trade
Empire was manifest in the variety Gupta Empire. According to him, (b) West-European trade
of gold coins issued by Buddhism was in a flourishing (c) South-East Asian trade
Chandragupta II. condition in the northwestern India (d) Middle-Eastern trade
but in the Gangetic valley it was in Ans. (c) (CSE, 1999)
Other Conquests a state of neglect. He refers to the
have been a great strain on the
Chandragupta II defeated a Gangetic valley as the ‘land of
government’s resources. After
confederacy of enemy chiefs in Brahmanism’. Fahien mentions the
Skandagupta’s death, many of his
Vanga. He also crossed the river unsatisfactory state of some of the
successors like Purugupta,
Sindh and conquered Bactria. The Buddhist holy places like
Narasimhagupta, Buddhagupta and
Kushanas ruling in this region were Kapilavastu and Kusinagara.
Baladitya could not save the Gupta
subdued by him. With these According to him the economic
Empire from the Huns. Ultimately,
conquests, the Gupta empire condition of the empire was
the Gupta power totally disappeared
extended in the west as far as prosperous. Although his account is
due to the Hun invasions and later
western Malwa, Gujarat and valuable in many respects, he did not
by the rise of Yasodharman in
Kathiawar. In the northwest it mention the name of Chandragupta
Malwa. Hunas occupied eastern
extended beyond the Hindukush up II. He was not interested in political

Prelims Magic 2014 99

Malwa and a good portion of central Gujarat, North-east India, south- the male of upper three varnas
India. The Indian merchant started eastern Pakistan, Orissa, northern speak Sanskrit while the women
to rely on the South East Asian Madhya Pradesh and eastern India. and Sudra spoke in Prakrit.
Bhuktis were governed by
Uparikas appointed by the King. How was this topic asked in the CSE?
The Gupta administration power was Vishayas were governed by Q. In Sanskrit plays written during
H more decentralised but dependent
on a vast bureaucracy.. The King
Kumaramatyas, Ayuktas and
Vishayapatis. These were appointed
the Gupta period women and
sudras speak:
(a) Sanskrit (b) Prakrit
occupied a powerful and important by the provincial governor.
I position and often took titles to assert
his supremacy. The Gupta kings
Purapala- Town administrator
(c) Pali
Ans. (b)
(d) Sauraseni
(CSE, 1995)
adopted pompous titles such as Bengal inscriptions of the Guptas
S P a r a m e s h w a r a ,
Parambhattaraka, and
show that district heads
(Adhistanadhikarna) were
The subjection of women to men
was thoroughly regularized. But it
was insisted that they should be
Maharajadhiraj etc. The representing major local bodies.
T Allahabad Prasasti
Samudragupta was a classic
Local bodies- Nagarasresthi
(guild president); Sarthavaha (head
protected and generously treated by
men. The practice of Swyamvara
was given up and the Manusmriti
example of how the Gupta kings
O portrayed themselves. This
indicated that subordinates or
of caravans) ; Prathama Kulika
(chief artisan) and Prathama
Kayastha- chief scribe
suggested the early marriage for
girls. In the sphere of religion,
Brahmanism reigned supreme
feudatories to the Kings existed and
R power was delegated to them in the
lower or provincial levels. Kingship
Village administration
Gramika or Gramadhyaksha-
– during the Gupta period. It had two
branches - Vaishnavism and
Saivism. Most of the Gupta kings
was hereditary and considered a Village head man.;
Y part of God. The king was to be a
law abider and should protect his
Ashtakuladhikarna (Rural Board).
This comprised officers as
were Vaishnavaites. They
performed Aswamedha sacrifices.
The worship of images and
subjects. Mahattaras (village elders);
Gramika and Kutumbins celebration of religious festivals with
A council of ministers and some elaborate rituals made these two
(householders). No land transaction
officials helped the King. religions popular. Religious literature
and judicial decisions was done
The Mantri (Chief Minister) was without the consent of the like the Puranas was composed
the head of civil administration. Mahattaras. during this period. The progress of
Brahmanism led to the neglect of
Yuvaraj and priest were important Social Life Buddhism and Jainism. Fahien
officials. refers to the decline of Buddhism
During the Gupta period, the caste
Dandapasadhikarnika- Chief of system became rigid. The Brahmins in the Gangetic valley. But a few
Police occupied the top ladder of the Buddhist scholars like Vasubandhu
society. They were given enormous were patronized by Gupta kings. In
Mahadandanayaka- Chief Justice western and southern India, Jainism
gifts by the rulers as well as other
Mahapratihara- chief of palace wealthy people. The practice of flourished. The great Jain Council
guards untouchability had slowly begun was held at Vallabhi during this
during this period. Fahien mentions period and the Jain Canon of the
Dutaka- associated with Swetambras was written.
implementing land grants to that Chandalas were segregated
Brahmins. from the society. Their miserable MILITARY
condition was elaborated by the ORGANIZATION
Pustapalas- officials who managed Chinese traveller.
and kept records The Guptas seem to have relied
The position of women had also heavily on infantry, and the bow
ADMINISTRATIVE become miserable during the Gupta was one of the dominant weapons
DIVISIONS period. They were prohibited from of their army. Iron shafts were used
The empire was divided into studying the religious texts like the against armored elephants, and fire
provinces (Bhuktis) and provinces Puranas. The position of women arrows were also part of the
were further divided into districts was equivalent to Sudra. This was bowmen’s arsenal. The army was
(Vishaya). Villages were the also reflected in the Sanskrit plays paid in cash. The feudatories were
smallest units. The kingdom covered written during this period, in which

100 Prelims Magic 2014

the main source of the Gupta army art. The Bhitari monolithic pillar of Chandragupta II and his successors
as the land grants obliged them to Skandagupta is also remarkable. had also issued gold, silver and
supply soldiers to the King when Metallurgy had also made a copper coins of different varieties.
needed. Some of the offices in the wonderful progress during the Gupta
Gupta Coins –The establishment
army are as follows: period. The craftsmen were
of the Gupta Empire in the fourth
efficient in the art of casting metal
Mahabaladhikrta (commander-in- century AD heralded a new era in
statues and pillars. The gigantic
Mahashvapati- head of cavalry
copper statue of Buddha, originally
found at Sultanganj now kept at
the history of numismatics. The
Gupta coinage started with a
remarkable series in gold issued by
Birmingham Museum, is about
Maha Sandhivigrahika- Foreign
minister/ minister of war and peace seven and a half feet height and
nearly a ton weight. The Delhi Iron
Chandragupta I, the third ruler of the
dynasty, who issued a single type-
the king and queen - depicting the
Mahapilupati- head of elephants Pillar of the Gupta period is still free
Narapati- head of foot soldiers from rust though completely
exposed to sun and rain for so many
portraits of Chandragupta and his
queen Kumaradevi with their names
on the obverse and the goddess
Ranabhandagarika- Officer of army centuries. The paintings of the
stores and incharge of the soldier’s
Gupta period are seen at Bagh
caves near Gwalior.
seated on a lion with the legend
Lichchhavyah on the reverse. Gold
coins were called Dinara. Minting
Art and Culture
The Gupta period witnessed a
How was this topic asked in the CSE
There are only two known
of silver coins first started in the
reign of Chandragupta II. Silver
coins were called rupaka. Copper
tremendous progress in the field of examples of cave paintings of the
art, science and literature and on
account of this it has been called “a
Gupta period in ancient India.
One of these is paintings of
cons were also issued during this
period. R
golden age”. A few scholars even Ajanta caves. Where is the other Literature: The Sanskrit language
call this period a period of
renaissance. But it should be
surviving example of Gupta
became prominent during the Gupta
period. Nagari cript had evolved
remembered that there was no dark (a) Bagh caves from the Brahmi script. Numerous
period before the Gupta rule. (b) Ellora caves works in classical Sanskrit came to
Therefore the cultural progress (c) Lomas Rishi cave be written in the forms of epic,
witnessed during the Gupta period (d) Nasik caves lyrics, drama and prose. The best
may be called the culmination of Ans (a) (CSE 2010) of the Sanskrit literature belonged
Indian intellectual activities. to the Gupta age. Himself a great
Art and Architecture The mural paintings of Ajantha poet, Samudragupta patronized a
mostly illustrate the life of the number of scholars including
In the history of Indian art and Buddha as depicted in the Jataka Harisena. The court of
architecture, the Gupta period stories. The paintings at Sigiriya in Chandragupta II was adorned by
occupies an important place. Both Sri Lanka were highly influenced by the celebrated Navratnas. Kalidasa
the Nagara and Dravidian styles of the Ajantha style. The Gupta remain the foremost among them.
art evolved during this period. But coinage was also remarkable. His master-piece was the Sanskrit
most of the architecture of this Samudragupta issued eight types of drama Shakuntala. It is considered
period had been lost due to foreign gold coins. The legends on them one among the ‘hundred best books
invasions like that of Huns. Yet, the throw much light on the of the world’. He wrote two other
remaining temples, sculptures and achievements of that marvelous plays - the Malavikagnimitra and
cave paintings provide an idea about king. The figures inscribed on them Vikramorvasiya. His two well-
the grandeur of the Gupta art. The are illustrative of the skill and known epics are Raghuvamsa and
temple at Deogarh near Jhansi and greatness of Gupta numismatic art. Kumarasambhava. Ritusamhara
the sculptures in the temple at and Meghaduta are his two lyrics.
Garhwas near Allahabad remain How was this topic asked in the CSE? Visakadatta was another celebrated
important specimen of the Gupta author of this period. He was the
art. There was no influence of Q. The silver coins issued by the author of two Sanskrit dramas,
Gandhara style. But the beautiful Guptas were called: Mudrarakshasa and
statue of standing Buddha at (a) rupaka (b) karshapana Devichandraguptam. Sudraka
Mathura reveals a little Greek style. (c) dinara (d) pana was a renowned poet of this age and
The Buddha statue unearthed at Ans. (a) (CSE, 1997) his book Mrichchakatika (the day
Saranath was unique piece of Gupta cart) is rich in humour and pathos.

Prelims Magic 2014 101

It deals with the love affair of a rich Amarasimha compiled a lexicon
How was this topic asked in the CSE? called Amarakosa. The Puranas in
merchant with the daughter of a
courtesan. Bharavi’s Kritarjuniya Q. Match List I with List II and their present form were composed
is the story of the conflict between select the correct answer: during this period. There are
Arjuna and Siva. Dandin was the List I eighteen Puranas. The most
author of Kavyadarsa and A. Visakhadatta B. Varahamihira important among them are the
Dasakumaracharita. Another C. Charaka D. Brahmagupta Bhagavatha, Vishnu, Vayu and
H important work of this period was
Vasavadatta written by
List II
1. Medicine 2. Drama
Matsya Puranas. The Maha-
bharatha and the Ramayana were
3. Astronomy 4. Mathematics given final touches and written in
I How was this topic asked in the CSE?
Q. ‘Mrichchhakatika’ an ancient
Codes :
the present form during this period.
(a) 1 3 4 2
S Indian book written by Shudraka
deals with:
(a) The love affair of a rich
(b) 2
(c) 2
The Gupta period witnessed a
brilliant activity in the sphere of
mathematics, astronomy, astrology
(d) 3 4 1 2
T merchant with the daughter of a
(b) The victory of Chandragupta
Ans.(c) (CSE, 1996)
Explanation : Vishakadatta wrote
and medicine. Aryabhatta was a
great mathematician
astronomer. He wrote the book
a drama named “Mudra
O II over the Shaka Kshatrapas of
western India
(c) The military expeditions and
Rakshasa”. Varahmihira wrote
book on astronomy. Charaka
Aryabhatiya in 499 A.D. It deals
with mathematics and astronomy. It
explains scientifically the
wrote book on medicine and occurrence of solar and lunar
R exploits of Samudragupta
(d) The love affairs between a
Gupta King and a princess of
Brahmagupta wrote book on
eclipses. Aryabhatta was the first
to declare that the earth was
spherical in shape and that it rotates
Y Kamarupa
Ans. (a) (CSE, 2003)
Q. Match List I with List II and
select the correct answer using the
codes given below he lists :
on its own axis. However, these
views were rejected by later
astronomers like Varahamihira and
List I (Author) Brahmagupta. Varahamihira
How was this topic asked in the CSE? composed Pancha Siddhantika,
A. Varahamihira B. Visakhadatta
Q. Nastaliq was: C. Sudraka D. Bilhana the five astronomical systems. He
was also a great authority on
(a) a persian script used in List II (Text) astrology. His work Brihadsamhita
medieval India 1. Prabandha Chintamani is a great work in Sanskrit literature.
(b) a raga composed by Tansen 2. Mrichchha-katikam It deals with a variety of subjects
(c) a cess levied by the Mughal 3. Brihat-Samhita like astronomy, astrology,
rulers 4. Devi-Chandraguptam geography, architecture, weather,
(d) a manual of code of conduct 5. Vikramankadeva-charita animals, marriage and omens. His
for the Ulemas Codes: Brihadjataka is considered to be
Ans. (a) (CSE, 1996) A B C D a standard work on astrology. In the
(a) 3 4 5 2 field of medicine, Vagbhata lived
103. Which of the following pairs during this period. He was the last
are correctly matched? (b) 3 4 2 5
of the great medical trio of ancient
1.Mrichchakatikam - Shudraka (c) 5 3 4 1 India. The other two scholars
2.Buddhacharita - Vasuvandhu (d) 1 3 5 2 Charaka and Susruta lived before
3.Mudrarakshasha - Vishakadatta Ans. (b) (CSE, 1997) the Gupta age. Susrutha (about 400
4. Harshacharita - Banabhatta Q. Who among the following is B.C) - is an important figure in the
Select the correct answer using known for his work on medicine history of surgery. He lived and
the codes given below: taught and practised his art on the
during the Gupta period? banks of the Ganges in the area
Codes: (a) Saumilla (b) Sudraka that corresponds to the present day
(a) 1, 2, 3 and 4 (b) 1, 3 and 4 (c) Shaunaka (d) Susrutha city of Banares in North-West India.
(c) 1 and 4 (d) 2 and 3 Ans. (d) (CSE, 1996) Because of his seminal and
Ans. (b) (CSE, 1998) numerous contributions to the
Explanation : “Buddha Charita” Subhandhu. The Panchatantra science and art of surgery he is also
was written by Asvaghosha, not stories were composed by known by the title “Father of
by Vasubandhu. Vishnusarma during the Gupta Surgery.” Much of what is known
period. The Buddhist author about this inventive surgeon is

102 Prelims Magic 2014

contained in a series of volumes he alliance with the independent campaign of Harsha was against the
authored, which are collectively kingdoms to drive the Huna from Western Chalukya ruler Pulakesin
known as the Susrutha Samhita. most of northern India by the 530’s. II. Both the accounts of Hiuen
Susrutha is also the father of plastic The succession of the sixth-century Tsang and the inscriptions of
surgery since his technique of Guptas is not entirely clear, but the Pulakesin II provide the details of
forehead flap rhinoplasty (repairing
tail end recognized ruler of the this campaign. Harsha with an
the disfigured nose with a flap of
dynasty’s main line was king ambition to extend his kingdom south
skin from the forehead) is practised
almost unchanged in technique to
this day. Susrutha was also the first
Vishnugupta, reigning from 540 to
of the Narmada river marched
against the Chalukya ruler. But the
surgeon to advocate the practice of Aihole inscription of Pulakesin II
operations on inanimate objects such
as watermelons, clay plots and
Skandagupta was followed by weak
rulers Puru Gupta (467-473 AD),
Kumargupta II (473-476 AD),
mentions the defeat of Harsha by
Pulakesin, who after this
reeds; thus predating the modern Buddhagupta (476-495 AD), achievement assumed the title
practice of the surgical workshop
by hundreds of years. Vagbhatta
Narasimhagupta, Kumaragupta III,
Vishnugupta, Vinay Gupta and
Paramesvara. Hiuen Tsang’s
accounts also confirm the victory of
was the author Ashtanga- Bhanu Gupta. These rulers Pulakesin. Harsha led another
samgraha (Summary of the eight
branches of medicine).
concentrated on particular regions
and could no longer maintain the
campaign against the ruler of Sindh,
which was an independent kingdom.
FALL OF THE centralized nature of the Empire. But, it is doubtful whether his Sind
The most accepted reason for the
Gupta power was further challenged
by Yasodharman of Malwa whose
campaign was a successful one.
Nepal had accepted Harsha’s
overlordship. Harsha established his
fall of the Gupta Empire is the
invasions of the Hepthalites or
White Huns. In the 480’s, the Hunas
inscriptions indicate that he had
marched upto Himalayas in the
north and Bhrahmaputra to the east.
control over Kashmir and its ruler
sent tributes to him. He also
maintained cordial relations with
broke through the Gupta defences
in the northwest, and much of the
empire was overrun by them by 500
Weakening economy and
administrative structure together
with the growth of the feudal
Bhaskaravarman, the ruler of
Assam. Harsha’s last military
AD. The empire disintegrated under economy paralysed the Gupta state. campaign was against the kingdom
the attacks of Toramana and his The land grants gradually of Kalinga in Orissa and it was a
successor Mihirkula. The Hunas transferred the land rights to the success. Thus Harsha established
conquered several provinces of the donee and increased their power. his hold over the whole of north
empire, including Malwa, Gujarat This decentralization of the India. The regions modern
and Thanesar. It appears from administrative set up helped in the Rajasthan, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh,
inscriptions that the Guptas, formation of independent regional Bihar and Orissa were under his
although their power was much powers that soon broke away from direct control. But his sphere of
diminished, continued to resist the the centralised Gupta monarchy. influence was much more extensive.
Hunas. Narasimhagupta formed an The peripheral states such as
Kashmir, Sind, Vallabhi and
Kamarupa acknowledged his
10 POST GUPTA AGE sovereignty.
How was this topic asked in the CSE?
HARSHAVARDHANA accounts of the Chinese traveller
(606 – 647 A.D.) Hiuen Tsang. Besides these two Q. Emperor Harsha’s Southward
sources, the dramas written by march was stopped on the
The downfall of the Gupta Empire Harsha, namely Ratnavali, Namada river by:
was followed by a period of political Nagananda and Priyardarsika (a) Pulakesin-I
disorder and disunity in North India. also provide useful information. The (b) Pulakesin-II
It was only in the beginning of the Madhuben plate inscription and the (c) Vikramaditya-I
seventh century A.D. that Sonpat inscription are also helpful (d) Vikaramaditya-II
Harshvardhana succeeded in to know the chronology of Harsha.
establishing a larger kingdom in Ans. (b) (CSE, 2003)
The Banskhera inscription contains
north India. the signature of Harsha.
Harsha and Buddhism
Historical Sources: In his early life, Harsha was a
Harsha’s Military Conquests devout Saiva but later he became
Harshacharita written by Bana the
The most important military an ardent Hinayana Buddhist. Hiuen
court poet of Harsha and the Travel

Prelims Magic 2014 103

How was this topic asked in the CSE? Harsha’s Administration
How was this topic asked in the CSE?
Q. The Chinese traveler Yuan The administration of Harsha was
Q. Assertion (A): Harsha- Chwang (Hiuen Tsang) who organized on the same lines
vardhana convenced the Prayag visited India recorded the general
Assembly. as the Guptas did. Cruel
conditions and culture of India at punishments of the Mauryan period
Reason (R): He wanted to that time. In this context, which of
popularize only the Mahayana continued in the times of Harsha.

H form of Buddhism.
In the context of the above two
statements, which one of the
the following statements is/are
1. The roads and river-routes
Hiuen Tsang condemned the trials
as barbarous and superstitious.
Harsha’s army consisted of the

I following is correct?
(a) Both A and R are true and R
is the correct explanation of A
were completely immune from
2. As regards punishment for
traditional four divisions – foot,
horse, chariot and elephant. The
number of cavalry was more than

S (b) Both A and R are true but R is

not the correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
offences, ordeals by fire, water
and poison were the instruments
for determining the innocence or
one lakh and the elephants more
than sixty thousands. This was
much more than that of the
(d) A is false but R is true Mauryan army. The maintenance of
T Ans. (b) (CSE, 2001)
guilt of a person.
3. The tradesmen had to pay duties
at ferries and barrier stations.
public records was the salient
feature of Harsha’s administration.
Q. Consider the following The archive of the Harsha period
O statements:
1. The Chinese pilgrim Fa-Hien
Select the correct answer using the
codes given below.
(a) 1 only (b) 2 and 3 only
was known as nilopitu and it was
under the control of special officers.
attended the fourth Great Buddhist Both good and bad events happened
R Council held by Kanishka
The Chinese pilgrim Hiuen- Tsang
met Harsha and found him .to be
(c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans: b (CSE 2013)
Expl: Yuan Chwang himself was
during his time had been recorded.
Society and Economy
under Harsha
Y antagonistic to Buddhism.
Which of the statements given
above is/are correct?
robbed and the thugs had decided
to sacrifice him, but he was saved
by a hurricane.
The fourfold division of the society
– Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vysya and
(a) 1 only / Sudra – was prevalent. There
(b) 2 only Kanauj Assembly existed many sub castes. The
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) neither 1 nor 2 Harsha organized a religious position of women was not
assembly at Kanauj to honour the satisfactory. The institution of
Ans. (d) (CSE, 2004) Swyamvara (the choice of choosing
Explanation : The Chinese piligrim Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsang
towards the close of his reign. He her husband) had declined.
Fa-Hien came during Remarriage of widows was not
Chandragupta-II reign not during invited representatives of all
religious sects. The Assembly went permitted, particularly among the
Kanishka reign. Though Harsha
on continuously for 23 days. Hiuen higher castes. The system of dowry
was a Hindu he was not
antagonistic to Buddhism when Tsang explained the values of had also become common. The
Hiuen-Tsang met him. practice of sati was also prevalent.
Mahayana doctrine and established
Hiuen Tsang mentions three ways
its superiority over others. However, of disposal of the dead – cremation,
Tsang converted him to Mahayana violence broke out and there were water burial and exposure in the
Buddhism. Harsha prohibited the acts of arson. There was also an woods. The trade and commerce
use of animal food in his kingdom attempt on the life of Harsha. Soon, had declined during Harsha’s period.
and punished those who killed any it was brought under control and the This is evident from the decline of
living being. He erected thousands guilty were punished. On the final trade centres, less number of coins,
of stupas and established travellers’ day of the Assembly, Hiuen Tsang and slow activities of merchant
rests all over his kingdom. He also was honoured with costly presents. guilds. The decline of trade in turn
erected monasteries in the sacred Allahabad Conference: Hiuen affected the handicrafts industry
places of Buddhists. Once in five and agriculture. Since there was no
Tsang mentions in his account about
years he convened a gathering of large scale demand for goods, the
the conference held at Allahabad, farmers began to produce only in a
representatives of all religions and known as Prayag. It was the one limited way. This led to the rise of
honoured them with gifts and costly among the conferences routinely self-sufficient village economy. In
presents. He brought the Buddhist convened by Harsha once in five short, there was a sharp economic
monks together frequently to discuss years. Harsha gave away his decline as compared to the
and examine the Buddhist doctrine. enormous wealth as gifts to the economy of the Gupta period.
members of all religious sects.

104 Prelims Magic 2014

Cultural Progress institutions were the Hinayana in the syllabus. It attracted students
The art and architecture of Centre of Vallabhi and the not only from different parts of India
Harsha’s period are very few and Mahayana Centre. Hiuen Tsang but from different countries of the
mostly followed the Gupta style. gives a very valuable account of east. Admission was made by
The brick temple of Lakshmana at Nalanda. The term Nalanda means means of an entrance examination.
Sirpur with its rich architecture is “giver of knowledge”. It was The entrance test was so difficult
assigned to the period of Harsha. founded by Kumaragupta I during that not more than thirty percent of
Harsha was a great patron of
learning. His biographer Banabhatta
the Gupta period. It was patronised
by his successors and later by
the candidates were successful.
Discipline was very strict. More H
adorned his royal court. Besides Harsha. The Teachers of Nalanda than lectures, discussion played an
Harshacharita, he wrote
Kadambari. Other literary figures
were called panditas. Some of its
renowned teachers were Dingnaga,
Dharmapala, Sthiramati and
important part and the medium of
instruction was Sanskrit. Recent
archeological excavations have
in Harsha’s court were Matanga
Divakara and the famous
Barthrihari, who was the poet,
Silabadhra. Dharmapala was a
native of Kanchipuram and he
became the head of Nalanda.
brought to light the ruins of
Nalanda. It shows the grandeur of
this centre of learning and confirms
philosopher and grammarian.
Harsha himself authored three plays
- Ratnavali, Priyadarsika and
Nagananda. Harsha patronised
Nalanda was a residential teaching
centre and education was free
including the boarding and lodging.
the account given by the Chinese
pilgrims. It had numerous
classrooms and a hostel attached
the Nalanda University by his liberal
endowments. It attained
international reputation as a centre
It was maintained with the revenue
derived from 100 to 200 villages
endowed by different rulers.
to it. According to Itsing, the
Chinese pilgrim, there were 3000
students on its rolls. It had an
Though it was a Mahayana Centre, observatory and a great library
of learning during his reign. Hiuen
Tsang visited the Nalanda
University and remained as a
different religious subjects like the
Vedas, Hinayana doctrine, Sankhya
housed in three buildings. Its fame
rests on the fact that it attracted
student for some time. and Yoga philosophies were also scholars from various parts of the
Educational institutions
taught. In addition to that, general
subjects like logic, grammar,
world. It was an institution of
advanced learning and research.
The most famous educational astronomy, medicine and art were

known as the “Badami Chalukyas”,

THE KINGDOMS OF SOUTH ruled from their capital Vatapi
11 (modern Badami) from the middle
INDIA of the 6th century. The Badami
Chalukyas began to assert their
The Pallavas- The dynasty rose to varman was involved in fighting independence at the decline of the
power after the fall of the against the Chalukyas. The next Kadamba Kingdom of Banavasi
Satvahanas in eastern Deccan from ruler, Narasimhavarman (c. 700- and rapidly rose to prominence
Krishna to Palar with their capital 728 AD), is known for his during the reign of Pulakesin II
at Kanchi. Vishnugopa is known to architectural activities. He built the (c. 609-10 AD). His achievements
have formed an all aince against the Ratha Temple at Mahabalipuram are recorded in the Jain temple
Gupta monarch Samudragupta but and Kailasnath temple at Kanchi. inscription at Aihole. The empire
was defeated. The dynasty faded The port of Mammallapuram was exteded upto Malwa and Gujarat
away with this defeat. However, in also built by Narasimhavarman. He under him. Pulakesin II annexed the
the 6 th c. AD the Pallavas also sent an ambassador to China Pallava territories between the
resurfaced under the rule of and was honoured by the Chinese Krishna River and Godavari and
Simhavishnu. He defeated the Emperor. After Nandivarman the placed it under his Governor. After
Cholas in the 6th c. AD and extended dynasty became weak and was the death of Pulakesi II, the portion
their power upto Kaveri. He also overthrown by the imperial Cholas. of the eastern Deccan became an
defeated the Chera, Chola, Pandya independent kingdom under the
The Chalukya dynasty was royal Eastern Chalukyas. They ruled from
and Badami rulers.
dynasty that ruled large parts of their capital, Vengi, until about the
Mahendravarman I was a famous southern and central India between 11th century. The Western
ruler of this dynasty. He not only the 6th and the 12th centuries. Chalukyas ruled from Kalyani till
faought the Chalukyas but was also During this period, they ruled as the end of the 12th century. Tailapa
known for literary achievements. three related, but individual (c. 945-75 AD) made extensive
Throughout his reign, Mahendra- dynasties. The earliest dynasty, conquests and defeated the Gangas

Prelims Magic 2014 105

of Mysore and Pramaras of Malwa. Kavirajamarga in Kannada. the neighbouring and far lying
King Vikramaditya VI (c.1076- Krishna III (934-963 AD) is territories within the Indian
1126 AD) was a great patron of arts known to have defeated the Chola continent, forming a great Chola
and literature. He started the King Parantaka I and extended Empire. He was agreat general and
Chalukya –Vikram Era. Bilhana empire upto Rameswaram where defeated the Chera navy and
who was the author of a victory pillar and a temple were conquered Vengi. Rajaraja I
Vikramankadevacharita and built. defeated a confederation of the
H Vijnaneshwara adorned his court.
With the defeat of Kirtivarman II
Architecture reached a milestone
in the Dravidian style, the finest
three kingdoms of Pandya, Chera
and Ceylon. Rajendra I sent a naval
by the Rashtrakutas this dynasty expedition to Sri Vijaya (South-East
I came to an end.
The rule of the Chalukyas marks an
example of which is seen in the
Kailasnatha Temple in Ellora. Other
important contributions are the
Asia) which was a success.This
expedition was sent to overcome
any disruption in trade with
S important milestone in the history of
South India. The political scene in
the South shifted from smaller
sculptures of Elephanta Caves in
Maharashtra as well as the
Kasivisvanatha Temple and the Jain
China.He is credited with the
conquest of Kalinga and islands of
the sea identified a the Laccadives
T kingdoms to large empires with the
ascendancy of Badami Chalukyas.
For the first time, a South Indian
Narayana Temple at Pattadakal in
Karnataka. and the “Maldives. He adopted titles
such as Mummadi Choladeva”,
How was this topic asked in the CSE? “Jayagonda Chola” etc. He
O kingdom took control and
consolidated the entire region
between the Kaveri and Narmada
Q. Who among the following laid
the foundation of Rashtrakuta
constructed the (Shiva temple)
Rajarajeswara Temple at
Thanjavur which is noted for its
R rivers.
The Rashtrakutas- Dantidurga
(a) Amostghavarsha
(b) Dantidurga
magnificent architecture. His
successor, Rajendra I, Gangai-
laid the foundation of Rashtrakuta konda (1014-1044 AD), carried on
Y Empire. It’s original name was
Dantivarman. This was a royal
(c) Dhruva
(d) Krishna I
with the conquests and extension of
the Empire. He annexed whole of
dynasty ruling large parts of Ans. (b) (CSE, 2001) Sri Lanka in 1017 AD. He marched
southern, central and northern India The Cholas- The dynasty proved upto Bengal and defeated the Pala
between 6th and 10th c. AD. During to be the ultimate power in South
this period they ruled as several India after their revival in the 9th c.
closely related, but individual clans. How was this topic asked in the CSE?
AD. The entire Tamil country was
The earliest grant is a copper plate made a strong political power. The Q. Consider the following
inscription from the Malwa region. promotion of art and culture under statements:
Other inscriptions are known from the Cholas also reached the peak 1. The Cholas defeated Pandya
Maharashtra and Kannauj. They of development. Trade and and Chera rulers and established
ruled as feudatories of the commerce advanced as trade their domination over peninsular
Chalukyas of Badami and contacts were formed with India in the early medieval times.
Dantidurga overthrew the rule of countries of South East Asia. The 2. The Cholas sent an expedition
the Chalukyas. They were in power Ashokan Edicts II and XIII Rock against Sailendra empire of South
in c.753 AD. This period, between Edicts refer to the Cholas. The East Asia and conquered some of
the eight and the tenth centuries, saw Cholas became a paramount power the areas
a tripartite struggle (Palas, Pratihara under Vijayalaya who was probably Which of these statements is/are
and Rashtrakutas) each of these a vassal of the Pallava kings. His correct?
three empires annexing the seat of son, Aditya I, defeated the Pallava (a) Only 1
power at Kannauj for short periods king and extended the Chola (b) Only 2
of time. At their peak the territories to Tondaimandalam. (c) Both 1 and 2
Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta or Parantaka I, captured Madurai by (d) Neither 1 nor 2
Malkhed in Maharashtra ruled a defeating the Pandya king. Ans. (c) (CSE, 2003)
vast empire stretching from the However, he had to cede
Ganga-Yamuna Doab region in the Tondaimandalam to his rival. Q. Which one of the Chola kings
north to eastern coast upto Cape
In c. 985-1014 AD king Rajaraja conquered Ceylon?
Comorin under Dhruva.
Chola -I ascended the throne as the (a) Aditya-I (b) Rajaraja-I
Amoghvarsha I was the most
next successor to the Chola (c) Rajendra (d) Vijayalaya
powerful ruler of this dynasty. He
also wrote the work kingdom. He gradually conquered Ans. (c) (CSE, 2001)

106 Prelims Magic 2014

King, Mahipala. He asserted Punishment for minor crimes were Chiragasindamani is a classical
supremacy in the Chera and in the form of fines or a direction work of Tamil literature; Kamban’s
Pandyan kingdoms. He took the for the offender to donate to some Ramayana was written during this
title of “Gangaikondachola” and charitable endowment. Even crimes period. Jayamkondar’s masterpiece
built the capital in this name. such as manslaughter or murder Kalingattuparani is an example of
Ajadhiraja suppressed rebellions in were punished with fines. Crimes narrative poetry.
Pandya, Kerala and Ceylon of the state, such as treason, were
kingdoms. Virarajendra also sent
naval expedition for the conquest
heard and decided by the king
himself; the typical punishment in
Temple architecture in the form
of free standing Shikhar (tower)
and a Gopuram developed. The
of Kadaram (Sri Vijaya) on behalf these cases was either execution or
of a prince who had come in search
of his aid and protection.In the 13th
the confiscation of property.
Rajarajeshwara or the Brihade-
shwara temple is the finest example
of this. Sculpture in stone and bronze
c. AD the Chola kingdom was Art and Culture
annexed by the Pandyas.
Under the Cholas, the Tamil country
reached new heights of excellence
reached new heights in this age.
Dancing Shiva (Nataraja) in bronze
with four hands and Arthanariswar
art, religion and literature. Tamil
The Cholas’ system of government
was monarchical. The king was the
language developed immensely due
to its close contact with Sanskrit.
are fine examples of the art of this
period. T
supreme commander and a
benevolent dictator. His
administrative role consisted of GANDHARA - MATHURA
issuing oral commands to 12
responsible officers when
representations were made to him.
A powerful bureaucracy assisted
the king in the tasks of
administration and in executing his
The Gandhara region comprises the
area west of the river Indus and
Gandhara school of Art, as also
on the Gandhara coins where all
orders. The fairness of king’s north of river Kabul. It includes deities Indian, Iranian, Buddhist,
orders depended on the goodness valley of Peshawar, Swat, Dir, and Greco-Roman, Bactrian, Parthian
of the man and in his belief in Bajaur and extends eastwards to the were invoked. The Kanishka statue
Dharma—a sense of fairness and Taxila valley in the Punjab and found at Surkh Kotal in Afghanistan
justice. westwards to Hadda and Bamiyan embodies the best of Kushana style
in Afghanistan. in Gandhara iconography. The
The empire was divided into
Kushana period marks an important
provinces and further into Valanadu The Gandhara School of Art
epoch in Indian history because
and nadu. Village was the smallest flourished in the north-west of
India came into close contact with
unit of administration. Every village undivided India and the eastern
the outside world during their rule.
was a self-governing unit.The Afghanistan for nearly eight
It also marks the beginning of the
Cholas were known for their local hundred years, between the first
golden age of Gandhara art.
self-government which existed at century B.C and the 7th century
Kushanas had intimate contact with
the level of the village. Each village A.D under the patronage of the
Rome and Greece.
had an assembly, Ur. It was general Kushana rulers in the form of
in nature consisting of tax paying Mahayana Buddhism. Gandhara THEMES
people. Sabha- gathering of adult was a part of Kushana Empire in
men of the village. Villages were the first century A.D when In their interpretation of the Buddhist
of two types, Brahmadeya (those Gandhara and Mathura Schools of legends, the Gandhara artists leaned
granted to the Brahmanas) and Art moved towards excellence. The heavily on classical Roman art with
Agrahara (restricted to the greatest ruler of the dynasty, and of Greek mythology such as
Brahmins). Nagaram- this was Kanishka, had adopted Buddhism angels with garlands, Tritons the fish
found in trading centres alone. The and it was during his period that both tails and horse’s forefoot, Centaurs
Chola officials were supervisory Buddhist religion and Greek art with human heads, arms and the
and the village functioned as a self reached their zenith which is known body, spiral and flowing lines, scrolls
sufficient unit. as Gandhara Civilization. and stuccos. The Gandhâra School
drew upon the anthropomorphic
Justice was mostly a local matter The Kushanas fostered a composite traditions of Roman religion and
in the Chola Empire; minor disputes culture so exquisitely exemplified by represented the Buddha with a
were settled at the village level. the artistic creations of the youthful Apollo-like face, dressed in

Prelims Magic 2014 107

garments resembling those seen on Gandhara School of Art bears by the orthodox Taliban regime in
Roman imperial statues. The result testimony to the fact that there was Afghanistan in March 2001. It was
is that we have Buddha with curly more contact between India and condemned worldwide.
hair, muscles and moustaches. Afghanistan during the period the
The Mathura school excelled in
Gautama is made to look like the Mauryas, Indo-Greeks, Sakas and Yaksha (malespirit) closely
youthful Apollo, the Greek sun-god Kushanas. The materials used for resembling the colossal standing
symbolising beauty. Buddha’s Gandhâra sculpture were green
H mother was depicted as an Athenian
matron. The Gandhâran craftsmen
phyllite and gray-blue mica schist,
which, in general, belong to an earlier
figure of Buddha of the Gandhara
School. It amalgamated the
features of old folk cults like Yaksha
made a lasting contribution to phase, and stucco, which was used
I Buddhist art in their composition of
the events of the Buddha’s life into
increasingly after the 3rd c. AD. A
large number of stucco images of
worship with contemporary cults
and other local Gods and Goddesses,
creating a style rich in aesthetic
set scenes. The Bodhisattatva the Buddha are found in the appeal. The female figurines of
S figures from Gandhara region
especially Taxila and other regions
Gandhara region. The sculptures
were originally painted and gilded.
Mathura (Yakshis) are sensuous
and eye catching. A Yakshi is
of West Pakistan show the One such figure was the figure of usually portrayed nude with
T influence on the art of the region.
Scenes depicted through Buddhis art
Athena of Rome at Lahore made
of blue-gray schist found only in
globular breasts invariably covered,
smooth thighs and the lower
are the first sermon of the Buddha Gandhara region. Stone, terracotta garments mostly transparent. Her
O and his death, previous birth stories
(Jatakas) and future Buddhas
and bronze was also used as
medium for the Gandhara Art.
physical charms, combined with soft
and pleasant facial expressions,
(Maitreya Buddha). The poses of make her extremely enticing.
R the Buddha in the Gandhara school
of Art are the Dhyana mudra (
The style is generally part of the
At Mathura, the Buddha image was
cast in the red-sandstone obtained
gesture of meditation and of the Greco-Buddhist art. The speciali- from Sikri quarries. The Mathura
Y concentration of the Good Law.),
Abhaya Mudra (represents
zation of the artist was in the
realistic and naturalistic portrayal of
school produced Bodhisattatva
images in plenty from the 2nd c. AD.
protection, peace, benevolence, and the Buddha. The accuracy of These were carved of local
dispelling of fear.), Dharma Chakra physical details and the realistic sandstone and were essentially
mudra ( represents a central depiction of the human body sitting images of the Buddha.
moment in the life of Buddha when covered by drapes is the STYLE
he preached his first sermon after achievement of the Gandhara art.
his Enlightenment.) and Bhumis- Thick bold fold lines on the face The Mathura school is famous for
parsha mudra (Symbolizes the were sculpted carefully and its representation of the beauty of
precise moment when the artistically. the female form. The style
awakening Buddha, Shakyamuni, perpetuated by this school is marked
The Gandhara style of art was by female figures, which are
vanquished the army of Mara influenced by Mahayana Buddhism
beneath the bodhi-tree and sensuous and voluptuous, while the
and was gradually transmitted to men are represented as being
summoned the goddess of the earth Far East in the later centuries in the
Sthavara, to bear witness to his sophisticated and urbane.
form of Mahayana Buddhism.
countless acts of sacrifice. Also Excavations from Khotan (Chinese The Budhha images of the Mathura
symbolizes the union of hi method school were more sublime and
Turkistan) show that it represented
or skillful means in overcoming focused on the spiritual depiction on
a blend of four civilizations India,
Mara (right hand), through the the face. The Mathura School of Art,
Greek, Iranian and Chinese. noted for its vitality and assimilative
perfect wisdom of his deep Kaniska’s coins depict an
meditation upon emptiness (left character, was a result of the
amalgamation of various deities religious zeal of Brahmanism,
hand).  such as Persian and Roman Gods, Jainism and Buddhism. The
A large number of clay Buddhas and Greek deities. Shiva and Skanda sculptures of the Buddha, on the
have been excavated in eastern and representations on Kushana coins other hand, radiate the religious
central Afghanistan which was show the extent to which they were feelings of gentleness and
under the influence of Mahayana Indianised. A gold coin also showed compassion. In fact, it was during
Buddhism after the historic Buddhist a standing figure of Buddha. The the Kushana period that the Buddha
split at Purushapura(modern art died with the invasion of the Huns was conceived in human form and
Peshawar in Pakistan) in the days in the 5th c. AD. More recently, the sculpted in stone. Carved in bold
of Kanishka, the Great. The Bamiyan Buddhas were destroyed relief, the features were given a

108 Prelims Magic 2014

three-dimensional effect and a themselves as the “Kshatriyas of How was this topic asked in the CSE?
radient expression. The eyes are the lunar race”. Founder was Vishnu
Vardhana (1110-40 A.D.) Q.When Raja Wodeyar founded
fully open, the cheeks round and full,
the Kingdom of Mysore, who was
the mount ample, with the lips drawn Their capital was Dwarsamudra. the ruler of the Vijayanagar
into a slight smile. This smile is
Hoysala rulers were great builders Empire?
probably the earliest appearance of (a) Sadasiva (b) Tirumala
the only possible device by which and under them architecture and
the Indian sculpture could indicate
The colossal sculptures of the
sculpture received great encoura-
gement. Monuments are still
(c) Ranga II
Ans. (d)
(d) Venkata II
(CSE, 2005) H
Buddha, which portray a frontal present around Halebid. The most Q. Lord Buddha’s image is
stance, are fine specimens of the
inner contentment and repose of the
famous is Hoysalesvra temple at
Halebid. This temple is dedicated to
sometimes shown with the hand
gesture called ‘Bhumisparsha I
Buddha. The craftsmanship of the Mudra’. It symbolizes:
Mathura artists, broad shoulders,
masculine torso and right hand
When Raja Wodeyar founded the
Kingdom of Mysore, Venkata II was
(a) Buddha’s calling of the Earth
to watch over Mara and to prevent
Mara from disturbing his
raised in abhyamudra are the typical the ruler of the Vijayanagar Empire.
characteristics. The drapery clings
to the body in fine rhythmic folds Chandela Dynasty-Their kingdom
was known as Jejabhukti in Ancient
(b) Buddha’s calling of the Earth
to witness his purity and chastity
while a big designed halo behind the
head adds an extra aura of
divinity.The artists also depicted
Important rulers-Nannuk-founded
despite the temptations of Mara
(c) Buddha’s reminder to his
followers that they all arise from
various Jain deities. Of the Jain the dynasty,Harsha,Yashovarma,
images, the important ones are
Ayagapattas or homage stone
Dhanga, Ganda and Vidyadhar.
About 30 temples were erected in
Khajuraho in praise of Vishnu,
the Earth and finally dissolve into
the Earth, and thus this life is
tablets, which are carved with
auspicious symbols like fish, flag,
jewel box, etc.
Shiva and Jain.
How was this topic asked in the CSE?
(d) Both the statements (a) and
(b) are correct in this context
Ans. (d) (CSE, 2012)
DIFFERENCES: The schools of
Q. Which one of the following Q. Which one of the following
Gandhâra and Mathura each
pairs is· correctly matched? statements is not correct?
independently evolved its own
(a) Harappan Civilization (a) The statue of Gomateshwara
characteristic depiction of the - Painted Grey Ware at  Sravana­belagola  represents
Buddha about the 1st c. AD. The (b) The Kushans the last Tirthankara of Jains
schools of Gandhâra and Mathura - Gandhra School of Art (b) India’s largest Buddhist
influenced each other, and the (c) The Mughals monastery is in Arunachal
general trend was away from a - Ajanta Paintings Pradesh
naturalistic conception and toward (d) The Marathas (c) The Khajuraho temples were
a more idealized, abstract image. - Pahari School of Painting built under Chandela Kings
Both the schools also produced Ans. (b) (CSE, 1996) (d) The hoysalesvara temple is
seated Buddhas with broad Explanation: The Gandhara school dedicated to Siva
shouldered shaven head, smiling of act develoved during the Ans. (b) (CSE, 2002)
face and right arm in a gesture of Kushana period. Rest of the Q. Hoysala monuments are found
AbhayaMudra. While in options are wrongly matched as in:
Gandhara, Buddha is seated on a painted grey ware was during (a) Hampi and Hosper
lotus throne, in Mathura the Master vedic period, Ajanta paintings (b) Halebid and Belur
rests on a lion throne. Again, while during Gupta period and Pahari (c) Mysore and Bangalore
the Gandhara Buddha is draped in School paintings during Mughal (d) Sringeri and Dharwar
the central Asian fashion, the period. Ans (b) (CSE, 2001)
Mathura figures wear Indian GANGAS OF ORISSA - First
dresses. Q. In which one of the following
ruler was Anantavarman Choda cities is the Lingaraja Temple
HOYSALAS OF Gangadeva (1076-1147). He located?
DWARSAMUDRA establised his power between the (a) Bhubaneswar
teritory of the Gangas and the (b) Bijapur
Hoysalas rose to power towards the Godavari. He built Jagannath temple
beginning of the eleventh century (c) Kolkata
at Puri. Lingaraja temple was built
A.D. around present day Mysore (d) Shravananbelagola
in Bhubaneswar by the Choda-
and Madras. They regarded ganga ruler. Ans. (a) (CSE, 2000)

Prelims Magic 2014 109

suzerainty of the Caliph. In his court,
THE ARAB CONQUEST OF was the poet Firdausi who wrote
13 the Shah Namah. He patronised the
SIND AND OTHER INVASIONS Persian language and culture in his
The first contact with the Muslim records one such raids by the He had the ambitions to expand

H world with the Indian subcontinent

was primarily through trade. The
Arabs in the region. It informs that
the invaders advanced as far as
further east into heartlands of India.
He repeatedly invaded India 17
times over 25 years in the desire to
Arabs made several attempts to get Navsari in Gujarat.
I hold of the plains of the Indus for
the lucrative trade that was going
The Arabs came through Baroda
and the Rann of Kachh. Similar
capture India’s wealth and was in
need of a capital to maintain a large
army. He defeated the Hindushahi
on between India and the western raids were recorded in Gwalior
S world.
Infact, the word “Hindu” as
grant of Gurjara-Pratihara king
Bhoja I who ruled Avanti in 725
King of Peshawar, Jayapala, and
rulers of of Multan. Jayapala had
earlier invaded the Ghaznavid
AD. The grant records that the
T reference to
the people of Hind (India) was fIrst
King had defeated an army of
Mlechhas who invaded his
Empire during the rule of the
Samanids. Thus, when Muhamud
acended the throne of Ghazni, he
used by the Arabs. As the letter “S” dominions. Pratihara chief
O was absent in the Arabic alphabet,
they used “H” in place of “S”. So,
Nagabhatta checked the progress
of the Arabs into Malwa.
targeted and invaded the
Hindushahis of Peshawar and
defeated Jayapala. Jayapala later
the Arabas called “Sindh” as “Hind” According to the Chahnama,
R (India and “Hindu” in place of
Muhammed had proceeded from
Multan to the frontiers of Kashmir
entered the funeral pyre as he was
completely disgraced by this defeat.
The conflict was carried forward
How was this topic asked in the CSE? and at the same time time sent an
Y Q. The word ‘Hindu’ as reference
to the people of Hind (India) was
expedition to Kannauj.
by his son, Anandapala, who along
with a confederacy of rulers of
Multan, Kannauj, and Rajasthan
Such was the beginning of Arab
fIrst used by: domination in India. It is surprising took on Mahmud. However, the
(a) the Greeks (b) the Romans that the victorious Arab forces did superior forces of Mahmud headed
(c) the Chinese (d) the Arabs not advance to the interiors of India by the cavalry defeated all the
Ans. (d) (CSE, 1995) and remained confined to Sind. The rivals.
only probable answer to this is the The areas looted by Mahamud
The Arabian Governor of Iraq,
resistance put up by the different were Nagarkot in Punjab, and
Al-Hajaj took the first initiative in
regional powers to the invasion of Thanesar in the Doab, Gujarat
marching towards Sind with the
the Arabs into their territories. (temple of Somnath) and
mind to establish a kingdom. After
Lalitaditya, the king of Kashmir, Kannauj in 1018 AD, Mathura and
repeated attempts, the Governor
also resisted and thuwarted the receeded via Kalinjhar in
sent his nephew and son-in law
efforts of the invaders to get a Bundelkhand with numerous riches
Imaduddin Muhhamed bin Qasim.
strong foot hold into Kashmir. looted from these regions.Later he
The ruler of Sind, Dahir, put up a
Gurjara-Pratiharas in the northern died in 1030 AD in Ghazni.
brave fight only to be defeated and
India and Chalukyas defended the
killed. By 712 AD, the conquest of Muhammed Shahbuddin Ghori
Deccan and were the formidable
Sind was complete along with was originally called Muizuddin
forces that resisted and confronted
Multan by the Arabs. The aim of Muhammed Ibn Sam but famously
the Arab invasions.
this conquest was not so much the known as Muhammed of Ghor (a
spread of Islam but to protect TURKISH INVASIONS province in Central Afghanistan).
commerce. The Arabs thus started Muhammed Ghori (1162 –1206)
Mahmud of Ghazni was the ruler
penetration into the Indian sub- was a powerful governor and
of the Ghaznavid Empire from 997
continent thereafter. This resulted general and ultimately Sultan of the
AD until his death. His empire
in in clashes with the local rulers in Ghorid dynasty, centered in modern
included modern-day Afghanistan,
the western part of India. Chief day Afghanistan. He was the
most of Iran as well as regions of
among them was the Chalukyas and Governor of Ghazna and the
north-west India including modern-
Gurjara-Pratiharas. The Nausari surrounding area from 1173 to 1192.
day Pakistan. He was also the first
grant of Pulakesin and his viceroy, He became Sultan in 1202 till his
ruler to carry the title Sultan,
Avani Janshraya, in the region of death in 1206. He is known to have
signifying his break from the
Lata (South Gujarat) in 738-9 AD

110 Prelims Magic 2014

carved out the first Muslim Empire 1192 AD. This time, Jai Chand of 1. Qutbi dynasty (1206-1211)
in India. The political strife between Kannauj and Banaras founded by Qutbuddin Aibak.
the Ghurids, Seljukids and the (Jayachandra), one of the former 2. First Ilbari dynasty (1211- 1266)
Turkish tribes across the Oxus allies of Prithviraj Chauhan, failed founded by Iltutmish.
compelled the Ghurids to look to support him, and Prithviraj was 3. Second Ilbari dynasty (1266-
elsewhere for setting up base. The defeated miserably. The superior 1290) founded by Balban.
rising power of the Khwarizmi cavalry of the Turkish forces
regime and the conflict over
Khorasan also forced the Ghurids
diminished the numerical strength of
Prithviraj’s army. Prithviraj
Qutbuddin Aibak (1206-1210)
Qutbuddin Aibak was a slave of H
to expand to the east into India. Chauhan along with Govindaraj was Muhammad Ghori, who made him
Muhammed Ghori proceeded via
the Gomal Pass, Muhammed bin
put to death. Muhammed Ghori thus
captured Ajmer and regions of Delhi
the Governor of his Indian
possessions. He set up his military I
and eastern Punjab came under headquarters at Indraprasta, near
Sam also known as Muhammed
Ghori annexed Multan and Uchch
in 1175 AD. He was defeated by
Turkish rule.
In the next round of invasions
Delhi. He raised a standing army
and established his hold over north
India even during the life time of
the Chalukyan King, Mularaja II
near Mount Abu. Punjab was his
next target and via the Khyber Pass
Muhammed Ghori targetted the
kingdom of Kannauj. Jayachandra,
the ruler of Kannauj and
Ghori. After the death of Ghori in
1206, Aibak declared his
independence. He severed all
he invaded Peshawar, Lahore and
Sialkot regions in the Punjab in 1190
Muhammed Ghori fought a fierce
battle at Chandrawar in 1194 AD.
Jayachandra was defeated and
connections with the kingdom of
Ghori and thus founded the Slave
dynasty as well as the Delhi
Muhammed Ghori attacked the
north-western regions of India
killed. The Battle of Chandrawar
paved the way for the establishment
of Turkish rule in India. Important
Sultanate. He assumed the title
Sultan and made Lahore his capital.
His rule lasted for a short period of
twice. In 1191 AD, he invaded the
territory of Prithviraj Chauhan of
Ajmer, who ruled much of present-
regions like Kannauj upto Benaras
were conquered by Muhammed
Ghori and a major portion of north
four years. Muslim writers call
Aibak Lakh Baksh or giver of lakhs
because he gave liberal donations
day Rajasthan and Haryana. to them. Aibak patronized the great
India came under Turkish rule. The
Muhammed Ghori was defeated at scholar, Hasan Nizami. He also
result of the establishment of the
Tarain (Tabarhind, Bhatinda) by started the construction of
Turksh rule in India was clear in the
Prithvîrâj’s vassal, Govindaraj of Kuthubminar after the name of a
centralized monarchical system of
Delhi. Prithviraj committed the famous Sufi saint Khwaja
governance. The dilution of the
mistake by not uprooting the Ghurids Qutbuddin Bakthiyar. It was later
feudal system previously established
from the Punjab. This gave a lot of completed by Iltutmish. Aibak died
was transformed into the Iqta suddenly while playing chaugan
time to the invader to plan another
system. The diverse regional (horse polo) in 1210. He was
attack. The following year Ghorî
kigdoms were bound by the succeeded by his son Aram Baksh,
assembled a large army and once
centralized political system and far who was replaced by Iltutmish after
again invaded the Kingdom of
flung areas were brought under the eight months.
Ajmer. On the same field at Tarain,
centralized rule.
a second battle was fought in How was this topic asked in the CSE?
Q. How did Sultan Qutb-ud-din
14 DELHI SULTANATE Aibak die ?
(a) He was treacherously stabbed
The period between the thirteenth b) The Khaljis (c. 1290-1320 AD) to death by one of his ambitious
and the sixteenth century witnessed c) The Tuglaqs (c. 1320-1451 AD) nobles .
the rule of five dynasties with their d) The Sayyeds (c. 1414-1451 AD) (b) He was killed in a battle with
base at Delhi. These dynasties were e) The Lodhis (1451-1526 AD) Taj-u-din Yildiz, the ruler of Ghazni
independent of each other and ruled who entered into a contest with
Slave Dynasty him over the capture of Punjab
one after the other. The period as a
whole is known as the period of the The Slave dynasty was also called (c) He sustained injuries while
Mamluk dynasty. The Slave dynasty besieging the fortress of Kalinjar
Delhi Sultanate. These dynasties ruled Delhi from A.D. 1206 to 1290. in Budelkhand and’ succumbed to
are as follows: In fact, three dynasties were them later
a) The Ilbari Turks (c. 1206-1290 established during this period. They (d) He died after a fall from his
AD) were horse while playing Chaugan
Ans. (d) (CSE, 2003)

Prelims Magic 2014 111

Iltutmish (1211-1236) Apart from completing the son of Iltutmish on the throne.
construction of Qutb Minar at Delhi, However, Raziya won over her
Iltutmish belonged to the Ilbari tribe the tallest stone tower in India (238 captor, Altunia, and after marrying
and hence his dynasty was named ft.), he built a magnificent mosque him proceeded to Delhi. But she was
as Ilbari dynasty. His half brothers at Ajmir. Iltutmish introduced the defeated and killed. The fall of
sold him as a slave to Aibak, who Arabic coinage into India and the Raziya paved the way for the
made him his-son-in law by giving silver tanka weighing 175 grams ascendancy of the Forty. In the next
H his daughter in marriage to him.
Later Aibak appointed him as
iqtadar of Gwalior. In 1211 Iltutmish
became a standard coin in medieval
India. The silver tanka remained the
six years, Bahram and Masud ruled
Delhi. There ensued a struggle for
basis of the modern rupee. Iltutmish supremacy between the Sultans and
I defeated Aram Baksh and became
Sultan. He shifted his capital from
Lahore to Delhi. During the first ten
had also created a new class of ruling
elite of forty powerful military
the nobles. In 1246 Balban
succeeded in putting Nasiruddin
leaders, the Forty. Mahmud, a younger son of
S years of his reign he concentrated
on securing his throne from his
rivals. In the meantime, Temujin
How was this topic asked in the CSE?
Iltutmish, as Sultan.
Era of Balban (1246-1287)
Q. The Mongols under Cherngiz
T popularly known as Chengiz Khan,
the leader of the Mongols, started
invading Central Asia. He defeated
Khan invaded India during the
reign of :
Ghiyasuddin Balban, who was also
known as Ulugh Khan, served as
(a) Balban Naib or regent to Sultan Nasiruddin
O Jalaluddin Mangabarni, the ruler of
Kwarizam. Mangabarni crossed the
river Indus and sought asylum from
(b) Feroz Tughlaq
(c) Iltutmish
Mahmud. He also strengthened his
position by marrying his daughter to
(d) Muhammad Bin Thghlaq the Sultan. Balban was all powerful
R Iltutmish. Iltutmish refused to give
him shelter in order to save his
empire from the onslaught of the
Ans. (c) (CSE, 2001) in the administration but he had to
face the intrigues of his rivals in
Explanation : The Mongol under the royal court. He had overcome
Y Mongols. Fortunately for Iltutmish,
Chengiz Khan retuned home
without entering into India. In fact,
Chengiz Khan invaded India
during the reign of Iltutmish but he
all the difficulties. In 1266
Nasiruddin Mahmud died without
did not enter deep in India as issues and Balban ascended the
the Mongol policy of Iltutmish saved Iltutmish refused to give shelter to throne. Balban’s experience as the
India from the wrath of Chengiz the persian king whom Chengiz regent made him to understand the
Khan. Iltutmish marched against Khan was· chasing. problems of Delhi Sultanate. He
Bengal and Bihar and reasserted his knew that the real threat to the
control over them. He also annexed Raziya (1236-1240)
monarchy was from the nobles
Sind and Multan into the Delhi Although Iltutmish nominated his called the Forty. He was convinced
Sultanate. He suppressed the Rajput daughter, Raziya, as his successor, that only by enhancing the power
revolts and recovered Ranthampur, the Qazi of Delhi and Wazir put and authority of the monarchy he
Jalor, Ajmir and Gwalior. He led an Ruknuddin Feroz on the throne. could face the problems. He
expedition against the Paramaras of When the Governor of Multan assumed the title of Zil-I-Ilahi that
Malwa but it was not successful. revolted, Ruknuddin marched to means “Shadow of God”. Balban
Iltutmish was a great statesman. He suppress that revolt. Using this introduced rigorous court discipline
received the mansur, the letter of opportunity, Raziya with the support and new customs such as
recognition, from the Abbasid of Amirs of Delhi seized the throne prostration and kissing the Sultan’s
Caliph in 1229 by which he became of Delhi Sultanate. She appointed an feet to prove his superiority over the
the legal sovereign ruler of India. Abyssinian slave Yakuth as Master nobles. He also introduced the
Later, he nominated his daughter of the Royal Horses. Also, Raziya Persian festival of Nauroz to
Raziya, as his successor. Thus the discarded the female apparel and impress the nobles and people with
hereditary succession to Delhi held the court with her face unveiled. his wealth and power. He stood
Sultanate was initiated by Iltutmish. She even went for hunting and led forth as the champion of Turkish
He patronized many scholars and a the army. This aroused resentment nobility. At the same time he did not
number of Sufi saints came to India among the Turkish nobles. In 1240, share power with other nobles.
during his reign. Minhaj-us-Siraj, Altunia, the Governor of Bhatinda Indian Muslims were not given
Ta j - u d- d i n . , N i z a m- u l - mu l k revolted against her. She went in important post in the government.
Muhammad Janaidi, Malik Qutb-ud- person to suppress the revolt but He appointed spies to monitor the
din Hasan and Fakhrul-Mulk Isami Altunia killed Yakuth and took activities of the nobles. Balban was
were his contemporary scholars Raziya prisoner. In the meantime, the determined to break the power of
who added grandeur to his court. Turkish nobles put Bahram, another the Forty, the Turkish nobles. He

112 Prelims Magic 2014

spared only the most obedient marked the zenith of Muslim them in cash from the royal
nobles and eliminated all others by imperialism in India. The founder of treasury. According to Ferishta, he
fair or foul means. Malik Baqbaq, the Khalji dynasty was Jalaluddin recruited 4,75,000 cavalrymen. He
the Governor of Badaun, was Khalji. He was seventy years old introduced the system of dagh
publicly flogged for his cruelty when he came to power. He was (branding of horses) and prepared
towards his servants. Haybat Khan, generous and lenient. Malik Chhajju, huliya (descriptive list of soldiers).
the Governor of Oudh, was also nephew of Balban, was allowed to In order to ensure maximum
punished for killing a man who was
drunk. Sher Khan, the Governor of
remain the Governor of Kara. His
leniency was misunderstood as
efficiency, a strict review of army
from time to time was carried out.
Bhatinda was poisoned. Instead of weakness. When Chhajju revolted, The introduction of paying salaries
expanding his kingdom, Balban paid
more attention to the restoration of
it was suppressed but he was
pardoned. When the thugs (robbers)
in cash to the soldiers led to price
regulations popularly called as
law and order. He established a looted the country, they were Market Reforms. Alauddin Khalji
separate military department -
diwan-i-arz – and reorganized the
allowed to go after a severe
warning. In 1292 when Malik
established four separate markets
in Delhi, one for grain; another for
army. The outskirts of Delhi were Chhajju revolted for the second cloth, sugar, dried fruits, butter and
often plundered by the Mewatis.
Balban took severe action against
time, he was replaced by his son-
in-law, Alauddin Khalji. In 1296
oil; a third for horses, slaves and
cattle; and a fourth for
them and prevented such robberies. Alauddin Khalji took an expedition miscellaneous commodities. Each
Robbers were mercilessly pursued
and put to death. As a result, the
to Devagiri and returned to Kara.
During the reception there, Alauddin
market was under the control of a
high officer called Shahna-i-
roads became safe for travel. In Khalji treacherously murdered his Mandi. The supply of grain was
1279, Tughril Khan, the Governor
of Bengal revolted against Balban.
father-in-law, Jalaluddin Khalji and
usurped the throne of Delhi.
ensured by holding stocks in
government store-houses. Regula-
It was suppressed and he was tions were issued to fix the price of
beheaded. In the northwest, the
Mongols reappeared and Balban
Alauddin Khalji (1296-1316)
Alauddin Khalji made enormous
all commodities. A separate
department called Diwani Riyasat
sent his son, Prince Mahmud, gifts to the hostile nobles and Amirs was created under an officer called
against them. But the prince was of Delhi to win over them to his side. Naib-i-Riyasat. Every merchant
killed in the battle and it was a moral Those who still opposed his was registered under the Market
blow to the Sultan. Balban died in accession were punished severely. department. There were secret
1287. He was undoubtedly one of He framed regulations to control the agents called munhiyans who sent
the main architects of the Delhi nobles. He was convinced that the reports to the Sultan regarding the
Sultanate. He enhanced the power general prosperity of the nobles, functioning of these markets. The
of the monarchy. However, he intermarriages between noble Sultan also sent slave boys to buy
could not fully safeguard India from families, inefficient spy-system and various commodities to check
the Mongol invasions. When Balban drinking liquor were the basic prices. Violation of regulations was
died, one of his grandsons Kaiqubad reasons for the rebellions. severely punished. Harsh
was made the Sultan of Delhi. After Therefore, he passed four punishment was given if any
four years of incompetent rule, ordinances. He confiscated the shopkeeper charged a higher price,
Jalaluddin Khalji captured the properties of the nobles. The or tried to cheat by using false
throne of Delhi in 1290. intelligence system was reorganized weights and measures. Even during
and all the secret activities of the the famine the same price was
How was this topic asked in the CSE? nobles were immediately reported maintained. We are not sure
to the Sultan. The public sale of whether the market regulations in
Q. After consolidating his power, liquor and drugs was totally stopped. Delhi were also applied in the
Balban assumed the title of “Zil- Social gatherings and festivities provincial capitals and towns. Apart
I-Ilahi” that means “Shadow of without the permission of the Sultan from market reforms, Alauddin
God. were forbidden. By such harsh Khalji took important steps in the
(a) Tute-Hind (b) Kaisr-I-Hind measures, his reign was free from land revenue administration. He
(c) Zil-I-Ilahi (d) Din-I-Ilahi rebellions. was the first Sultan of Delhi who
Ans. (c) (CSE, 1997) ordered for the measurement of
Reforms of Alauddin Khalji land. Even the big landlords could
The Khalji Dynasty (1290-1320) Alauddin Khalji maintained a large not escape from paying land tax.
permanent standing army and paid Land revenue was collected in cash
The advent of the Khalji dynasty

Prelims Magic 2014 113

in order to enable the Sultan to pay Madurai. Then Alauddin sent Malik ascended the throne with the title
the soldiers in cash. His land Kafur against the ruler of Devagiri, Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq in 1325.
revenue reforms provided a basis Ramachandra Deva, who
for the future reforms of Sher Shah submitted and paid rich tributes. In Muhammad bin Tughlaq
and Akbar. Ala-ud-din Khalji opened 1309, Malik Kafur launched his (1325-1351)
a new department the diwan-i- campaign against Warangal. Its He was a very attractive character
mustakhraj, to enquire into revenue ruler, Pratabarudra Deva was in the history of medieval India
H arrears and to collect them.
Military Campaigns
defeated and enormous booty was
collected from him. Malik Kafur’s
owing to his ambitious schemes and
novel experiments. His enterprises
next target was the Hoysala ruler,
and novel experiments ended in
I Alauddin Khalji sent his army six
times against the Mongols. The first
Vira Ballala III. He was defeated
and a vast quantity of booty was
seized and sent to Delhi. Kafur next
miserable failures because they
were all far ahead of their time. He
two was successful. But the third was very tolerant in religious
S Mongol invader, Khwaja, came up
to Delhi but they were prevented
marched against the Pandyas. Vira
Pandya fled the capital, Madurai
and Kafur seized enormous wealth
matters. He maintained diplomatic
relations with far off countries like
from entering into the capital city. Egypt, China and Iran. He also
T The next three Mongol invasions
were also dealt with severely.
from the Pandya kingdom and
returned to Delhi. Alauddin Khalji
died in 1316. Although the Sultan
introduced many liberal and
beneficial reforms. But all his
Thousands of Mongols were killed. reforms failed. Muhammad-bin
O The northwestern frontier was
fortified and Gazi Malik was
was illiterate, he patronized poets
like Amir Khusrau and Amir Hasan.
He also built a famous gateway
Tughluq issued a new gold coin
which was called Dinar by Ibn
appointed to as the Warden of known as Alai Darwaza and Batutah.
R Marches to protect the frontier. The
military conquests of Alauddin Khalji
constructed a new capital at Siri.
Mubarak Shah and Khusru Shah Contemporary writers like Isami,
Barani and Ibn Battutah were
include his expedition against were the successors of Alauddin
Y Gujarat, Mewar and the Deccan. He
sent Nusrat Khan and Ulugh Khan
Khalji. Ghazi Malik, the Governor
of Dipalpur, killed the Sultan,
unable to give a correct picture
about his personality. But,
Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq was the
to capture Gujarat in 1299. The king Khusru Shah, and ascended the
and his daughter escaped while the throne of Delhi under the title of only Delhi Sultan who had received
queen was caught and sent to Delhi. Ghiyasuddin. a comprehensive literary, religious
Kafur, an eunuch, was also taken and philosophical education.
to Delhi and later he was made the How was this topic asked in the CSE? During his reign bubonic plague
Malik Naib – military commander. Q. Consider the map given below: spread in Delhi. As a result, the
Then in 1301, Alauddin marched The route indicated in the map was Sultan left Delhi and lived in a camp
against Ranthampur and after a followed, during the course of his called Swargadwari for two years.
three month’s siege it fell. The military exploits, by: The Swarga Dwari was situated
Rajput women committed jauhar (a) Chandragupta II near Kannauj on the bank of river
or self-immolation. Alauddin next (b) Harshavardhana Ganga.
turned against Chittor. It was the (c) Rajendra Chola
powerful state in Rajasthan. The Transfer of Capital
(d) Malik Kafur
siege lasted for several months. In Ans. (d) (CSE, 1995) Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq wanted to
1303 Alauddin stormed the Chittor make Devagiri his second capital so
fort. Raja Ratan Singh and his The Tughlaq Dynasty that he might be able to control
soldiers fought valiantly but (1320-1414) South India better. In 1327, he made
submitted. The Rajput women extensive preparations for the
including Rani Padmini performed The founder of the Tughlaq dynasty transfer of royal household and the
jauhar. This Padmini episode was was Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq. ulemas and Sufis from Delhi to
graphically mentioned in the book Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq sent his, son Devagiri, which was renamed as
Padmavath written by Jayasi. Juna Khan, to fight against Daulatabad. When they resisted the
Alauddin Khalji’s greatest Warangal. He defeated Prataba- Sultan enforced his orders ruthlessly
achievement was the conquest of rudra and returned with rich booty. and caused great hardship of the
of Deccan and the far south. This Ghiyasuddin laid the foundation for population of Delhi. The distance
region was ruled by four important Tughlaqabad near Delhi. Ulugh between these two places was
dynasties – Yadavas of Devagiri, Khan was said to have more than 1500 kilometres. Many
Kakatiyas of Warangal, Hoysalas of treacherously killed his father and people died during the rigorous
Dwarasamudra and the Pandyas of journey in the summer. After two

114 Prelims Magic 2014

years, the Sultan abandoned were given to the farmers to buy How was this topic asked in the CSE?
Daulatabad and asked them to seed and to extend cultivation. A
return to Delhi. separate department for agriculture, Q. ‘The king was freed from his
Token Currency Diwan- i- Kohi was established to people and them from their king’.
bring barren land under cultivation.. On whose death did Badauni
In 1329-30, Muhammad bin Tughlaq Model farm under the state was comment thus?
introduced a token currency. There created in an area of 64 square (a) Balban
was a shortage of silver throughout
the world in the fourteenth century.
miles for which the government
spent seventy lakh tankas. This
(b) Ala-ud-din Khalji
(c) Muhammad-bin- Tughlak
Kublai Khan issued paper money in experiment was further continued (d) Feroze Shah Tughlak
China. In the same manner,
Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq issued
by Firoz Tughlaq.
Opportunists signed written bonds
Ans. (c) (CSE, 1999) I
copper coins at par with the value
of the silver tanka coins. But he
was not able to prevent forging the
promising to cultivate barren land
but they spent the money on
personal needs.
Q. Assertion (A): Muhammad Bin
Tughlaq left Delhi, and for two
years lived in a camp called
new coins. The goldsmiths began to
forge the token coins on a large
scale. Soon the new coins were not
The latter part of Muhammad bin
Reason (R): At that time, Delhi
was ravaged by a form plague and
accepted in the markets. Finally,
Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq stopped
the circulation of token currency and
Tughlaq’s reign witnessed a spate
of rebellions by the nobles and
provincial governors. The rebellion
many people died.
In the context of the above two
statements, which one of the
promised to exchange silver coins
for the copper coins. Many people
exchanged the new coins but the
of Hasan Shah resulted in the
establishment of the Madurai
Sultanate. In 1336 the Vijayanagar
following is correct?
(a) Both A and R are true and R
is the correct explanation of A
treasury became empty. According
the Barani, the heap of copper coins
remained lying on roadside in
Kingdom was founded. In 1347,
Bhamini Kingdom was established.
The Governors of Oudh, Multan and
(b) Both A and R are true but R is
not the correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
Tughlaqabad. (d) A is false but R is true
Sind revolted against the authority
Taxation in Doab of Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq. In Ans. (a) (CSE, 2002)
Gujarat, Taghi rose in revolt against
The failure of these two
the Sultan who spent nearly three Q. Assertion (A): Muhammad bin
experiments affected the prestige of years in chasing him. Muhammad - Tughluq issued a new gold coin
the Sultan and enormous money was bin -Tughlaq’s health became worse which was called Dinar by Ibn
wasted. In order to overcome and he died in 1351. According to Batutah.
financial difficulties, Muhammad-bin Baduani, the Sultan was freed from Reason (R): Muhammad bin
-Tughlaq increased the land revenue his people and the people from the Tughluq wanted. to issue token
on the farmers of Doab (land Sultan. According to Barani, currency In gold coins to promote
between Ganges and Yamuna Muhammad bin Tughlaq was a trade with West Asian and North
rivers). It was an excessive and mixture of the opposites. His reign African countries.
arbitrary step on the farmers. A marked the beginning of the process In the context of the above two
severe famine was also ravaging of its decline.
statements, which one of the
that region at that time. It had
On his death, Badyuni said ‘The following is correct?
resulted in a serious peasant revolts. king was freed from his people and (a) Both A and R are true and R
They fled from the villages but they from their kings.’ is the correct explanation of A
Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq took harsh
Firoz Tughlaq (1351-1388) (b) Both A and R are true but R is
measures to capture and punish
not the correct explanation of A
them. The revolts were crushed. After the death of Muhammad-bin- (c) A is true but R is false
Agricultural Reforms Tughlaq in 1351, Firoz Tughlaq had (d) A is false but R is true
the unique distinction of being
However, the Sultan realized later chosen as Sultan by the nobles. He Ans. (c) (CSE, 1995)
that adequate relief measures and appointed Khan-i-Jahan Maqbal,
the promotion of agriculture were a Telugu Brahmin convert as wazir Military Campaigns
the real solution to the problem. He (prime minister). The wazir helped
launched a scheme by which the Sultan in his administration and After his accession, Firoz had to
takkavi loans (loans for cultivation) maintained the prestige of the face the problem of preventing the
Sultanate during this period. disintegration of the Delhi Sultanate.

Prelims Magic 2014 115

He tried to safeguard his authority near Red Fort in Delhi, now called by Firoz. In the following years, the
over north India instead of Firoz Shah Kotla. Old monuments Delhi Sultanate had disintegrated
reasserting his authority over the like Jama Masjid and Qutb-Minar further. Many provinces like Malwa
Deccan and south India. He led two were also repaired. A new and Gujarat declared their
expeditions to Bengal but they were department called Diwan-i- independence. The last Tughlaq
not successful. Bengal became free Khairat was created to take care ruler was Nasir-ud-din Mahmud.
of orphans and widows. Free
H from the control of Delhi Sultanate.
Firoz led a campaign against
Jajnagar (modern Orissa). He
hospitals and marriage bureaus for
poor Muslims were also
During his reign, Timur invaded
India in 1398. During the battle he
ran away from the field. The
established. Firoz patronized
I returned with rich booty acquired
from the temples. He marched
against Nagarkot and made its ruler
scholars like Barani and Afif. As he
was guided by the ulemas, he was
invasion of Timur in 1398 worsened
the situation. When Timur entered
Delhi there was no opposition and
intolerant towards Shia Muslims and
S to pay tributes. During this campaign
the Sultan collected 1300 Sanskrit
manuscripts from the Jawalamukhi
Sufis. He treated Hindus as second
grade citizens and imposed Jiziya.
he sacked Delhi for three days
murdering thousands of people and
looting enormous wealth. He
In this respect, he was the
T temple library and got them
translated into Persian. Firoz next
precursor of Sikandar Lodi and
Aurangazeb. Also he increased the
withdrew from India in 1399 and his
invasion in fact delivered a death
blow to the Tughlaq dynasty. After
marched against Thatta in the Sind number of slaves by capturing the
O region and crushed a rebellion there.
Administrative Reforms
defeated soldiers and young
persons. In his regime, the number
the invader returned Mahmud once
again occupied the throne and ruled
for 14 years upto 1412 A.D.
of slaves had increased to one lakh
R The reign of Firoz Tughlaq was
more notable for his administration.
eighty thousand. When Firoz died
in 1388 the struggle for power How was this topic asked in the CSE?
He strictly followed the advice of between the Sultan and the nobles
Y the ulemas in running the
administration. He pleased the
started once again. A number of
weak rulers came one after the
Q. The Sultan of Delhi who is
reputed to have built the biggest
network of canals in India was:
nobles and assured hereditary other. They were all incompetent
(a) Iltutmish
succession to their properties. Thus and the Tughlaq Empire fell under
(b) Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq
the iqta system was not only revived them. His successors had to face
(c) Feroze Shah Tughlaq
but also it was made hereditary. As the rebellion of the slaves created
(d) Sikandar Lodi
per the Islamic law, he levied the Ans. (c) (CSE, 1998)
taxes. Jiziya was strictly imposed on How was this topic asked in the CSE? Explanation: Feroz Shah Tughlaq
non-Muslims. He was the first Q. Who was the last ruler of the built five canals for irrigation
Sultan to impose irrigation tax. But Tughluq dynasty of the Delhi purpose. They were yamuna to
at the same time, he dug irrigation Sultanate? Hisar Canal (150 miles), From
canals and wells. The longest canal (a) Firuz Shah Tughlaq Sutlej to Ghaghar (96 miles), From
was about 200 kilometres from (b) Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq Shah II Sirmor to Hansi, From Ghaghar to
Sutlej to Hansi. Another canal was (c) Nasir-ud-din Mahmud Firozabad and from Yamuna to
between Yamuna and Hissar. There (d) Nasrat Shah Firozabad.
were about 1200 fruit gardens in
Ans (c) (CSE, 2004) Sayyids (1414-1451)
and around Delhi yielding more
revenue. The special tax on 28 Q. With reference to medieval Before his departure from India,
items was abolished by him since Indian rulers, which one of the Timur appointed Khizr Khan as
they were against the Islamic law. following statements is correct ? Governor of Multan. He captured
Firuz Tughlaq set up a separate (a) Alauddin Khalji first set up a Delhi and founded the Sayyid
department of slaves known as separate ariz’s department dynasty in 1414. He tried to
“Diwan-i-Bandagan” which looked (b) Balban introduced the branding consolidate the Delhi Sultanate but
after one lakh eighty thousand system of horses of his military in vain. He died in 1421 and was
slaves. He also developed royal (c) Muhammad Bin Tughlaq was succeeded by his son, Mubarak
factories called karkhanas in succeeded by his uncle to the Shah. Muhammad Shah who
which thousands of slaves were military succeeded him was always busy
employed. About 300 new towns (d) Firuz Tughlaq set up a separate against conspirators and gradually
were built during his reign. The department of slaves lost control over his nobles. Buhlul
famous among them was Firozabad Ans (d) (CSE 2002) Khan Lodi dominated everything.

116 Prelims Magic 2014

Muhammad Shah died in 1445 and brought the whole of Bihar under
How was this topic asked in the CSE?
was succeeded by his son Alam his control, many Rajput chiefs were
Shah (1445-1451) the weakest of defeated. He attacked Bengal and Q. Fawazil in the Sultanate period
the Sayyid princes. He handed over forced its ruler to conclude a treaty meant:
the throne to Bahlul Lodi and retired with him, and extended his empire (a) extra payment to the nobles
to Badaun. from the Punjab to Bihar. He was a (b) revenue assigned in lieu of
good administrator. Roads were laid salary
How was this topic asked in the CSE?
Q.Which one of the following is
and many irrigational facilities were
provided for the benefit of the
(c) excess amount paid to the
exchequer by the Iqtadars
(d) illegal exactions extracted from
the correct chronological order of
the Afghan rulers to the throne of
peasantry. Despite certain laudable
qualities, he was a bigot. He
destroyed many Hindu temples and
the peasants
Ans. (c) (CSE, 1998)
(a) Sikandar Shah- Ibrahim Lodi-
Bahlol Khan Lodi
(b) Sikandar Shah-Bahlol Khan
imposed many restrictions on the
Hindus. Yet, he was one of the great
Lodi sultans who made the sultanate
Q. Assertion (A): At first the
Turkish administration in India
was essentially military.
Lodi or Lodin Ibrahim
(c) Bahlol Khan Lodi or Lodin
Sikandar Shah- Ibrahim Lodi of
strong and powerful. Sikandar Lodi
was succeeded by his eldest son
Ibrahim Lodi, who was arrogant. He
Reason (R): The country was
parcelled out as ‘Iqtas’ among
leading military leaders.
(d) Bahlol Khan Lodi or Lodin
Ibrahim Lodi or Lodin Sikandar
insulted his nobles openly in court
and humiliated them. Those nobles
who revolted were put to death. His
(a) Both A and R are true and R
is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are true but R is
Ans. (c), (CSE 2001)
own uncle, Alauddin revolted.
Daulat Khan Lodi, the Governor of
the Punjab was insulted and
not a correct explanation of A
(c) A is true both R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
Q. disaffection between king and
courtier became very common. Ans. (a) (CSE, 1998) Y
Greatly displeased by the arrogance
of Ibrahim, Daulat Khan Lodi invited Nastaliq is the core script of the
Babur to invade India. Babur Persian writing tradition, and equally
marched against Delhi and defeated important in the areas under its
and killed Ibrahim Lodi in the first cultural influence. The Mughal
Battle of Panipat (1526). The Empire used Persian as the court
To which Lodi Sultan does the language during their rule over the
Afghan kingdom lasted for only
given map relate and what town South Asia. During this time,
does the site marked A on the map seventy-five years.
Nastaliq came into widespread use
represent? Iqta System under the Sultanate I in South Asia, including Pakistan,
(a) Behlol Lodhi, Jaunpur Stage (1206-1290) - Iqtas or the India, and Bangladesh. The
(b) Sikandar Lodi, Aligarh territorial units were assigned to influence remains to this day.
(c) Ibrahim Lodi, Jaunpur military commanders in lieu of
(d) Ibrahim Lodi, Aligarh salaries. Revenue was used by How was this topic asked in the CSE?
Ans. (a) (CSE, 1999) these commanders to maintain
‘ A’ is Jaunpur themselves as well as their troops. Q. Nastaliq was:
Iqta was an administrative as well (a) a persian script used in
Lodis (1451-1526) as a revenue unit. medieval India
(b) a raga composed by Tansen
The Lodis, who succeeded Sayyids, II Stage (1290- 1351)- Under the
Khaljis and Tughlaqs frequent (c) a cess levied by the Mughal
were Afghans. Bahlul Lodi was the rulers
transfer of Iqtas was done.
first Afghan ruler while his (d) a manual of code of conduct
Accounts of collection and
predecessors were all Turks. Bahlul expenditure by the iqtadars were for the Ulemas
Lodhi captured Jaunpur from collected regularly and the balance Ans. (a) (CSE, 1996)
Hussain Shah Sharqi in 1483-84. (fawazil) was sent to the treasury.
He died in 1489 and was succeeded THE SUCCESSOR STATES
by his son, Sikandar Lodi. Sikandar III Stage (1351-1526)- Under Firoz The disintegration of the Delhi
Lodi (1489-1517) was the greatest Tughlaq the trend was reversed. Sultanate led to the formation of
These changes continued. several independent states. These
of the three Lodi sovereigns. He
states took the shape of independent

Prelims Magic 2014 117

kingdoms under the governors of the GUJARAT: Zafar Khan was the The rulers of Vijayanagar, who
Sultanate regime and often went to Governor appointed by the Sultane called themselves rayas, built on
war against the rival local Rajput under the Tughlaq regime. His traditions of art and literature similar
states also. successor, Muhammed Shah I, to the Chola rulers.
became a renowned ruler of Gujarat
MEWAR: Hammir (1314- 78 AD) Vijayanagar Empire- Important
(1458-1511 AD). He was popularly
of the Sisodia branch separated rulers
known as Beghara as he
H itself from the Sultanate. Rana
Kumbha (1435-68 AD) defeated
Muhammed Khalji of Malwa and
conquered the two strong forts of
Rajputs in Champanir and Girnar.
Sangama Dynasty-Founded in 1336
by Harihara and Bukka.
Harihara II
I built the Kirtistambha (victory
tower) in Chittor.
MARWAR: The Rathors of
Marwar established their rule in
1384 AD under Chunda. Maldeo, a
Deva Raya I
Deva Raya II
MALWA: The region was under Saluva Dynasty- founded by Saluva
S the Paramara rulers The Governor
Dilawar Khan Gauri, of Delhi
subsequent ruler, is known for his
battle with SherShah in 1544 AD in
the Battle of Samel.
Tuluva Dynasty- Founded by Vira
Sultanate started ruling Narasimha
T independently from 1401 AD.
Muhammed Khalji, a cousin of the
KASHMIR: Zainul Abidin (1420-
70 AD) was the most famous ruler
Krishna Deva Raya
Achyuta Deva
subsequent ruler, Muhammed Shah of Kashmir in the Sultanate period. Venkata
O Gauri, murdered him to seize the
throne. His war with Rana Kumbha
He discarded religious discrimi-
nation and persecution of non-
Sadasiva Raya
Aravidu Dynasty
was undecided and interestingly Muslims and was a benevolent
R both sides claimed victory. The
Rana errected the victory tower at
ruler. He knew several languages
such as Arabic, Persian, Hindi and
The political history of the Empire
spans four different dynasties:
Chittor while the ruler of Malwa Tibetan. Several books including the The Sangama Dynasty (1336-
Y established a seven storey building
in Mandu to celebrate the victory.
Mahabharata and Rajtarangini
were traslated from Sanskrit to
1377): Harihara and Bukka, the
founder of the Vijayanagar
Sultan Ghyasuddin, a subsequent Persian. He abolished the Jaziyah. Kingdom belonged to this dynasty.
ruler in 1469 AD went to war with He recalled the Brahmins back and In the first two decades after the
Raimal, the Rana of Chittor and allowed them to rebuild temples. He founding of the empire, Harihara I
was defeated. was called the Akbar of Kashmir. gained control over most of the area
He died in 1470 AD. south of the Tungabhadra River and
earned the title of Purvapaschima
Samudradhishavara “master of
THE VIJAYANAGARA EMPIRE the eastern and western seas”).
15 AND His initial military exploits
established his control over the
THE BAHAMANI KINGDOM Valley of Tungabhadra River, and
gradually he expanded his control
to certain regions of Konkan and the
This was a kingdom carved out in East India Company. Epigraphic
Malabar Coast. The vacum created
the state of Karnataka. Vijaya- evidence reveals that two brothers,
by the weakening of the kingdom
nagara or “city of victory” was the Harihara and Bukka, founded the
situation was facilitated for Harihara
name of both a city and an empire. Vijayanagara Empire in 1336 AD.
I to emerge as a sovereign power.
The empire was founded in the While historians use the term
The entire Hoysala territories came
fourteenth century. The medieval Vijayanagara Empire, con-
under his rule directly. An inscription
kingdom of Vijayanagara was temporaries described it as the
describes Vidya Nagara (that is,
named after the capital city of karnataka samrajyamu. The
the city of learning) as the capital
Vijayanagar It is better known as brothers were known to be
of Harihara I. He is accredited with
Hampi, a name derived from that feudatories of Kakatiya ruler
establishing a centralized
of the local mother goddess, Prataparudra deva. After an attack
administrative setup and orderly
Pampadevi. The ruins at Hampi by the Muslim rulers in 1323 AD
governance which afforded peace,
were brought to light in 1800 by the bothers set up the kingdom of
prosperity, and security to his
an engineer and antiquarian Kampili. On further strengthening
named Colonel Colin Mack- their power they founded the
enzie, an employee of the English Vijayanagara Empire in 1336 AD. Harihara I was succeeded by

118 Prelims Magic 2014

Bukka I who emerged as the most the empire to its past glory; but his of Krishna Deva Raya is a glorious
distinguished amongst the five rulers success was not complete. chapter in Vijayanagar history when
(Panchasangamas) of the Sangama However, Narasimha improved the its armies were successful
dynasty. Bukka patronised Telugu condition of cavalry, transformed everywhere. On occasions, the king
poet, Nachana Soma. Under Bukka the peace – loving farmers of was known to change battle plans
Raya’s 21 year reign, the kingdom Vijayanagar into a nation of warriors, abruptly and turn a losing battle into
prospered and continued to expand infused fresh vigour into the body
as Bukka Raya conquered most of
the kingdoms of southern India,
politic and rescued the state from
victory. The first decade of his rule
was one of long sieges, bloody
conquests and victories. The
continually expanding the territory
of the empire. He defeated the
Shambuvaraya Kingdom of Arcot
At the time of Narasimha’s death
his two sons were too young too
rule. Therefore, he entrusted the
Bahamani Sultans, though divided
into five small kingdoms were still a
constant threat. The Portuguese
and the Reddis of Kondavidu by
1360 and the region around
Penukonda was annexed. Bukka
Kingdom to the care of his trusted
general and minister Tuluva Narasa
Nayaka. Prince Timma was
were a rising maritime power and
hence controlled much of the sea
trade. The feudatory chiefs of
defeated the Sultanate of Madurai
in 1371 and extended his territory
into the south all the way
murdered by a minister and Saluva
upto Narasimha II was crowned by
Narasa Nayaka. When the new
Ummatur, Reddys of Kondavidu and
Velamas of Bhuvanagiri had time
and again rebelled against
Rameswaram. He defeated the
Bahaman ruler, Muhammed Shah I.
The Saluva Dynasty (1485-
King turned hostile to Narasa, he
was removed to Penugonda where
he remained in confinement.
Vijayanagar authority. He took the
Udaygiri fort from the Gajapatis of O
1505 AD): The Saluva Dynasty
was created by the Saluvas who
by historical tradition were natives
Narasa Nayaka now ruled
Vijayanagar like a sovereign. He was known as Andhra Bhoja
was a great patron of arts and
Narasa Nayaka restored peace and
of the Kalyani region of northern
Karnataka.Narasimha Saluva the
feudatory of Chandragiri was a
retained the boundaries of the
empire. He suppressed many
literature. Pedanna a well known
poet who wrote Manu Charitam
and was awarded the title of
rebellions and pushed the invasion ‘Andhrakavitapitamaha’. Other
powerful ruler of this dynasty. He
of the Gajapatis back. When
put down rebellious feudatories to poets known as Astadiggajas
Narasa Nayaka died in 1503, his son
recovered most of the provinces (eight poets) flourished in his court.
Vira Narasimha, succeeded him. In
and died in 1490 AD.
1505 Saluva Narasimha II was Achyuta Raya (1529-1542 CE)
Saluva Narasimha (1485 – murdered and his dynasty came to was the successor and younger
1491), the saviour of Vijayanagar, an end. brother of Krishna Deva Raya,
had begun his career as the whom he succeeded in 1529. He
The Tuluva Dynasty (1491-1570
Mahamandaleshwara of Chandra- patronised Kannada poet, Chatu
AD): The Dynasty is the third
giri in about 1452, in the reign of Vittalanatha and the great singer
Hindu dynasty which ruled
Mallikarjuna. After the death of Purandaradasa (Father of Carnatic
Vijayanagar Empire. The Dynasty
Mallikarjuna, Narasimha tried to music) and the Sanskrit scholar,
was founded by chieftain Bunts who
consolidate his power by conquering Rajanatha Dindima II. The political
originally ruled southern parts of
Masulipatana, Kondavidu and atmosphere was not favourable at
coastal Karnataka. The Tuluva
Udayagiri. The rule of Virupaksha the time of his accession.
Dynasty was one of the most
became unpopular and roused the Feudatories and enemies were
powerful dynasties of the
whole empire to indignation and waiting for an opportunity to bring
Vijayanagara Empire. The
rebellion. The King was killed in down the empire. In addition,
Vijayanagar Empire attained it
1485 by his own son. The total
greatest glory during this period and Achyuta Raya had to contend with
disruption was averted by Saluva
their most famous king was the powerful Aliya Rama Raya, who
Narasimha, an able general who
Krishna Deva Raya .Their reign was competing for the throne.
ended the rule of the Sangama
consisted of five emperors from
dynasty. In 1485 he became the first The Aravidu Dynasty was the
1491 till 1570 . They ruled almost
ruler of Saluva Dynasty, with the fourth and last Hindu dynasty which
the entire South India with
support of the governors of the ruled Vijayanagar Empire of South
Vijayanagar as their capital. Krishna
empire. India. Its founder wasTirumala.
Deva Raya was the most well
During the short span of six years, known ruler of this dynasty. The rule Rama Raya’s death in the the Battle
Saluva Narasimha tried to restore of Talikota in 1565 led to the

Prelims Magic 2014 119

subsequent destruction of There was a Council of ministers
Vijayanagar by the combined forces to help the king in day to day How was this topic asked in the CSE?
of the Muslim states of Bijapur.The administration. The hall of meeting Q. Match List I with List II and
Empire lingered on till 1642 AD but the ministers was called Ventavilas select the correct answer using the
could not revive its lost glory. Mandapa. codes given below the lists:
All high ranking ministers and List I
How was this topic asked in the CSE? A. Iqta B. Jagir
H Q. Consider the following
officers were required to have
military training.The governors were
called Dandanayakas and were
C. Amaram
List II
D. Mokasa

1. Marathas 2. Delhi Sultans

I 1. Narasimha Saluva ended the
Sangama dynasty and seized the
throne for himself and started the
The empire was divided into five
main provinces (Rajya), each under
3. Mughals
4. Vijayanagara
a commander (Dandanayaka or A B C D
S Saluva dynasty
2. Vira Narasimha deposed the
last Saluva ruler and seized the
Dandanatha) and headed by a
governor, often from the royal
(a) 3
(b) 2
family. They were assisted by a (c) 2 3 1 4
T throne for himself
3. Vira Narasimha was succeeded
by his younger brother,
council consisting of the Pradhani,
Olai, dalavay and the
(d) 3
Ans. (b)
2 4 1
(CSE 2001)
O Krishnadeva Raya
4. Krishnadeva Raya was
succeeded by his half brother,
A Rajya was divided into regions
(Vishaya, Vente or Kottam), and
The Vijayanagar society was
further divided into countries (Sime
R Achyuta Raya
Which of the statements given
above are correct?
or Nadu) themselves subdivided
into municipalities (Kampana or
composed of different castes of
people. Brahmins, Kshatriyas,
Vaishyas and Shudras were the
Sthala). Sthalas were further
Y (a) 1, 2 and 3
(b) 2, 3 and 4
(c) 1 and 4
divided into valithas. Nadu was
divided into Imbadin Malegram and
principal castes prevalent.
Vipravinodins were artisans such as
idol makers, blacksmiths,
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4 this further into the Gram.
carpenters, weavers, coppersmiths,
Ans. (d) (CSE, 2004) The system of governance was goldsmiths etc. Tottiyans and
based on the Nayankara system. Kambalattars were shepherds. The
Q. Assertion (A): Saluva The persons dependent on the king Kings projected themselves as the
Narasimha put an end to the old were called Nayakas. protector of all varnas (sarva
dynasty and assumed the royal The Amara-nayakas were the varnashrama dharmaalannu
title. military commanders who were paliisutta).
Reason (R): He wanted to save given territories to govern by the Slavery was known in the kingdom
the kingdom ‘from further raya. Amaram was the land grant and other categories of professions
degeneration and disintegration. made by Vijaynagar rulers. known were maravas (fishermen),
In the context of the above two jogis, paraiyans, boyees, erkelas, and
statements, which one of the The Amara nayakas sent regular
tribute to the king. This was a kallars.
following is correct?
(a) Both A and R are true and R major political innovation of the Women of higher classes were
is the correct explanation of A Vijayanagar Empire, designed educated. Madhuravijayam is a
(b) Both A and R are true but R is mostly on the lines of the iqta work by the wife of Kampana.
not the correct explanation of A system of the Delhi Sultanate. Hannamma was a scholar. Widow
(c) A is true but R is false The Villages were administered by Remarriage was permitted and no
(d) A is false but R is true the Ayagars who were a body of tax on this marriage was levied by
Ans. (A) (CSE, 2003) twelve functionaries. the state. The practice of Sati was
common, though voluntary, and
ADMINISTRATION Army troops were of two types: The mostly practised among the upper
king’s personal army directly classes. Over fifty inscriptions have
Kingship was in the form of recruited by the empire and the
absolute monarchy. The King was been discovered in the Vijayanagar
feudal army under each feudatory.
the final power in terms of judicial, alone. These inscriptions are called
The existence of a navy is evidenced
legislative and executive. He was Satikal (Sati stone) or Sati-virakal
by the use of the term
just and the final word in rendering (Sati hero stone). The early Kings
Navigadaprabhu (commander of
justice was vested with the King. were worshipers of Shiva, as
the navy).

120 Prelims Magic 2014

Virupaksha was the family deity. Hazara Rama Temple- A temple Telugu and Tamil and covered such
Later, they became followers of probably used by the Royal family. subjects as religion, biography,
Vaishnavism. Jains were also The walls of the chamber have Prabhanda (fiction), music,
patronized. sculpted images from the epic grammar, poetry and medicine. The
Ramayana. Telugu language became a popular
ARTS AND ARCHITECTURE literary medium, reaching its peak
Virupaksha Temple- The temple
Its stylistic hallmark is the ornate under the patronage of Krishna-
pillared Kalyanamantapa
(marriage hall), Vasanthamantapa
of the local deity Virupaksha, a
form of Shiva.
Most Sanskrit works were
(open pillared halls) and the Vitthala Temple- Here, the
Rayagopura (tower). Artisans
used the locally available hard
principal deity was Vitthala, a form
of Vishnu generally worshipped in
commentaries either on the Vedas
or on the epics, written by such as
Sayana and Vidyaranya. Other
granite because of its durability. In Maharashtra. The introduction of
the 14th century the kings continued
to build Vesara or Deccan style
the worship of the deity in
Karnataka is another indication of
writers were famous Dvaita saints
of the Udupi order such as
Jayatirtha (earning the title
monuments but later incorporated the ways in which the rulers of
dravida-style gopurams to meet
their ritualistic needs. The Prasanna
Vijayanagara drew on different
traditions to create an imperial
Tikacharya for his polemicial
writings). Noted Sanskrit scholars
adorned the courts of the
Virupaksha temple (underground culture. A characteristic feature of
temple) and the Hazare Rama
temple are examples of Deccan
the temple complexes is the chariot
streets that extended from the
Vijayanagar kings and their
feudatory chiefdoms. Many kings of
the dynasty were themselves
architecture. The varied and temple gopuram in a straight line.
intricate ornamentation of the
pillars is a mark of their work. At
These streets were paved with
stone slabs and lined with pillared
litterateurs and authored classics
such as King Krishnadevaraya’s
Jambavati Kalyana, a poetic and
Hampi, though the Vitthala temple pavilions in which merchants set up
is the best example of their pillared
Kalyanamantapa style, the
their shops.
dramatically skillful work.