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LESSON 1: PHYSICAL SELF puberty as the most essential marker of

the beginning of adolescence.


 Physical Self - The concrete dimensions  Girls reached puberty earlier than boys
of the body, it is the tangible aspect of and they experience menarche (first
the person which can be directly menstrual flow)
observed and examined.  Boys two to three years later
 Self-understanding - is the individual’s experienced semenarche(first
cognitive representation of the self ejaculation/ wet dreams)
which consists of the substance and the  Puberty is a brain- neuroendocrine
content of self- conceptions. (Santrock, process occurring primarily in early
2004) adolescence that triggers the rapid
o development of self- physical changes that occur in the
understanding in adolescence adolescent stage of human
can be described from simple to development.
perplex and involves a number  Pituitary gland- master endocrine gland
of aspects of the self. that controls growth and regulates the
 Growing up - As the age is advancing, function of all other endocrine glands.
interests and bodies are also changing.  Gonads
The changes are also rapid that before  Ovaries for girls
the parents notice it, they are no longer  Testes for boys.
babies but unpredictable teenagers.  Estrogen- hormones in girls that is
 Physical Characteristics - The defining responsible for physical change like
traits or features of the person’s body. increase in height, widening of hips and
Physical characteristics are increase in fatty tissues in the breast.
distinguished by the naked eye like  Androgen and testosterone- hormones
facial features, hairstyles, clothes or for boys that is responsible for the boy’s
figure. growth of facial and body hair, muscles
and changes in the voice.
According to Erik Erikson, he believed in  Body Image - The way one sees
the importance of the body from early himself/ herself or the way he/ she
development because the physical as imagines how he/ she looks. How they
well as intellectual skills will somehow see themselves can either be positive or
serve as basis to whether a person has negative.
achieved a sense of competence and be  Imaginary audience - which refers to an
able to manage and face the demands egocentric state where the individual
of life complexities. imagines and believes that many people
are actively listening to or watching him
According to William James, he or her.
considered that the body as the initial  Spotlight effect- refers to the belief
source of sensation and necessary for that others are paying more attention
the origin and maintenance of to the person’s appearance and
personality. behavior than they really are.

Adolescence
 Early Adolescence (11- 14 years old) Factors that affect Perception of the Physical
 Middle Adolescence (15- 17 years old) Self
 Late Adolescence (18-21 years old)
1. PERSONAL FACTORS
 In the Philippines, ages from 15-30
 Introspection - is the process by
years old are the youth.
which one observes and
examines one’s internal state
(mental and emotional) after
 Puberty - According to Santrock, behaving in a certain way.
puberty is the same as adolescence  Self- Perception Theory -
because puberty ends prior to the end Explains that since one’s
of adolescent period but he recognized internal state is difficult to
interpret, people can infer their TWO TYPES OF SOCIAL COMPARISON
inner states by observing their
own behavior- as if they are an  Upward social comparison - When an
outside observer. individual compares himself to others
who are better than him.
 Self- concept is a cognitive
representation of self-  Downward social comparison - When
knowledge which includes the an individual compares himself to
sum total of all beliefs that someone who is in a worse situation
people have about themselves. than he is especially when he is feeling
 Personal Identity - This is the so low.
concept has about himself that
develops over the years.
2. SOCIAL FACTORS  Culture - defined as a social system that
 Attachment Process and Social is characterized by the shared meanings
Appraisal - According to that are attributed to people and
Bowlby, people learn about events by its members.
their value and lovability when  Eurocentrism - It is defined as a
they experience how their tendency to interpret the world in
mother or caregivers care for terms of European or Anglo- American
them and respond to their values and experiences.
needs.  Self- esteem - is a measure of the
 Maintaining, regulating and person’s self-worth based on some
expanding the Self in personal or social standard.
Interpersonal Relationships -  Mass media - is a powerful tool that
When individuals are still reinforces cultural beliefs and values.
young, the sense of self is Though young people may initially
continuously shaped through disagree with the set ideals of beauty,
ongoing interaction with others repeated exposure via media that leads
and act as “private audiences” to misconceptions.
which carry an internal dialogue
that people are not aware that
they are being influenced.
 The Looking- glass Self Theory -
Charles Horton Cooley stated LESSON 2: THE SEXUAL SELF
that a person’s self grows out of
 Human sexuality - is influenced by
society’s interpersonal
physical, psychological, spiritual and
interaction and the perception
cultural factors.
of others.
 Sexual selfhood - is defined as how one
 Social Identity Theory
thinks about himself or herself as a
(Collective Identity) - People
sexual individual.
have a need for positive social
identity that is why they  In Ancient Greece, it is the male that
connect to wider social assumes the dominant role
network, which helps to  The male symbol, the penis, was viewed
enhance their self-esteem. as the symbol of fertility and how the
 Social Comparison - It is the male body structured was greatly
process of comparing oneself admired
with others in order to evaluate  Wives were considered as an object
one’s own abilities and  Forbidden to own property and to have
opinions. legal and political rights
 Not even allowed to read or write
 The only function was to bear children
 “Gyne” = Greek word for women means
bearer of children
THE MIDDLE AGES (476-1450) Primary Sex Characteristics

 The church decreed that all sexual acts Girls


that do not lead to procreation were
 Ovaries
considered evil.
 Fallopian tubes
Protestant Formation of the 16th Century(1483-  Uterus
1546)  Vagina

 The reason for sexual intimacy was to Boys


strengthen the physical and emotional
bond between husbands and wives not  Testes
just for procreation  Penis
 Scrotum
By the 17th and 18th Century  Seminal Vesicles and prostate glands

 Puritans had positive views on marital


sex and did not condone sex outside
marriage.  In the first weeks of gestation, the
internal as well as the external genital
The Victorian Era (1873 – 1901) structures of all human fetus are the
same.
 Women were told that they should not
enjoy having sex, if they did, there was  The gender of the baby is conspicuous
something wrong with them; within 16th to 18th weeks of pregnancy.
 Ejaculating more than once month
would greatly weaken a man and  Chromosomes – the threadlike
masturbation leads to blindness, structures found in the nucleus of the
insanity and death cell of the body are composed of genes
which are the basic unit of heredity.
20th Century
 Natural Selection - A process by which
 Sexuality became more evident and organisms that are best suited to their
accepted in society. environment are most likely to survive
Biological 3. Sociological/Evolutionary

 The brain initiates and organizes sexual  On the basis of human sexual behavior,
behaviour. it all begins with physical attraction.
 The next generation of human beings
are created by the fusion of the egg and  Sexual preference for females with big
sperm cell. breast and males with broad shoulders
and muscular torsos is instinctively
Secondary Sex Characteristics more genetic survival than for pleasure
or social status.
Girls
Psychological
 Breasts enlarge
 Hair growth under arms and pubic area Rosenthal (2013) – sexuality is not a mere
 Hip widens physical response. But, it involves emotions,
 Skin becomes oily and pores enlarge thoughts and beliefs.

Boys But according to Freud, humans are faced with


two forces
 Voice becomes much lower (breaks)
 Hair growth on chest, face, underarms,  Sex instinct or libido (pleasure)
arms, legs and public area
 Aggressive instinct (harm
 Increase in muscle size
toward oneself or towards
 Skin becomes oily and pores enlarge
others)
Five Stages: Freud’s Psychosocial Stages of Clarifying Sexual Terminologies
Development
 Gender refers to the characteristics of
 Oral – Mouth people as males or females
 Anal – Anus
 Gender role is a set of expectations that
 Phallic – genitals
prescribes how females and males
 Latency – Sexual impulses lie dormant
should think, act and feel.
 Genital – genitals
 In DSM V (2013) (Diagnostic and
 Id (pleasure principle) - Seeks for
Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,
pleasure and aggression
Fifth Edition)
 Ego (analytical principle) - Thinks of
 Sex and sexual – the biological
ways to satisfy the need in an
indicators of male and female
acceptable manner
or having the capacity to
 Superego (moral principle) - Person’s reproduce
sense of morality  Gender Assignment – the initial
Religious assignment as male or female
which usually occurs at birth.
 Judaism - Holds a positive and natural
outlook toward marital sex which they  Gender Reassignment – official
consider as blessed by God and and usually legal change of
pleasure for both men and women. gender

 Gender Identity – a category of


 Islam - Family is considered of utmost
social identity that refers to an
important, and celibacy within marriage
individual’s identification as
is prohibited
male, female or some category
 Taoism - Sex is not only natural and other than male or female.
healthy, but a sacred union is necessary
 Masculine – the qualities and
to people’s physical, mental and
behaviors judged by a particular culture
spiritual being.
to be ideally associated with or
 Hinduism - Sexuality is seen as spiritual especially appropriate to men and boys
force, and the act of ritual lovemaking is
 Feminine – qualities and behaviors
a means of both celebrating and
judged by a particular culture to be
transcending the physical
ideally associated with or especially
 Roman Catholic Church - Marriage is appropriate to women and girls
purely for intercourse and procreation
 Androgyny – both masculine and
 “Sex” word derived from the Latin word feminine traits, feelins and qualities.
secare which means ‘to divide’ while
 Asexuals – persons who do not
the word sexuality means ‘to unite’
experience sexual drives or attraction to
 Sexual arousal has emerged as new either sex
phenomenon in adolescence and that it
 Hypersexual – persons with an
is important that sexuality be viewed as
excessive interest in sex to the point
a normal aspect of adolescent
where it can cause problems in one’s
development.
life
 Adolescent’s sexual identity includes
The Phases of Human Response
sexual orientation, his ability to manage
sexual feelings and his capacity to  Excitement
regulate his sexual behavior to avoid
undesirable consequences. o Initial physical response to
sexual arousal
o Characterized by an increase in 2. Attraction Phase
heart rate and blood pressure a. Characteristics: Couples are
as well as heightened muscle infatuated and pursued a
tone relationship
b. Hormonal and Neural
 Plateau Pathways Involved: High
o Period of sexual excitement dopamine and
prior to orgasm norepinephrine; low
serotonin
o Characterized by intensification 3. Attachment Phase
of the changes begun during a. Characteristics: Long-term
the excitement phase. bond between partners;
with a feeling of security,
 Orgasm comfort and emotional
o Characterized by waves of union
intense pleasure (climax), often b. Hormonal and Neural
associated with vaginal Pathways Involved:
contractions in females and Oxytocin, vasopressin
ejaculations in males.

 Resolution John Lee’s Love Styles


o The body returns to its non- 1. Eros – Love is based on strong
excited state sexual and emotional component
a. The Eros lover dreams of the
 Triaphasic Model of Sexual Response -
ideal characteristics of a
introduce by Helen Singer Kaplan which
partner and usually experiences
includes only sexual desire, excitement
love at first sight.
and orgasm
b. The relationship seldom lasts
 Erotic Stimulus Pathway Theory –by forever because they tend to be
David Reed. His theory includes four quick to fall in and out of love.
stages: seduction, sensation, surrender, 2. Agape – Altruistic and selfless love.
and reflection. a. The person shows his love
without expecting to receive
The Chemistry of Lust, Love and Attachment the same in return.
b. This type of love is more
 Attraction - a characteristic that causes
acceptable to women than
pleasure or interest by appealing to a
men.
person’s desires or tastes, and cause
3. Storge – Love-related friendship
one to be drawn to the other.
and based on nonsexual affection.
o Criteria of beauty are subjective a. Storgic lovers don’t suddenly
and vary over time in different fall in love with an idealized
cultures. lover.
b. Commitment, stability and
Love: Emotion or Drive? comfort are their goals
4. Ludus – Love is just a game,
Three Phases of Romantic Love
something for fun or
1. Lust Phase entertainment.
a. Characteristics: This a. Ludic lovers do not experience
describe as an intense jealousy. They don’t value
craving for sexual contact commitment or intimacy
b. Hormonal and Neural b. Manipulate their partner by
Pathways Involved: lying, cheating and deceiving
Androgen and estrogen, 5. Mania – An intense feeling which
pheromones and the senses may lead to obsessive and
possessive love towards the loved accessibility, pair bonding and close
one. relationship
a. Manic lovers always check the  Endorphins - Named for “endogenous
partner’s whereabouts and morphine”, the body’s natural opiate,
easily get jealous similar to the man-made drugs
b. Easily taken advantage of by morphine or heroin
ludic lovers
6. Pragma – A practical and business-
like love. Theories: Why people fall in love?
a. Pragmatic lovers may plan the
best time to get married, have  Behavior Reinforcement Theory –
children, and other future plans when someone received a reward a
b. Love is based on what is positive feeling may be experienced.
appropriate.  Physiological Arousal Theory – the
body experience physiological change
first, then people assign an emotion to
The Triangular Theory of Love by Robert
that physical sensation.
Stenberg, 1986
 Evolutionary Theories – This explains
 Intimacy - Includes the desire to give that love arouse due to sociobiological
and receive emotional closeness, needs.
support, caring and sharing
Factors that would determine with whom
 Passion - Described as intensely
people fall in love are:
romantic or sexual desire for another
person usually accompanied by physical  Physical attractiveness
attraction and physiological arousal  Reciprocity
 Commitment - The cold component of  Proximity
love. It is the decision to maintain the  Similarities
relationship through good time and bad
times. Diversity of Sexual Behavior

 Sociosexual Behavior – sexual behavior


involving more than one person.
 Solitary Behavior – self-masturbation
or self-stimulation with the intention of
causing sexual arousal, a feeling of
pleasure and often results in orgasm.

Sexual Orientation

 Homosexual - A person whose sexual


orientation is toward another the same
sex
o Lesbian – used to describe a
woman whose sexual and
romantic attraction is toward
The Chemistry of Love
women.
 Dopamine and Norepinephrine - o Gay – a man whose sexual and
Involved in mood, motivation, attention romantic attraction is towards
and excitement other men
 Serotonin - Associated with mood,  Heterosexual - A person whose sexual
obsession, sex and sleep orientation is towards other opposite
 Phenylethylamine - Increase the level sex
of DA and NE especially in the pathways  Bisexual - A person who may be
involving mood and pleasure sexually oriented to both men and
 Oxytocin and vasopressin - Important women
in trust, empathy, emotional
 Pansexual - A new sexual orientation of a. Diaphragm – a soft dome made
persons who are sexually attracted to of latex or silicone and is used
people regardless of their sex or gender with spermicide
identity b. Cervical Caps – put into the
 Transgender - Refers to the broad vagina to cover the cervix and
spectrum of individuals who transiently are 92 to 96% effective when
or persistently identify with a gender used correctly.
different from their natal gender. c. Male and Female Condoms or
spermicides
3. Behavioral Method of
Contraception
Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)
a. Rhythm or Calendar Method –
 HIV ( Human Immunodeficiency Virus)/ way to know a woman’s fertile
AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency and infertile month by charting
Syndrome) the menstrual cycle.
 Genital Herpes b. Abstinence or celibacy–
 Genital Warts avoidance of sexual intercourse
 Gonorrhea c. Outercourse – a sexual activity
 Syphilis that does not include the
 Chlamydia insertion of the penis into the
vagina
d. Withdrawal– happens when a
The Method of Contraception man removes his penis from
the vagina and ejaculates
1. Hormonal Method of
outside of the woman’s body
Contraception (prevents the
4. Sterilization (procedure that make
release of an egg or ovulation)
an individual permanently
a. Oral Contraceptive Pills
incapable of conceiving)
i. The patch – a small
a. Tubal ligation/sterilization–
patch you stick on to
fallopian tubes are tied to
the skin that releases
prevent eggs from travelling to
estrogen and
the uterus so a woman cannot
progestogen.
get pregnant
ii. The ring – small plastic
b. Vasectomy – the surgeon
ring a woman inserts
makes a small cut in the upper
into her vagina every
part of the scrotum then ties or
month and releases
blocks the vas deferens
hormones to stop
5. Intrauterine Device (IUD)- a small
ovulation.
device that is placed in the uterus
iii. Implants – a small
by a doctor to prevent pregnancy
flexible rod that is place
6. Emergency Contraception (EC) – a
under the skin of the
measure that protects against
upper arm by a health
pregnancy after unprotected sex
professions and release
has already occurred.
progestogen to stop
ovulation.
iv. Injectable –
contraceptive injection
which is a long-acting
reversible
contraception. It is LESSON 3: THE MATERIAL/ECONOMIC SELF
more than 99%
effective.  Design - combines “needs” and “desire”
2. Barrier Method of Contraception in the form of a practical object that can
also reflect the user’s identity and
aspiration through its form and
decoration Economic Self Presentation and Identity
 John Heskett - For him, there is a  Economics - is defined as the study of
significance and function behind things that a person lacking.
everyday things, he explains that there  Economic self-sufficiency- is the ability
is a subconscious effect of design in of individuals and families to
everyday life consistently meet their needs.
 Roland Barthes - one of the first to  Economic Consciousness -Is the result
observe the relationship that people of socialization and professionalization
have with objects and in particular of the subject that acquires a particular
looked at objects as signs or things significance in human affairs.
which could be decoded to convey  Economic Identity - is a psychological
messages beyond their practical value phenomenon that results from social
 He popularized the field of categorization.
Semiology
 Semiology - The study of object as sign Symbolic Motives
 Sign - anything that conveys meaning  Status- The extent to which people
 Semiotic Analysis - objects function as believe they can derive of recognition
signifiers in the production of meaning or achievement from owning and using
they construct and carry a messages, the right list of product, can be an
which as a member of a culture one can important motivator of behavior.
understand  Affective Motive- is a concept used in
Environmental Psychological Affect
Sign has two elements: (emotions) serves as a motivator of pro
 Signifier- refers to its physical form environmental behavior.
 Signified - refers to mental concepts The role of consumer culture on the sense
of self identity

 Consumer identity is the pattern of


 The things people used, owned and
assumption that describes the
surrounded by them can accurately
consumer people may no longer
reflect their personalities. Not
consume goods and services
surprisingly, the clothes one wears the
primarily because of its functional
car one drives and the furnishing of
satisfaction.
one’s home is all expression of one self.
 Consumption has become
increasingly more meaning biased
 Ditmar - suggest that material good can
brands as often used as symbiotic
fulfill a range of instrumental, social,
resources for the construction and
symbolic and affective functions
maintenance of identity.
The theory of the meaning of material  People may construct their social
possessions identities through the consumption
of commercial brand or luxury
commodities.
 Instrumental Functions- relate to the
functional properties of a product  Customerism is the pre-occupation
with and an inclination towards the
 Social Symbolic Functions- Signify
buying of consumer goods.
personal qualities, social standing,
group affiliation and gender role  High class consumption is attached
to the identities of people.
 Categorical Functions- refer to the
extent to which material possessions  Behavioral Finance is a new field
may be used to communicate group that combines behavioral and
membership and status. cognitive psychological theory with
conventional economics and
 Self-Expressive Functions- reflect a
finance to provide explanation for
person’s unique qualities, values or
why people make irrational
attitudes.
financial decisions fails to choose  Dungan - cannot be seen by the human
then that person chooses to fail. eye.
 Decision making is importantwhen - It may show itself in the
being confronted to buy something. form of insects or other
small animal
- may leave the body
LESSON 4: THE SPIRITUAL SELF voluntarily when asleep
according to bisayans.
 The supernaturalor above natural - The Bisayans believe that
includes all that cannot be explained by the soul or dungan is not
the laws of nature, including things located in any specific part
characteristic of or relating to ghosts, of the body.
gods, or other types of spirits and non- - The Bisayandungan has a
material beings, or to things beyond secondary meaning of
nature. ‘willpower’
- At death, the dungan leaves
In 21st century, the decline of religiousness
the body through the nose,
was measured by: eyes, ears and other body
 Frequency of prayer orifices and goes with the
 Frequency of discussing religious air or wind.
teachings - It will wait until it can find
another body to enter
 Frequency of deciding moral actions for
religious reasons  Ibanags - the soul is the principle of life
in man.
 Overall importance of religion in
- Body is the matter, soul is
everyday life
the form
THE CONCEPT OF “DUNGAN” (SPIRIT OR - Death is the separation of
SOUL) the soul from the body

 Animism - Comes from the Latin


word anima. The belief that
RITUALS AND CEREMONIES
everything in nature have their own
spirit or divinity.  RITUALS - A religious or solemn
 Anima - meaning breath or soul. ceremony consisting of a series of
actions performed according to a
The “soul” or spirit in different regions
prescribed order.
 ”Kaluluwa” by the Tagalogs  Functions of rituals:
o A symbolic expression of actual
 ”Gomikud” by the Bagobos social relations, status or roles
of individuals in a society
 ”Makatu” by the Bukidnons
o A transcendent, numinous
 ”Dungan” by the Ilonggos (when alive) (spiritual) reality that shows the
“kalag” or “detached”, “free” (when ultimate values of a community
dead) o A set of behaviours and beliefs
that are symbolic of social,
 ”Ikararuwa” by the Ibanags psychological, or numinous
realities (non-rational function)
 ”Kadkadduwa” by the Ilokanos (when it
 Rituals may involve activities that can
is in the physical body) “Karuruwa”
be both secular and/or spiritual as well
(when departs)
as healing and/or destructive.
 CEREMONIES - Refers to movements or
gestures expressing feelings or beliefs
 Kaluluwa - Taken from the root word beyond the limitations of speech.
duwawhich means two – the physical  RELIGION - An organized set of beliefs,
part and the spiritual part. practices, rituals and symbols that
increase an individual’s connection to a  Mambabarang– a person who practices
sacred or transcendent other (God, sorcery or witchcraft
higher power, ultimate truth).
 William James - defined personal  Binarang– the target or the sorcery or
religion as the “feelings, acts and witchcraft
experiences of individual men in their
 Kulam– Tagalog word for ‘voodoo’ or
solitude, so far as they apprehend
‘witchcraft.’
themselves to stand in relation to
whatever they may consider.  Mangkukulam– a person who uses
 Religiousness – the degree by which black magic or spells on a victim.
one is affiliated with an organized
religion in terms of the person’s  Albulario/Mananambal– Filipino
participation in the prescribed rituals practitioner of traditional medicine; he
and practices, connection with its is also a medicine man who is also
beliefs, and involvement with its capable of performing sorcery.
community believers (Santrock, 2014). FINDING AND CREATING MEANING IN LIFE
 Spirituality – involves experiencing
something beyond oneself in a  Logotheraphy– comes from the
transcendent manner and living in a Greek word ‘logos’ which
way that benefits others and society. stands for meaning.
 Spiritual Identity – the persistent sense - aims to help the person
of self that addresses ultimate search for the meaning of
questions about the nature, purpose, his existence.
and meaning of life.
THREE BASIC PRINCIPLES ON DISCOVERING
MEANING IN LIFE:

MAGIC AND WITCHCRAFT  Meaning in Life


 Will to Meaning
 Magic – the ability to use supernatural
 Freedom to Will
forces to make impossible things
happen, such as making people
disappear or controlling events in
nature. LESSON 5: THE POLITICAL SELF

 Magician – the one who performs the “The political self exploreshow social and
magic like casting spell and summoning economic contexts profoundly affect the
spirits. mental health and well being of a
person”
– derived from the old French
magiciien, ‘magician or sorcerer’, which  Politics - (Gk) Politika: affairs of the
is rooted in the Greek word for cities
‘magical’, magikosormagos. o Process of making decisions
that applies to all members of a
 Sorcerer – translated from the Greek group
word pharmakos, and carries with it the o Ability to govern and control
idea of medicine, magic portions, drugs, over a group of people
and poison. o A person’s ability to influence
others by making a decision for
 Wizard – one who is thought to be them is one of essential
acquainted with secrets of the qualities in one’s political self
nonmaterial or unseen world.  Two types of social influence
 Necromancer – one who is ‘seeking (Deutsch & Gerard, 1955)
unto the dead’ o Normative Influence - Based on
confoorming to the positive
 Barang– Filipino term for sorcerer. expectation of others
o Informational Influence - Based taking action and are often
on accepting the information absent when needed
obtained from others as
evidence of reality (Hewstone,
et al., 2015)  Open Space Technology (OST) - an
 An important aspect of politics is the approach to puprpose-driven
capacity to influence and lead a group leadership which initialy has no formal
agenda but eventualy leads to a specific
of people.
or important purpose or task
 LEADERSHIP - Process by which certain
 Principles of OST
group members motivate and guide the
group (Myers, 2015) o Whoever comes are the right
people
 Leaders - responsible for the functions o Whatever happens is the only
and operations of an organization thing that could have happened
o Whenever it starts is the right
 Organizations time
o When it’s over, it’s over
o School Administrators

o Church Officials  Law of Two Feet - “When you find


yourself neither learning nor
o Officers of business
contributing, use your two feet and go
establishments
to some more productive places.”
 Leadership Style DEVELOPING A FILIPINO IDENTITY:
o Autocratic Leadership - VALUES, TRAITS, COMMUNITY AND
Directive,, non-participative and INSTITUTIONAL FACTORS
domineering
 Pakikipagkapwa-tao
o Democratic Leadership -  Being Family Oriented
Participative, communicative  Mapagmahal
and egalitarian

o Laissez-faire Leadership -
Lesson 6: The Digital Self
Hands-off with few attempts
made to influence others  The Digital Self - The amount of time
adolescents spend online can have both
 Leaders’ Descriptions
a positive and a negative outcome.
o Transactional Leaders -Focus (Sandrock, 2014)
on proper exchange of o With this influx of the digital
resources; give followers technology, a new version of
something in exchange for the self is formed. The digital
something the leaders want self.

o Transformational (Charismatic
Leaders) - works with teams to
identify needed change,
creating a vision to guide the What Statistics Say
change through inspiration, and
executing the change in tandem  The Philippines is the fastest-growing
with committed members of a market of smartphones in the ASEAN
group. based on a report of a market research
company.
o Laissez-faire Leaders - Engage  About 3.5 million smartphones were
in ‘non-leadership’; they avoid shipped to the country in the first
making decisions, hesitate in quarter of 2016.
 Currently about 30% of all Filipinos are Managing Online Disinhibition
smartphone users and that is projected
to increase in the next years.  Don’t post or send anything you would
be embarrassed for certain others to
 Statistics from Western countries
see.
showed that in 2012, 78% of online
teens own a cellphone, 8 out of 10  Do be careful about over-sharing.
teens own a desktop or laptop, 23% of  Don’t hang out with the “wrong crowd”
teens have a tablet computer, and 50 % online.
send 50 or more text messages a day.  Do consider your emotional state
 Americans between the ages of 8 and before virtually posting or responding
18 years spend on average 7.5 hours to anything.
per day using some sort of electronic  Do consider the reaction individuals are
devices, and 95% of them have access expecting from toxic disinhibition.
to internet as reported by Pew (2014).  Do search for yourself online.

Questions to Ponder I, Me, Myself and My User ID Online Identity

 Does spending too much time in  Digital Identity (DI)- refers to anything
cyberspace affect one’s personality? that describes a persona an individual
 Is there a big difference between the presents across all digital spaces that
self online and the real self? he/she is represented in.
 Can an adolescent survive the day  Symbolic Markers- express one’s
without going online? identity to others and helps them make
sense of it themselves.
Self and Other in Cyberspace  Internet disembodiment- refers to the
identity, soul or spirit separate from
 DIGITAL LITERACY- defined as those
physical body.
capabilities possessed by individuals
 User ID- lets a person associate a
who are living, learning and working in
persistent ID for a single user with that
a digital society.
user’s engagement data from one or
 ONLINE DISINHIBITION- the lack of
more sessions initiated from one or
restraint one feels when
more devices.
communicating online in comparison to
 Username- a unique sequence of
communicating in-person.
characters used to identify a user and
Two Categories of Online Disinhibition allow access to a computer system,
computer network, or online account
 Benign Disinhibition- the disinhibition  Dissociative Imagination- when a
that indicates attempt to understand person thinks that it is all just a game
and explore oneself, to work through and believes that when he/she leaves
problems, and find new ways of being. online everything he/she did will all be
 Toxic Disinhibition- describes behavior gone. A make-believe dimension.
that includes rude language, threats,  Solipsistic Introjection- a notion that
and visiting places of pornography, it’s only in their heads or minds. When
crime and violence on the internet, people don’t know what a virtual
places the person might not go to in person looks or sounds like,, people
real life. tend to assign traits to those individuals
o Cyberbullying- bullying that which is an imaginary interaction with
takes places using electronic the introjected character.
technology.  Dissociative Anonymity- a person can
o Cyber Harassment- the use of have no name or at least not the real
Information and name. People don’t have to own their
Communications Technology behavior by acknowledging it within the
(ICT) to harass, control, full of context of who “they” really are.
manipulate or habitually
disparage someone. It is the Impact of Online Interactions on the Self
adult form of cyber bullying.
 The development of the person’s social o In the modern era
aspects can be greatly influenced by (enlightenment through 20th
technology due to an insufficient century) - Identity is described
amount of real life social encounters as fixed, stable and unitary.
(Diaz, Evans and Gallagher, 2014). o In post-modern (now) - identity
 Based on an analysis of teenagers’ is considered as fluid, multiple
online experience, studies showed that and socially constructed.
‘others’ on the internet constitute a o Sherry Turkle - pointed out that
distinctive “looking glass” that produces people have different roles in
a “digital self” that differs from the self different settings. One wakes
offline. up as a lover, makes breakfast
 Abuse of technology always leads to as a mother and drives to work
negative consequences. Even if there as a lawyer.
are cases when social media negatively o Different contexts make
impacts users, it would be unfair if only different aspects of one’s
technology would be blamed. identity more salient such in
school, work, church and home.
Boundaries of the Self Online o In sociology, identity theory
(Stryker, 1980) - explained that
 Personal boundaries- the set of
individuals have “role
guidelines, rules or limits that a person
identities”. It is the character
creates to identify reasonable, safe and
and the role of and individual
permissible ways for people to behave
devises as an occupant of a
towards them and how they respond in
particular social position. “Self”
case someone breaks these rules or
is hierarchical ordering of
oversteps limits.
identities by salience. The
Private Vs. Public greater the commitment on an
identity, the greater the
 In many online environments people salience of the identity.
cannot see others. Nobody can judge
the statements and images because of
the cloak of invisibility.In the public
Gender and Sexuality Online
mode, the post ill be treated as open
book.  Researchers have found that problem in
 Invisibility is also a gauge to behaviors often characterize highly
misrepresent oneself. A man may masculine adolescents.
present himself as a woman or vice  Gender intensification hypothesis -
versa. that psychological and behavioral
 In virtual interactions, people cannot differences between boys and girls
always be sure when/where someone is become greater during early
present. It gives courage to do things adolescence because of increased
which cannot be done in face-to-face socialization pressure to conform to
interactions. masculine and feminine gender roles
(Santrock, 2014).
Personal/Individual VS. Social Identity Online
In the study entitled, Gender Stereotype in
 Identity- is made up of both personal
Facebook Profiles: Are Women More
identity and social identity.
Female Online?, the result showed that
 Social Identity- is usually based on
users present themselves in a less gender
group affiliation.
stereotypical way online, and that women
o Like in social media many
do so more than males alter self-
people identify themselves as a
presentation on Facebook influenced
member of a certain group so
personal well-being, but to a negative effect
that it will be easy for them to
on well-being.
communicate their concerns or
issues.  Sex is explicitly portrayed in:
o Movies
o TV shows
o videos lyrics of popular
music
o MTV
o internet sites

 Hannesy (2009) - adolescents, not


unlike adults, like to watch
television programs with sexual
content.
 Ward (2012) - revealed that
watching television sex can
influence adolescents’ sexual
attitude and behavior. Researchers
have shown that exposure to sexual
content is elated to more
permissive studies about premarital
and recreational sex (Hewstone, et
al, 2015)
 Sexting - sending, receiving, or
forwarding sexually explicit
messages, photographs or images,
primarily between mobile phones.
It may also include the use of a
computer or any digital device.