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PHILO 1 REVIEWER Fallacy – mortal enemies of philosophical

pursuits; can be informal or formal


INTRODUCTION
ANCIENT GREEK PHILOSOPHERS
PHILOSOPHY
 Thales – everything is made of water
 Started at Miletus, Ancient Greece (5th  Heraclitus – everything is made of fire
Century BCE)
 Anaximenes – everything is made of air
 “Mythos” – storytelling
 Empedocles – all matter is made of water,
 “Philos” – science fire, earth and air
 Philosophia – love of wisdom  Democritus – everything is made of
 Philosophy (early meaning) – academic indivisible particles called atoms
study of everything
LANGUAGE AND REALITY
FIVE FIELDS OF PHILOSOPHY
THOUGHT EXPERIMENT: BEETLE IN A
1. Metaphysics – nature of reality BOX
2. Ethics – study of right and wrong
3. Epistemology – nature and scope of  If we agree upon calling anything inside
knowledge the box as a “beetle”, would it still be
4. Aesthetics – nature of beauty and art meaningful even if what’s inside the box
5. Logic – study of reasoning or arguments; is not a real beetle?
philosopher’s toolbox
LIMITATIONS OF LANGUAGE
a. Informal Logic – focuses on context/
content I. Infinite universe but finite words – not
b. Formal Logic – focuses on form or everything that exists in the universe has a
language corresponding name, description or
identity
PRINCIPLES IN PHILOSOPHY
II. Sensations/ feelings – language cannot
 Principle of Charity – for any claim, fully express how one feels
give the strongest possible interpretation III. Change – meaning and context of words
 Principle of Sufficient Reason – for any vary from time to time
claim, give reasons why it is true or not IV. Classification – no one word can describe
true all the elements in a single group
V. Definition
TWO STEPS IN PHILOSOPHY  Ostensive – physical example;
1. Try to understand demonstrative; definition by pointing
2. Critical evaluation  Reportive – reports of how word is
used; lexical; tells existing meaning
ADDITIONAL NOTES  Stipulative – neither true nor false;
Metaphysics – “meta” + “physics” which used to assign new meaning to a term
literally means “beyond nature” VI. Vagueness – unclear words
VII. Ambiguity – words with multiple
Value Theory – a collective term for ethics meanings
and aesthetics VIII. Abstract/ Complex Ideas
 Impression – what is happening at  Relativism – truth varies
present  Dialetheism – both true and false at the
 Idea – thing of the past same time
IX. Meaninglessness  Unknowability – neither true nor false
 Grammatical Incompleteness
CRITERIAS OF TRUTH
 Category Mistakes
 Metaphorical meaning, connotative 1. Correspondence (External State of
meaning, and emotive meaning Affairs) – if it corresponds to what
actually happens in the real world
KNOWLEDGE
2. Coherence (Internal Consistency of
THOUGHT EXPERIMENT: MARY’S Beliefs) – what you say and what you
ROOM believe
3. Pragmatism (What works) – what is true
 Mary, who was a scientist, knows every is practical or functional
factual information about colors
 However, she is in an isolated, colorless SOURCES OF KNOWLEDGE
room 1. Rationalism – reason
 If she steps out the room and see all the 2. Empiricism – experience
colors outside, will she learn something
new? REASON

3 KINDS OF KNOWING  Parmenides


 “There is no such thing as change.”
1. Knowing-how – practical knowledge;
 Change as (1) being to being or (2) non-
how to accomplish something
being to being
2. Acquaintance – association; interaction
 There is only being according to reason
between perceiver and perceived object
 Change is an illusion by senses/
3. Knowing-that – factual knowledge; can be
experience
true or false
FORMS OF REASON
KNOWLEDGE
 Logic (form and content)
 Justified true belief, according to Plato
 Faculty (inductive and deductive)
o True + belief = true belief by accident
o Justified + belief = something believed  Proof
by untrue reasons LAWS OF THOUGHT
o True + justified = ignorance
 Has three components: belief, truth, and 1. Law of Identity – each thing is identical
justification/ evidence with itself (a=a)
2. Law of Excluded Middle – either a thing
TRUTH is true or false
3. Law of Non-contradiction – a thing cannot
 THOUGHT EXPERIMENT: Elephant
be both true and false at the same time
and the Six Blind Men
 Realism/ Absolutism – there is truth
 Non-realisim/Nihilism – there is no truth
EXPERIENCE 3. Demon  Doubt
 “Cogito ergo sum” – I think therefore I
 Sense-perception – emphasis on five
am
senses
1. Foundation of all knowledge
 Introspection – examining one’s
2. Doubt  thought  thinker (exist) OR
emotion or thoughts demon  deceiver  deceived (exist)
 Intuition – instinct; gut feel
 Memory – past experiences JOHN LOCKE (Empiricist)
 Experience Testimony – experiences of  Mind as “tabula rasa” or blank slate
other people; testimonial evidences
 Object  qualities (primary and
 Experience Faith – knowing what will secondary)  idea (simple and complex)
happen in the future based on past
 Primary qualities – inherent in objects;
recurring events
independent of perception (e.g. quality,
PERCEIVING THE WORLD shape)
 Secondary qualities – power of object
THOUGHT EXPERIMENT: ALLEGORY
produces various perception (e.g. color,
OF THE CAVE
texture, odor)
 From Plato’s The Republic GEORGE BERKELEY (Empiricist)
 Prisoners in the cave thought shadows
were real  THOUGHT EXPERIMENT: If a tree
 One prisoner escaped and saw the light falls in forest and no one is there, would
outside it make a sound?
 He was first blinded but saw more than  “Esse est percipi” – to be is to be
the shadows perceived
 Other prisoners do not believe what the  There are only minds or spirits to
escaped prisoner saw in reality perceive ideas
 No material world outside perception
VIEWS IN REALITY
 Problem of solipsism (only I exist)
 Commonsense Realism – not subject to  God as ultimate perceiver
dispute or disagreement; some things are PHENOMENALISM
already obvious
 Science – tells what is real even when we  To be is to be perceivable
cannot see it; microscopes and telescopes  Phenomena – appearance  all we know
 atoms and universe  Noumena – reality  we can never know
RENE DESCARTES (Rationalist) SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE
 Father of Modern Philosophy THOUGHT EXPERIMENT: Twin Paradox
 Search for foundation of all knowledge
 There are identical twins
 Doubt leads to certainty
 One of the twin is on Earth and the other
 Stages of Doubting  Certainty
travels through space at the speed of light
1. Senses  Presence
2. Dream  Math
 When the twin from space goes back to  No falsifying evidence implies
Earth, who is younger? acceptance
 Theory cannot be proven (yet)
THOUGHT EXPERIMENT: Schrodinger’s
Cat CONFIRMATION FALSIFICATION
Formal fallacy Informal fallacy
 There is a cat inside a box and there is
Affirming the Appeal to
poison gas. consequent ignorance
 There is a 50/50 chance that the poison
gas will be released
 You won’t know if the cat is dead or alive CASE STUDIES
unless you looked inside the box 1. Astronomy
 While you are not looking inside the box,  Ockham’s Razor – simplest solution is
the cat is dead AND alive at the same the best
time  Geocentrism vs. Heliocentrism
WHY SCIENCE IS IMPORTANT 2. Geology
 Coherence and interdependence of fact
1. Uniformity in nature  Extinction of dinosaurs due to asteroids
2. Explanation (Nemesis theory)
3. Prediction 3. Physics
LAWS OF NATURE VS. LAWS OF  Reducibility
SOCIETY  Godel’s Incompleteness Theorem
4. Biology
LAWS OF NATURE LAWS OF SOCIETY
 Creation vs. Evolution
Descriptive Prescriptive
Inviolable Violable
Discovered Construced/ Made

CHARACTERISTICS OF LAWS OF
NATURE
 Universal
 General
 Open-ended
 Hypothetical (if-then)
THEORIES
1. Confirmation
 Confirming evidence implies
acceptance
 Theory can be proven
2. Falsification