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Report title:

DAWN BREAD LAHORE

Submitted by:

M. Abdullah Hamza Haider

Roll # BFSF15M028 Roll # BFSF15M033

Rehan Sarwar

Roll # BFSF15M029

B.Sc. (Hons). Food Science and Technology


Semester (VIII; 2015-19; Spring-2019)

Subject:

FST-611. Internship and Report Writing 4 (4-0)

Submitted to:

Dr. Shahid Mahmood Rana

Associate Professor

Institute of Food Science and Nutrition (IFSN)

University of Sargodha, Sargodha.

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INSTITUTE OF FOOD SCIENCE AND NUTRITION (IFSN)

UNIVERSITY OF SARGODHA, SARGODHA.PAKISTAN

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Introduction

Dawn bread is a family owned company and is committed to provide Pakistanis with nutritious
and superior quality bread and other products.

Within a decade of its inception it has grown to capture 35% of the consolidated market share of
all bread products in Pakistan. This market share shows that how well consumers are connected
to products and values of Dawn bread.

Vision statement

To sustain Dawn bread’s position as Pakistan’s leading company in bakery products and by
maintaining strong brand image in bakery products and by maintaining strong brand image with
better customer services.

Mission statement

Our mission is to produce and distribute clean, nutritious and wholesome products to every shop
of Pakistan.

History:

Beginning with a plant in Karachi, commissioned in October 1981 Dawn bread built up a
reputation for freshness, quality and taste. After creating nationwide awareness and a demand for
their bread they establish a new plant in Islamabad in January 1985. In 1987 two plants were
established one in Hyderabad and the other in Lahore. In 1989 a plant was set up in Multan.
After consolidating the expansion sixth plant was commissioned in Faisalabad in February 1992.
Now customers of Dawn can find Dawn’s quality product and freshness from the Southern tip of
Pakistan to Northern city of Peshawar.

Membership and certification:

Only burger section is Yum’s certified.

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Competitors:
As Dawn bread is a leading manufacturer of bakery products and is one of the largest selling
brands of Pakistan, hence it has huge number of competitors too. Major competitors of Dawn
bread are
1. Bunny’s Bread
2. Morgan Bread
3. Mary Gold Bread
4. Wonder Bread
5. Gourmet Bakery Bread
Product range:

1; Breads:

Different types of breads are being produced here:

 Plain bread
 Bran bread
 Milky bread
 Fortified bread
 Sandwich bread
 Vitamin A enriched bread
 Multigrain bread

2: Burger;:

 Burger buns
 Fruity buns
 Hot dog buns

3; Frozen foods:

 Frozen puri
 Plain pratha:

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4; Sweets;

 Fruit cakes
 Muffins

5; Others:

 Dawn Rusk
 Baqarkhani
 Shwarma bread

Other brands of Dawn bread:

Bread and beyond;

Bread & Beyond state-of-the-art machineries and equipment offer world class products to the
food service industry. There are many products under this brand such as biscuits, croissants,
bread rolls, pizza, sandwiches, patties, special cakes, cake slice, muffins etc.

Dawn foods

Most of the frozen foods are produced under the brand of Dawn foods these products include
chicken chapli kabab, chicken kofta, chicken samosa, chicken spring rolls, vegetable cutlets, aloo
samosa, Punjabi samosa etc.awn Mayo:

Dawn mayo;

The products which are produced with the brand name Dawn mayo include Dawn mayo garlic,
Dawn mayo Ketchup, Dawn mayo chili, Dawn mayo chicken spread, Dawn sauce chili garlic,
dawn sauce vinegar etc.

Mezban;
The basic purpose of this brand is to export the ready to make products. Mezban is a brand for
kitchen cuisine and fulfill your all cuisine requirements. The products under this brand includes
chicken samosa, beef samosa, mix vegetables achaar etc.

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Major sections/departments:

There are 4 major sections in the Dawn bread for production of different products:

1) Bread hall
2) Burger hall
3) Cake hall

Bread Hall:

Bread hall is equipped with latest machinery and processes. Different types of breads are being
produced here under the supervision of experienced production and quality officers.

Burger hall:

Burger hall is well managed and it is the best section of the industry in terms of equipments,
hygiene, workers safety, product safety etc. This is the reason that many international and
national restaurants like KFC, Hardees, Burger king, Howdy, Fat burger and many others trust
on Dawn bread for the burger buns.

Cake hall:

It is a small section and different products are being produced here which include Rusk, fruity
buns, shwarma bread, fruit cake, baqarkhani, bread crumbs and cookies.

Equipments used in Dawn bread:

Various types of equipments are installed in the industry for performing different functions.

1) Weighing Balance:

Weighing balance is used to weight different ingredients. There are two types of weighing
balance in plant:

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a) Mechanical balance:
It is used to weigh flour, sugar, gluten oil and other ingredients.
b) Electrical balance:
It is used to weigh final products like burger, cupcakes, fruit cakes, shwarma bread etc.
2) Sifter:
Mechanical sifter is used for removing undesirable foreign particles from flour like paper
and threads.
3) Mixer:
Spiral mixer is used in industry for bread, burger buns, cake etc. it consist of a rotating
steel bowl. It is of different types. Fixed bowl mixer and moveable bowl mixer on the
basis of bowl. On the basis of spiral it is divided into single spiral and double spiral
mixer.
4) Divider and molder:
Automatic dividing machine is used for burger buns and bread. Dough is added in
hopper and weight of dough balls is adjusted according to the product. Then pressing
and shaping of dough balls is done on this machine, the machine which is used for
bread is named as Bennier plant.
5) Steam generator:
Water is boiled under pressure inside it to produce the steam for proofing. It has water
inlet & a steam out-let. Steam generator has pressure gauge for the regulation of
pressure.
6) Hygrometer:
Inside the proofer room a digital hygrometer is use for measuring the relative humidity of
the air.
7) Oven:
There are two types of oven that are used in the industry:
a) Tunnel oven:
Tunnel oven is used for production of burger buns shwarma bread and bread. It has
4 zones that have different temperatures. Trays are loaded in oven and baked. The
time of conveyer belt of oven is adjusted according to the product.

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b) Rack oven:
Rack oven is used for the production of burger buns of 4 to 4.5 inches dia meter,
cakes, muffins, buns and for the drying of Rusk. Trolleys containing trays of
product are loaded in oven and baked according to the specific time and
temperature.
8) De-panner:
Vacuum de-panner is used for depanning the bread and burger buns from trays.
9) Slicer:
For burger buns a slicing machine having a blade and conveyor belt is used. Buns are
placed on belt and sliced with the blade. For bread slicing machine with varying
number of knives is used which have distance according to the thickness of slice
required. Two slicing machines are being used for bread.
a) Delta machine
b) High speed slicing machine
10) Packing Machine:
Packing of burger buns is done on an automated machine.

Equipment used for testing;

There is no quality lab in the industry. Materials are received on the basis of certificate
of analysis from the supplier. Only moisture determination of flour and gluten
determination is done.

Moisture meter:

Filland voyel moisture analyzer is used for the determination of moisture in flour at the
time of receiving.

Other testings:

Final product is being analyzed by three different authorities these are:

 PCSIR (microbial test for final product and


 SGS ( chemical tests and test for heavy metals)
 Qarshi ( environmental air, compressed air steam testing)

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 All these certification authorities are ISO 17025 certified
 Air and environmental sampling test is done annually and finished product and water is
done on quarter bases.
 All the tools are calibrated annually from Hi-tech industrial controls.

Raw materials:

In the industry different variety of products with variation in recipe processing, shape and weight
are produced the basic raw material that is used for these products are as follows:

• Flour

• Sugar

• Calcium propionate

• Water

• Bread Improver

• Burger improver

• Salt

• Leavening agents

• Sesame seed

• Gluten

• Ascorbic acid

• Cooking Oil

• Acetic acid (vinegar)

• Bisco

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Composition of flour:

INGREDIENTS %AGE

Carbohydrates 71-74%

Protein 11-13%

Moisture 12-14%

Ash 0.4%

Lipid 1%

Function of flour:

Not only wheat is the heart and soul of bread but its special properties allowing bakers to
produce an astonishing array of products. It provides proteins (gluten) that provide strengthening
to the burger. It is the main constituents of burger used for nourishment.

Kinds of flour
White flour:
It contains only the starchy portion with no germ and bran portion. It is also called as “straight
grade flour”. Usually it has 64% extraction rate of flour.
Brown flour:
It is obtained by adding bran and germ to white flour.
Whole wheat flour:
All the characteristics of wheat. Bran, germ, starch, protein are all things are present in flour.
Germ enriched flour
Cooked form intentionally at less than 10% in flour. It gives nutrition to the flour. In germ vit. E
is present. It has role in re-production.
Multiple grain flour
Wheat is deficient in ‘Lysine’. Adding diff grains like rye, barley, maize to make it more and
more nutritious.

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Organic flour
Organic foods are the foods which or grown by not using the fertilizers, pesticides. Flour
produced from organic wheat.
Sugar:

 It helps make it soft and tender by absorbing some of the water and slowing down the
formation of gluten strands.

 It feeds the yeast, resulting in fermentation process.

 By caramelisation process, it aids in the browning of the crust.

 It acts as a preservative, keeping the bread fresher for longer

 It does have some effect on the flavor.

 It helps to retain the moisture and increases the freshness of burger.

 It delays the gelatinization of starch and denatures protein.


Fat:
a) Butter
b) Margarine.
Functions
 To produce tenderness.
 To add the aeration of the product.
 To improve the quality of product.
 To stabilize the cake pellet.
 To continues a distinct flavor where butter is used as a fat.
 To improve the nutritive value of the product.

Eggs
Functions
 To give good palatability.
 To improve volume.

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 To give desirable color.
 To increase the keeping quality of bread.
 To enhance the leavening rate.
 Egg white produces mellowing effects.

Leavening agents:
Two types of leavening agents.
a) Biological agents. (Yeast)
b) Chemical agents. (Baking powder)
c) Fresh yeast:

Yeasts are unicellular micro-organisms which can obtain the energy they need in the
presence of oxygen (aerobic) by respiration and in the absence of oxygen (anaerobic) by
fermentation. Its scientific name is Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast cells contain about 75%
water.

Function:

Production of carbon dioxide:


Carbon dioxide is generated by the yeast as a result of the breakdown of fermentable sugars in
the dough. The evolution of carbon dioxide causes expansion of the dough as it is trapped within
the protein matrix of the dough.
Production of flavor
Yeast imparts the characteristic flavor of bread and other yeast leavened products. During dough
fermentation, yeast produces many secondary metabolites such as ketones, higher alcohols,
organic acids, aldehydes and esters. Some of these, alcohols for example, escape during baking.
Others react with each other and with other compounds found in the dough to form new and
more complex flavor compounds. These reactions occur primarily in the crust and the resultant
flavor diffuses into the crumb of the baked bread.

Calcium propionate:
Calcium propionate is used as a preservative in baked goods. Calcium propionate keeps baked
goods from spoiling by preventing mold and bacterial growth. It also checks the growth of
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bacteria as Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus mesentricus by decreasing the pH which otherwise if
goes unchecked cause ropiness in baked goods.
Balanose:

It helps to retain gas, moisture and air into the product

Water:

• Water is used to dissolve the ingredients forming homogenous material.

• It gives the volume to the burger.

• It binds the proteins due to water absorbent capacity.

• It is important for the yeast activity during fermentation.

• It helps in swelling and gelatinization of starch granules.

• It acts as medium for many chemical reactions occurring in burger making.

Bread improver:

Bread improvers are used to enhance many aspects of the bakery process. It improved crumb
texture and structure, crust color and crustiness.

Function:

• It greatly improves loaf/bread volume.

• It greatly improves crumb structure and texture of the loaf.

• It aides the dough development.

• Reduces the rate of crumb firming and bread staling.

• Gas retention of the dough is greatly improved.

• Dough machine ability is greatly improved.

• Improve dough tolerance to mechanical shock during mixing and mold figuring.

Burger Softener:

Burger softener is use to keep soft the burger till to its best before.

Salt:

• Salt affects dough texture, making it stronger and less sticky.

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Salt reduces oxidation of the dough during mixing..

• Salt regulates yeast activity, causing fermentation to progress at a more consistent rate.

• Salt affects shelf life. Because it attracts water, it can help keep burger from staling too
quickly in a dry environment. However, in a humid environment, it can make the crust
soggier.

Sesame Seeds:

Use according to the demand of restaurants.

Gluten:

Gluten is a protein composite that accounts for 75 to 85% of the total protein content in wheat.
Gluten is comprised of two protein groups: glutenin and gliadin. Glutenin contributes to the
elastic character of gluten while gliadin contributes to extensibility. A balance between elasticity
and extensibility is necessary for superior baking performance.

Function:

By addition of gluten in the formula, mixing and fermentation times are generally increased and
tolerances are improved. Gluten is also responsible for elasticity of dough. Gluten form a protein
network by cross linking which traps gas and prevents it from escaping during the baking
process so, that yeasted dough can rise.

Sodium steroyl lactylate:

\Molecular formula C24H43NaO6

 Improved dough machinability by gluten complexing.


 Ease of formulating low-fat products; reduction in shortening or oil with no loss of
volume, tenderness, or slicing ease.
 Increased gas retention, resulting in lower yeast requirements, improved oven spring,
shorter proof times, and increased volume.
 Better texture of finished product - i.e., finer grain.
 Improved hydration rate of the flour and other ingredients

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Ascorbic Acid:

Ascorbic acid is used as a flour ‘improver’ or dough conditioner. In the presence of oxygen,
ascorbic acid becomes an oxidizing agent and the ‘improvements’ to which it contributes
include:

 Strengthened gluten
 Greater loaf volume
 Finer crumb
 Increased tenderness of the crumb
 Reduced crust thickness
 Faster rising
Acetic acid:
Acetic acid (vinegar), are often used in commercial baking to ensure the freshness of the product
and prevent staling.
Bisco: It is used for softening of Rusk dough.
General recipe for burger buns:

 Fine Flour
 Gluten
 Bread improver
 Calcium propionate
 Sugar
 Salt
 Ascorbic acid
 Sesame seeds
 Cooking oil
 Yeast fresh
 Blanose (CMC 7HF)
 Corn meal

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Customers and products:

Customers of dawn bread for burger buns and their products are as follows:
1) KFC:
Products that are being produced for KFC include burger bun 4 inch, corn meal 4 inches,
dinner roll and mighty bun.
2) HARDEES:
Products for HARDEES are unseeded bun 4.5 inches, regular bun 4 inches and Angus
bun 4.5 inches.
3) BURGER KING:
Products for BURGER KING include burger bun 4 inches, corn meal 4.5 inches, long
burger 7 inches, burger bun 5 inches and double Dekker.
4) FAT BURGER:
Products of FAT BURGER include regular bun 4 inches, bran bun, junior bun, hot dog
and macroyl unseeded.
5) JOHNY ROCKET:
Products of JOHNY ROCKET include macroyl unseeded, junior bun, hot dog and hoggi
9 inches.
6) FRI CHICKS:
Its products are burger bun 4 inches and unseeded caser cut double Dekker.
7) LOCAL MARKET:
For local market QP 4 inches, long burger 7 inches and macroyl seeded.
8) CONE HEAD:
Its products are burger bun black seeded 4 and 4.5 inches.
9) OPTP:
Products for OPTP include burger bun 4 inches and long burger 6 inches.
10) ATRIO : (Islamabad)
Its products that are being produced here are jumbo black seeded and jumbo white
seeded.
11) HOWDY: (Islamabad)
Products for HOWDY include caser cut seeded bun and caser cut unseeded bun.

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12) BUMZEE: (Multan)
Its product that is being produced here is corn dusted burger bun.
13) ATA: Royal bun seeded, royal bun unseeded and superior bun for ATA.
14) JDR: Long burger 7 inches and burger bun 4 inches for JDR.
Weighing:

In the raw material store of burger hall all the ingredients except flour is weighed and recipe bags
are made which are then sent to mixing area. Flour is weighed before the mixing according to
batch requirement.

Mixing:
Different types of burger buns are made that vary in shape size and weight but same dough is
made for all type of burger buns.
Mixing of burger bun dough is done by using sponge dough method. Sponge dough method is
used for:
 Compact cell structure of buns.
 Alcoholic aroma.
The sponge method of mixing completes in two steps.
First step: (sponge preparation)
Half flour + yeast + gluten + water are added to make sponge.
Slow mixing: 4 minutes
Fast mixing: 4 minutes
Temperature: 22-24 degree Celsius
Then stay time of 150-180 minutes is given to the sponge for fermentation.
Second step: (final mixing)
Remaining ingredients are added in sponge and final mixing is done.
Slow mixing: 4 minutes
Fast mixing: 10 minutes
At the end oil is added in dough and mixing is ended.
Final temperature of dough should be in the range of 20-24 degree Celsius.

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Dividing:
After mixing dough is added in the divider for cutting. The weight of the dough balls is adjusted
according to the final product and dough balls of desired weight are made.
Intermediate proofing:
After dividing and before molding intermediate proofing time of 8 to 10 minutes is given to the
dough so that yeast prepares itself for fermentation and for relaxation of dough.
Molding:
After intermediate proofing dough balls are pressed and shaped according to the desired final
product. Then the molded dough is placed automatically in the trays. After visual inspection
these trays are placed in trolleys.
Proofing:
Proofing is done in the proofer room in which humidity and temperature is maintained to give
optimum conditions to yeast so that it can start its fermentation process.

The trolleys of molded dough are placed in the proofer room each trolley has batch no on it.
Temperature, time and humidity of the proofer room are adjusted according to the product.
Range of temperature and humidity for burger buns is as follows:

Temperature: 35 to 40 degree Celsius

Humidity: 80 to 90 %

Time: 50 to 60 minutes

Seeding:

After proofing some products are seeded through an automatic machine. Sesame seeds are spread
on the top of proofed dough. Trays are loaded on the machine which moves on the conveyor belt
detected by a detector and then seeds are spread on them.

Baking:

 After seeding stay time is given so that skin of proofed dough becomes dry otherwise
skin color will not be good and skin becomes hard. Then these trays are loaded in oven.
Tunnel oven is used for baking of most of the products. For some products rack oven is

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used. Tunnel oven has 4 zones in which different temperatures are set according to the
product, speed of conveyor temperature and steam is controlled through the control panel
of oven.
 Temperatures of 4 zones should be in following range:
 1st zone 170-230 degree Celsius
 2nd zone 200 -260 degree Celsius
 3rd zone 195 -255 degree Celsius
 4th zone 180- 240 degree Celsius

Time in tunnel oven should be 7 to 9 minutes. In rack oven temperature should be 210-230
degree Celsius and time in it should be 9 to 12 minutes.

Depanning:

After baking the temperature of the buns is 90 to 95 degree Celsius. When temperature reaches at
almost 75 to 80 degree Celsius these buns are depanned in a vacuum depanner.

Cooling:

After depanning stay time is given to the buns until the buns temperature of buns reaches 37
degree Celsius and efficient slicing and packing can be done.

Slicing:

When temperature reaches at 37 degree Celsius then burger buns are sliced through a machine.
After visual inspection by labors burger buns are placed on the conveyor belt of the slicing
machine and sliced with the blade.

Packing:

Before packing of the burger buns dimensions of all the buns are checked by a quality officer
these dimensions include crown diameter, bun weight, crown height, bun height, heel height and
sensory evaluation. Then packing is done by machines. BOPP films are used for packing but
size, design and printing is different for different products. At the time of packing best before
date and batch no is written on the packing film. After packing final product is passed through

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the metal detector to avoid any hazard. No of burger buns in one pack differs for every product
according to the demand of customers.

Dispatch procedure:

Dispatch procedure of burger buns is as follows:

3 receipts are made. Two receipts are sent to the finished product area when product is sent from
burger bun section to the finished product area. One receipt is kept as a record in finished
product area and the other is signed and sent back to the burger section dispatch area for record.
From 3rd receipt all dispatched products are noted in a register for record.

Quality parameters:

Quality parameters of burger bun section include critical control points, quality control points,
good manufacturing practices, allergen policy, personal hygiene, pest management.

There are 3 critical control points in burger section which are as follows:

• CCP1: at sifter to control physical contamination.

• sCCP2: At oven to control time and temperature.

• CCP3: After packing to control metal contamination.

There are 14 quality control points in the burger bun section which are as follows:

• QCP1: In raw material section about physical hazard.

• QCP2: In raw material section about microbiological hazard.

• QCP3: In raw material section about foreign body hazards.

• QCP4: In raw material section about hazard of variation in ingredients weight.

• QCP5: In mixing area about the hazard of addition of wrong ingredient.

• QCP6: In mixing area about the hazard of poor texture and quality defects.

• QCP7: At dividing section about the hazard of underweight dough pieces.

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• QCP8: At molding section about the hazard of improper shape of dough pieces.

• QCP9: At molding section about microbiological contamination.

• QCP10: At proofer room about the hazard of improper proofing.

• QCP11: At proofer room about the physical hazard.

• QCP12 and QCP13 are not displayed.

• QCP14: At oven about the hazard of dirt contamination from trays

In the burger section all GMPS and allergen policy are clearly displayed. There are glue traps
and insecticutors to stop the entry of insect pests in the production area.

SWOT analysis;
SWOT analysis is an acronym for strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats and is a
structured planning method that evaluates those four elements of a project or business venture.
Strengths:
Dawn bread is a well-established brand and in business since 1981.
Vast range of products with quality
Dawn bread is able to provide healthy products to the customers.
Dawn bread has large distribution network providing nationwide coverage. Effective on-time
delivery and round the clock customer services
Location of the industry is easily accessible.
Price of products is reasonable.
Weakness:
Semi auto-mated production line
There is no quality lab in the industry for analysis of raw material and final product.
Low numbers of training sessions for workers about GMPs, food safety and personal hygiene.
Design of the plants such as corners between flooring and walls of production halls are not
tapered.
Opportunities:
Expansion of the product line in future
Tie ups with hotels and restaurants.

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Growing market bakery industry is growing at a fast speed and demand for quality items is never
ending.
Growing concern for health
Threats:
Competition with other brands
Low operating costs, trade discounts offered by competitors.
Best advertisement strategies by competitors.
Change in taste of the consumers.
Factors contributing to wastage of product

KFC (Might bun)


Factor responsible for the wastage of might bun are following;
1) White surface of the burger due to oiling and dusting.

Dinner roll;
The factors are;
1) White surface due to floor dusting,

2) Due to over baking.


Hardees;
The factors are;
1) More baking time

2) Over proofing

3) White surface
Burger king (corn meal 4.5’)
The factors are;
1) Great number of seeds on the burger

2) De- shaped
Jumbo
The factors of wastage are;

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1) Bubbles in the baked product

2) Improper cut

Double decker
The reasons of wastage are;
1) Fault in slicing

2) Bubbles in end product

Dark color due to over baking


Q#4; how could we improve our wastage percentage?
We can improve our wastage percentage by the following ways;
1) Calibration of oven:

 Calibration of oven should be done after every 3 months or as per need.

 By maintaining the temperature of oven.

 Time checking to maintain the proper baking

2) Human Error:

By reducing the human errors we can reduce the wastage percentage.


Human errors include:
 Unhygienic conditions of workers.

 Unhygienic conditions of equipment.

 Un-experienced worker

 Mishandling during processing

 Improper adjustment of time and temperature

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By reducing these all errors, the wastage percentage will be less.
3) Mixing

We can reduce the wastage by following ways;


 Addition of correct amount of ingredients in the recipe

 Maintain the proper temperature because high temperature of dough can cause the
fermentation before the time, and low temperature can reduce the yeast activity even at
the time of baking.

 Avoid over mixing and under mixing.

4) Greasing of pans;
The greasing of pans is a major issue in baking industry. If the quantity of oil is greater in the
pans it will cause the improper shape of the product. Due to less greasing the dough will stick
with the pan.
5) Seeding

Due to improper seeding many of burgers were rejected. This can be reduced by;
 Checking the belt of the machine so that the trays move with equal seed.

 The water shower on the surface should not be too much as it can cause the surface
problem in the baking.

 Avoid over seeding i.e.; 80% per square inch

6) Slicing;

Slicing is also a big factor for the rejection of the product.


 The slicing machine should be checked properly so that uneven slicing of burger will not
occur.

 The slicing machine should give the proper heel to the burger.

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Production gaps
There are two types of gaps

 Technical gaps

 Production gap

1; Technical gap
This occurs due to any fault in the machinery or shortage of equipment. In mini burger hall due
to shortage of trays gap occurs.

2; Production gap;

This occurs due to

Production plan

Due to any problem in processing line

Due to demand

Improvement:

We can reduce the gaps by providing the trays.

By installing the conveyer belt system.

If we try to increase the demand the gap will not occur.

Production Efficiency
Production efficiency is an important measure of any industry performance. Unlike productivity
which an industry achieves by maximizing the number of units produced in a given time frame,
efficiency requires minimization of costs and maximization of profits for a given level of output.

For example, an efficient industry will produce greater number of quality products, with less
waste, consuming less energy and other resources during a given period than an inefficient
industry.

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As production efficiency increases, production cost goes down. The operation strategy,
technology, job design, and the process influence the rate of output, as does the workers skill and
effort.

Improvement:
We can increase the production efficiency by following ways,

Automation:

If the plant will be automized then the labor cost will be less, and production efficiency will be
greater.

By assuring quality and safety standards;

If the processing is under hygienic condition then the quality and safety standard (QCP & CCP)
will be greater, that ultimately reduces the wastage and increases the efficiency.

By increasing demand;

If company, try to increase the demand if we sale the product in the areas where there is no
baking industry. By this the demand will increases and the production will increase.

Challenges in Production
In the production there are many challenges that an industry faces like,

Raw material;
The type of raw material and its quality is very important for the quality of product.

If the raw material keeping quality will be good automatically the product will be more efficient.
The proper amount of the raw material also influences the quality of product.

Proper time and temperature:


Proper time and temperature standards should be followed in the production. The quality of
product varies with these factors. The minor change of temperature and time in mixing proofing
and baking can reduces the production

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Labor;
The skilled and unskilled labor is challenge for the production. The unskilled labor can cause the
losses. The labor should be skilled.

Machinery;
The machinery should be free from any fault.

Packing challenges;
The challenges for the packing are;

Packing should be done after proper slicing.

Temperature should be 350C.

Recommended packing material should be used.

Air in the packet, sealing from the both sides and from the bottom of the packet, stamp of
expiry and Mfg. date should be checked at the time of packing

Bread
Bread is a food made of flour, water and yeast mixed together and baked.

Bread has three major types

1. Yeast leavened bread in which yeast is responsible to expand the dough volume e.g
regular bread
2. Yeast leavened flat e.g Naan
3. Unleavened flat brad e.g Rotti

These were the types which are categorized on the basic of yeast activity behavior

Varieties of bread in Dawn bread


Huge variety of bread is made at dawn bread industries Lahore which includes

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a. Plain bread large
b. Plain bread small
c. Milky bread large
d. Milky bread small
e. Bran bread
f. Sandwich bread
g. Multigrain bread
h. Country white bread

Production Halal equipments


Most of the production processes are done mechanically and other few processes or operations
are performed manually. The equipments which are used in dawn industry Lahore are.

o Sifter
o Mixer
o Divider
o Rounder
o Intermediate proofer
o Molding and panning
o Oven
o De panner
o Cooling tower
o Slicer
o Metal detector

Sifter:
The sifter is used to sift the flour before the mixing. It also removes any physical impurity like
particles, stones etc

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Mixer:
There are eight spiral mixers which are used in Dawn bread industry. They consist of
steel bowl, rotating horizontal arm which thoroughly incorporate ingredients.

Divider:
The divider is used to divide the dough into small predetermined pieces

Rounder:
Rounder makes the dough balls of dough pieces that comes from divider

Intermediate proofer:
In intermediate proofer the dough balls are kept to provide rest from short time to
get better fermentation and volume

Molding and panning:


This process is done mechanically.

Proofing:
Three controlled mechanized proofer rooms are installed in the production hall. Its
temp is about 35-40oc and R.H is 80-90%. And the time period is 55-60mins. Proofing
temperature is depends upon environmental temperature.

Oven:
J-4 oven has been used for the baking purpose .it is tunnel type oven which has 2
main burners. The temperature of 1st burner is 272 C where color development and initial baking

29
start and the temperature of 2nd burner is 231 C where fully color is developed and all the
moisture is removed.

Depanning:
Depanning is performed mechanically.

Cooling tower:
For the cooling purpose rotating cooling towers are used and bread is cooled at room
temperature.

Slicer:
Slice master 75 is used for the slicing of bread

Metal detector:

o Metal detector is fixed on conveyor belt to check the presence of any piece
of metal in the bread or packet.

Ingredients, properties and their functions


2 types of ingredients are used in bread making they are major ingredients and minor ingredients

Major ingredients:

These include

o Flour
o Sugar
o Water
o Yeast
o Salt

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Minor ingredients:

These include

o Bread improver
o Vitamin
o Acetic acid
o Color
o Bran
o Grains
o Emulsifier
o Stabilizer

Flour:

Flour is a major ingredient for bread making. White flour is used with minimum 10 %
gluten, 150% water absorption and 5.5 to 6.5 p H

Water:

Chilled water is used for the mixing of ingredients because this chilled water helps to
reduce the temperature of dough during mixing. The temperature of this water is 4-5 C. if we use
hot water instead of chilled water then there are possibilities that flour proteins may be
denatured.

In addition ice is also added to reduce mixing time and to control the temperature of dough. If we
add only water then flour will absorb more water and release more heat which will increase the
temperature of dough that effects the yeast activity. Normally 54-55 % water of total flour
weight is added

Sugar:

Chemically it is known as sucrose. In bread making, the amount of sugar depends on the
type of bread to be manufactured. In plain bread 6% sugar is used, while in sweet bread its
amount is 12%. Bread making needs white crystalline sugar. Powdered sugar may also be used.

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Salt:

White salt is used. Basic purpose of adding salt is to control the activity of yeast and
fermentation process. 2 % salt of total flour weight is added.

Yeast:

Yeast is basically use to leavening the dough by the production of CO2. Dry yeast and
fresh yeast can be used in baking but in dawn industry Lahore fresh yeast is used. Yeast performs
the fermentation process. Fresh yeast has the temperature 1- 6 C and stored at freezing
temperature. 2-3 percent yeast of total flour weight is added.

Improver:

Improver is a blend of several compounds which helps to rapid the dough


development.

Functions of improver:

i. Development of dough
ii. Carbon dioxide gas retention
iii. Enhance shelf life
iv. Enhance eating quality
v. Improves dough machinability

Composition of bread improver:

a. Food for yeast e.g mineral salt and sugars


b. Gluten strengthen agents
c. Enzyme supplements
d. Dough strengtheners

Generally 0.5% improver of total flour weight is used

Shelf life of bread improver is almost 12 months and should be stored in cool and dry places

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Vitamins:

Breads producing at dawn bread industries are enriched with vitamins. These include folic acid,
vitamin A & C. recommended dose is 0.1% of total flour weight

Vinegar:

Vinegar that is chemically known as acetic acid is added to lower the pH of dough. And it also
acts as preservative

Color:

Color is optional ingredient

Flow line of Bread


Setting the recipe

Sifting

Mixing

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Dividing

Rounding (dough ball making)

Intermediate proofing (30-31 C)

Sheeting and molding

Panning

Proofing (35-37 C)

Baking (tunnel oven)

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De panning

Cooling (room temp)

Slicing

Packing

Metal detection

Dispatch

Formulation of Bread
Plain bread

o Flour
o Water
o Ice
o Sugar
o Salt
o Yeast

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o Acetic acid
o Vitamins
o Gluten
o Improver
o Oil
o CP (calcium propionate)

Temperature of dough during mixing is 23 to 26

Milky Bread

o Flour
o Sugar
o Salt
o Water
o Yeast
o Ice
o Improver
o Oil
o Color
o CP
o Gluten
o Vitamins

Temperature of dough during mixing goes to 23 to 26 C

Sandwich bread

Ingredients

 Flour
 Sugar
 Salt
 Improver

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 Gluten
 Calcium propionate(C.P)
 Yeast
 Water
 ice
 Oil
Temperature of dough after mixing 23-26oc

BRAN BREAD:

It has both high fiber content and fewer calories per unit, than normal bread. The fiber content is
achieved by the addition of wheat bran or powdered cellulose. Usage level is 5-10%.

Ingredients

o Flour(Maida)
o Fine flour
o Bran
o Sugar
o Salt
o Improver
o Gluten
o Water
o Ice
o Oil
o Caramel color
o Calcium propionate(C.P)
Temperature of dough after mixing 23-26oc

Procedure:

o First add the flour, water and ice in the bowl.


o Then adjust the bowl with mixing machine and start the slow mixing for 2 minutes.

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o Add other ingredients like: colour, sugar, gluten, improver, vanilla powder and during
the slow mixing.
o Then start fast mixing for 6 minutes.
o After 2 minutes of fast add yeast.
o The fast mixing stop at 6 minutes.
o 1
o Second baking after slicing at 160-180oc for 18-23minutes.
o Final product temperature for packing 30-35oc standard.
NUTRITIVE VALUE OF BREAD:

a. Enriched bread provides us essential amino acid or gluten provides us essential amino
acid except lysine.
b. It is important as energy food. Providing 20 – 30 % of total energy requirements of
people.
b. It provides about 20% of protein requirement.
c. It contains Ca, K, P, Fe and common salt.
Bread and flour provides 26% of our total calcium intake and 30% of our total intake of iron.

Bread Troubleshooting

1. Dough did not rise, or rose too slowly


i. Insufficient yeast or expired best before date
ii. Liquid was too hot – destroyed the yeast enzymes
iii. Liquid and/or other ingredients were too cold – slowed down yeast activity
iv. Too much salt was used which will inhibit or slow down yeast activity.
2. Dough was sticky
i. Not enough flour was used.

ii. Flour was too old or too low in gluten.

iii. Too much kneading.

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3. Crust is too thick

i. Oven temperature was too low

ii. Too much flour was used

iii. Dough was too dry

4. Bread is too large and poorly shaped

i. Rising period was too long

ii. Too much yeast was used

iii. Oven temperature was too low

5. Bread is solid and compact

i. Dough rising period was too short

ii. Flour used was too weak

6. Large holes in bread

i. Dough was poorly molded

ii. Dough allowed to rise too long.

MIXING:
 Mixing is an operation which tends to remove non-uniformity in the properties of
material in bulk. E.g. color, temperature, composition etc. Basic purpose of mixing is to
distribute the ingredients as equally as possible.
KINDS OF MIXING
Mixing methods with special reference to bread production.
There are 4 types of mixing method in the world.
1. Straight dough method
2. Sponge and dough method
3. Liquid ferment system
39
4. Chorleywood process
1. Straight dough method:
In straight dough method all ingredients are put in one time and then water is added to the
flour to make the dough.
Stages of mixing:
1. Homogenization of the ingredients
2. Hydration then flake development
3. Development of gluten
4. Arrival time of the batch
ADVANTAGES OF STRAIGHT DOUGH METHOD:
 Less fermentation time.
 Less labor cost.
 Most yield due to less fermentation.
 Less flour space required during fermentation.
DISADVANTAGES OF STRAIGHT DOUGH METHOD:
 Less shape tolerance.
 Poor machine make-up properties.
 Impossible to make corrections.
 Less bread flavor.
FLOUR MIXING STAGES
1. WET UP STAGE:
This is the initial stage and hydration of ingredients is done.
2. PICK UP STAGE:
Mixing starts. Dough starts sticking to mixing tub.
3. DRY UP STAGE:
Where gluten develops. The dough starts separating from mixing tube. We can add shortenings,
additives, nuts etc.
4. CLEAN UP STAGE:
Dough is fully developed. Dough does not stick to the mixing tub.

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OBJECTIVES OF MIXING:
 To get uniform mass by blending of ingredients.
 To disperse solids liquids.
 To dissolve solids like sugar, salt etc.
 To develop colloidal structure of dough by kneading.
Over Mixing:
Let down stage:
The gluten of the wheat will be converting into the Gliadin and Glutenin. This is due to the over
mixing. The temp of the dough uses of temp uses then the fermentation will be affected. Bread
will be crumby.
UNDER MIXING:
Less elastic properly. Less vol. If dough is not properly mixed then breads is ruptured.
PROPER MIXING PROCEDURE:
 Weigh or measure accurately all the ingredients.
 Temper the water. Save portion of yeast solution and place balance in mixing bowl.
 Add salt, sugar, malt or eggs to mixing bowl. Stir thoroughly until uniform distribution of
ingredients obtained.
 Blend flour, mineral, yeast and non-fat milk solids. Add to mixing bowl.
 Add yeast solution. Mix at low speed until dough is partially smooth.
 Add shortening agent.
Normally it takes about 20 – 25 min to completely mix straight dough. For best results the temp
of dough after it has been mixed should be around 82 – 85 F.
CERTAIN FACTORS AFFECT THE MIXING TIME
Flour strength:
Indicator of protein content. If flour strength more then more mixing time is required. If strength
is less then less mixing times required so flour strength is indicator of mixing time.
Type of mixing:
Sponge and dough mixing or straight dough method of mixing can affect the mixing time
PH of flour:
“5.5”
If pH more the mixing time is also more.

41
Additives:
Nuts and grains. These also affect the mixing time.
METHOD OF MIXING
 Firstly added flour, water, ice, sugar and oil in the bowl.
 Then start the mixing at slow speed for 2 minutes.
 Then start fast mixing and after 2 minutes add yeast.
 After 10 minutes of fast mixing check the dough by making the sheet.
 After 14-15 mixing stopped the mixing and check the temperature of dough that should
be25-26 c.
o

FERMENTATION:
Fermentation is a process in which carbohydrates are converted into co alcohol and water.
2,

Alcohol and water is evaporated whereas co is utilize to give the volume of the product through
2

stretching of the gluten network.


Fermentation imparts flavour and taste to the product.
Fermentation gives digestibility to the product.
ENZYMES IN FERMENTATION:
The enzymes are Alpha-amylase and beta-amylase in flour often spoken of together as diastase.
Maltase
Inverses
The enzymes are complex in yeast.
GAS PRODUCTION:
Adequate gas must be produced during fermentation; otherwise dough will not be inflated
sufficiently.
Gas production depends on many factors,
1. Flour quality
2. Sugar present and produce
3. The amount and quality of yeast.
The control of fermentation. It includes the basic raw material, additives; temp etc. The maltose
of flour should be b/w 1.5-2.3%. Flour must have drastic power. The pH and temp of dough must
be adjusted by acid, bread improver and by adding water. Malt flour and fungal amylase are used
to control the alpha-amylase efficiency of flour.

42
MAKE UP OPERATION:
The dough after undergoing bulk fermentation is subjected to a series of operations known as
make up operations. The series includes
 Dividing
 Rounding
 Intermediate proofing
 Molding
 Panning
DIVIDING:
The dough recovered from the knock back, is now again in fully inflated condition and now
approaching its optimum ripening. It is then divided into pieces of required weight. Due to
scaling again dough fabric partially collapsed and carbon dioxide excluded. The gluten
undergoes further manipulation. Proper dividing ensures uniform size of the product and
minimizes cost of production. Oil is used during the scaling process for efficient speed of
working. Dividing is performed manually.
CUTTING:
This operation is carried out mechanically. The weighed portion of dough is placed in machine
which cut the dough into further 16 small pieces of weight.
MOLDING:
The final molding is of great importance to give good shape to the baked dough and good texture
in bread. The dough pieces should be handled carefully to avoid surface roughness and crust
toughening. The pressure put on the dough must be such that it neither loosely molded nor so
abused that the structure is torn and damaged.
ROUNDING:
Scaled dough pieces are irregular in shape, with sticky surfaces from which gas may escape
rapidly. The gluten structure is deteriorated and so it is not in suitable condition for molding. The
purpose of rounding is to close these cut surfaces, to give the smooth surface to the sealed dough,
to make relatively thick and continuous membrane around the dough piece and to form the
dough into a ball for easy in handling.

43
PANNING:
The dough piece after molding faces the panning operations. The dough pieces are placed in
clean and greased pans. Pans are of different sizes, depending upon the type of the product to be
produced.
INTERMEDIATE PROOFING:
Intermediate proofing is done after the rounding of the dough ball for 10 minutes.
Intermediate proofing provides the softness of the product.
FINAL PROOFING:
After covering, the trays are transferred to the proofing room. The temp of proofing room is
maintained at 35-40 centigrade with R.H of upto 90% and the duration of proofing is about 45-
60mins. The proofing time is variable, small units are proofed for more time. The amount of
proofing depends on the dough pieces. In final proofing when the volume of dough increases
upto 75% of pan height is then ready for baking.
Final proofing gives the volume of the product.
BAKING:
When the dough pieces arrive at full proof then these are placed into the oven for baking process
which is the most important operation.
Baking is the application of heat to well-risen, unpalatable dough in order to transform it into a
palatable, appetizing and digestible product. Most of commercial bread baked at about 180-215
centigrade for about 25-40 minutes varies slightly according to the size of product, amount of
final proofing type of oven, type of pan and desired crust thickness.
BAKING REACTION:
1. Oven spring:
When we load the product into the oven the very first change occur in the product is
oven spring, which means jumping of product in the blanket of the heat that is it attains volume
by the production of co .2

2. Gelatinization:Gelatinization is the process in which under the effect of heat


starches imbibe available water just to make the product soft by making the gels.
3. Thermal death point:
TDP is defined as the temperature at which yeast is killed.
For bakers yeast this temperature is 63-73 c.
o

44
After TDP the product attains its maximum size.
4. Caramelisation:
OVEN TEMPERATURE:
The oven temp is of great importance for baking. The thermal figure is adjusted according to
nature and shape of bread and number of dough to be baked in relation to the size of oven. If
oven is too hot, then the crust form too quickly, there is uneven expansion and as the pressure
within the dough is breaks through the crust formation, thus produce a bad shaped and reduced
volume product. Due to crust formation the dough could not be baked properly.
HUMIDITY IN OVEN:
If humidity in oven is correct, the expansion of the loaf is gentle and oven, thus ensuring a good
shape. If the humidity is too great, the bread has a rough leathery crust and an excessive shine
which is unattractive. Insufficient humidity causes rapid evaporation of moisture from loaf skin,
together with a rapid crust formation.
OVEN LOAD:
Uneven oven loading will also detract from bad quality. In case of overloading the penetration of
heat into the loaf is retarded, resulting in excessive volume and uneven crust color. Under
loading unless humidity is increased, will result bad shape, showing the effects of oven pull.

BAKING EQUIPMENTS:
Oven is the most important and characteristic piece of equipment in the bakery.
COOLING:
After the completion of baking process, the bread should be cooled immediately in order to pack
and market it at the correct time. During cooling moisture moves from the interior to outwards
and to the crust and hence to the atmosphere.
DE-PANNING:
This operation is performed by mechanically. Air pressure is used to remove the bread from the
pan.
COOLING:
De-paned breads are cooled before slicing.

45
SLICING:
Slicing is the process of cutting the loaf into small pieces without crushing the loaf. The purpose
of slicing is to make the use of bread convenient. Slicing is done by means of slicing machine.
The thickness of slice and number of slices depend on the size of the bread. Slicing procedure is
done at 35 c.
o

SLICING MACHINE:
Reciprocating slices are used for bread slicing. The machines have a number of blades held out
by the force exerted by a heavy spring. In the slicer blades are titled towards the top crust of the
loaf to provide angle cutting to accommodate the natural flow of breads towards the blades.
PACKAGING:
After slicing, bread is packed in polyethylene bags. The pack is closed by means of rubber band.
The purpose packaging is to provide bread to the consumer in safe, acceptable and attractive
form. In packaging one man fills the bread in the polyethylene bags and pass to a man who close
the bag by means of rubber band.
RETAILING:
Wrapped breads are ready for retailing.

Cakes Section
The following are the main product, which produced, and supply in market.

TYPES OF CAKES:

I. Mini Fruit cake


II. Large fruit cake
III. Russ mallei cake
IV. Strawberry cake
V. Mango cake
VI. Pine apple cake

46
TYPES OF RUSKS:

I. Crispy Rusk Slab rusk


II. Bran rusk
III. Tea round rusk.
IV. Dawn rusk special
Types of cookies:

I. Zeera cookies
II. Coconut cookies
III. Chocolate cookies
IV. Cookies

General flow line of cake manufacturing:

Preparation of raw material

Mixing ( initial 5 mints & final 4 mints)

Filling of batter in pans

Baking (35 mints & 200-206 Temp)

Cooling (stay time)

Slicing

Coding

47
Loading

Storage room temperature

Marketing

Manufacturing Procedure of large fruitcake:

Ingredients

I. Eggs
II. Oil
III. Sugar
IV. Salt
V. Cake gel
VI. Baking powder
VII. Flour
VIII. Water
Mixing:

I. First pour the eggs, oil and sugar in the bowl and start mixing.
II. During mixing add salt, baking powder, cake gel and essence in the bowl.
III. Then add 5.5-liter water.
IV. After 9 minutes of mixing add flour and mix for 7-8 minutes.
V. After proper mixing of ingredient for 16 minutes and pour the batter into the hopper and set the
weight according to the standard.
Filling of batter:

The mixing batter is filled in large pan and in this pan, the weight should be 220g.

48
Baking:

Keep pan in rack oven for baking at 200-230oc and time required is about 33-38 minutes.

Cooling:

Stay time for cooling should be 25-30 minutes.

Slicing:

Slicer machine are used for slicing the cake in proper shape.

Weighing:

The weight of final product 200g.

Packaging:

Packaging of cake is done at 30c.The paper is used as packaging material.

Sealing:

Sealing is done by mechanically

Coding:

Necessary information is put on the package box.

Loading:

Cakes are loaded into the trays and then kept into the stores or store rooms.

Storage:

Storage is done at room temperature.

Marketing:

Large cake is supplied into the markets at related shops.

49
MANUFACTURING PROCEDURE OF SHAWARMA BREAD

Ingredients

I. Flour
II. Water
III. Sugar
IV. Gluten
V. Salt
VI. Calcium propionate (C.P)
VII. Yeast
VIII. Oil
IX. Improver
Flow Line of Process:

Mixing

Dividing & Molding

Proofing

Baking

Cooling

De-panning

50
Packing
Procedure:

I. Standard mixing time 10-15 minutes.


II. Add yeast after half time of mixing.
III. After mixing the dough is transferred to the dividing hopper and divided into 2 pieces by pocket
divider.
IV. The weight of each piece should be 70-80g of medium Shawarma.
V. The weight for small Shawarma is 62-68g.
VI. The rounder give the round shape to the dough.
VII. Then the workers place into the pan and place into the trolleys.
VIII. Then proofing is done at a temperature of 35-40·c for 45-60 minutes and RH is 80-90%.
IX. After proofing the trolleys set in rack oven for baking.
X. The standard baking time for Shawarma is 4-5 minutes at 200-210oc.
XI. After baking cooling is done, then depanning.
XII. Then pack Shawarma at 30-35oc.
Specifications:

I. Diameter of medium Shawarma = 6.25 - 6.5 inch


II. Diameter of small Shawarma = 5.25 – 5.5 inch
III. Thickness of both Shawarma = 13-14mm
IV. Final weight of medium Shawarma = 68-75g
V. Final weight of small Shawarma = 55-60g

MANUFACTURING PROCEDURE OF BAQARKHANI

Ingredients

I. Flour
II. Salt
III. Cooking oil
IV. Puff margarine

V. water

51
Flow Line of Process:

Mixing

Dividing

Sheeting

Rolling of sheet into round shape

Baking

Cooling

De-panning

Packing

Procedure:

I. First mix the ingredients and make the dough.


II. Standard mixing time 10-15 minutes.
III. After mixing the dough temperature is 22oc.
IV. Dough divided into pieces of 3kg.
V. Then make the sheet of each piece and roll in 1kg of puff margarine in every sheet of dough and
this procedure is known as Roll in Fat.
VI. Stay time after 1st sheeting for 10 minutes.

52
VII. Then again make the sheet mechanically and roll in and also give the stay time for 10 minutes.
VIII. Total three times sheeting of the dough is done.
IX. Then roll the sheet in round shape and cut into 75g of pieces.
X. Then make the sheet of each small piece by manually and put into the pan.
XI. Put the pans in trolleys and set into rack oven for baking.
XII. Baked the Baqarkhani at 207oc for 50-60 minutes.
XIII. After baking cooling and de-panning is occur.
XIV. Then packed at 30-35oc.

Manufacturing process of Cookies

Ingredients

I. Flour
II. Sugar
III. Salt
IV. Fine flour
V. Cremo
VI. Baking powder
VII. water
Flow line of Process:

Mixing

Rolling & Sheeting

Cutting & Shaping

Panning

53
Baking

Cooling

De-panning

Packing

Procedure:

I. First add sugar powder and cremo then mixed together for 15-20 minutes.
II. Then add water.
III. Then add Maida, salt and fine Maida and mix together.
IV. Then rolling and sheeting the dough.
V. Then cutting/shaping of cookies with dye and put in pan.
VI. The weight of one cookie is 7g.
VII. Then pan put in trolleys and set the trolleys in rack oven.
VIII. Baked the cookies at 170oc for 20 minutes.
IX. After baking cooling and de-panning is occur and packed.

SUBWAY SECTION

In this section those products are produced that are transported in frozen form like as

Bran stick, plain stick, Baguette and Croissants.

54
1.1 Bran Stick

1. 1 Bran stick

Recipe weighing

Mixing

Dough dividing/ weighing

Rounding

Intermediate Proofing (2-4 minutes)

Molding (11 ± 2inches size)

55
Panning

Storage (-24̊C for 24 hrs.)

De-panning

Packaging (-7 to -8̊C)

Dispatch (-20̊C)

Transportation (-18̊C)

Ingredients:

 White Flour
 Sugar
 Gluten
56
 Bran
 Salt
 Yeast
 Caramel Color
 Ice
 SSL Powder
 Oil
 Bread improver

Steps Involved in Bran Stick Manufacturing:

Step One: Ingredient Selection & Scaling

Using good quality ingredients is crucial to making good bran stick. Bread and beyond is
using good quality of unbleached flour and all other ingredients. We measure all of our
ingredients (including liquids) in grams on a scale. Scaling is much faster and more accurate than
working in volume.

Step Two: Mixing

There are two stages to the mixing process: the first is to incorporate ingredients, the
second is to develop the structure of the dough, otherwise known as the gluten network. Dough
can be kneaded by hand, or mixed in a tabletop mixer.

Mixing:

Mixing is the most important step in bread manufacturing process. Mixing is done to
distribute ingredients as equally as possible. It also help to develop the gluten and finally to make
the dough. All the ingredients are added in 40 kg bowl. Yeast is added at (6-10̊C). Mixing time is
divided in two stages:

57
1. Slow mixing
It is done for two minutes. Its main purpose is to incorporate ingredients
thoroughly.
2. Fast mixing
It is done for 12minutes. Its main purpose is to develop the structure of the dough
known as the gluten network. Dough can be kneaded by hand, or mixed in a tabletop
mixer.

Mixing Stages:

There are 4 mixing stages:

1. Wet up stage:

It is the initial stage of mixing. In this stage hydration of ingredients takes place.

2. Pick up stage:

In this stage dough is made. At this stage dough will stick with the wall of mixing tube.

3. Dry up stage:

In this stage dough development is completed. Dough starts separating from the wall of
container.

4. Clean up stage:

In this stage the dough is no longer sticky and will not stick with the wall of mixing tube.

Step Three: Primary Fermentation

Also referred to as rising, or proofing, this is where the yeast starts to do its work,
converting sugars into carbon dioxide, alcohol and organic acids. Each dough has a different
primary fermentation time, depending on its formulation. We work with time as well as our
senses to determine when the dough is properly fermented.

58
Step Four: Divider and Rounder

When the dough is properly fermented, it is time to divide it to the desired size and give
the divided pieces a round shape. A preshape is an intermediate shape—a loose suggestion to the
dough of where it’s headed that will make final shaping easier. In dough divider, dough piece
weight should be 180g±2g.

Step Five: Intermediate Proofing

After the dough has been reshaped, it needs to rest for a short time before final shaping.
Intermediate Proofing is typically 2-4 minutes long and during that time, the gluten network,
which has been made more elastic through handling, will relax and become more extensible. It
also gives shine to the dough piece.

Step six: Molding

Molding is the final shape of the dough. Size of the bran stick is 11±2 inches.

Step seven: Panning

Panning is done in pans.

Step Eight: Storage

It is done in Blast freezer at -24̊C for 24 hours according to the demand.

Step Nine: Depanning

Depanning is done after 24 hours.

Step ten: Packaging

Primary packaging is done in Polythene bag; Secondary packaging is done in cartons.


Then these cartons are shifted to dispatch section, where these are placed in blast freezer at -20̊C
until demanded.

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Step Eleven: Transportation

These are transported in refrigerated containers. Container temperature should be at -20̊C.

1.2 Plain Stick

1. 2 Plain stick

Recipe weighing

Mixing

Dough dividing/ weighing

Rounding

Intermediate Proofing (2-4 minutes)

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Molding (11 ± 2 inches size)

Panning

Storage (-24̊C for 24 hrs. )

De-panning

Packaging (-7 to -8̊C)

Dispatch (-20̊C)

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Transportation (-18̊C)

Ingredients:

 White Flour
 Sugar
 Gluten
 Salt
 Yeast
 Ice
 SSL Powder
 Oil
 Bread improver

Steps Involved in Bran Stick Manufacturing:

Step One: Ingredient Selection & Scaling

Using good quality ingredients is crucial to making good plain stick. Bread and beyond is
using good quality of unbleached flour and all other ingredients. We measure all of our
ingredients (including liquids) in grams on a scale. Scaling is much faster and more accurate than
working in volume.

Step Two: Mixing

There are two stages to the mixing process: the first is to incorporate ingredients, the
second is to develop the structure of the dough, otherwise known as the gluten network. Dough
can be kneaded by hand, or mixed in a tabletop mixer.

Mixing:

Mixing is the most important step in bread manufacturing process. Mixing is done to
distribute ingredients as equally as possible. It also help to develop the gluten and finally to make

62
the dough. All the ingredients are added in 40 kg bowl. Yeast is added at (6-10̊C). Mixing time is
divided in two stages:

3. Slow mixing
It is done for two minutes. Its main purpose is to incorporate ingredients thoroughly.
4. Fast mixing
It is done for 12 minutes. Its main purpose is to develop the structure of the dough known
as the gluten network. Dough can be kneaded by hand, or mixed in a tabletop mixer.

Mixing Stages:

There are 4 mixing stages:

1. Wet up stage:

It is the initial stage of mixing. In this stage hydration of ingredients takes place.

2. Pick up stage:

In this stage dough is made. At this stage dough will stick with the wall of mixing tube.

3. Dry up stage:

In this stage dough development is completed. Dough starts separating from the wall of
container.

4. Clean up stage:

In this stage the dough is no longer sticky and will not stick with the wall of mixing tube.

Step Three: Primary Fermentation

Also referred to as rising, or proofing, this is where the yeast starts to do its work,
converting sugars into carbon dioxide, alcohol and organic acids. Each dough has a different

63
primary fermentation time, depending on its formulation. We work with time as well as our
senses to determine when the dough is properly fermented.

Step Four: Divider and Rounder

When the dough is properly fermented, it is time to divide it to the desired size and give
the divided pieces a round shape. A preshape is an intermediate shape—a loose suggestion to the
dough of where it’s headed that will make final shaping easier. In dough divider, dough piece
weight should be 180g±2g.

Step Five: Intermediate Proofing

After the dough has been preshaped, it needs to rest for a short time before final shaping.
Intermediate Proofing is typically 2-4 minutes long and during that time, the gluten network,
which has been made more elastic through handling, will relax and become more extensible. It
also gives shine to the dough piece.

Step six: Molding

Molding is the final shape of the dough. Size of the bran stick is 11±2 inches.

Step seven: Panning

Panning is done in pans.

Step Eight: Storage

It is done in Blast freezer at -24̊C for 24 hours according to the demand.

Step Nine: Depanning

Depanning is done after 24 hours.

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Step ten: Packaging

Primary packaging is done in Polythene bag; Secondary packaging is done in cartons.


Then these cartons are shifted to dispatch section, where these are placed in blast freezer at -20̊C
until demanded.

Step Eleven: Transportation

These are transported in refrigerated containers. Container temperature should be at -20̊C.

1. 3 Baguette

Recipe weighing

Mixing (At 18°C temperature)

Dough dividing/ weighing

Rounding

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Intermediate Proofing (2-4 minutes)

Molding (24 ± 2inches size)

Panning and Greasing

Proofing (80°C for 20 mins)

Baking (200°C for 20 mints)

De-panning

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Packaging (30 -32°C)

Transportation

Ingredients:

 White Flour
 Cp
 Gluten
 Salt
 Yeast
 Ice
 water
 Oil
 Bread improver

Steps Involved in Baguette Manufacturing:

Step One: Ingredient Selection & Scaling

Using good quality ingredients is crucial to making good baguette. Bread and beyondis
using good quality of unbleached flour and all other ingredients. We measure all of our
ingredients (including liquids) in grams on a scale. Scaling is much faster and more accurate than
working in volume.

67
Step Two: Mixing

There are two stages to the mixing process: the first is to incorporate ingredients, the
second is to develop the structure of the dough, otherwise known as the gluten network. Dough
can be kneaded by hand, or mixed in a tabletop mixer.

Mixing:

Mixing is the most important step in bread manufacturing process. Mixing is done to
distribute ingredients as equally as possible. It also help to develop the gluten and finally to make
the dough. All the ingredients are added in 40 kg bowl. Yeast is added at (6-10̊C). Mixing time is
divided in two stages:

5. Slow mixing
It is done for two minutes. Its main purpose is to incorporate ingredients thoroughly.
6. Fast mixing
It is done for 12 minutes. Its main purpose is to develop the structure of the dough known
as the gluten network. Dough can be kneaded by hand, or mixed in a tabletop mixer.

Mixing Stages:

There are 4 mixing stages:

1. Wet up stage:

It is the initial stage of mixing. In this stage hydration of ingredients takes place.

2. Pick up stage:

In this stage dough is made. At this stage dough will stick with the wall of mixing tube.

3. Dry up stage:

In this stage dough development is completed. Dough starts separating from the wall of
container.

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4. Clean up stage:

In this stage the dough is no longer sticky and will not stick with the wall of mixing tube.

Step Three: Primary Fermentation

Also referred to as rising, or proofing, this is where the yeast starts to do its work,
converting sugars into carbon dioxide, alcohol and organic acids. Each dough has a different
primary fermentation time, depending on its formulation. We work with time as well as our
senses to determine when the dough is properly fermented.

Step Four: Divider and Rounder

When the dough is properly fermented, it is time to divide it to the desired size and give
the divided pieces a round shape. A preshape is an intermediate shape—a loose suggestion to the
dough of where it’s headed that will make final shaping easier. In dough divider, dough piece
weight should be 360g±2g.

Step Five: Intermediate Proofing

After the dough has been preshaped, it needs to rest for a short time before final shaping.
Intermediate Proofing is typically 2-4 minutes long and during that time, the gluten network,
which has been made more elastic through handling, will relax and become more extensible. It
also gives shine to the dough piece.

Step six: Molding

Molding is the final shape of the dough. Size of the bran stick is 24±2 inches.

Step seven: Panning and Greasing

Panning is done in pans. Greasing is done with creamo below the baguette. The purpose
of greasing is to avoid the sticking of bread with pans during the baking process.

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Step Eight: Proofing

Proofing is done in proofer at 80°C for 20 minutes.

Step Nine: Baking

Baking is done at 200°C temperature for 20 minutes

Step Ten: Cooling and Packing

After baking these sticks are cooled at 30-32°C and Packed at this temperature. Packing
is done in air tight polythene bags.

Step Eleven: Transportation

Then this product is transported in the market.

1. 4 Plain Croissants

Recipe weighing

Mixing (At 18°C temperature)

Dough dividing/weighing

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Sheeting

Butter Addition

Freezing (-20°C)

Layering or Lamination

Cutting (76g per piece weight

Shaping

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Freezing (-20°C)

Proofing (2 hours outside the proofer)

Baking (210°C for 20 mints)

Cooling (30°C)

Packaging (30 -32°C)

Transportation

Ingredients:

 White Flour
 Butter
 Gluten
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 Salt
 Yeast
 Cp
 water
 Sugar
 Bread improver

Steps Involved in Plain Croissants Manufacturing:

Step One: Ingredient Selection & Scaling

Using good quality ingredients is crucial to making good croissants. Bread and beyond is
using good quality of butter, unbleached flour and all other ingredients. We measure all of our
ingredients (including liquids) in grams on a scale. Scaling is much faster and more accurate than
working in volume.

Step Two: Mixing

There are two stages to the mixing process: the first is to incorporate ingredients, the
second is to develop the structure of the dough, otherwise known as the gluten network. Dough
can be kneaded by hand, or mixed in a tabletop mixer.

Mixing:

Mixing is the most important step in croissants manufacturing process. Mixing is done to
distribute ingredients as equally as possible. It also help to develop the gluten and finally to make
the dough. All the ingredients are added in 40 kg bowl. Yeast is added at (6-10̊C). Mixing time is
divided in two stages:

7. Slow mixing
It is done for 3 minutes. Its main purpose is to incorporate ingredients thoroughly.

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8. Fast mixing
It is done for 9 minutes. Its main purpose is to develop the structure of the dough known
as the gluten network. Dough can be kneaded by hand, or mixed in a tabletop mixer.

Mixing Stages:

There are 4 mixing stages:

1. Wet up stage:

It is the initial stage of mixing. In this stage hydration of ingredients takes place.

2. Pick up stage:

In this stage dough is made. At this stage dough will stick with the wall of mixing tube.

3. Dry up stage:

In this stage dough development is completed. Dough starts separating from the wall of
container.

4. Clean up stage:

In this stage the dough is no longer sticky and will not stick with the wall of mixing tube.

Step Three: Primary Fermentation

Also referred to as rising, or proofing, this is where the yeast starts to do its work,
converting sugars into carbon dioxide, alcohol and organic acids. Each dough has a different
primary fermentation time, depending on its formulation. We work with time as well as our
senses to determine when the dough is properly fermented.

Step Four: Weighing, Sheeting and Butter Addition

Dough of 4 Kg weight is prepared and after sheeting 1kg butter is spreaded on the sheet
and three fold layering is done.

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Step Five: Freezing

Freezing is done at (-20°C). It is done for making the dough hard and prepare it for
sheeting purpose.

Step six: Layering or Sheeting

In croissants dough water level is low to make the dough tight for sheeting or layering
purpose. Layering is done to spread the butter on each corner of the dough. Sheeting depends
upon hardness. In my observations 54 layers of croissants were made.

Step seven: Cutting

Cutting is done with automatic machine having specific shape blades according to the
size of croissant.

Step Eight: Shaping

Shaping is done by professionally trained workers using their hands. Then placed into the
pans.

Step Nine: Freezing

Freezing is done at (-20°C). A principal advantage of using frozen dough is flexibility in


scheduling when and how much product to bake. Frozen dough can be formulated and processed
to be thawed, thawed and proofed, or baked directly from the frozen state.

Step Ten: Proofing

Proofing is done outside the proofer for 2 hours. Thawing is also done in this process.

Step Eleven: Baking

Baking is done at 210°C temperature for 20 minutes

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Step Twelve: Cooling and Packing

After baking these croissants are cooled at 30-32°C and Packed at this temperature.
Packing is done in air tight pillow packs.

Step Thirteen: Transportation

Then this product is transported in the market.

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