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Diabetes has now acquired epidemic proportions in the world. Known in medical parlance as
Diabetes mellitus , this is a condition characterized by high blood glucose levels, caused either due
to insufficient production of sugar controlling hormones or unresponsiveness of the cells to the
sugar controlling hormones, or both. There are three types of diabetes:
 Type 1 Diabetes: In this type of diabetes, the pancreas is unable to synthesize a key blood-
sugar controlling hormone. . When you consume food, it is broken down into glucose in the
small intestine and absorbed into the bloodstream. In normal circumstances, the pancreatic
beta cells detect the rise in blood sugar levels and works to reduce the glucose levels. In type
1 diabetes, however, the beta cells do not produce sugar controlling hormones, which results
in high blood glucose levels. Moreover, the white blood cells (WBCs) secrete auto
antibodies which destroy the beta cells of the pancreas.
 Type 2 Diabetes: The pancreas fails to produce enough sugar controlling hormones for
proper functioning of the body, or the cells resist the effects of the hormone, or both. This
results in a condition known as Hyperglycemia, which is the increase in glucose levels in the
 Gestational Diabetes: A temporary condition affecting women during pregnancy

S.L. Raheja (A Fortis Associate) is a reputed diabetes hospital in Mumbai and its specialists
employ the latest diagnostic and treatment techniques for effectively managing and treating this
condition. It is always advantageous to be aware of some of the common tell-tale signs of diabetes
so we can seek appropriate care as early as possible to maximize the chances of recovery.
Symptoms of Diabetes:

 Polyphagia (Excessive hunger)

 Polyurea (Frequent urination)
 Polydipsia (Excessive thirst)
 Unexplained weight loss
 Extreme fatigue
 Blurry vision
 Urinary tract infections in women
 Dry, itchy skin

 Type 1 Diabetes: It is an autoimmune disorder, that is, the immune system attacks and kills
the cells in the pancreas which produce hormones to control the blood sugar levels due to a
combination of genetic predisposition and other unidentified environmental factors.
 Type 2 Diabetes: This is mainly caused due to the resistance of the cells to sugar controlling
hormones. Because of this, the glucose cannot be moved from the blood into the cells.
Gradually, as sugar builds up in the blood, it poisons the pancreas, making it more difficult
to keep the blood glucose levels under control.

There are certain other risk factors which puts a person at an increased risk of developing diabetes:
 Overweight/ Obesity
 Family member affected by diabetes and/or high blood pressure
 Age
 Sedentary lifestyle
 History of gestational diabetes
 History of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)
 Having high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels less than 50mg/dL

Lifestyle Tips:

After a person has been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, he/she can follow some lifestyle changes to
induce weight loss and promote overall health and well-being:

 Avoiding high-sugar and high-calorie foods such as sodas, fried foods and desserts
 Following a healthy and nutritious diet plan rich in whole grains, proteins, fruits and
vegetables and healthy fat.
 Limiting or completely stopping the intake of alcohol
 Indulging in regular physical activity for at least half an hour a day for 5 days a week. This
can include walking, swimming, aerobics or even riding a bicycle.

S.L Raheja (A Fortis Associate) is equipped with some of the best diabetologists in Mumbai as
well as state-of-the-art technology required to weed out such complex cases and provide relief to
the patients through treatment. The treatment plan for diabetes depends on the type of the condition:

Type 1 Diabetes:
Type 1 diabetes is treated by injecting sugar controlling hormes into the fatty tissue through the skin
by the means of a syringe, pre-filled cartridges, pumps or jet injectors.

Type 2 Diabetes:

Treatment for type 2 diabetes consists of the following measures:

 Regular blood glucose monitoring
 Medications
 Regular exercise
 Healthy eating

Diabetic Foot

This is a disease which, as the name suggests, describes problems or injuries in the foot occurring
due to damage of the nerves in the extremities due to prolonged periods of severe diabetes. This
nerve damage causes loss of sensation in the feet and the hands. As a result, the person is incapable
of feeling any wound or irritation in the feet, which can result in untreated infections. If unchecked,
it may also result in gangrene, requiring an amputation.

Another effect is the impairment of sweating, causing cracks in the dry feet. These cracks act as
inlet to the germs.

Some of the common signs of diabetic foot are sharp pain and cramps, numbness, muscle weakness,
deformity and/or discoloration of the skin etc. It is important to be aware of sugar intake and also
any symptoms which may indicate the onset of complications. And, most importantly, this can help
a person seek medical help soon. S.L. Raheja offers a comprehensive and superlative diabetes foot
treatment in Mumbai and is a good choice of hospital.