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Machining Process

Machining is a term used to describe a variety of material removal processes in which a cutting tool
removes unwanted material from a workpiece to produce the desired shape. Machining can be used
to create a variety of features including such as holes, flat surfaces, grooves, slots, contours, threads,
tapers etc.
While machined parts are typically metal, almost all materials can be machined, including metals,
plastics, composites, woods etc.

Turning Process
Turning is a form of machining, a material removal process, which is used to create rotational parts
by cutting away unwanted material. The turning process requires a turning machine or lathe,
workpiece, fixture and cutting tool. Turning is used to produce rotational, typically axi-symmetric,
parts that have many features, such as holes, grooves, threads, tapers etc.
Lathe
A lathe is a powered mechanical device in which the work is held and rotated against a suitable cutting
tool for producing cylindrical forms in the metal, wood or any other machinable material.
Types of Lathe
 Precision lathe
 Tool room lathe
 Capstan and turret lathe
 Automatic lathe
 Speed lathe
 Engine lathe
 Bench lathe
 Special purpose lathe
Fig. Lathe Machine (Centre Lathe)

Lathe Machine Parts:


Bed
It is the base or foundation of lathe. It is casting made in one piece. It holds or supports all other parts
of lathe.
Headstock
The headstock assembly is the front (left) section of machine that is attached to the bed. This
assembly contains the motor and drive system which powers the spindle. The spindle supports and
rotates the workpiece, which is secured in a workpiece holder or fixture, such as a chuck or collet.
Tailstock
The tailstock assembly is the rear (right) section of the machine that is attached to the bed. It is used
for supporting the work when turning on centers or when a long component is to be held in a chuck
or drilling and boring operations.
Carriage
The carriage is a platform that slides alongside the workpiece, allowing the cutting tool to cut away
material as it moves.
Cross slide
The cross slide is attached to the top of the carriage and allows the tool to move towards or away
from the workpiece, changing the depth of cut.
Compound Rest
The compound is attached on top of the cross slide and supports the cutting tool. The cutting tool is
secured in a tool post which is fixed to the compound. The compound can rotate to alter the angle of
cutting tool relative to the workpiece.
Saddle
It is made up of H shaped casting. It aids saddle to slide on bed guideways by operating hand wheels.
Tool Post
It is used to hold various tool holders and tools. Three types of tool post commonly used are; ring and
rocker tool post, square head tool post and quick change tool post.
Legs
The legs are supports which carry entire load of the machine. Legs are casted and it is placed on the
floor of the shop on foundation by grouting. The left leg acts as housing for the motor, the pulleys
and the counter shaft at the same time the right leg acts as a housing or the coolant tank, pump and
the connecting parts.
Lathe Specification
The size of the lathe is specified by the following ways:
 Length of the bed.
 Distance between centers.
 Diameter of the work which can be turned between the ways
 Swing over carriage.
Cutting Tools
All cutting tools that are used in turning can be found in a variety of materials, which will determine
the tool's properties and the workpiece materials for which it is best suited. These properties include
the tool's hardness, toughness and wear resistance. The most common tool materials that are used
include the following.
• High-speed steel (HSS)
• Carbide
• Carbon steel
• Cobalt high speed steel

Basic Lathe Machine Operations: Some of the basic lathe machine operations are:
Facing
The cutting tool moves radially, along the end of the workpiece, removing a thin layer of material to
provide a smooth flat surface.
Plain Turning
The cutting tool moves axially, along the side of the workpiece, removing material to form different
features, including steps, tapers, and contours.

Grooving
The cutting tool moves radially, into the side of workpiece, cutting a groove equal in width to the
cutting tool.

Thread cutting
The cutting tool, typically with a 60 degree pointed nose, moves axially, along the side of the
workpiece, cutting threads into the outer surface.

Taper Turning
The taper turning is an operation of producing a conical surface by gradual reduction in the diameter
of a cylindrical workpiece.
Experiment No.
Aim: To prepare the job on the Lathe Machine as per the given drawing.

Tools & Equipments: Power Hacksaw, Lathe Machine, Engineering steel rule 6”, outside caliper,
vernier calipers, flat smooth file, single point cutting tool, knurling tool, spanner set, parting off or
necking tool, thread gauge, threading tool, parting tool etc.

Material Required: Mild steel bar (φ25 mm)

List of Operations: Cutting, facing, plain turning, taper turning, grooving, threading, chamfering,
knurling.

Procedure:
[1] Understand the job drawing thoroughly and plan the job.
[2] Cut off a 150 mm long bar of mild steel having 25 mm diameter by using power hacksaw.
[3] Mount the bar on the chuck of lathe machine and perform facing operation with the help of a
facing tool.
[4] Perform plain turning (φ22 mm and 85 mm length).
[5] Perform plain turning (φ17 mm and 35 mm length).
[6] Perform taper turning by swiveling the compound rest at an angle of (5.71 0)* (Diameter
reducing from φ22 to φ17 along 25 mm length).
*Angle of swivel of compound rest:
𝐷−𝑑
Tan 𝜃 =
2𝑙
Now for D = 22 mm, d = 17 mm and l = 25 mm: 𝜃 = 5.710
[7] Perform grooving, threading, chamfering and knurling operation as per the drawing given.

Precautions:
 Don’t wear loose clothes while working on the machine.
 Workpiece should be held tightly on the lathe chuck.
 Cutting tools should be held tightly in the tool holder.
 Never let your clothes and hand come in contact with the revolving chuck, pulleys etc.
 Do not touch the chips when machine is working.
 Do not give large feed to cutting tool.
Viva Voce Questions:
Q.1. Define facing, turning, knurling and chamfering.
Q.2. What are the main components of lathe machine?
Q.3. What is the function of chuck on lathe machine?
Q.4. What is the difference between plain and taper turning?
Q.5. What is the function of tailstock?
Knurling
Taper turning
Threading
Grooving
Φ14 Facing

65 25 25 30
5
Plain turning

All dimensions in mm