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1.

Introduction

The media, with specific reference to the collective entity of newspapers, radio, television and

the Internet, are important in shaping the development process of a country. Development

involves changes or advancement in a nation aimed at improving the political, economic and

social lives of the people. It is a multidimensional process of action, organization and

communication and involves economic, political, social and cultural factors. The real influence

of the media in national development will depend on the media themselves, the societies in

which they operate, and the audience they reach. None of these factors are the same everywhere,

at all times, or all conditions. The media in dictatorships, for example, are not likely to exercise

the same influence as those in democratic societies. The media’s crucial role in national

development is not in doubt. The role covers the political, economic and social spheres. The

media set the public agenda and act as the gatekeeper of public issues. They perform the

watchdog role especially in political transparency and fight against corruption. As the fourth

estate, the media provide the checks and balances in relation to the three branches of

government, as created by the constitution. Media are particularly important in facilitating nation

building especially of post-colonial societies and those experiencing ethnic and religious

diversities (Malik , Aaliya and Sabeha, 2015).

The media has been variously defined by scholars of mass communication among which media

is referred to as a collective means of communication by which general public or populace is

kept informed about the day to day happenings in the society. The media is also said to be an

aggregation of all communication channels that use techniques of making a lot of direct personal

communication between the communicator and the public. While talking of mass media

however, the word “mass” means a large number of people or collection of organs of
communication and information dissemination that reaches out a large number of people. The

information circulation is not only confined within members of the public but the media also

serves to coordinate the information flow between government and the public and vice versa

(Malik , Aaliya and Sabeha, 2015)

One of the enduring maxims of communication is “man cannot not communicate” (Watzlawick,

Beavin and Jackson, 1967:8). This implies that communication is indispensable to man’s

existence on planet Earth. Moemeka (2000) further explains the importance of communication to

human existence on Earth when he states that communication is so central to human existence

that without it, the world as we know it would cease functioning Communication takes place

everywhere, everyday and all the time. It is a wide and all-embracing concept which goes

beyond the concept of language which is a tool of communication; a sub-set of the universal set.

There is a paradox about the term, “communication”. It is at once obvious and obscure; its

meaning seems to be obvious in everyday usage but very elusive when scholars set out to capture

its essence in finely calibrated definitions. Fiske (cited in Okunna 1999) corroborates this

assertion when he states that communication is one of those human activities that everyone

recognizes but few can define satisfactorily. Without communication social change cannot take

place and society cannot be because communication is a fundamental social process. As a result,

man has evolved various channels of communication over the years ranging from the town crier

to the use of signs and symbols or even the use of drums in Africa and other means that Man

designed in the early ages to communicate with large numbers of people. With time, man’s quest

to communicate with large, diverse and heterogeneous audiences led to various inventions which

paved the way for the start of electronic communication. Communication however, is not
monolithic; it comes in various formats. In this regard, communication can be intrapersonal,

interpersonal, verbal, non-verbal, group, public, intercultural or international (or global).

Linking Media and Development at the micro level

With the liberation of countries from the colonial rule after the World War II, the newly liberated

independent nations were formulating their own policies of national development. When the

policies were taking shape, experts like Rostov (1960), Hagen (1962) propounded new theories

of development. A majority of them during the period believed that economic development was

the quickest way of development. They adopted the western model of development termed as

dominant paradigm of development. Daniel Lerner, Lazarfeld, Schramm and Rogers advocated

the modernization theory, which simply said that the developing countries need to adapt to the

new technologies and increase production at all levels which lead to development. Diffusion of

innovation, two step flow theory, extension and other social marketing theories were spoken of

assure success formulae for development. UNESCO (1961) stipulated a minimum standard of

mass communication channels for the third world; 10 copies of daily newspapers, five radio

receivers, two television sets and two cinema seats for every 100 of country’s inhabitant. Ever

since the beginning of planned development, the role of media in the process of development has

been organized. The media were expected to provide communication support and inform the

general masses about the objectives, targets and benefits of the plans. In the second five year

plan, publicity through the mass media was planned. Third five year plan proposed to intensify

existing communication systems to take the message of the plan and development to the masses.

In the recent years, the development of new communication technologies is encouraged and

supported by all governments, corporate and private sectors to accelerate the pace of

development and change.


Media are catalytic agents in national development. The revolutionary changes in the

communication technologies have contributed to expanding the role of media in national

development. They have accelerated the pace of development and made the world a smaller

place by bringing people closer through communication. The rapid developments in the

communication scenario and media technologies have provided ample scope to development

practitioners to evolve appropriate communication strategies for development. Media have

contributed tremendously to the development of nations and societies. They are powerful forces

in today’s world. They influence and shape the local, national and international issues. Media are

expected to foster overall national development. Growth of media in the form of communication

accelerates the development process of the country. Media have contributed in bringing about

revolutionary changes in India in spite of many disparities in society. Dua (1994) felt that media

should give more coverage to the agricultural programmes relevant to farming community. It is a

fact that half of our population is still illiterate and does not have access to newspapers and other

printed material. As a result of this, pace of adoption of technology has remained much lower

than the expectations of scientists. India having diverse language needs media and

communication in local important for getting advantage of technology being communicated in

regional languages.

According to Yadav, “access to mass media and other modes of communication is primordial”.

For this, in a developing country like India facilities for community listening, viewing and

reading should be provided in all villages and to all weaker sections on priority basis. Along with

this, a movement for district language newspapers with appropriate contents needs to be

launched. If together with structural changes, electronic media, district newspapers, adult literacy

and civic education programmes, and other development efforts are properly planned,
synchronized and harmonized, these can be complimentary and serve large national objectives

promoting universal education and participatory development with social justice. This will

ensure active development of the „silent majority‟ which is largely left out of development and

progress achieved so far in the task of nation building (Dua and Gupta, 1994).

3. Case Study

3.1 British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) World Service

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster. Its

headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, London, and it is the world's oldest

national broadcasting organization (BBC, 2007) and the largest broadcaster in the world by

number of employees. It employs over 20,950 staff in total, 16,672 of whom are in public sector

broadcasting (BBC, 2010). The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time, flexible, and

fixed-contract staff is included (Hacker, 2014).

The BBC is established under a Royal Charter (Andrew, 2005) and operates under its Agreement

with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport (BBC, 2013). Its work is funded

principally by an annual television licence fee which is charged to all British households,

companies, and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television

broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up. The fee is set by the British Government, agreed by

Parliament,and used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, and online services covering the nations and

regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has also funded the BBC World Service (launched in

1932 as the BBC Empire Service), which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides

comprehensive TV, radio, and online services in Arabic and Persian.


Around a quarter of BBC revenues come from its commercial arm BBC Studios Ltd (formerly

BBC Worldwide), which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and also distributes

the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, and from

BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd.

From its inception, through the Second World War (where its broadcasts helped to unite the

nation), to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British culture. It is also

known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both (as "Auntie Beeb" or

"Auntie B").

History of British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC).

The birth of British broadcasting, 1920 to 1922

Britain's first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June

1920. It was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian

soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a

turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not

shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and

civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff

of the licensing authority, the General Post Office (GPO), was sufficient to lead to a ban on

further Chelmsford broadcasts.

But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind

its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members. Anxious to

avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it

would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading
wireless receiver manufactures, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John

Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks

after the company made its first official broadcast. The company was to be financed by a royalty

on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved domestic manufacturers (Burns, 1977).

To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform, educate and entertain".

From private company towards public service corporation, 1923 to 1926

The financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs

made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions

between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General

commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee. The Committee recommended

a short term reorganization of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the

BBC's immediate financial distress, and an increased share of the licence revenue split between it

and the GPO. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once

the wireless manufactures protection expired. The BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made

explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising.

The BBC was also banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00 and was required to

source all news from external wire services.

Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the

Crawford committee. By now, the BBC, under Reith's leadership, had forged a consensus

favouring a continuation of the unified (monopoly) broadcasting service, but more money was

still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss

making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a

commercial enterprise. The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in


March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general

strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, and with

restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC suddenly became the primary source of news for

the duration of the crisis.

The crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the

Government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the

Government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain

public trust by appearing to be acting independently. The Government was divided on how to

handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's

own. Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the Government's objectives largely

in a manner of its own choosing. The resulting coverage of both striker and government

viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the

nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment, or that the

BBC had banned broadcasts from the Labour Party and delayed a peace appeal by the

Archbishop of Canterbury. Supporters of the strike nicknamed the BBC the BFC for British

Falsehood Company. Reith personally announced the end of the strike which he marked by

reciting from Blake's "Jerusalem" signifying that England had been saved (Crook, 2002).

While the BBC tends to characterize its coverage of the general strike by emphasizing the

positive impression created by its balanced coverage of the views of government and strikers,

Jean Seaton, Professor of Media History and the Official BBC Historian, has characterized the

episode as the invention of "modern propaganda in its British form".[24] Reith argued that trust

gained by 'authentic impartial news' could then be used. Impartial news was not necessarily an

end in itself.
The BBC did well out of the crisis, which cemented a national audience for its broadcasting, and

it was followed by the Government's acceptance of the recommendation made by the Crawford

Committee (1925–26) that the British Broadcasting Company be replaced by a non-commercial,

Crown-chartered organization: the British Broadcasting Corporation.

1927-1934

The British Broadcasting Corporation came into existence on 1 January 1927, and Reith – newly

knighted – was appointed its first Director General. To represent its purpose and (stated) values,

the new corporation adopted the coat of arms, including the motto "Nation shall speak peace

unto Nation"(Knowles, 2008).

British radio audiences had little choice apart from the upscale programming of the BBC. Reith,

an intensely moralistic executive, was in full charge. His goal was to broadcast "All that is best

in every department of human knowledge, endeavour and achievement.... The preservation of a

high moral tone is obviously of paramount importance (Charles, 1955). Reith succeeded in

building a high wall against an American-style free-for-all in radio in which the goal was to

attract the largest audiences and thereby secure the greatest advertising revenue. There was no

paid advertising on the BBC; all the revenue came from a tax on receiving sets. Highbrow

audiences, however, greatly enjoyed it (David, 2013). At a time when American, Australian and

Canadian stations were drawing huge audiences cheering for their local teams with the broadcast

of baseball, rugby and hockey, the BBC emphasized service for a national, rather than a regional

audience. Boat races were well covered along with tennis and horse racing, but the BBC was

reluctant to spend its severely limited air time on long football or cricket games, regardless of

their popularity (Mike, 2007)


John Reith and the BBC, with support from the Crown, determined the universal needs of the

people of Britain and broadcast content according to these perceived standards (Hajkowski,

2010). Reith effectively censored anything that he felt would be harmful, directly or indirectly

(Todd, 2006). While recounting his time with the BBC in 1935, Raymond Postgate claims that

BBC broadcasters were made to submit a draft of their potential broadcast for approval. It was

expected that they tailored their content to accommodate the modest, church-going elderly or a

member of the Clergy (Dawkins, 2016). Until 1928, entertainers broadcasting on the BBC, both

singers and "talkers" were expected to avoid biblical quotations, Clerical impersonations and

references, references to drink or Prohibition in America, vulgar and doubtful matter and

political allusions (Todd, 2006). The BBC excluded popular foreign music and musicians from

its broadcasts, while promoting British alternatives (Doctor, 1999). On 5 March 1928, Stanley

Baldwin, the Prime Minister, maintained the censorship of editorial opinions on public policy,

but allowed the BBC to address matters of religious, political or industrial controversy (Scanell

and Cardiff, 1991). The resulting political "talks series", designed to inform England on political

issues, were criticized by Members of Parliament, including Winston Churchill, David Lloyd

George and Sir Austen Chamberlain. Those who opposed these chats claimed that they silence

the opinions of those in Parliament who are not nominated by Party Leaders or Party Whips, thus

stifling independent, non-official views. In October 1932, the policemen of the Metropolitan

Police Federation marched in protest of a proposed pay cut. Fearing dissent within the police

force and public support for the movement, the BBC censored its coverage of the events, only

broadcasting official statements from the government (Scanell and Cardiff, 1991).

Throughout the 1930s, political broadcasts had been closely monitored by the BBC (West,

1987). In 1935, the BBC censored the broadcasts of Oswald Mosley and Harry Pollitt. Mosley
was a leader of the British Union of Fascists, and Pollitt a leader of the Communist Party of

Great Britain. They had been contracted to provide a series of five broadcasts on their party's

politics. The BBC, in conjunction with The Foreign Office of Britain, first suspended this series

and ultimately cancelled it without the notice of the public. Less radical politicians faced similar

censorship. In 1938, Winston Churchill proposed a series of talks regarding British domestic and

foreign politics and affairs but was similarly censored. The censorship of political discourse by

the BBC was a precursor to the total shutdown of political debate that manifested over the BBC's

wartime airwaves. The Foreign Office maintained that the public should not be aware of their

role in the censorship. From 1935-1939, the BBC also attempted to unite the British Empire's

radio waves, sending staff to Egypt, Palestine, Newfoundland, Jamaica, India, Canada and South

Africa. Reith personally visited South Africa, lobbying for state run radio programs which was

accepted by South African Parliament in 1936 (Potter, 2012). A similar program was adopted in

Canada. Through collaboration with these state run broadcasting centers, Reith left a legacy of

cultural influence across the empire of Great Britain with his departure from the Corporation in

1938 (Potter, 2012).

1939 to 2001

Television broadcasting was suspended from 1 September 1939 to 7 June 1946, during the

Second World War, and it was left to BBC Radio broadcasters such as Reginald Foort to keep

the nation's spirits up. The BBC moved much of its radio operations out of London, initially to

Bristol, and then to Bedford. Concerts were broadcast from the Corn Exchange; the Trinity

Chapel in St Paul's Church, Bedford was the studio for the daily service from 1941 to 1945, and,

in the darkest days of the war in 1941, the Archbishops of Canterbury and York came to St Paul's
to broadcast to the UK and all parts of the world on the National Day of Prayer. BBC employees

during the war included George Orwell who spent two years with the broadcaster.

During his role as Prime Minister during the Second World War, Winston Churchill would

deliver 33 major wartime speeches by radio, all of which were carried by the BBC within the

UK. On 18 June 1940, French general Charles de Gaulle, in exile in London as the leader of the

Free French, made a speech, broadcast by the BBC, urging the French people not to capitulate to

the Nazis.

In 1938, John Reith and the British government, specifically the Ministry of Information which

had been set up for WWII, designed a censorship apparatus for the inevitability of war. Due to

the BBC's advancements in shortwave radio technology, the Corporation could broadcast across

the world during World War II. Within Europe, the BBC European Service would gather

intelligence and information regarding the current events of the war in English.[45][47] Regional

BBC workers, based on their regional geo-political climate, would then further censor the

material their broadcasts would cover. Nothing was to be added outside of the preordained news

items.[45][47] For example, the BBC Polish Service was heavily censored due to fears of

jeopardizing relations with the Soviet Union. Controversial topics, i.e. the contested Polish and

Soviet border, the deportation of Polish citizens, the arrests of Polish Home Army members and

the Katyn massacre, were not included in Polish broadcasts.[48]American radio broadcasts were

broadcast across Europe on BBC channels. This material also passed through the BBC's

censorship office, which surveilled and edited American coverage of British affairs.[46] By

1940, across all BBC broadcasts, music by composers from enemy nations was censored. In

total, 99 German, 38 Austrian and 38 Italian composers were censored. The BBC argued that like

the Italian or German languages, listeners would be irritated by the inclusion of enemy
composers.[49] Any potential broadcaster said to have pacifist, communist or fascist ideologies

were not allowed on the BBC's airwaves.[50]

There was a widely reported urban myth that, upon resumption of the BBC television service

after the war, announcer Leslie Mitchell started by saying, "As I was saying before we were so

rudely interrupted ..." In fact, the first person to appear when transmission resumed was Jasmine

Bligh and the words said were "Good afternoon, everybody. How are you? Do you remember

me, Jasmine Bligh ... ?"[51] The European Broadcasting Union was formed on 12 February

1950, in Torquay with the BBC among the 23 founding broadcasting organisations.[52]

Competition to the BBC was introduced in 1955, with the commercial and independently

operated television network of ITV. However, the BBC monopoly on radio services would

persist until 8 October 1973 when under the control of the newly renamed Independent

Broadcasting Authority (IBA), the UK's first Independent local radio station, LBC came on-air in

the London area. As a result of the Pilkington Committee report of 1962, in which the BBC was

praised for the quality and range of its output, and ITV was very heavily criticised for not

providing enough quality programming,[53] the decision was taken to award the BBC a second

television channel, BBC2, in 1964, renaming the existing service BBC1. BBC2 used the higher

resolution 625-line standard which had been standardised across Europe. BBC2 was broadcast in

colour from 1 July 1967, and was joined by BBC1 and ITV on 15 November 1969. The 405 line

VHF transmissions of BBC1 (and ITV) were continued for compatibility with older television

receivers until 1985.

Operations of BBC World Service


The Service broadcasts from Broadcasting House in London, which is also headquarters of the

Corporation. It is located in the newer parts of the building, which contains radio and television

studios for use by the various language services. The building also contains an integrated

newsroom used by the international World Service, the international television channel BBC

World News, the domestic television and radio BBC News bulletins, the BBC News

Channel and BBC Online.

At its launch, the Service was located along with most radio output in Broadcasting House.

However, following the explosion of a parachute mine nearby on 8 December 1940, it relocated

to premises away from the likely target of Broadcasting House (Thomas, 2012). The Overseas

service relocated to Oxford Street while the European service moved temporarily to the

emergency broadcasting facilities at Maida Vale Studios (Thomas, 2012). The European

services moved permanently into Bush House towards the end of 1940, completing the move in

1941, with the Overseas services joining them in 1958. Bush House subsequently became the

home of the BBC World Service and the building itself has gained a global reputation with the

audience of the service. However, the building was vacated in 2012 as a result of the

Broadcasting House changes and the end of the building's lease that year; the first service to

move was the Burmese Service on 11 March 2012 and the final broadcast from Bush House was

a news bulletin broadcast at 11.00GMT on 12 July 2012.

The BBC World Service encompasses an English 24-hour global radio network and separate

services in 27 other languages. News and information is available in these languages on the BBC

website, with many having RSS feeds and specific versions for use on mobile devices, and some

also offer email notification of stories. In addition to the English service, 18 of the language

services broadcast a radio service using the short wave, AM or FM bands. These are also
available to listen live or can be listened to later (usually for seven days) over the Internet and, in

the case of seven language services, can be downloaded as podcasts. News is also available from

the BBC News 'app', which is available from both iTunes and the Google Play Store.[31] In recent

years, video content has also been used by the World Service: 16 language services show video

reports on the website, and the Arabic and Persian services have their own television channels.

TV is also used to broadcast the radio service, with local cable and satellite operators providing

the English network (and occasionally some local language services) free to air. The English

service is also available on digital radio in the UK and Europe.

Traditionally, the Service relied on shortwave broadcasts, because of their ability to overcome

barriers of censorship, distance, and spectrum scarcity. The BBC has maintained a worldwide

network of shortwave relay stations since the 1940s, mainly in former British colonies. These

cross-border broadcasts have also been used in special circumstances for emergency messages

to British subjects abroad, such as the advice to evacuate Jordan during the Black

September incidents of September 1970. These facilities were privatised in 1997 as Merlin

Communications, and later acquired and operated as part of a wider network for multiple

broadcasters by VT Communications (now part of Babcock International Group). It is also

common for BBC programmes to air on Voice of America or ORF transmitters, while their

programming is relayed by a station located inside the UK. However, since the 1980s, satellite

distribution has made it possible for local stations to relay BBC programmes.

The World Service aims to be "the world's best-known and most-respected voice in international

broadcasting, thereby bringing benefit to the UK, the BBC, and to audiences around the world",

while retaining a "balanced British view" of international developments. Like the rest of the

BBC, the World Service is a Crown corporation of the UK Government. For the financial year
2011-12, it received £255.2 million. In addition to broadcasting, the Service also devotes

resources to the BBC Learning English programme.

Conclusion