Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 12

1

SECTION II ANSWERS

16. The marketing channels: is a set of activities necessary to transfer the ownership of goods
from the point of production to the point of consumption. It is the way products and services get
to the end-user, the consumer; and it is also known as a distribution channel.

How it works:

a. Producer Consumer: the producer sells the goods or provides the service directly
to the consumer with no involvement with middleman or intermediary such as:
Wholesaler, a Retailer, an agent or a reseller.
Ex: a traveller book an air ticket to Rwandair
b. Producer Retailer Consumer : retailer buy the product from the manufacturer
and sell the directly to consumer. This channel works best for manufacturer that produce
shopping goods.
Ex: Peter Johnson rents a hotel room via a travel agency.
c. Producer Wholesaler/Distributer Customer
Ex: Wholesalers/Distributors buy the products from the manufacturer and sell them to the
consumer. In this case consumer can buy products or services directly from the
Wholesaler in Bulk. Ex: Lemigo Hotels buy Bralirwa products from Bralirwa
distributers.
d. Producer Agent/Broker Wholesaler or Retailer Customer
This channel involves more than one intermediary before the product get into the hands
of consumer. This middleman known as the agent, assist with the negociation between
the manufacturer and seller. Agents come into play when the producer need to get their
product into the market as possible.
This happens mostly when the item is perishable and has to get to the market fresh
before it starts to rot.

17. The factors that an enterprise should consider before launching a new product on market are :

1. Competition:

The first thing to keep in mind is the competition. Visit their websites, see how they have done
things and do them better. You can beat your competition if you bring a better product and use
better online marketing strategies. It’s all about how you present your product.
2. Customer preferences:

Know who your customers are. It’s all about what your customers prefer. Give them a product
that they would really commit to and appreciate and more importantly sell it or launch it in a
2

manner that will capture the audience’s attention. If your customers see what they like they will
end up buying the product or service.
3. Precise information: providing short, simple and clear information that capture the
customer’s attention about that new product.

4. Social media: use social media such Facebook, twitter , Instagram, etc to advertise that new
product moreover use media such as TV, radio, news papers, etc to inform a big number of
people about your product.

5. Marketing continuation:

Here you need to continue spreading the word mouth and marketing once the launch is
completed. Every day is a new launch day for your product, so, keep at it and turn your product
into a brand with new and revised methods of marketing. New services, discounts and other
promoting services will really capture the costumers’’ interest.

18. a) Negative demand: refer to the situation when the product is total resisted or refused by
customer.

b) The four (4) other characteristics of demand are:

-Declining demand - Positive demand


-Latent demand - Fragment demand
-Potential demand - Overfull demand
-No demand - Differed demand
-Effective demand - Real demand
19. Ways to encourage local tourism in Rwanda are:
 Preparation of tourist handbooks for the benefit of tourists.
 Special accommodation and tourism rates to locals
 Decreasing prices to access tourism attractions and other activities
 Motivate or interest local people via media amusements parks and museums
 Providing reasonable price of hotel and other facilities
 Motivate Private companies and Public institutions to organize group tour .
 Encourage the travel agents to introduce reasonable budget tour packages for the
domestic tourists
 Tourism department should have advisory committee on domestic tourism
 Create culture of study trips to primary and high schools students
 Compilation of information on religious and cultural events
 Tembera urwanda campaign as pull factor to encourage domestic tourism
3

20. The measures that may be taken to fight against certain negative stereotypes are;
 Facilitate immigration process within and outside the country
 Motivating foreigner investors to invest in different business areas
 Open door policy .ex one single visa
 Diaspora conference
 Welcoming international meeting and different event such as ,CHAN,FESPAD,CAN
, Gorrilla naming ceremony etc
 Express a friendly condition or atmosphere to the customer
 Remark the beauty of the country
 Contradict the past perceived history about the country
 Good governance
 Security in the country
 Strengthen public relation
 Provision country information through social media such as Facebook, Twitter,
 Better collaboration between travel agencies and enterprises
 Organizing international debate
 Emphasize on the best

SECTION II

21. Five promotion mix tools to communicate the value of a product to consumers are:

 Public relation or Publicity ; is the process of communicating the product to the target
market or audience. Ex ; Newspapers and Magazines articles/reports ,TV and radio
presentation
 Advertising; presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified
sponsor.
Ex; radio, television, billboard, television, billboard, direct email, brochures and catalogs,
emails, webpages and banner
 Personal selling; a process of helping and persuading (convince) one or more prospects
to purchase a good or service or to act on any idea through the use of an oral presentation.
Ex ; sales presentations, sales meeting, sample and telemarketing.
 Sales promotion: is a tool of promotion mix that involves in provision of additional
product. Ex . exhibitions, product samples
 Direct Marketing: it involves a form of advertising that allows businesses to
communicate straight to the customer. With advertising techniques such as mobile
messaging, email, catalog distribution, fliers
4

 Corporate image: this involves the image of an organization. if the reputation of


company is bad consumers are less willing to buy a product from this company as they
would have been , if the company had a good image.

21. a) The social and economic categories according to ESOMAR:

 A (Upper class)
Top managers (heads and directors) of enterprises, organizations and establishments,
who have higher education and a large number of direct reports
 B (Upper middle class)
Mid-level managers with higher education level working for large
organizations/companies, medium-sized business entrepreneurs
 C1 (Middle class)
Highly skilled professionals without managerial functions in private sector, self-
employed businessmen, mid-level managers with secondary or specialized education
 C2 (Lower middle class)
Qualified experts in government-funded organizations, wealthy retirees, employees
without higher education and skilled workers of foreign and joint companies
 D (Lower class)
Skilled workers and craftsmen working at public enterprises and employees of
government-funded organizations, the majority of retirees, small traders without special
or higher education
 E (Lower lower class)
Unskilled and utility workers with secondary education, low-income pensioners
b) The target groups for promoting a brand name are:
1. Customers
2. Competitors : here your brand name should be the best than your competitors
c. Yes I would say that advertising is quite objective
Because of the following reasons

 it increasing product awareness among targeted consumers,


 it is providing information about product features, and reducing consumer
resistance to buying the product.

21. The customer can feel special in my organization in the following ways

1. Treat your Customers Right – Genuinely Interact


2 Smile and make eye contact
3 Help the customer find a service or item elsewhere if you cannot provide it.
4 Keep your business or workspace organized and inviting.
5. Respect Your Customers
6 Always listen – Hear What Your Customers are Saying
7 Continue to Satisfy – Offer Ongoing Support and Specials
8. Treat a Customer Like a Valued Partner
9. Be Transparent – Honesty is Crucial When it comes to Mistakes
5

10.Recognize Responsibility – The Customer is Always Right


12.Build an online business
13. Sharing idea through social media with your customer
.
TOURISM GEOGRAPHY

1. Coordinate of Kigali :Lat 1o S , Long 30o E

2. a) Thickness (Distance between to & bottom)of Troposphere: the thickness of the troposphere at
the Equator and above the pole is ranging between 8km at the pole to 17 km at the Equator.
b)Troposphere Contains approximately 75% of the atmosphere’s mass(air) and 99%of it water
vapor and aerosol.
3. Rank of Nyungwe NP: it Is ranked as the first biggest natural rain forest in East and Central
Africa .
4. Rwanda is often call a country of perpetual spring because Rda’s comfortable climate is
temperate and with an average day time temperature of 77o F (25o c). Here the main rainy season is from
March to Mid-May and the shorter one is from November to Mid-December.
 In addition Rwanda is appropriately called “the Land of a thousand Hills” bcs it is predominately
grassy highlands and Hills with altitudes above sea level varying from a low of 1,207 m to
Mt Karisimbi, the highest of a range of extinct volcanoes in the northwest which reach
4,507m.
5. Potential sites in Rwanda to organize hydrotherapy (warm water so it involves special exercices
that you do in warm water) ; We may have hydrotherapy in site where we have amashyuza
especially In western and Northern Province of Rwanda.
6. Xcs of cumulus Clouds: - they look like cotton
- they are at low level altitude of 1000
- they are composed with ice crystals and droplet
- they are most common types of clouds seen in the sky
- they are fluffy (light and Soft )
7.Simultanous Movement of Earth are : 1. Rotation= the Earth turn around an invisible axis. it takes
the Earth 24 hours. 2. Revolution= the Earth turn the around the Sun. It takes
365 day or one year.
8. Four types of Mountain: 1.Volcanic Mountain
2. Fold Mountain( Complex Mountain)
3. Block Mountain( fault-block)
4. Upwarped Mountain
9. Plateau is also called (a high plain or table land) = is an area of highland usually relatively
flat terrain.

10. Three category of plateau: 1. Dissected plateau which is caused by an upward movement
in the Earth’s crust. 2.Volcanic Plateau; are formed due to volcanic eruptions
3. Oceanic Plateau : are found in the Ocean.
6

11. Three mechanism that form volcanic lakes:

a)Volcanic eruption, : Caldera


b)Volcanic explosion, : Crater Lake Bisoke
c)Lava dammed lake : Bulera & Ruhondo

12. Factors which influence biodiversity ( diversity of life on the earth):

a) Climate
b) Vegetation
c) Soil
d) Water bodies
e) Temperature
 Biodiversity : is the variety within and between all species of Plants, animals and Micro-
organisms and the ecosystem within which they live and interact.
MARKETING 2014

Prospective customer
A prospective customer (a prospect) is a customer who can buy your product if he wants, i.e. that
he has physical and financial resources. A prospect for the seller is a client who is in need for the
proposed product, but there are some doubts. The task of the seller is to make a prospect buy this
product.
MARKETING 2015

1. The following terms in marketing concepts are:


 Needs: are the basic human requirement like shelter, clothe, food, water, etc.
These are essential for human beings to survive.
 Wants: is a product desired a customer that is not required for us to survive. So
want is the complete opposite of need, which is essential for our survival
 Demand: if a customer is willing to buy a need that they have a demand for that
need a want.
 Brand: is a product or service to which human beings attach a bundle of tangible
and intangible meaning that add value. / A category of products that are all made
by a particular company and all have a particular name.
2. Three ways on how I can increase the value of product or service to customer Are:
7

 By doing promotion which includes Advertising, PR, Event Marketing, Online


Marketing, Direct Marketing, Personal Selling, Channel Marketing, and
Alliances.
 Increase the value of existed product or service
 Price. Price consist of the policies regarding competitive upgrades, reseller
pricing, discounts, list price, distributor and street price (the actual selling price)
 Product. The product refers to the service or tangible good that satisfies the target customer’s
wants–it is obviously first essential that a real target market is identified, quantified and
justified.
 Place. The place refers to placement (usually managed by sales or OEM), such as having the
product available where and when targeted customers want to buy it.
 Promotions. Promotion includes Advertising, PR, Event Marketing, Online Marketing,
Direct Marketing, Personal Selling, Channel Marketing, and Alliances.
3. The types of business organization are : cfr 2014 past paper number 9
4. The intangibility to perishability cfr 2014 past paper number 10
5. Adventage of registering a trading activity or a company cfr 2014 past paper number 11
6. What I think when the product reflecting a declining demand cfr 2014 past paper number 12
7. Studying marketing will help me as future entrepreneur? cfr 2014 past paper number 1
8. The four marketing channels cfr 2014 past paper number 13
9. Product from service cfr 2014 past paper number 2
10. Marketing mix cfr 2014 past paper number 4
11. Marketing to sales cfr 2014 past paper number 14
12. Cooperative enterprises cfr 2014 past paper number 5
13. Different between market segmentation to target market and positioning market :
A target market is a specific group of people that you have determined to be desirable as part of your
customer base. While
Market segmentation is the breaking down of the market into smaller groups with the intention of
promoting your product or service differently to each of them.
 Market segmentation allows your target marketing to become more specific; it divides broad markets--
such as male, female, teen and adult--into smaller segments in which people are grouped by shared
characteristics.
 The Influence of Geography

 Geography can be one way to help determine your target market. For example, a company that makes
snow tires would be more interested in the consumers located in the northern parts of the United States
8

and in the mountainous regions. When using geography as your target market, make sure that your
product is something that will appeal to a broad range of other types of consumers. Snow tires would
appeal to anyone who owns a car, which is a group that cuts across several other marketing
demographics.

 Choose by Age

 As people grow older, their tastes and preferences change. Entertainment is an industry that frequently
uses the age demographic to determine a target market. For example, a television show may be given a
particular time slot because market research shows that people ages 13 to 18 watch television during
that time and that is the target market the show is going for. Age is a demographic that becomes very
specific to other factors: People ages 13 to 18 in the southern United States might listen to a different
kind of music than those in the western states.
 Market segmentation can occur using various factors that fit into four basic categories. Geographic
segmentation separates people based on variables such as region, climate, international/domestic or
urban/suburban/rural.
 Demographic segmentation uses variables such as age, gender, ethnicity, education, social class,
occupation, family status and income.
 Psychographic segmentation uses values, attitudes, beliefs and lifestyle to divide the target market.
The final category is behavioral segmentation, which uses factors such as behavioral patterns, price
sensitivity, brand loyalty and benefits sought.

 The Influence of Geography

Geography can be one way to help determine your target market. For example, a company
that makes snow tires would be more interested in the consumers located in the northern parts
of the United States and in the mountainous regions. When using geography as your target
market, make sure that your product is something that will appeal to a broad range of other
types of consumers. Snow tires would appeal to anyone who owns a car, which is a group that
cuts across several other marketing demographics.

 Choose by Age

As people grow older, their tastes and preferences change. Entertainment is an industry that
frequently uses the age demographic to determine a target market. For example, a television
show may be given a particular time slot because market research shows that people ages 13
9

to 18 watch television during that time and that is the target market the show is going for. Age
is a demographic that becomes very specific to other factors: People ages 13 to 18 in the
southern United States might listen to a different kind of music than those in the western
states.

 Male or Female

Breaking down your target market by sex can be dangerous if you do not do your market
research. If you believe that your target market is female, then much of your advertising will
be geared towards a female audience. This tends to alienate the male audience and eliminates
any chance your product may have had at appealing to males. Do comprehensive market
research on the male or female preference of your product before breaking down your target
audience.

 Combining Demographic Factors

A comprehensive target market profile usually encompasses a combination of the major


demographic elements. For example, the newest male teenage singing sensation will want to
market his music to the teenage females throughout the world. Another example of combining
target market components is using sports commercials with scantly clad women to market
beer during the broadcast of sporting events. The beer companies have done their research
and have determined that heterosexual males who are sports fans are beer consumers, and
those commercials display a company advertising to a very specific target market.
 Market positioning is about how you want your customers to perceive your
product or service in relation to their perception of your competitors and what
marketing strategies you should adopt to reach this perceptual goal.
In other words, what message about your product or service is your company
trying to put across and how will you do that?
14. cfr 2014 past paper number 9
15. SECTION II : cfr 2014 past paper number 19
16. cfr 2014 past paper number 17
17. cfr 2014 past paper number 18
18. cfr 2014 past paper number 15
19. Discuss
20. SECTION III: cfr 2014 past paper number 20
10

21. How can : 10 Ways To Make Your Customers Feel Special

Besides the obvious approach of fulfilling your customer’s wants or needs, what other techniques
do you use to keep customers happy? Here are 10 ways to bring smiles to your customers’ faces
by making them feel special:

1. SEND YOUR CUSTOMERS A NOTE ON THEIR BIRTHDAY

Yes, this takes a bit of tracking, but it’s an easy and inexpensive way to show customers that you
care!

2. SHOW THEM PERSONAL ATTENTION

Perhaps you work with your customers on a custom order or you provide input and
recommendations on what they should buy, giving your time and personal attention sets you
apart from the competition.

3. THANK THEM FOR THEIR PURCHASE AND EXPRESS YOUR


APPRECIATION

Whether it’s a thank you card or a verbal “thank you,” expressing your sincere appreciation
makes people feel like they are making a difference by supporting your business. Many people
are putting more and more thought into purchasing consciously, even if they have to pay a bit
more. If they feel your sincere appreciation, they are more apt to notice or come back to you (or
other businesses within your community) in the future.

4. GIVE BACK

Perhaps you donate a percentage of your sales to charity or offer items or services to non-profit
auctions, by giving, oftentimes you’re not only making a difference, but you’re giving people a
reason to want to support your business as well.

5. PROVIDE "BANG FOR THE BUCK"

Reward customers by providing great value for an affordable price.

6. GIVE A DISCOUNT OR A PROMOTION ON FUTURE PURCHASES

Providing a perk, such as a discount or free shipping for future purchases is a nice touch,
rewarding customers for their business and incentivizing them to come back!

7. MAKE ADJUSTMENTS BASED ON THEIR FEEDBACK

Show customers that your care by listening to their advice. If they have feedback for you or your
business, they will feel appreciated if you consider their feedback and if appropriate, make
necessary adjustments to your business based on their recommendations.
11

8. GIVE THEM YOUR BUSINESS

If your customers also run a business, when you can, reciprocate by giving them your business!

9. REMEMBER THEM

Maybe you welcome your customers by first name when you run into them or you greet them in
a way that shows you recognize them, demonstrating that you remember your customers makes
them feel important.

10. STAND BY YOUR WORK OR YOUR SERVICES

If something is wrong with the work or service you’re providing, then take whatever steps are
necessary to fix the issue. When customers are confident that you will take care of them, not
only in that moment, but in future builds their trust in you while giving them a reason to come
back again.

11. Smile and make eye contact. When you greet or talk with a customer, they should feel like the most
important person in the room. Make sure you are giving them your full attention and listening to what
they need.

12. Learn the customer’s name. Not only will this show them that you are taking an immediate
interest in them as a person, but you can call them by name next time they visit you and make
them feel even more valued
13. Do something unexpected
When I make a significant purchase or go through an important event (like surgery), a follow-up call, email, or
handwritten note communicates that you’re thinking about me, and at least for the moment you’re creating good
vibes.

14. Return phone calls and emails immediately


Few actions more accurately demonstrate how important you think I am than how quickly or slowly you get back to
me. That return call or email response that comes minutes (or even seconds) after I left the message tells me that you
respect me enough to show a sense of urgency.

15. Acknowledge my presence


Even if you’re with another customer, at least give me a signal that you know I’m there. Eye contact and a smile is
all it takes. Let me know that I’m more important than your paperwork or shelf stocking, and definitely let me know
that I’m more important than chatting with your colleague.
12

Do you use any of the techniques on this list to make customers feel special?

22. Cfr 2014 past paper number22