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TOURISM PLANNING &

DEVELOPMENT

Dr.Ir.H.Krishna N Pribadi MSc.MPhil -Badan Promosi Pariwisata Indonesia


TODAY
• TPD : WHY?
• TOURISM PRODUCTS
• TOURISM SYSTEMS
• DESTINATIONS ~ PRODUCTS
• DESTINATION ~ COMPLEXITY & CONTEXT
• TOWARDS SUSTAINABILITY

Dr.Ir.H.Krishna N Pribadi MSc.MPhil -Badan Promosi Pariwisata Indonesia


TPDi
role and function

• TOURISM PLANNING ~ ……
• TOURISM DEVELOPMENT ~ ……
• TPD ~ FUTURE ORIENTATED,
BASED ON UNDERSTANDING PAST
AND PRESENT
• TPD ~ DESIGNING THE FUTURE
• TPD assignment ………Jumat by Chaty
Dr.Ir.H.Krishna N Pribadi MSc.MPhil -Badan Promosi Pariwisata Indonesia
TOURISM PRODUCTS
DESTINATIONS …

• HUGE….
• LOTS OF VARIETIES….
• AMALGAMS~MIXTURES
• PRODUCT ELEMENTS
• SO MANY AND ALL DIFFERENT

Dr.Ir.H.Krishna N Pribadi MSc.MPhil -Badan Promosi Pariwisata Indonesia


TOURISM PRODUCTS
DESTINATIONS …

Dr.Ir.H.Krishna N Pribadi MSc.MPhil -Badan Promosi Pariwisata Indonesia


Dr.Ir.H.Krishna N Pribadi MSc.MPhil -Badan Promosi Pariwisata Indonesia
Dr.Ir.H.Krishna N Pribadi MSc.MPhil -Badan Promosi Pariwisata Indonesia
Dr.Ir.H.Krishna N Pribadi MSc.MPhil -Badan Promosi Pariwisata Indonesia
Dr.Ir.H.Krishna N Pribadi MSc.MPhil -Badan Promosi Pariwisata Indonesia
Dr.Ir.H.Krishna N Pribadi MSc.MPhil -Badan Promosi Pariwisata Indonesia
TOURISM PRODUCT ELEMENTS ..

• ATTRACTIONS
– NATURAL
– CULTURAL (based on history, past)
– MAN-MADE
• AMENITIES: ACCOmmodation, F&B, ENTERTAINMENT, ETC
• ACCES & INFRASTRUCTURE
• OTHER: HOSPITABILITY ETC

NEXT WEEK:…TOR PURWAKARTA ?………………….


ATTRACTING~SUPPORTING

Dr.Ir.H.Krishna N Pribadi MSc.MPhil -Badan Promosi Pariwisata Indonesia


TOURISM PRODUCTS

~=~

DESTINATIONS
(TPD) >>>> DESTINATIONS

Dr.Ir.H.Krishna N Pribadi MSc.MPhil -Badan Promosi Pariwisata Indonesia


THE (!)TOURISM SYSTEM
M&M
• 4 MAJOR ELEMENTS
• 1 OF THEM IS DESTINATION (most
interesting one the visited area)
• THE OTHER IS DEMAND (tourism
generating areas)
• Destination and demand LINKED THROUGH
– TRAVEL
– MARKETING
• CHANGE (!) (start model with destination now
instead of demand)

Dr.Ir.H.Krishna N Pribadi MSc.MPhil -Badan Promosi Pariwisata Indonesia


TOURISM SYSTEM MODEL
MILL AND MORRISON

Dr.Ir.H.Krishna N Pribadi MSc.MPhil -Badan Promosi Pariwisata Indonesia


TOURISM SYSTEM (M&M)
TOURISM PRODUCTS = DESTINATIONS

• DESTINATION AREAS
– SUPPLY SIDE
– TOURISM PRODUCTS (you can only analyze
products if you look at the market)
– PRODUCT LED
• DESTINATIONS = SELLERS OF TOURISM
PRODUCTS
• TPD >> focus on DESTINATIONS
• FOCUS ON : DESTINATIONS
– WITH A LOT OF ATTENTION FOR TOURISM
MARKETS
Dr.Ir.H.Krishna N Pribadi MSc.MPhil -Badan Promosi Pariwisata Indonesia
Example TOURISM DESTINATION
AREA:
INDONESIA

• = TOURISM PRODUCT, in order to


analyze product, looking at the market is
essential.
• MAIN MARKETS:
– DOMESTIC
– INCOMING
• SINGAPORE
• MALAYSIA
• JAPAN
• TAIWAN
• AUSTRALIA
• USA / GERMANY / NL

Dr.Ir.H.Krishna N Pribadi MSc.MPhil -Badan Promosi Pariwisata Indonesia


TOURISM SYSTEM (M&M)
DEMAND = TOURISM MARKETS

• DEMAND (has to do with destination)


• Supply has to do with product
– TOURIST GENERATING AREAS
– MARKETS (people from tourism generating areas)
– TOURISTS/TRAVELERS/CONSUMERS
– TOURISM MARKETS : BUYERS OF TOURISM
PRODUCTS
– MARKET LED ~ MARKET ORIENTATED

Dr.Ir.H.Krishna N Pribadi MSc.MPhil -Badan Promosi Pariwisata Indonesia


TOURISM GENERATING AREA:
HOLLAND
• MARKET = HOLLAND
• FAVOURITE DESTINATIONS (long trips)
– HOLLAND (8Mln)
– ABROAD (12Mln) – neighbouring countries most important
• FRANCE 20 %
• SPAIN 15%
• GERMANY 10%
• Belgium, Italy, Greece: 5% (each)
(often the country of destination attracts visitors and the
generating country does not focus on the country of
destination. E.g. Germany only aims less than5% of
outgoing activities on the Netherlands. Still, 50% of tourism
goes to NL. So the NL focusses on Germany and not the
other way around.

Dr.Ir.H.Krishna N Pribadi MSc.MPhil -Badan Promosi Pariwisata Indonesia


THE(!) TOURISM SYSTEM
LIU
TOURISM SYSTEM

1. INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
ASPECTS: POLICY, PLANNING, MARKETING, ORGANISATIONAL,
FINANCIAL, HUMAN

2. OPERATING ENVIRONMENT –
working space: competing
destinations, generating
areas/destinations
3. MACRO ENVIRONMENT
wider environment

On the internal and operating environment the


Tourism system has some influence,
on the macro environment there is
hardly any influence. (the reader
focusses too much on the macro
environment!! Instead focus on other 2
environments!

Dr.Ir.H.Krishna N Pribadi MSc.MPhil -Badan Promosi Pariwisata Indonesia


ASSIGNMENT….
TPD

ANALYSE
PRESENT AND PAST
OF A TOURISM PRODUCT
(TO DESIGN THE FUTURE)
TO UNDERSTAND
Assignment Not meant to design
the future!
Dr.Ir.H.Krishna N Pribadi MSc.MPhil -Badan Promosi Pariwisata Indonesia
TPDi (itmc) PERSPECTIVE
assignment

• (TOURISM PRODUCT ANALYSIS- in real life often part of destination


analysis
• DESTINATION ANALYSIS – potential area, product development
directions etc. (during fieldtrip)
• PRE-FEASIBILITY : trying to look in what ‘seems to be’
possible/feasible for developments, scanning possibilities
• FEASIBILITY - pick one or two developments/products and check out :
– MARKET
– FINANCE
• GO or NO GO
• PROJECT DEVELOPMENT PHASE
• (actual development/building takes place in construction phase)
• (then comes pre-operational and operational phase. In the latter the
tourists come and the PLC starts).

Dr.Ir.H.Krishna N Pribadi MSc.MPhil -Badan Promosi Pariwisata Indonesia


DESTINATION ANALYSIS
PREVIEW…..
• TOURISM PRODUCT ANALYSIS
• COMPETITION ANALYSIS
• ECONMICAL & POLITICAL CONTEXT
• CULTURAL AND SOCIAL CONTEXT
• LEGAL STRUCTURE / LEGISLATION
• PLANNING SYSTEM
• ETCETERA………………..
• ALL THIS…. IS NEEDED IN ORDER TO
DESIGN FOR THE FUTURE…..
Dr.Ir.H.Krishna N Pribadi MSc.MPhil -Badan Promosi Pariwisata Indonesia
DESTINATION AREA
(M&M ~ LIU ~ INTERNAL SYSTEM)

M&M LIU
• POLICY
• POLICY • PLANNING
• MARKETING
• PLANNING • ORGANISATIONAL
• DEVELOPMENT • FINANCIAL
• HUMAN
• CONTROL
(DESCRIBE, ANALYSE, EVALUATE, Most important
SYNTHESISE (try to find out what
is possible/creative), product analyze are:
FORMULATE ‘g’, DEVELOP,
CREATE, IMPLEMENT, Analyze
CONTROL, MANAGEMENT…)
Synthesise
implement
Dr.Ir.H.Krishna N Pribadi MSc.MPhil -Badan Promosi Pariwisata Indonesia
TOURISM DEVELOPMENT
(PEARCE)

PROVISION OF
FACILITIES AND SERVICES
TO MEET
THE NEEDS OF TOURISTS

Dr.Ir.H.Krishna N Pribadi MSc.MPhil -Badan Promosi Pariwisata Indonesia


TOURISM DEVELOPMENT
(LEW)

A PROCESS THAT LEADS TO


THE REALISATION OF
TOURISM PRODUCTS AT
DESTINATION AREAS

Dr.Ir.H.Krishna N Pribadi MSc.MPhil -Badan Promosi Pariwisata Indonesia


TOURISM DEVELOPMENT
TPDi…..
Tourism Development always seen as
something PHYSICAL

PRIMARY PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT – there is


a physical change in environment
SECONDARY PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT (e.g.
TO develops new package using same physical elements – no
changes/ use elements already present)

IN TPDi TOURISM PRODUCT


DEVELOPMENT
Dr.Ir.H.Krishna IS Promosi
N Pribadi MSc.MPhil -Badan ALWAYS…….
Pariwisata Indonesia
TOURISM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT?
Physical change?
YES or NO?

• CONSTRUCTION OF A HOTEL? yes


• MAKING AND LAUNCHING A NEW MARKETING PLAN? no
• REALISING A BEACH RESORT? yes
• COMPOSING A PACKAGE HOLIDAY? no
• REJUVENATING CRUISE PORT FACILITIES? yes
• TRAINING PERSONEL FOR HOTELS? no
• PROMOTING A BEACH RESORT? no

Dr.Ir.H.Krishna N Pribadi MSc.MPhil -Badan Promosi Pariwisata Indonesia


TPD & ProductLifeCycle

ALL THE THINGS U NEED TO DO ALL THE THINGS U NEED TO DO


BEFORE U CAN START e.g. TO KEEP THE ENGINE
• PREPARATION RUNNING F.E.
• CONCEPTUAL THINKING • EXPLOITATION
• GREAT IDEAS • REVITALISING
• PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT • CLIENT SATISFACTION
• FUNDING
• HRM
• PLANNING
• ETC.
• DESIGNING
• BUILDING (PERMISSION)
• FEASIBILITY STUDIES
• PROMOTION
• MARKET RESEARCH
• ETC.
Dr.Ir.H.Krishna N Pribadi MSc.MPhil -Badan Promosi Pariwisata Indonesia
PLC & TPD
Tpd activities
take place before
the operational
phase and take
place below the
surface

TPD-activities …. Operational activities..


Dr.Ir.H.Krishna N Pribadi MSc.MPhil -Badan Promosi Pariwisata Indonesia
T -1 T0 Time
DESTINATION
COMPLEXITY
• ACTOR VARIETY
• INTERDEPENDENCY
• SCALE
• PUBLIC – PRIVAT – Non Governmental
Organizations (NGO ’S)
• MULTI OWNERSHIP…

With a destination there’s complexity and many


other elements/stakeholders play a role-
context
Dr.Ir.H.Krishna N Pribadi MSc.MPhil -Badan Promosi Pariwisata Indonesia
DESTINATION
CONTEXT

• INTERDEPENDENCY >>
• EXTERNAL DESTINATION
ENVIRONMENT CONTEXT –crucial for
development
• SYSTEM CONTEXT

Dr.Ir.H.Krishna N Pribadi MSc.MPhil -Badan Promosi Pariwisata Indonesia


TOURISM PRODUCTS
COMPLEXITY & CONTEXT = CRUCIAL

ONE
INDIVIDUAL TOURISM PRODUCTELEMENT
CAN ONLY BE JUDGED
IN THE CONTEXT
OF THE OTHER PRODUCTELEMENTS

Dr.Ir.H.Krishna N Pribadi MSc.MPhil -Badan Promosi Pariwisata Indonesia


TPD HAS TO DO WITH

UNDERSTANDING AND ANALYSING


THE PRESENT
&
THE PAST
&
THE CONTEXT
&
THE MARKETS
>>>>
All crucial to DESIGN THE FUTURE
Dr.Ir.H.Krishna N Pribadi MSc.MPhil -Badan Promosi Pariwisata Indonesia
TOURISM PRODUCT
(DESTINATION)
COMPLEXITY
• INTERFACE >> SOCIO-ECONOMIC POLICIES
– NATIONAL POLICIES
– LAND USE
• INTERFACE >> DIFFERENT MARKETS
– INTERNATIONAL
– DOMESTIC
– LOCAL
• INTERFACE >> COMPETING DESTINATIONS
– EVALUATING AND ANALYSING THE COMPETITION
• INTERFACE >> DIFFERENT STAKEHOLDERS
– DEVELOPERS
– INTERMEDIAIRS
– PUBLIC AUTHORITIES
• INTERFACE >> DEVELOPMENT <> CONSERVATION
Dr.Ir.H.Krishna N Pribadi MSc.MPhil -Badan Promosi Pariwisata Indonesia
TOWARDS SUSTAINABILITY
• ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS, SO …
• SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IS NEEDED
– MEETING THE NEEDS OF THE PRESENT WITHOUT COMPROMISING
THE ABILITY OF FUTURE GENERATIONS TO MEET THEIR OWN
NEEDS
• SUSTAINABLE IS FAVORED BY:
– CONSUMER PRESSURE
– PUBLIC AUTHORITIES
– INTERNATIONAL & LOCAL CONSERVATION GROUPS
• SUSTAINABLE ‘COUNTER FORCES’ –don’t look at sustainability
– DEVELOPERS: ECONOMIC IMPARATIVE, PROFIT, ROI
– DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: FOREIGN EXCHANGE, EMPLOYMENT
these aspects are so important that they neglect the environment and
don’t look at sustainability – just want tourism income fast.

Dr.Ir.H.Krishna N Pribadi MSc.MPhil -Badan Promosi Pariwisata Indonesia


SUSTAINABILITY
WHO CARES AND WHO SHOULD LEAD?

• WHO CARES: STAKEHOLDERS!


– TOURISM ENTERPRISES
– LOCAL COMMUNITIES
– ENVIRONMENTALISTS
– TOURISTS
• WHO SHOULD LEAD? : PUBLIC SECTOR BECAUSE:
– Not TOURISM INDUSTRY(!) = too FRAGMENTED
– SUSTAINABILITY RELATES TO AREAS OF PUBLIC
CONCERN: AIR, WATER, NATURAL AND CULTURAL
HERITAGE, QUALITY OF LIFE
– PUBLIC SECTOR HAS THE TOOLS

Dr.Ir.H.Krishna N Pribadi MSc.MPhil -Badan Promosi Pariwisata Indonesia


AGENDA FOR SUSTAINABLE TOURISM development
(WTO 2005)

• ECONOMIC VIABILITY
• LOCAL PROSPERITY
• EMPLOYMENT QUALITY
• SOCIAL EQUITY
• VISITOR FULFILLMENT
• LAND CONTROL
• COMMUNITY WELLBEING
• CULTURAL RICHNESS
• PHYSICAL INTEGRITY
• BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY
• RESOURCE EFFICIENCY
• ENVIRONMENTAL PURITY

SEE A PATTERN ?? ANYTHING NEW ?? All to do with economical, environmental


and social-cultural impacts, both negative and positive. Still there is a focus
on the economic side.
TPD SHOULD…..pay attention to sustainability

Dr.Ir.H.Krishna N Pribadi MSc.MPhil -Badan Promosi Pariwisata Indonesia


Summary: WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW…

• RELEVANCE OF TPD
• TOURISM PRODUCT ELEMENTS
• TOURISM SYSTEMS M&M AND LIU, DIFFERENCES ETC
(explain and connect both models)
• Know REASONS FOR SYSTEM APPROACH
• Know REASONS FOR COMPLEXITY
• Know IMPORTANCE OF CONTEXT
• See RELEVANCE OF SUSTAINABILITY
• TOURISM DEVELOPMENT (Y/N) ACCORDING TO TPDi
• POSITION TPD RELATED TO PLC

Dr.Ir.H.Krishna N Pribadi MSc.MPhil -Badan Promosi Pariwisata Indonesia


The ten steps to sustainable
tourism

Dr.Ir.H.Krishna N Pribadi MSc.MPhil -Badan Promosi Pariwisata Indonesia


Tourism development and respondent community
attitudes
Adapted from: Saayman (2013:152), Fletcher et al., (2013:207) As
illustrated in Figure 3.6 above, the exploration

Dr.Ir.H.Krishna N Pribadi MSc.MPhil -Badan Promosi Pariwisata Indonesia


Summary of the socio-cultural impacts
of tourism

Dr.Ir.H.Krishna N Pribadi MSc.MPhil -Badan Promosi Pariwisata Indonesia


Indicators for
monitoring
socio-cultural
impacts of
tourism

Dr.Ir.H.Krishna N Pribadi MSc.MPhil -Badan Promosi Pariwisata Indonesia


The direct
impacts of
tourism
on the
environm
ent

Dr.Ir.H.Krishna N Pribadi MSc.MPhil -Badan Promosi Pariwisata Indonesia


Dr.Ir.H.Krishna N Pribadi MSc.MPhil -Badan Promosi Pariwisata Indonesia

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