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Ecology – Effects in the Real Estate Practice Environmental Planning and Management

Environmental Planning Principles

1. Planning for judicious use of natural resources for economic 1. To guide planners in the formulation of framework plan and action
development agenda on environmental management
2. Planning for suitable habitat for man, plants and animals 2. Give priority to protecting society’s well-being and promoting social
3. Planning for the allocation of space and resources for production, justice
protection, settlements, infrastructures and recreation 3. Minimize the negative impacts of economic activities on
4. Planning for the betterment of society now and in the future environment
4. Maximize benefits of resource use to communities
Ecological Security 5. Ensure efficient use of ENR by maximizing rent
Socioeconomic welfare security planning 6. Protect indigenous people’s right over access to natural resources
7. Promote strategies that develop the potentials of women to manage
Fundamentals of Ecology ENR and benefit from its use
Ecology – study of the interrelationships and interdependencies of organisms 8. Apply science and technology in ENR management and decision-
with their environment making
9. Precautionary principle – Disallow economic activities with unknown
Ecological Concepts and Principles or uncertain impacts which are irreversible and impose greater risk
- Covers the study of population, community and ecosystem to population and ecosystems
10. Polluter’s pay principle – polluters internalize environmental and
Population – groups of individuals of the same species in certain areas at a social costs through use of economic and command and control
given time instruments
Community – all the population occupying a given area 11. Regulate the use of critical resources
Ecosystem – interaction of the community and the non-living environment 12. Resource sustainability principle - Regulate resources with
sustainable yield to prevent resource degradation and depletion
Components of an Ecosystem 13. Subsidiarity principle – Ensure stakeholder’s participation in
- Survival depends on balance of energy, food and other important resource use planning and decision-making
factors 14. Protect property rights of local communities over natural resources
- Ecosystems have structural and functional components within their locality
15. Usufructuary rights where a person or group of persons are granted
Structural Components of an Ecosystem limited use of the land and the enjoyment of its fruits, with strict
1. Non-living components conditions on the care and protection of the resource
a. Inorganic substances
b. Organic compounds Other significant factors affecting ENR planning and management
c. Climate regimes 1. Economic policies and programs of the government
2. Living components 2. Negative politics
a. Producers 3. Graft and corruption
b. Consumers (Macro-consumers) 4. Peace and security situation
c. Decomposers 5. Internal policies (Environmental Agreements and Treaties)
6. Global phenomena
Functional Components of an Ecosystem
1. Food chain – food relationship EMR Management Strategies
2. Energy flow – driver of the ecosystem 1. Manage the behavior of resource users
3. Diversity 2. Behavior = Value System
4. Evolution – natural process of change in response to the physical 3. Behavior-modifying strategies are needed
changes of an aging planet. 4. Shared responsibility and co-management of ENR
5. Ecosystem development or ecological succession – orderly process 5. Better enforcement of CAC instruments
of community development or ecological succession that involves 6. Adoption of economic incentives and disincentives
changes in species structure and community process with time. 7. Improved IEC and advocacy campaigns
8. Adoption and implementation of property rights reforms
Value of Biodiversity 9. Provision of opportunities for employment and settlement outside
1. Direct Value of critical natural environment
a. Medicinal 10. Public and private investments in the poverty reduction programs
b. Agricultural and alternative livelihood or entrerprise development
i. Crops
ii. Biological pest controls Sustainable Development
iii. Pollinators - Meeting the needs of today without compromising the ability of
c. Consumptive Use Value future generations to meet theirs
i. Wood - Process of achieving human development – widening or enlarging
ii. Skins the range of people’s choices – in an inclusive, connected, equitable,
iii. Meat prudent and secure manner
2. Indirect Value - ENR sustainability is achieved by narrowing the trade-offs or
a. Biogeochemical Cycles minimizing the negative externalities of wealth creation or economic
b. Waste Disposal development to a level which does not go beyond the limits of the
a. Provision of Fresh Water natural capital base to perform life support functions or ecological
b. Prevention of Soil Erosion services
c. Regulation of Climate
d. Ecotourism Common interpretations of Sustaibable development
3. Examples 1. Antithesis – Grow now clean later
a. Dogfish 2. Laymans term – Defined as economic growth without ecological
b. Squalamine – anti parasitic, anti-fungal, anti-protozoan, destruction
antibacterial activity 3. We live on the interest rather than on our capital
c. Ecuadorian Arrow poison frog – blocks pain 4. Development that stays within the limits of the carrying capacity of
d. Bahamian sponge – suppressing organ rejections after ecosystems
transplant operations 5. Implies a temporal dimension – economic development should chart
e. Bahamian seafloor mud – inhibits growth of melanoma a positive trend through time
and colon cancer cells, HSV and HIV 6. Non-declining per capita well being – the quality of life should not
decline over time
Ecological Succession 7. Capital theoretic method - Composite capital stock is non-declining
1. Biochemical cycles – the cycling of chemical elements in the over time
biosphere through special pathways from environment to organisms
and back to the environment Four Types of Capital
2. Pollution – an imbalanced or imperfect nature of chemical elements 1. Natural
and substances in material cycles 2. Human
3. Water cycle – River, ocean, evaporation, precipitation, rain 3. Physical
4. Terrestrial profile 4. Intellectual
5. Carbon cycle
6. Nitrogen cycle Indicators and Measures of Sustainability
7. Phosphorus cycle 1. Sustainability Index
8. Nutrient cycling – characterizes the health or well-being of an
ecosystem; undisturbed, intact tropical rainforest ecosystem has
closed nutrient cycling; deforestation opens the nutrient cycle and
leads to escape of nutrients
Test for weak sustainability
Genuine savings rate – nation’s savings less the depreciation of man-made
capital and natural capital expressed as a proportion of GDP
- Environmentally adjusted national income or net national product
- NNP = consumption + net investment in physical capital + the value
of net change in stock of natural capital – the value of current
environmental damages
- NNP – GDP or GNP – the cost of ENR depletion and pollution

Principal Components of SD
1. Inclusiveness – implies human development over time and space, everybody
is benefitted by economic growth
2. Connectivity – embraces ecological, social and economic interdependence
3. Equity – suggests fairness, within and across generations and species
4. Prudence – connotes duties of care and prevention technologically
5. Security – demands safety from chronic threats and protection from harmful Disaster Risk Reduction Management
disruption  Disaster Formula: Natural events – Hazards (potentially damaging
physical event) – Exposure & Vulnerability (susceptibility to
disaster) – Risk (probability of being harmed) – Disaster (occurrence
of unexpected damaging event)– Aftermath scars (physical,
environmental, social, economic and psychological impacts)
 Level of disaster = hazard intensity and extent + degree of exposure
& vulnerability + element of surprise – effectiveness of DRM in
place+ coping mechanism
 DRRM = preventive + defensive + relief and rescue measures

Disaster Trend
• Population, poverty and climate change
• Physical events – greater in number
• Intensity – higher/stronger
• Fatalities - higher
• Damages – higher
• Coverage – wider
Tests of Sustainability • Geographic occurrence – less predictable
• Economic viability – the development policy or program will benefit • Cost of response and rehabilitation - higher
the greater majority and not cause serious harm or permanent
disbenefits to the affected minority. Proper safety nets and Saving Lives and Properties
compensatory measures are put in place for the affected minority. • Strategic interventions
The fruits of development are equitably shared among the • Pre-disaster phase: reduce risk, vulnerability and element of
population. surprise
• Ecological Viability – development will not significantly hamper or • Cost effective approach - cut down on number of fatalities, cost of
alter the ecological functions of the environment and the damages and cost of response and rehabilitation
regeneration capacity of natural resources • HOW? All actors guided by a common policy framework and action
• Technological Viability – development will adopt technologies that agenda. PMP Framework.
are cleaner, more efficient and environment-friendly.
• Socio-cultural viability - development will enhance and not oppose
core values, beliefs and worldview of a community which are
consistent with human ecological principles of life-giving and peace-
keeping. Women are given equal opportunity to decide and
participate in all facets of development in their locality and enjoy
the benefits of nature.
• Political viability – development will enhance people empowerment
and promote social justice, protect cultural diversity, encourage
democratic participation and support good governance and shared
• Institutional viability – development will enhance the capacity of
local institutions to sustain its initiatives and flow of benefits.

Tests of Sustainability
• The soundness of socioeconomic development policies and
programs should be evaluated using the six tests of sustainability.
• Sustainability tests is used in screening and appraising development
policies and projects affecting ENR.
• Failing any of the following sustainability criteria renders the
development policy or program being evaluated as non-sustainable
or weakly sustainable and would therefore necessitate
modifications to satisfy viability requirements.

Climate Change Module